94%(17)94% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (17 Abstimmungen)

4K Ansichten167 Seiten© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

94%(17)94% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (17 Abstimmungen)

4K Ansichten167 SeitenAttribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 167

Judith de Klerk

Judith de Klerk

and associated companies around the world.

Judith de Klerk passed away during the production of this fourth edition of her dictionary. She was

committed to updating the dictionary and ensuring it was perfect although she was quite ill. She was

assisted in all her endeavours by her husband, Louis de Klerk, who continued Judith’s work.

A division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd

Level 9, 5 Queens Road

Melbourne 3004 Australia

www.pearsoned.com.au/schools

Offices in Sydney, Brisbane and Perth, and associated companies throughout the world.

Copyright © Pearson Education Australia

(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2007

First published 1983

Reprinted 1984, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989 (Twice)

Second edition 1990

Third edition 1999

Fourth edition 2007

All rights reserved. Except under the conditions described in the Copyright Act 1968 of Australia and subsequent amendments,

no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,

mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

Typeset by Miriam Steenhauer & Eugenio Fazio

Cover design by Ben Galpin

Cover illustrations by Ben Galpin & Boris Silvestri

Edited by Sally Green

Prepress work by The Type Factory

Produced by Pearson Education Australia

Printed in Malaysia

Cataloguing-in-Publication data

De Klerk, Judith.

Illustrated maths dictionary for Australian schools.

4th ed.

ISBN 9780 7339 8661 1

Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright. However, should any infringement have occurred, the publishers

tender their apologies and invite copyright owners to contact them.

Contents

A–Z 1

Units of measurement 146

A list of symbols 147

Roman numerals 148

Parts of a circle 148

Metric relationships 149

Formulae 150

More formulae 151

Large numbers 152

Letters used in mathematics 152

Decimal system prefixes 153

Numerical prefixes 153

Other prefixes 154

The multiplication square 154

Greek alphabet 155

Conversion tables:

metric and imperial 156

Computing terms 158

v

Introduction

The language of mathematics often confuses children and it is sometimes difficult for teachers

to explain the meaning of mathematical terms simply but accurately.

The fourth edition of this Illustrated Maths Dictionary offers an up-to-date dictionary of

maths terms with the addition of a section explaining commonly used computer terms that

have mathematical connotations. The definitions are written in simple language that children

can understand, yet are clear, precise and concise. The terms are supported by hundreds of

examples and illustrations.

This is essentially a dictionary for students, but I hope that teachers, parents and tertiary

students will also find it helpful.

Judith de Klerk

1 abscissa

abacus

A

Usually a board with spikes or a frame with

wires on which discs, beads or counters are

placed. Used for counting and calculating.

Examples

1000

100

10

1

a

(i) In formulas, the letter A stands for area.

2 5 4 6 4 8 5

Example

Area of a triangle

abbreviation

A shortened form of writing words and

b×h

A= 2

phrases.

h

When writing shortened forms of words, we

usually put full stops after the letters.

b Example

Victoria: Vic.

(ii) A, and other letters, are used to name

points, lines, angles and corners Note: cm (centimetre) is a symbol. We do

(vertices) of polygons and solids. not write full stops after symbols.

Examples Examples

m cm mm kg mL m2 cm3

A A See symbol

point A B

line AB

A abscissa

O B

The horizontal coordinate, or x-coordinate,

angle AOB

D C of a point in a two-dimensional system of

Cartesian coordinates is sometimes called the

H G abscissa.

A B E See axis, coordinates, ordinate

F

polygon ABCD

D C

A B

solid

vertex

accurate 2

accurate AD

A

Exact, correct, right, without error. (Anno Domini)

Note: Measurements are not exact. Meaning: In the year of our Lord. After the

We usually measure to the nearest unit, birth of Christ.

therefore our answers are only approximate. Example

For example, if we say something is 30 cm

The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79

long, we mean nearer to 30 cm than to either

destroyed Pompeii.

31 cm or 29 cm.

See BC, CE

See approximately

acute add

Join two or more numbers or quantities

Sharp. Sharply pointed.

together.

(i) Acute angle.

Example

A sharply pointed angle with size less than a

right angle (< 90°).

+ =

Examples

right A 3 + 2 = 5

90º angle

22º

O B The apples were added together.

See addition, quantity

acute 51º

angle

45º addend

Any number which is to be added.

81º

Example

2 + 6 = 8

acute angle

→

See angle, right angle

In 2 + 6 = 8, 2 and 6 are addends, 8 is the sum.

(ii) Acute triangle.

A triangle with all three inside angles being

acute.

Example

C

acute triangle

A B

See equilateral triangle, obtuse triangle, right-

angled triangle, scalene triangle

3 algebra

addition adjacent

A

(symbol: +) Positioned next to each other, having a

(i) Joining the values of two or more common point or side.

numbers together. Example

3 + 7 = 10

(ii) On the number line.

my room

2 3 your

bathroom

–2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

(i) Adjacent sides.

(iii) Addition of fractions. Example C

1 + 3 = 5 +12 = 17

4 5 20 20

(iv) Addition of integers.

A B

+5 + –7 = –2

In this triangle, side AB is adjacent to side AC

(v) Addition of algebraic terms.

because they have a common vertex A.

2a + 3b + 5a = 7a + 3b (ii) Adjacent angles.

See algebraic expression, fraction, integers,

Two angles positioned in the same plane that

number line

have a common side and a common vertex.

Example

A

addition property of zero

When zero is added to any number, the sum B

is the same as the number.

Examples O C

4+0=4

→to BOC because they have

AOB is adjacent

0 + 12 = 12

a common ray OB.

See sum, zero

See plane, vertex

When we add a number and its inverse, the

Part of mathematics that studies number

answer is zero.

systems and number properties.

Example See algebraic expression, coefficient, numeral,

8 + –8 = 0 pronumeral, symbol, variable

→

number inverse

See inverse, zero

algebraic expression 4

A

In algebra we use numerals, symbols and Lay, place in a straight line.

letters called variables or pronumerals, and Example

combinations of both. They stand for the

C E

unknown values.

D

Examples A B F

+ =2 Points A, B, D and E are aligned; points C and

5–x F are not.

a+b+c See line

x 2 – 2xy + y

See coefficient, numeral, pronumeral, symbol,

value, variable alternate angles

See parallel lines

algorithm

(algorism) altitude

A rule for solving a problem in a certain Height. How high something is above the

number of steps. Every step is clearly surface of the Earth, sea level or horizon.

described. Altitude is the length of perpendicular height

Example from base to vertex.

Use blocks to find how many 3 × 4 is. Example

Step 1 Lay down one lot of four blocks.

vertex

of four. altitude

horizon

base

Step 3 Exchange 10 units for one ten (long).

The altitude of this aeroplane is 9000 metres.

See height, perpendicular, surface

a.m.

(ante meridiem)

Step 4 Write down your answer.

The time from immediately after midnight

3 × 4 = 12 until immediately before midday. The term

See multibase arithmetic blocks (MAB) a.m. is used only with 12-hour time.

5 angle name

It is morning.

other. A

a

The time is five past five.

angle

It is 5.05 a.m.

b

See p.m.

Angles are measured in degrees (°), minutes

(') and seconds (").

amount

An amount of something means how much

of that thing. a b c

The amount of money in my pocket. angle angle angle

analogue clock d e

f

on its face, and two hands pointing at them straight reflex revolution

angle angle

to show the time.

Example d = 180º 180º < e < 360º f = 360º

twenty-five minutes past

nine in the morning.

It is 9.25 a.m.

large angle small angle

See a.m., digital clock, p.m.

See acute, degree, obtuse angle, parallel lines,

ray, reflex angle, revolution, right angle,

straight angle

angle

The space between two straight lines with a

common end point (vertex).

angle name

e Angles are given names by marking them

lin with letters.

common

end-point angle Example

line A

a fixed point. O B

angle in the middle ( AOB) indicates the common

end point.

ray A

angle of depression 6

A

(of an object)

4 × 90º = 360º

An angle formed between the horizontal line

and the line of sight to an object below.

horizontal cº

line

aº dº bº

aº aº + bº + cº + dº = 360º

object

found:

The angle of depression is a°. number of vertices × 180° – 360° or

(number of vertices – 2) × 180°

See angle of elevation

Examples

triangle (3 × 180°) – 360° = 180° or

(3 – 2) × 180° = 180°

angle of elevation pentagon (5 – 2) × 180° = 540°

An angle formed between the horizontal line hexagon (6 × 180°) – 360° = 720°

and the line of sight to an object above.

annual

(i) Happening only once a year.

bº Example

horizontal line Annual flower show.

(ii) Recurring yearly.

Example

The angle of elevation is b°. Annual rate of interest is 6.5%.

See angle of depression See per annum, per cent

The total amount of degrees in any polygon. The area between two concentric circles.

(i) Angle sum of a triangle is 180°.

R

cº

aº + bº + cº = 180º

r

aº bº A

A

A = (R 2 – r 2)

See area, circle, concentric circles

7 Arabic numerals

anticlockwise Examples

apex

A

The direction opposite to that in which the apex

hands of a clock travel.

Example

minutes fast. The base

hands must be moved base

back to show the exact

time. See base, pyramid, vertex

9.30

approximately

(symbols: ≈ )

The hands have Nearly, not exactly, but almost. The

been moved in symbols ≈ or or may be used for

an anticlockwise

‘is approximately equal to’.

direction.

Example

The expressions

9.15

0.97 ≈ 1 0.97 1 0.97 1

all mean ‘0.97 is approximately equal to 1’.

start

(symbols: ≈ )

Example A result which is nearly, not exactly,

Screws and bottle tops are loosened in an but almost accurate. One method of

anticlockwise direction. approximation is calculating with rounded

See clockwise figures.

Examples

(i) 798 × 2.1 ≈ 800 × 2 ≈ 1600

apex (ii) The value of 3.14 for π is only an

approximation.

The highest point where two or more lines See accurate, approximately, rounding

meet to form a corner of a figure or solid.

The apex is the furthest vertical distance

from the base.

Arabic numerals

1, 2, 3, 4, 5 … Now in common use in all

western countries.

See Hindu–Arabic

arbitrary unit 8

A

Something to help us measure. Unit of area in the metric system. It is the

Examples area of a square with sides measuring

10 metres.

Handspan, pace, counters, tiles, cubes,

squares and bottle tops are arbitrary units.

100 m2 10 m

10 m

100 m2 = 1 are

100 are = 1 ha

See area, hectare

in bottle tops. The area is twenty-eight bottle area

tops.

The amount of surface or the size of a

See handspan surface. Area is measured in square units.

Units of area are:

square metre m2

A part of any curve, but most often used to

hectare ha

mean a part of a circle.

square kilometre km2

Example

Example

a

rc

rc

a

3 cm

3 cm

base × height

3 cm × 3 cm = 9 cm2

See conservation of area, formula, surface,

unit of measurement

9 arrow diagram

arithmetic arrow

A

The part of mathematics concerned with Used to indicate direction.

the study of numbers. Arithmetic is used Example

for computations with whole numbers,

Weather vane

fractions and decimals. The computations

include addition, subtraction, multiplication

and division. Arithmetic is also used for

measurement, solving word problems and

working with money.

See computation

arithmetic mean

See average, mean

See progression A diagram using arrows to show a relation (or

connection) between one thing and another.

Examples

arm of an angle (i) Relation in one set of numbers

6 10

Example

arm 20 30

is less than

vertex angle

arm (ii) Relation between two sets

See angle, vertex John cat

Mary dog

array

Paul mouse

Arrangement of objects or numbers, in

columns or rows. See many-to-one correspondence, mapping,

Examples one-to-one correspondence, relation, set

3 7 12

5 8 10

4 16 32

rows and columns form an array.

ascending order 10

A

Going upwards or increasing in value. multiplication

Examples When multiplying three or more numbers

together, it doesn’t matter which two numbers

These numbers are in ascending order: we multiply first, we always get a correct

answer (product).

0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5

Example

→

= (3 × 7) × 9 3 × (7 × 9)

These lengths have been arranged in = 21 × 9 3 × 63

ascending order:

= 189 = 189

5 cm, 50 cm, 5 m, 5 km, 50 km See communicative property of multiplication,

product

→

shortest longest

sequence

A small star * used to mark a space where

something is missing.

askew Examples

3*2=6 * means × (multiply)

Oblique or awry.

3*2=5 * means + (add)

askew perpendicular 3*2=1 * means – (subtract)

line

3 * 2 = 1.5 * means ÷ (divide)

Not having symmetry.

associative property of An object which has no line symmetry is

described as asymmetrical.

addition

Examples

When adding three or more numbers The butterfly is

together, it doesn’t matter which two symmetrical.

numbers we add first, we always get a correct

answer (sum).

Example

This picture of a toy

3+7+9 truck is asymmetrical.

= (3 + 7) + 9 or 3 + (7 + 9)

= 10 + 9 = 19 = 3 + 16 = 19

See line of symmetry, symmetry

11 average

attribute average

A

A characteristic of an object. The average of a collection of numbers or

Examples scores is one score which represents the

whole collection. It is found by adding all of

Shape, size, colour.

the scores and dividing the answer (sum) by

(i) Attributes of shape: the number of scores.

round, square, hexagonal …

Example

Find the average of scores 2, 5, 4, 6 and 3.

Average = sum of scores

number of scores

(ii) Attributes of size:

thick, thin, small, big … = 2+5+4+6+3

5

= 20

5

round and thick

Average = 4

(iii) Attributes of colour:

black, red, yellow … This is also called the mean or arithmetic

mean.

See mean, score, sum

square and black

examples above are clearly possible.

ATTRIBUTES OF CHILDREN

Children with

short

tall

axis 12

axis

A

(Plural: axes) axis

(i) The lines which form the framework

for a graph. The horizontal axis is called

x-axis, the vertical axis is called y-axis.

Both axes are marked with equally

spaced scales. The point where the axes See coordinates, graph, horizontal line,

intersect is called the origin (O). intersection, line of symmetry, origin, vertical

Example

y

7 axis of symmetry

See axis, line of symmetry

6

5

vertical axis

1 origin (O)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x

horizontal axis

x-axis = abscissa

y-axis = ordinate

(ii) A main line going through the centre

of a figure or solid, also called a line of

symmetry, or an axis of symmetry.

Examples

axis

axis

axis

axis

axis

13 base

bar graph

A graph which uses horizontal or vertical bars

to represent various kinds of information. B

A bar graph with vertical bars or columns is

also called a column graph.

Examples

PLANT GROWTH

1

weeks

2

3

4

balance

(i) An equal distribution. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

height in cm

Example

CARS SOLD IN MAY

10

number of cars

8

balanced unbalanced 6

4

(ii) Balance scales is a name given to some 2

kinds of scales used for weighing things. 0 Nissan

Toyota

Suzuki

Mercedes

Volvo

Ford

Holden

Example

pictograph

base

(i) The face on which a shape or a solid

stands.

a spring balance Examples

See beam balance

(iii) The amount of money in a bank

account.

Example base of a prism

2006

16 Feb Pay 350 450

base continued...

base 14

objects may be compared.

(ii) The number on which a place value

B system of numeration is constructed. Example

Example

hundreds tens units tenths

base line

10×

bigger 10×

smaller

100×

bigger

See axis, horizontal line

The Hindu–Arabic system is a base 10 system.

(iii) A number, symbol or a variable used

with index to show an index notation. base ten system

Examples See decimal place-value system, decimal

In index notation, the base is the number we system, index, index notation, multibase

read first. arithmetic blocks, power of a number

index

basic facts

2

3

a4 xa

base Operations performed with one-digit

numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.

Examples

In 23, read ‘two cubed’, 2 is called the base. Addition

See decimal place-value system, exponent,

index, index notation, power of a number

0+0=0 0+1=1

1+1=2 9 + 9 = 18

Subtraction corresponds with addition.

base line Multiplication

(i) The horizontal axis of a graph.

0×0=0 0×1=0

Example

1×1=1 9 × 9 = 81

y Division corresponds with multiplication.

3

(Note: It is not possible to divide by zero!)

2 See digit, operation, zero

base line

1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x

horizontal axis

15 bearing

battleships BCE

A game in which two players have identical (Before the Common Era)

grids on which they mark ‘battleships’ in Indicates the same period as BC. B

random positions. Each has to guess the

BCE can be used in place of BC.

position of the opponent’s battleships by

naming either: See BC, AD

(i) the cells on the grid

Example beam balance

Any balance where a beam is used.

A B C D E

1

Examples

2 (D,3)

3

4

5

a seesaw a beam balance

or

(ii) points of intersection of lines to pin- A beam balance is used to measure the mass

point their location. of an object by balancing it with an object

whose mass is known.

Example

See balance, mass

g

f

e bearing

d

A horizontal angle measured from 0˚ to 90˚

c (3,b) between a north or south direction and the

b

direction of the object.

a

True bearings are measured to the true north

direction, magnetic bearings to the magnetic

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

north (or south).

cells or the points.) N

See coordinates, grid, ordered pair

35º

BC bearing is

(Before Christ) N 35º E

See compass, direction

Example

Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamen ruled in 14th-

century BC.

See BCE, AD

bi 16

bi Example

Binary (Base-2) system

A prefix which stands in front of words and

B means two or twice. Place

value a7 a6 a5 a4 a3 a2 a1 a0

Examples

Binary 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

0 0

0 1 1

1 0 2

0 1 1 3

0 1 0 0 4

bicycle bifocals 0 1 0 1 0 10

0 1 1 1 1 15

0 1 1 0 0 0 25

See binomial, bisect, bisector 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 140

bicentenary binomial

In algebra, an expression consisting of two

200th anniversary.

terms joined by + or –. The terms are called

Example monomials.

1970 marked the bicentenary of Captain

Cook’s landing at Botany Bay.

Examples

2+a 3a – b 2x 2 + y 2

See algebra

billion

In most English-speaking countries,

including Australia, a billion means 1000 bisect

millions. To cut or divide into two equal parts.

1 000 000 000 or 109 Example

Note: In many European countries a billion This angle has been bisected.

means a million millions (1012).

A

This line is the

O bisector of the

C angle AOB.

binary

A base-2 number system that uses only B

0 and 1 to represent numbers. It is the

smallest number system used to represent AOC = COB

information. All numbers can be represented

in a binary system.

17 brackets

bisector braces

A straight line which divides an angle, or an (i) Braces are used for grouping numbers

interval, into two equal parts. together. B

Examples Example

A {} {3 + [12 – 3 (2 + 1)] × 2}

bisector braces = {3 + [12 – 9] × 2}

= 3+6

bisector = 9

A B (ii) The sign { } is used to stand for the

B word ‘set’. The elements of the set are

O

written inside these ‘curly brackets’.

See bisect, interval, midpoint Example

The set of counting numbers

{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7…}

boundary See brackets, order of operations, parentheses

A line around the edge of a region.

Examples

(i) The boundary around a soccer field brackets

The signs ( ) [ ] { } are used for grouping

things or numbers together.

() [] {}

ordinary brackets square braces

(ii) The boundary of Queensland (parentheses) brackets

operations.

Example

perimeter. ordinary

brackets

= 5 × 74 = 370

See perimeter, region

See braces, order of operations, parentheses

breadth 18

breadth

Measurement from side to side, also called

B width.

Example

height

th

ead

br

length

budget

A plan for using money.

Example

Jessica earns $560 a fortnight. Her budget is:

Rent and food $340

Bus fares $45

Clothes $50

Entertainment $60

Savings $65

Total $560

19 calliper

calculator

Calculating aid. Calculators are electronic.

They are battery or solar powered.

C

÷

% MC

CE ×

ON

/CA

9 MR

–

8 M–

7 6

5 + M+

4 3

2 =

1

.

0

C

(i) C is a symbol for Celsius temperature

calendar

scale. A calendar represents the way in which a year

0 ˚C water freezes

is broken up into months, weeks and days.

100 ˚C water boils Example

2007

(ii) A symbol for circumference in formulas. JANUARY

S M T W T F S

Examples 1 2 3 4 5 6

7 8 9 10 11 12 13

C 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

d

21 22 23 24 25 26 27

C = d 28 29 30 31

FEBRUARY

S M T W T F S

C 1 2 3

or C = 2r r 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17

18 19 20 21 22 23 24

25 26 27 28

The third Thursday in February 2007 is the 15th.

hundred.

See day, leap year, month, year

Example

CCCXXII = 322

calliper

A measuring instrument similar to compasses

calculate with curved legs for measuring thickness

Work out the answer. Using mathematical (diameter) of curved (convex) objects or,

procedures to determine a number, quantity turned outwards, for measuring cavities.

or expression. Example

calliper

cancelling 20

A method of changing a fraction to its The number of all elements (members) in a

simplest form. set. When we count, we give each element

Examples one number, starting with 1. These numbers

C are in sequence. The last number given is the

(i) Divide both numerator and denominator

by three (common factor). cardinal number of the set.

Example

÷3 5 How many balloons?

15 = 15 = 5

21 ÷ 3 21 7 7 The cardinal number of this set of balloons

is 5.

(ii) Divide across. 1 2 3 4

5

3 3

15 × 33 = 3 × 3 = 9

2 22 40 8 2×8 16

fraction, simplify

See counting, sequence, set

How much a container can hold. The

A method of recording a classification

number of cubic units a container can

activity (used by Lewis Carroll).

hold is called the capacity or volume of the

container. Volume is the actual amount of Example

material in the container.

Units of capacity are: black not black

cubic metre m3

square

millilitre mL

litre L

kilolitre kL not

megalitre ML square

1 mL = 1 cm3

1000 mL = 1 L = 1000 cm3

See attribute, classify, diagram, sorting

1000 L = 1 kL = 1 m3

Example

An eye dropper holds

about 1 millilitre of

liquid, which fills one

cubic centimetre.

relationships on page 149, volume

21 centimetre

Australian currency. Now it is the five-cent

Another word for regrouping. coin.

Example

25 Add 5 + 8 = 13. C

+ 18

Write 3 in unit column

33 and carry 1 into tens

column. See dollar

See regroup

centi

A prefix meaning one hundredth.

Cartesian coordinates

See coordinates

Example

One centimetre is one hundredth of a metre.

1 cm = 0.01 m

cc See centimetre, decimal place-value system,

length, see Decimal system prefixes on

A symbol sometimes used to show cubic page 153

centimetre. The correct symbol is cm3.

See cubic centimetre

Centigrade

Old name used for a temperature scale

Celsius scale divided into 100 degrees. We now call it the

See C, degree Celsius, temperature Celsius scale.

See degree Celsius, temperature

CE

(Common Era) centimetre

Indicates the same period as AD. (Symbol: cm)

CE can be used in place of AD. A unit of length.

See AD, BC 1 cm = 0.01 m

100 cm = 1 m

Example

cent

(Symbol: c)

1 cm

One cent is one hundredth of a dollar.

1c = $0.01

4 cm

$1 = 100c

See length, unit of measurement

centre 22

centre checking

A point that is the same distance from all A way of making sure that an answer is

points of a circle, a sphere, etc. correct. One way of checking is by using the

Example inverse operation.

C Examples

(i) Addition is checked by subtraction.

centre 15 43

+ 28 – 28

r 43 15

O

The answer 43 is correct.

(ii) Division is checked by multiplication.

14 quotient

14 (r2) × 4 × divisor

See circle, circumference, radius 4 58

56

18 + 2 add remainder

2

58 dividend

century

The answer 14 (r2) is correct.

One hundred.

See inverse, inverse operations

Examples

100 years, 100 runs in cricket, etc.

From 1 January 1901 to 31 December 2000 is chord

the 20th century.

A line joining two points on a circle.

The 21st century began on 1 January 2001.

Examples

B

chance d

or

di

ch

am

et

See probability O

er

An event of which the outcome is uncertain. See circumference, diameter

For some events we can predict a possible

outcome, but we can never be sure.

Examples

Tossing a coin, rolling a die, drawing a

coloured marble from a bag

See probability

23 circumference

Events arranged by the date or time when In the form of a circle; round.

they happened. Example

Example A merry-go-round C

THE HISTORY OF π is circular.

2000 BC Babylonia 1

38

300 BC Archimedes 10 1

3 71 to 3 7

1665 Newton 3.141 592 653 589 7932

1705 π sign was first used

1949 ENIAC computer π correct to 2035

decimal places

1984 Tokyo π computed to 16 million See circle

decimal places

circumference

The perimeter of a circle. The distance

circle around a circle.

The set of all points in a plane which are at If the radius is r units, then the

the same distance (radius r) from a given circumference C is 2πr units.

point O (centre). Example

Example

ra di us

C = 2πr r

ra di us O

centre circle

O

ir

c

cu

mfe

rence C

See centre, circumference, diameter, plane, circumference C is πd units.

radius

Example

c

circle graph

irc

um

ference C

C = πd di am et er d

O

class 24

class clockwise

A group, set, or collection of things. The direction in which the hands of a clock

Example normally travel.

Example

C Triangles, squares, rectangles and kites

belong to the class of polygons.

start

2.00 2.25

clockwise direction.

Screws and bottle tops are tightened

clockwise.

See classification, classify

See anticlockwise

classification

closed curve

Arrangement into classes, sets or groups,

according to attributes. A curve which starts at a point and comes

back to that point.

Examples

Examples

not green green

not

Quong Halima

Kelly Nick

Grant Dean (ii) Closed curves that are not simple

Toula Anna

Ali Scott

Claire Sachiko circle ellipse

See circle, curve, ellipse, open curve

classify

Sort objects, ideas or events into groups,

classes or hierarchies according to one or

more properties or attributes.

See attribute, property, sorting

25 column

A shape (polygon) whose sides begin and end The number (constant term) in front of a

at the same point. pronumeral (variable) in an algebraic term.

Examples Examples

C

closed shapes 3y 3 is the coefficient of y

7(a + b) 7 is the coefficient

of (a + b)

xy coefficient is 1

These are not closed shapes. See algebra, pronumeral

cointerior angles

See parallel lines

collinear

Three or more points that lie on the same

cm straight line.

The symbol for centimetre. Example

See centimetre, symbol

C D

A B

code A, B, C and D are collinear points.

A system of words, letters or symbols which See line, point

represent other letters, words or sentences.

Codes are used for secret writing or

signalling.

column

Example

A vertical arrangement.

Morse code

MOTHER

Examples

13

M O T H E R

/– –/– – –/ – /• • • •/•/• – •/ 5

18

27

9

column of numbers column of cars

column graph 26

A graph that uses columns of different (complex)

lengths to represent various kinds of Plane shapes that are made of two or more

information. polygons.

C Example Example

HEIGHTS OF SOME BREEDS OF DOG

60

50

Height in cm

40

30

20 To calculate the area of a combined shape,

10 divide it into simple shapes. Find the area of

0 each shape, then add those to find the area of

e

or

rie

lli

es

hu

ad

Co

kin

ua

Te

br

Example

ih

Pe

La

Ch

Fo

A2

combination

A1

A way of arranging the objects in a group.

Example

There are four shapes in this group. Area = A1 + A2

commission

The possible pairings are:

A commission is a fee or percentage of sales

paid to a sales person.

Example

A car sales person receives $500 for every

new car sold. The sales person receives a

commission of $500.

common denominator

The order in which the shapes are placed is

not important. For two or more fractions, a common

denominator is a number into which all the

See permutation, set, subset

denominators divide exactly.

27 compasses

Example Examples

1 1

For the fractions 2and 3a common

denominator is 6, and also 12, 18, 24, etc.

6 is the lowest common denominator (LCD).

See denominator, fraction, lowest common

same objects different objects

C

denominator

common fraction

See simple fraction

commutative property of

addition See division, ratio

added does not affect the answer (sum).

compass

Example

An instrument which shows direction. Used

6+4 = 4+6 in ships, aeroplanes, etc.

10 = 10 Example

See associative property of addition, sum

commutative property of

multiplication

The order in which two or more numbers

are multiplied does not affect the answer

(product). See bearing, direction

Example

3×8 = 8×3

24 = 24

compasses

See associative property of multiplication,

(pair of)

product An instrument used

to draw a circle and to

mark off equal lengths.

comparison Often called a compass,

for short.

Identifying whether objects, measures or

quantities are the same or different.

complement 28

Something that completes or fills up a whole. A fraction whose numerator, denominator, or

See complementary addition, complementary both, are fractions.

angles Examples

C 1 1 a

2 3 2 b

4 3 c

complementary addition 5 7 4 d

Note: To simplify a complex fraction means

Example the same as division of fractions. It can be

What has to be added to seven to make ten? done in two ways.

7+ = 10 Example

1 2

7+3 = 10 Divide 2

by 3

.

Answer: Three has to be added. 1 2 1 3 3

1 ÷ = × =

2 3 2 2 4

(ii) Counting on to a higher total (as

change is given after a purchase). 1

2 1 × 3 = 3

Example 2 =

2 2 × 2 4

Shopping costs $17.50. I pay with a $20 note. I 3

what must be added to $17.50 to make $20.

(iii) The method of ‘subtracting’ which composite number

converts the subtraction question to an

addition question. A number with factors other than itself and

one.

Example

Examples

21 – 19 = 2

12 = 12 × 1 = 3 × 4 = 3 × 2 × 2

Instead of taking nineteen away from twenty-

one we think how much must be added to 33 = 33 × 1 = 3 × 11

nineteen to make twenty-one.

Both twelve and thirty-three are composite

See addition, set, subtraction numbers.

17 = 17 × 1 23 = 23 × 1

Seventeen and twenty-three are not

complementary angles composite numbers.

Two angles that together measure 90˚. Numbers which have no other factors except

Example themselves and one, such as seventeen, are

called prime numbers.

∠a and ∠b are

complementary. Every whole number greater than one is either:

∠a is the complement (i) a prime number

of ∠b. (2, 3, 5, 7, 11 …)

b

∠b is the complement or

a of ∠a.

(ii) a composite number

(4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14 …).

a + b = 90º

See factors, prime number

See supplementary angles

29 cone

See order of operations Circles that are in the same plane and have

the same centre are concentric.

Example

computation C

Using addition, subtraction, multiplication

and/or division to find the answer. These centre

operations can be performed mentally, in x

writing or with the help of calculating aids

such as an abacus, tables, calculators or

computers.

See abacus, calculator, table See annulus, circle, plane

To work out or calculate. Lines that intersect at the same point.

Example Example

1

4.7

× 23.2 1 c d

4 7 e

94 0 P b

1410 0 P

1 5.0 8 7

a

like the inside of a bowl.

cone

Examples

A solid which has a circular base and comes

to a point at the top, similar in shape to an

concave ice-cream cone.

concave Examples

lens

See convex

congruent 30

(Symbol: ≡) Numbers that follow each other in a

Exactly equal. Matching exactly. Two figures sequence.

are congruent if they have the same shape Examples

C and the same size.

Examples 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6

7 7 7 7 7 7

A B

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

See sequence

Retaining the same area.

Examples

(i) The three triangles have the same area.

1

A= 2

× 2 cm × 2.5 cm = 2.5 cm2, even though

their shapes are different.

congruent pyramids

See corresponding angles, similar

2.5 cm

conic section

A figure (circle, ellipse or parabola) formed

2 cm 2 cm 2 cm

when a right circular cone is cut by a plane.

Example

(ii) The three shapes have the same area of

ellipse 3 cm2.

parabola 2 cm

1 cm 1 cm

2 cm

3 cm

1 cm

1

cm

2

6 cm

See area

31 coordinates

constant convex

A number that always has the same value, Shaped like the outside of a circle or a sphere.

unlike a variable. The opposite of concave.

Example Example

C

2c + 6

6 is the constant. convex

See variable lens

See concave

continuous data

Data that consist of measurements that can take

on any decimal value along a continuous scale. coordinates

Example

A pair of numbers or letters that show the

Temperature at Alice Springs on 1 April position of a point on the plane. The first

30 number is always the x-coordinate, the

second is the y-coordinate.

Examples

(i) Each point on the plane is given an

ordered pair of numbers, written in

Temperature (˚C)

20 parentheses.

y

2 (3, 2)

10

1

0 1 2 3 4 5 x

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2 4 6 8 10 12

a.m. N p.m. M Point (3, 2) has the x-coordinate 3, and the

Time y-coordinate 2.

(ii) The position of Judith Avenue is B3.

Other examples are mass and distance.

See data, discrete data A B C D E

Cabramatta

m

E

ACE AV

i

West Primary

ALADOR

1 1

AV

Y

W

RA

RA

H

GR

W

D

RD

ST

AN

TTA

EN S

ALICKS ST

T

MA

converging lines

L

BRA

BER

CA V

EA

CARABE

N C

TOWERS

CUM

2 NA 2

AL

b

Cabramatta

ST

ST

W AV

High

Two or more lines that meet at the same point.

OO

BOWDEN

N

S

DS

HUIE

Example 3 JUDITH

AV

V ST 3

LINKS

ST

SM

MIT

MI

ITH

TH

T

S

H AV

AV

P

S AV

CL

GOWRIE

CRABB PL

KIM

L

N I ETTA

PL

4 4

ANTO

A B C D E

coplanar 32

coplanar Example

C Z

Lying or being in the same plane.

Example

H G

C C A B X Y

D

See congruent

E F

cost price

A B

Price at which something is produced or

C, D, G and H are coplanar points. bought.

AB and CG are not coplanar. Example

A car dealer buys a car for $10 000. The cost

price of the car is $10 000.

correspondence See selling price

See many-to-one correspondence, one-to-one

correspondence

counting

Giving one number to every item in a set.

corresponding angles These numbers are in a sequence.

Angles in the same or similar position. In Example

congruent shapes, corresponding angles have 1 2 4

the same size (are congruent).

3 5 6

Example

7

numbers.

See cardinal number, sequence, set

Corresponding angles are marked by the

counting number

same symbol. A member of the set of numbers used in

See congruent, parallel lines, vertically counting: {1, 2, 3, 4 …}.

opposite angles Note: zero is not a counting number.

See cardinal number, number

corresponding sides

In congruent shapes, like the triangles below, counting system

the sides AB and XY, BC and YZ, and CA A way of finding out how many objects there are.

and ZX are corresponding sides.

See decimal place-value system

33 cubic centimetre

The face that is made when a solid is cut A solid, shaped like a box, with twelve

through by a plane. equal edges, six equal square faces and eight

Example corners. A cube is a type of cuboid.

Examples

C

edge

face

edge

face

2 cm

If you cut a

house in half

like this, m

2 cm 2c

corner

See cuboid, face, hexahedron, solid

cubed number

index

and took away 43

this half,

base

43 means 4 × 4 × 4 or 64.

We read it as ‘4 cubed’, ‘4 cube’ or ‘4 to the

third power’.

See index, index notation, power of a number,

square number

then looking

from here,

cubic centimetre

(Symbol: cm3)

A cubic centimetre is a unit for measuring

volume.

you would see Example

this cross-section.

1 cm

1 cm3

1 cm 1 cm

See face, front view, plan, plane, section, side

view

It is a cube with edges of 1 cm.

1 cm3 has a capacity of 1 millilitre.

See capacity, cube, unit of measurement,

volume

cubic metre 34

3

(Symbol: m ) A line of which no part is straight. There are

A cubic metre is a unit for measuring open curves and closed curves.

volume. Examples

C

Example

A cube whose

edges are 1 metre 3 1m

1m

long has a volume

of 1 cubic metre.

1m

3 3

1m open curves

1 m = 1 000 000 cm

A measure of volume.

See cubic centimetre, cubic metre, volume See closed curve, open curve

cuboid cycle

A shape such as a shoe box. A cube-like A system that repeats itself in time.

prism. It has twelve edges, six faces and eight Example

corners. The opposite faces are the same eggs

shape and size.

Examples

adult

larva

pupa

See cube, face, hexahedron, prism

35 cylinder

cycle game

A game that follows a set of rules in which

the last move returns the player to the

starting point.

Examples

C

Rules

black

white red

See rule

cylinder

A cylinder is a shape like a can. It is a solid

with two circular faces at right angles to a

curved surface.

Examples

120

100

80

60

40

20

36

decade

Ten years.

decagon

D A polygon with ten sides.

Example

data irregular

regular

A general term used to describe a collection decagon decagon

of facts, numbers, measurements or symbols.

Example

See polygon

Students’ scores in a maths test were

15, 16, 18, 19, 19, 20, 21, 21, 22 marks.

decahedron

date A polyhedron with ten faces.

Specified time: day, month or year, at which Example

something takes place. This decahedron has been made by joining

two pyramids and cutting their tops off.

Example

The date on my letter is 10 May 1998.

day

The 24-hour period it takes the Earth to turn

once on its axis.

See frustum, polyhedron

Weekdays are: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday,

decimal

Thursday and Friday. Containing ten parts.

Weekend days are: Saturday and Sunday.

decimal fraction

deca A fraction written as a decimal.

Prefix that means 10. Example

See decade, decagon, decahedron 1

= 0.1

10

simple decimal

fraction fraction

See decimal place-value system

37 degree

system Make smaller. We either subtract a number

or divide by a number.

A numeration system with ten as a base for

grouping. Commonly called the ‘base ten’ Examples

system. (i) Decrease this length by 2 cm.

10 6

10 5

10 4

10 3

10 2

10 1

10 0

10 –1

10 –2

10 –3 D

hundred thousands

ten thousands

thousandths

hundredths

thousands

hundreds

millions

tenths

units

tens

We decreased 5 cm to 3 cm by cutting 2 cm off.

decimal point

$100 ÷ 5 = $20

A point or comma (used in Europe) that

$100 decreased five times is $20.

separates a decimal fraction from the whole

number. See increase, progression

Example

32.4 degree

(Symbol: ˚)

decimal point

(i) In geometry, a degree is a unit for

measuring angles.

7,62 Examples

See point

decimal system

90º 360º 45º

See decimal place-value system

compared to a vertical or horizontal position. 1 minute is divided into 60 seconds

Example 1’ (minute) = 60” (seconds)

horizontal

(Don’t confuse these with the symbols for

declination

feet and inches.)

vertical

declination

See angle, degree Celsius, geometry,

temperature, unit of measurement

degree Celsius 38

(Symbol: ˚C) How deep something is. Measurement from

The common unit for measuring the top down, from the front to the back or

temperature. from the surface inwards.

Example Examples

D

depth of depth of

the carton the well

The boiling point of water is 100 ˚C. The

freezing point of water is 0 °C.

The old unit was called degree Centigrade.

See temperature, thermometer

descending order

Going down or decreasing in value.

Example

denominator The following lengths have been arranged in

descending order:

The number written below the line in a

fraction; it tells how many parts there are in 5.7 m 4.9 m 3.8 m 1.25 m

the whole.

→

→

Example longest shortest

This circle has been divided into 6 equal parts. See ascending order, decrease

5 → numerator

6 → denominator

diagonal

A line segment joining two corners that are

In 5 the denominator is 6. not next to each other in any polygon.

6

density l

na al

(i) The compactness of a material. go diagon

dia

(ii) The mass per unit of volume of a

material. The relationship of mass to

volume. Usually expressed as g/cm3 or

The dotted lines are diagonals.

kg/m3.

Example See polygon

The density of water at 4 ˚C is 1 g/cm3

(one gram per cubic centimetre).

39 die

diagram diameter

A name given to pictures or sketches A line segment joining two points of a circle

of geometric figures. It is also used for and passing through the centre of the circle.

simplified drawings which explain or describe Diameter equals two radii (r).

other things. Example

Examples D

diameter

d = 2r

centre

pyramid

See chord, circle, circumference, line segment,

radius

diamond

Water vapour cools and

condenses to form clouds. A two-dimensional shape with four equal

sun Clouds become so cool sides where the angles are not right angles.

that rain forms. The correct name is rhombus.

Examples

wind

35º 35º

rain

55º

transpiration 55º

from plants

evaporation

lake

sea

groundwater die

(Plural: dice)

A regular polyhedron, usually a cube, marked

with a certain number of spots or numerals.

Water flows back into the sea, Used in number games.

lakes and rivers. Examples

See Carroll diagram

Some dice have more than 6 faces.

difference 40

difference dimension

The amount by which two numbers differ. A property that can be measured, related to

Example plane and space.

(i) One-dimensional (1D) objects have

10 – 3 = 7

only length.

→

→

lines, curves

subtrahend

The difference between ten and three is

seven. curve

e

See minuend, subtract, subtraction,

lin

subtrahend

one dimension

digit

(ii) Two-dimensional (2D) objects have

Numerals 0, 1, 2, 3, … 9 are called digits; we length and width.

can also call them one-digit numbers.

Examples

Examples

plane figures—polygons, circles

4 is a one-digit number.

length

56 is a two-digit number.

813 is a three-digit number. parallelogram width

See place holder, place value

two dimensions

digital clock length, width and height.

A clock or a watch that shows time by Examples

numbers. It has no clock hands.

solids—cubes, pyramids

Example

a box height

th

leng

three dimensions

width

This clock shows twenty to ten. See one-dimensional, plane, space, three-

dimensional, two-dimensional

See a.m., analogue clock, p.m., time interval

direct proportion

See proportion

41 discrete data

north (N)

The amount of turning from one ray (or east (E)

arm of an angle) to the next, used in taking

south (S)

bearings.

west (W)

Example N

north-east (NE)

The directed angle south-east (SE) D

(bearing) is N 40˚ E. south-west (SW)

40º north-west (NW)

N 40º E

See anticlockwise,

clockwise, compass

See arm of an angle, bearing, ray

discount

directed numbers If the price of something is reduced, it is sold

Numbers that have + or – signs on them. at a discount.

They are also called integers. We can show Note: Discounts are often offered as a

them on a number line or axes. percentage of the selling price.

Example Example

The

se b

+3 $11.

ackp

acks

save 99

$3

+2

+1

discrete data

–3 –2 –1 0 +1 +2 +3

A set of data that can be counted. They are exact.

–1

Example

–2 30

–3 25

Goals scored

See integers 20

15

direction

10

(i) The way to go.

Examples 5

Left, right, up, down, above, below, inside,

outside, near, from behind, forwards, 0

A B C D E F

backwards, etc.

Football teams

displacement 42

displacement distribute

A change in the position of an object or of a Give share of something to each; deal out as

quantity of material. in division.

Example Example

See division

The quantity of water displaced by an

immersed object

The water displacement method is used to

measure the volume of objects. The volume distribution

of displaced water is equal to the volume of See frequency distribution

the object.

See volume

distributive law

a (b ± c) = ab ± ac

distance Every term inside the grouping symbols is

The length between one point and another. multiplied by the term that is immediately

Example outside. This is also called expanding

the expression or removing the grouping

symbols.

See brackets, expand, expanded notation

Distance between the

points of the compasses

is 5 centimetres.

dividend

A number which is to be divided by another

number.

5 cm Example

24 ÷ 6 = 4

→

24 is the dividend.

Distance from my house to town is See divisor, quotient

3 kilometres.

43 division

A number is divisible by another if, after Division is a mathematical operation which

dividing, there is no remainder. can be interpreted in several different ways:

A number is … (i) Grouping (quotition).

divisible if Examples

Example

by D

2 the last digit is 2, 4, 6, … 122 … 358 … 1000

even

3 the sum of all 261: 2 + 6 + 1 = 9

digits can be 3672: 3 + 6 +7 + 2 = 18

divided by 3 18: 1 + 8 = 9

4 the last two 1024: 24 ÷ 4 = 6 How many groups of 3 can be made with

digits are 15 apples?

divisible by 4

5 the last digit is 15, 70 …

The apples are to be placed into groups of

5 or 0 equal size, 3 to a group. The problem is to find

6 the last digit is 7446: 7 + 4 + 4 + 6 = 21

out how many groups there will be.

even and the

sum of its digits

is divisible by 3

7 there is no

divisibility test

8 the last 3 digits 75 384: 384 ÷ 8 = 48

are divisible by 8

9 the sum of 3123: 3 + 1 + 2 + 3 = 9

its digits is

divisible by 9

10 the number ends 10, 20, 30 … 15 ÷ 3 = 5

in 0

There are 5 groups of 3 apples.

Important: No number can be divided by 0. Repeated subtraction is a form of grouping.

See factors, remainder

division continued...

divisible

A number is divisible by another number if,

after dividing, there is no remainder.

Example

72 ÷ 9 = 8 72 ÷ 8 = 9

Seventy-two is divisible by nine and also by

eight.

Nine and eight are factors of seventy-two.

See factors, remainder

division 44

divisor

(ii) Sharing (partition). A number which is to be divided into

Example another number.

Share 15 apples among 5 children. How many Example

apples will each child get?

24 ÷ 6 = 4

D

→

dividend divisor quotient

6 is the divisor.

See dividend, quotient

groups. The problem is to find how many

there will be in each group. A polygon with twelve sides.

Examples

regular irregular

dodecagon dodecagon

15 ÷ 5 = 3

(iii) Ratio. See polygon

Comparison between two quantities.

Example

dodecahedron

A solid (polyhedron) with twelve faces.

A regular dodecahedron is made by joining

10 : 100 = 1 : 10 together twelve congruent regular pentagons.

to

Example

10 mL 100 mL

Ratio 1 : 10

Mixing 1 part of cordial and 10 parts of

water to make a drink.

See ratio

regular dodecahedron

45 dozen

dollar double

(Symbol: $) Twice as many, or the same again.

A unit of money, worth 100 cents. Examples

is double D

10 is double 5.

dot paper

Paper printed with dots arranged in a dozen

pattern. It is used for drawing shapes, Twelve items.

defining areas, games, etc., and to record

Example

work done on a geo-board.

Examples

46

elevation, angle of

See angle of elevation

ellipse

A closed curve that looks like an elongated

circle.

E Examples

edge

In geometry, the line that is the intersection ellipse

of two plane faces.

Examples

A football is elliptical in shape.

edge

See closed curve, parabola

edge

edge

edge

enlargement

Making bigger. Enlargement is the most

commonly used transformation. It can be

See face, intersection, plane

made in many ways: using a grid, rays, by

pantograph or a photocopier.

(are members of ) a set.

Example

object

enlarged

image

See pantograph, reduce, scale drawing,

is an element of the set of

transformation

shapes above.

47 equal sign

equal Example

(Symbol: =) A unit mass on the fifth hook on one side

would balance unit masses on the second and

(i) Identical in quantity. third hooks on the other side.

Example

5 = 2+3

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

These two packets of sugar have an equal

mass of one kilogram.

(ii) Of the same value. equality

Examples The relation of being equal.

A statement that two expressions are equal,

usually expressed as an equation.

Example

2+4=6

See equal, equation, inequality

equally likely

Events which have the same chance of

$5 note equals five $1 coins occurring are said to be equally likely.

Example

(iii) The sums 1+8=3+6=

10 – 1 = 2 + 7 = When a die is rolled fairly, the six numbers,

4+5=9+0 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, are equally likely to occur.

are equal because they are all different ways See chance event, probability

of representing number 9.

See equality, equal sign

equal sign

equaliser (Symbol: =)

The name of the symbol which means ‘is

A balance with numbered hooks placed at

equal to’ or ‘equals’.

intervals along the beam so that number facts

can be represented, and equality indicated, It shows that:

by balance. 3 + 5 = 8

→

→

→

this this

is equal to

equation 48

A statement that two quantities are equal. A triangle that has three sides of equal length

An equation has two sides which are equal or and three equal angles.

balanced. There must be the equal sign.

Examples

Example

60

º

x+4=7

60

º

2.5

cm

This equation is true only if x has the value of

E

cm

2.5

three.

60º

The x and any other signs or letters used in

equations to stand for a quantity are called 2.5 cm

place holders, pronumerals, or variables.

The angles of any equilateral triangle are

See equality, inequality, place holder,

pronumeral, variable

always 60˚.

See equilateral, triangle

equidistant equivalent

The same distance apart at every point.

Having the same value.

Example The same amount.

The distance between parallel lines is equal Example

(the same) at every point.

See parallel lines

equilateral See equivalent fractions

Having sides of equal length.

Square, regular pentagon, hexagon and other

regular polygons have sides of equal length equivalent fractions

and angles of equal size. Fractions that name the same number or

Examples amount.

2 cm Examples

cm

1.5

cm

1.5

2 cm 2 cm

1 2

2 4

2 cm

regular hexagon

3 4

6 8

2 4 6 8

49 exchange

(i) A rough or approximate calculation. A number that is divisible by two. All even

(ii) A number that has not been calculated numbers finish with one of the digits: 0, 2,

accurately. Estimated answers are often 4, 6 or 8.

needed when working with decimals. See digit, divisible

Example

In 1.9 × 3 the estimate will be

exact

2×3=6

Precise, accurate, correct in every way, not

E

∴ 1.9 × 3 ≈ 6 approximate.

(iii) Trying to judge or guess what a measure See approximately

or result will be.

Example

exchange

(i) When we go shopping, we exchange

money for goods. Money is the medium

of exchange.

Example

roughly 2 metres.

See accurate, approximately, calculate, rounding

$2.30 is the price of the toy car.

(ii) Multibase arithmetic blocks (MAB) can

evaluate be exchanged.

To find the value of. Example

Examples units tens and units

(i) Evaluate 21 × 3

were

21 exchanged

×3 for

63

The value of 21 × 3 is 63. 16 units ten 6 units

(ii) Evaluate p + 3q

(iii) Money can also be exchanged for

Given that p = 2.5 and q = 7

money of equivalent value.

p + 3q = 2.5 + (3 × 7) Example

= 2.5 + 21

= 23.5

is the same amount as

even

Equally balanced, equal in number or amount.

Example

$5 = $2.50 + $1 + $1.50 See equivalent, multibase arithmetic blocks, rate

expand 50

expand expression

Write out in full. See algebraic expression

Examples

(i) Expand 4 exterior

The outside of something.

= + + +

E

(ii) Expand 537

See expanded notation

exterior

expanded notation

A way of writing numerals or algebraic Examples

expressions. (i) Exterior angle

Examples

(i) 249 = 200 + 40 + 9

or = (2 × 100) + (4 × 10) + (9 × 1)

or = 2 × 102 + 4 × 101 + 9 × 10°

(ii) In algebra

exterior interior exterior

2(a + 2b) = (2 × a) + (2 × 2b) angle angles angle

or =a+a+b+b+b+b

See index notation, scientific notation (ii) Exterior angle of a triangle

cº

exponent

exterior angle

A symbol indicating how many times the d º = aº + cº

quantity is to be multiplied by itself to aº bº dº

produce the power shown. Another word for

index. The exterior angle of a triangle is the sum of

the two opposite interior angles.

See base, index, index notation, power of a

number See interior angles

51 factor tree

factors

All the whole numbers that can be divided

exactly into another number.

Examples factor

(i) 6÷1=6 1

6÷2=3 2

6÷3=2 3

6÷6=1 6 F

face 1, 2, 3 and 6 are factors of 6.

part of the surface that is bounded by the edges. 5÷5=1

Examples face Prime number 5 has only the factors 5 and 1.

(i) A cube has six faces. e See composite number, factor tree, prime

face fac number, whole numbers

factor tree

(ii) A tetrahedron has

ce A diagram that shows the prime factors of a

fa

four faces. fa

ce

given number.

Example

five faces. face fac

e 18

three-dimensional 2 × 9

factorisation 2 × 3 × 3

We can simplify algebraic expressions by

extracting a common factor. Prime factors of 18

Example

Factorise 3a + 6b

See prime factor of a number

3a + 6b

= ➂× a + 2 × ➂× b

common factor

= 3(a + 2b)

See algebraic expression

false sentence 52

(i) The region inside a

A sentence about numbers that is not true. square is finite because

Examples it is bounded by a

perimeter.

5 < 1 is a false sentence. (ii) The set of months in

The open sentence 3 + = 10 becomes false a year is a finite set

if is replaced by any other number than 7, because the months can be counted.

e.g. 3, 4, 5 … See infinite, perimeter, region, set

If is replaced by 7, it will become a true

sentence.

F

See number sentence, true sentence first

The one at the beginning, before any other.

farthest Example

(furthest)

The longest distance away.

The first shape is a square.

Example

Name Distance

Kate 3.50 m

flat

Paul 3.89 m

Mike 3.47 m (i) Being in one plane only.

Paul jumped the farthest. Examples

flat surface

See distance

curved

surface

figure

Every face of a flat surface

Another name for a numeral, line, shape or cube is flat.

a solid.

Examples (ii) The name used for the multibase

(i) Write in figures: thirty-six 36 arithmetic block representing one

hundred.

(ii) Half of this

figure has been Example

coloured in.

flat

finite

Anything that has boundaries or can be See cube, face, multibase arithmetic blocks

counted. (MAB), plane, surface

53 fraction

flexible formula

A jointed structure is flexible when its angles (Plural: formulae, formulas)

can be changed by moving the struts without An equation that uses symbols to represent a

altering their size or arrangement. statement.

Example Example

width

A= w

w

length

F

Statement: The area of a rectangle is found

A rectangle forms a flexible structure. when its length is multiplied by its width.

fortnight

flip

Fourteen days or two weeks.

To turn over.

Example

fraction

A part of a whole quantity or number.

Examples

(i) The fraction 34 means 3 parts out of a

total of 4 equal parts.

This playing card has been flipped over. (ii) 7 parts out of 100 parts are coloured in.

See reflection, slide, turn

foot

(Plural: feet)

7

(Symbols:’, ft) The fraction is 100

(iii) Show 3 of 8.

A measure of length. 4

1 foot 30 centimetres

6 3

1 foot = 12 inches 8

= 4

The altitude of an aeroplane or the depth of

a submarine is measured in feet.

See cancelling, common denominator, decimal

fraction, equivalent fractions, improper fraction,

mixed number, proper fraction, simple fraction

frequency 54

The frequency of any item in a collection of See frequency distribution

data is the number of times that item occurs

in the collection.

Example front view

We tossed a die 50 times and recorded the A diagram of an object, as seen from directly

number for each throw. We kept a tally of the in front of it.

50 scores.

Example

F Number Tally Frequency

1 7

2 12

3 9

4 8

front view

5 6

a a

6 8

Number 2 had the Number 5 had the

highest frequency. lowest frequency. See plan, side view

See data, frequency distribution, tally

frustum

frequency distribution A pyramid cut by a plane parallel to the

pyramid’s base.

A graph or table showing how often an event

or quantity occurs. Example

Example

A frequency distribution table of marks: frustrum

20–29 1

30–39 5

40–49 9 See decahedron, pyramid, section

50–59 8

60–69 5

70–79 3

80–89 1

Total 32

55 Goldbach’s conjecture

geometric progression

See progression

geometry

The part of mathematics that deals with the

relationships, properties and measurements

of solids, surfaces, lines, angles and space.

See measure, property, solid, space, surface

g

(i) g is the symbol for the unit gram. G

geo-strips

(ii) It is also a symbol for gravity. The force

of gravity on the Earth’s surface is 1 g. Strips of plastic, metal or cardboard with

holes equally spaced down the centre of the

See mass, weight

strips. They are used for making shapes.

Examples

gallon

Measure of volume.

1 imperial gallon ≈ 4.5 litres one geo-strip

geo-board

A board studded with nails forming a pattern

or grid, usually of squares or equilateral

triangles.

Geo-boards are used for shape and number

activities in which elastic bands are arranged

around sets of nails.

Goldbach’s conjecture

Every even, natural number is equal to the

sum of two prime numbers.

2=1+1 10 = 3 + 7

See equilateral triangle, grid, pattern

4=2+2 12 = 5 + 7 or 1 + 11

6=3+3 24 = 11 + 13

8=1+7 42 = 19 + 23

See natural number, prime number

googol 56

googol gram

A very large number. It has the numeral 1 (Symbol: g)

with one hundred zeros after it. A unit of mass.

1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 1000 g = 1 kg

000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 0…

Examples

gradient

Measurement of slope, inclination to

horizontal base, or pitch. It can be measured

G and expressed as a ratio. The mass of this The mass of ten

box of chocolates matches is

Examples is 250 grams. approximately

1 gram.

See mass, unit of measurement

pe

height

slo

of slope

base Drawings or diagrams which show

y information, usually about how many things.

6 gradient/ There are different kinds of graphs.

5 slope = 6 Examples

3

rise

4

3 6 = ratio of 2

BIRTHDAYS IN CLASS 4C

2

1

x 5

0

1 2 3 4 5

run

Number of birthdays

4

height rise

The ratio orbase

is called the slope, the

run 3

gradient or the pitch.

See Pythagorus’ theorem, tangent ratio 2

1

graduated

0

Marked off with measurements.

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Examples Months

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22

ruler

A ruler is graduated in centimetres.

thermometer

A thermometer is graduated in degrees.

57 group

mm

50 The mass of an object together with its

40 container.

30

20 Example

10

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

+ =

See axis, bar graph, column graph, line graph,

pictograph, pie graph

net mass + tare = gross mass

G

greater than The actual mass of the object is called net

mass. The mass of the packaging is called tare.

(Symbol: >)

See mass

A relation between a pair of numbers

showing which is greater. More than. Bigger

than.

group

Example (i) Putting things together in a set or

7>6 group. In the decimal system things are

grouped into tens.

→

greater than

Example

See less than

Hundreds Tens Units

2 4 3

Regular lines that go across, up and down. 4 groups of 10

Often found on maps and graphs. 3 groups of 1

Examples

(ii) Two or more things.

Example

a group of boys

gross See grouping

Twelve dozen, 144.

grouping 58

grouping

Putting things together into sets with the

same number in each set.

Example

How many groups of four can be made with

twenty balls?

G

Answer: Twenty balls are put into five groups

of four.

See division, set

grouping symbols

See braces, brackets, order of operations,

parentheses

59 hectare

handspan

The distance from the top of the thumb to

the top of the smallest finger when the hand

is fully stretched.

Example

h

Symbol for height, hour, prefix hecto-. This is a handspan

A handspan is used as an arbitrary measure H

for estimating the lengths, heights or widths

ha of objects.

See arbitrary unit, estimate

A symbol for hectare.

hecta, hecto

half

Prefix that means 100.

(Plural: halves)

See hectare

One part of two equal parts.

Examples

(i) hectare

(Symbol: ha)

1 A unit of area.

half = 2

One hectare is the area of a square with sides

measuring 100 metres.

100 m

1 1 ha

2 × 24 = 12

half a hectare.

heft 60

heft heptagon

To judge the weight of objects by lifting A polygon with seven sides and seven angles.

them in the hands. Regular heptagons have all sides congruent

Examples and all angles the same.

Examples

light heavy

See weight regular heptagon irregular heptagons

H See polygon

height

Measurement from top to bottom, the hexagon

vertical distance.

A shape (polygon) which has six sides and six

Examples angles.

Examples

5m

height

2m

height 2m 5m

See altitude, vertical

Half of a sphere. See polygon

Example

Australia lies in the southern hemisphere. hexagram

hemisphere

N

A shape formed by two intersecting

equilateral triangles.

Example

S

1

Each part is 2 of a sphere.

See sphere

61 histogram

Hindu numerals

hexahedron

A solid (polyhedron) with six faces. All

cuboids are hexahedrons.

A cube is a regular hexahedron; all six faces The Arabs adopted the system.

are congruent squares, all internal angles are

Arabic numerals (13th-century AD)

equal.

Examples

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

regular hexahedron standardised after the invention of the

printing press in the 15th century.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 H

The modern system has very useful

characteristics:

(i) it has only ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,

7, 8, 9

(ii) it uses zero as a place holder

irregular hexahedron (iii) it uses place value system: the value of

See cube, cuboid, polyhedron, prism, regular the digit depends on its placement in

polyhedron the numeral:

37 307 13 700

See numeral, place holder, place value

highest common factor

(HCF)

histogram

The largest number that divides into all given

numbers. A column graph with no spaces between

columns.

Example

Example

For given numbers 8, 12, 16 and 20 the MISTAKES IN MATHS TEST

highest common factor (HCF) is 4. 5

See factors, factor tree

Number of students

Hindu–Arabic 3

2

of centuries of development.

The symbols for all the digits, except zero, 1

probably originated with the Hindus in

India, as early as 200 BC.

0 1 2 3 4 5

Number of mistakes

horizon 62

horizon hour

Line at which land and sky appear to meet. (Symbol: h)

A unit of time.

horizon

1 hour = 60 minutes

1 hour = 3600 seconds

24 hours = 1 day

See unit of measurement

hundred

2

H See decimal place-value system

Line parallel to, or on a level with, the

horizon.

A vertical line is at right angles to the hypotenuse

horizon.

The longest side of a right-angled triangle,

Example

which is the side opposite the right angle.

vertical axis

Example

e

horizontal line us

en

p ot

hy

See axis, bar graph, base line, parallel lines, See Pythagoras’ theorem, right-angled triangle

right angle, vertical

horizontal surface

Any surface which is parallel to, or on a level

with, the horizon.

Example

horizontal

surfaces

63 increase

image

An exact copy of an object.

Example

mirror

icosahedron The image in a mirror

A solid (polyhedron) with twenty faces. See mapping, mirror image, reflection

A regular icosahedron is formed by joining

together twenty congruent equilateral

triangles. improper fraction I

Example A fraction whose numerator is greater than

its denominator.

Example

4

4

3

} = 7

4

4

regular icosahedron

See denominator, fraction, mixed number,

See polyhedron, regular polyhedron

numerator, proper fraction

identical inch

Exactly alike.

(Symbol: ”, in)

Examples

A measure of length.

1 inch = 2.54 cm

12 inches = 1 foot

increase

5 5 Make larger by adding a certain amount, or

multiplying by a number.

Examples

(i) The price of a three-dollar bus ticket has

been increased by fifty cents.

$3 + 50c = $3.50

increase continued...

increase 64

index laws

(ii) My family of 2 cats has increased 3

In algebra, when working with indices or

times. How many kittens do I have now?

algebraic expressions, these laws must be

2×3=6 remembered:

6–2=4 Law Example

a b a +b

I have 4 kittens. x ×x =x 53 × 52 = 53+2 = 55

x a = xa –b 53

= 53–2 = 51 = 5

xb 52

x0 = 1 50 = 1

(x a) b = x a × b = x ab (53)2 = 53×2 = 56

I See decrease, progression

(x × y )a = x a y a (5 × 4)3 = 53 × 43

a

index x a 3

= xa

5 3

4 3

index or exponent 1 1

x –a = a 5–3 =

6 x 53

10 1 1

base n n 3 3

a=a 5=5

In 3 5 the index is 3. Where no index is

index notation

written, as in 5, the index is 2.

See base, exponent, index notation, square A shorthand way of writing large numbers

root such as 1 000 000. Also called scientific

notation.

Example

Using index notation:

1 000 000 = 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 ×

10 × 10 = 106

index or exponent

6

10

base

is read as:

‘ten to the power of six’ or

‘ten to the sixth power’.

See base, cubed number, power of a number,

scientific notation, square number

65 insignificant zeros

inequality infinite

A statement that one quantity is less than or Without bounds of size or number,

greater than another. unlimited, not finite, endless.

The symbols <, > and ≠ are used to express Example

inequalities. {Whole numbers} is an infinite set.

Examples See finite, set, whole numbers

5≠6 Five is not equal to 6.

5<6 Five is less than 6.

6>4 Six is greater than 4. infinite decimal

See equality, greater than, less than, not equal (not terminating)

Decimals which go on without end.

Example

inequality signs

π = 3.141 592 7… I

SIGN MEANING

See recurring decimal, terminating decimal

< less than

≤ less than or equal to

≠ not equal to infinity

> greater than (Symbol: ∞)

≥ greater than or equal to Expressing quantity without bounds.

See infinite

inequation

A statement that two quantities are not input

equal. See number machine

Example

x+5>7 insignificant zeros

–5 –5

x>2 Unnecessary zeros in decimal numbers.

This inequation is true for any number greater Examples

than 2, for example 3, because 3 + 5 = 8, wrong correct

which is greater than 7.

See equality, equation, inequality 05.2 5.2

9.980 9.98

.25 0.25

infer

Make a predictive statement or conclusion,

based on observation or reasoning.

See prediction

integers 66

integers interest

Positive or negative whole numbers including Price that is charged or paid for the use of

zero. money.

Examples Examples

(i) The bank pays interest to a person who

integers puts money into a savings account, as

the bank can use that money to lend it

negative positive

to someone else.

(ii) People who borrow money from a bank

–7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7

have to pay the bank interest on the

The set of integers: amount borrowed, in return for using

{–6, –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5…} the bank’s money.

positive numbers, set, whole number

I interest rate

intercept The interest rate is a rate that is charged

When drawing graphs of equations, an or paid for the use of money. It is often

intercept is the point where the equation line expressed as an annual percentage of the

crosses an axis. principal.

Example Examples

(i) Joshua borrows $100 from a bank at

y a rate of interest of 10 per cent per

3 line y = x + 2 annum.

The interest Joshua has to pay after a

2 y-intercept year is 10% of $100, which is

10

100

× $100 = $10

x-intercept

1

(ii) Oliver puts $100 into his savings

account. The interest rate the bank pays

0 on savings accounts is 6% annually.

–3 –2 –1 1 2 3 x

–1 Oliver receives 6% of $100, which is

6

100

× $100 = $6

–2

See annual, interest, principal

(0, 2). The point (0, 2) is called the y-intercept.

interior

The line also crosses the x-axis at point (–2, 0),

which is called the x-intercept. The inside of something.

See coordinates, gradient See exterior

67 interval

Example

The sum of interior angles inside any triangle

is 180˚.

C

90˚

intersection

30˚ 60˚

(iii) (Of sets) The set of elements that are

A B

common to both sets.

30˚ + 60˚ + 90˚ = 180˚

Example

See exterior

I

intersect

To cut across. To cross each other.

Example

A intersection

white circles

The two lines intersect at point A.

interval

intersection

The amount of time, or distance, between

(i) The place where two or more lines

two events or places.

meet, like an intersection of two streets.

Examples

Example

(i) There is a twenty-minute interval

y between the two films.

(ii) Line segment

line

2

interval

1

(origin)

x

0 1 2

inverse 68

inverse invert

Inverted in position, order or relation. When Turn upside down, reverse position.

one quantity increases, the other decreases at Examples

the same rate.

1 2

See additive inverse, invert, proportion, ratio 2

inverts to 1

or 2

3

4

inverts to 4

3

or 1 13

inverse factor tree

A diagram that shows prime numbers and

irrational number

the number they belong to.

Example Number that cannot be written as an integer

or ratio.

2 3 5 Examples

I π 2 3 3

2

6 5 See rational number, real number

30

irregular polygon

Prime numbers: 2, 3 and 5 have a product

A shape in which not all sides are equal in

of 30.

length, and/or at least one angle is different

See factor tree, prime factor of a number in size from the other angles.

Examples

inverse operations

The operation which reverses the action of

the original operation.

Examples

The operations

4 + 3 = 7 and

7–3=4

are the inverse of one another. See polygon, regular polygon

The operations

6 × 3 = 18 and

18 ÷ 3 = 6

are the inverse of one another.

See operation, reciprocal

69

isometric drawing

A drawing where the three dimensions are

represented by three sets of lines 120˚ apart,

and all measurements are in the same scale

(not in perspective).

Example

120˚

120˚ 120˚

jigsaw

A puzzle in which pieces fit together to form

a picture.

See perspective Example

J

isometric paper

Paper with dots or lines that make equilateral

triangles. Used for isometric drawings.

Example

joule

Unit of energy or work. It replaces the old

unit, calorie.

See kilojoule

paper

isosceles triangle

A triangle in which two sides have the same

length and two angles have the same size.

Examples

m

2.5 cm

3c

2.5 c

m

3c

65º 65º

2.5 c

m

2.5 cm

70

kilolitre

(Symbol: kL)

A unit of volume (capacity) for measuring

liquids.

1 kL = 1000 L

Example

kilogram

(Symbol: kg)

The base unit of mass.

Five 200-litre oil drums hold one kilolitre.

1 kg = 1000 g

See capacity, unit of measurement, volume

Examples

The mass of this packet

of sugar is 1 kilogram.

kilometre

K

(Symbol: km)

A unit of distance. Distances between towns

are measured in kilometres.

1 km = 1000 m

Example

The mass of this girl is 27 kilograms.

DARWIN

Adelaide River

35

2k Pine Creek

m

Katherine

See gram, mass, unit of measurement The road distance from Darwin to Katherine is

352 kilometres.

See distance, unit of measurement

kilojoule

(Symbol: kJ)

Used for measuring energy or work.

1 kilojoule = 1000 joules

Example

A piece of chocolate cake has 2000 kilojoules.

71 knot

kite

A quadrilateral that is shaped like this.

The two long sides are equal in length.

The diagonals are perpendicular to each

other.

See quadrilateral

K

knot

(Symbol: kn)

Measure of speed at sea and in aviation, equal

to travelling one nautical mile per hour.

1 nautical mile = 1.852 kilometres

Example

fast as a vehicle on land travelling about

37 kilometres per hour.

See speed

72

are divisible by 400.

Example

1600, 2000, 2400 are leap years.

1500, 1700, 1800 are not leap years.

least

The smallest thing or amount in a group.

L Example

(i) L is the symbol for litre.

$3.50 $5.20

(ii) In Roman numerals L stands for fifty.

See capacity, litre

lateral

See equilateral $1.85

LCD

See lowest common denominator

length

How long something is from end to end.

LCM (i) The measure of distance.

See lowest common multiple Examples

A B

leap year 20

1

19

2

18

3

17

4

16

5

15

6

14

7

13

8

12

9

11

10

10

11

9

12

8

13

7

14

6

15

5

16

4

17

3

18

2

19

1

20

This ruler is 20 centimetres long.

days. It occurs every four years.

In a leap year February has twenty-nine days 1.8 m

instead of twenty-eight days.

When the year number can be divided by 4

leaving no remainder, then it is a leap year.

Example

1979 ÷ 4 = 494 (r3)

This is not a leap year.

The length of this table is 1.8 metres.

2012 ÷ 4 = 503

Units of length are:

This is a leap year. millimetre mm

centimetre cm

metre m

kilometre km

73 linear

Example A long thin mark drawn on a surface. It can

How long is the lunchtime break? be straight or curved. It has no thickness

See centimetre, distance, interval, kilometre, and has only one dimension. A straight line

metre, millimetre extends without end in both directions.

a

less than

(Symbol: <) A straight line is the shortest possible

distance between two points.

A relation between pairs of numbers showing

which is smaller.

Example

Example

A B

5<7

→

less than distance between A and B. The arrowheads

indicate that the line does not end where we

See greater than, inequality signs

stop drawing it. The interval AB has a finite

length.

See curve, horizontal line, infinite, interval, line

like terms segment, vertical L

Similar, resembling each other.

In algebra, expressions are called like terms if

they have the same variable and power. Like linear

terms can be added and subtracted; terms Involving measurement in one dimension

that are not like cannot. only.

Examples See line

Like terms Unlike terms

+ + +

+

+ – –

4x – 3x a–b

2 2

5x y + x y 3x 2 + 3

See power of a number, unlike terms, variable

linear equation 74

An equation that can be presented as a The line which divides something in half so

straight line. that one half is the mirror image of the other

Examples half. This line is sometimes called an axis of

symmetry.

y

A shape may have more than one line of

5 symmetry.

E Examples

2

4

–

2x

3

y=

2 D

1

C x

–4 –3 –2 –1 1 2 3 4 5

–1

–2 B

One line of symmetry Three lines of

–3 symmetry

A –4

–5

L A B C D E

x –1 0 1 2 3

y –4 –2 0 2 4

Some shapes have no

y = 2x – 2 line of symmetry.

A graph formed by segments of straight lines Part of a straight line.

that join the points representing certain data.

Example

Example

JOHN’S MASS a straight line

76

75 4 cm

74 line segment

73

Kilograms

71

70

69

68

67

Year

75 lowest common multiple

litre Example

1 1

(Symbol: L) What is the LCD of fractions 4

and 10

?

volume of liquids or the capacity of

4 divides exactly into

(Multiples of 4 are) } 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 , 24,

28, 32, 36, 40 , 44 …

containers.

10 divides exactly into

(Multiples of 10 are)

} 10, 20 , 30, 40 , 50,

60, 70 …

1000 L = 1 kL The lowest number into which 4 and 10 divide

exactly is 20.

Example

Therefore 20 is the LCD.

Lowest common denominators are used in

addition and subtraction of fractions.

Example

1 1 5+2 7

4

+ 10

= 20

= 20

denominator, fraction, lowest common

multiple

A carton of milk holds one litre.

See capacity, unit of measurement, volume L

lowest common multiple

(LCM)

loss

The lowest counting number that is a

If the selling price is lower than the cost multiple of given numbers.

price, the seller makes a loss.

Example

Example

What is the LCM of 2 and 3?

A car dealer buys a car for $10 000 and sells

the same car for $9000. As the selling price The multiples of 2 are:

of the car is less than the buying price, the 2, 4, 6 , 8, 10, 12 , 14, 16, 18 …

dealer suffers a loss of $1000.

The multiples of 3 are:

See cost price, profit, selling price

3, 6 , 9, 12 , 15, 18 , 21, …

Common multiples are: 6, 12, 18…

lowest common The lowest common multiple of 2 and 3 is 6.

denominator See counting number, multiple

(LCD)

The lowest counting number that is divisible

by the denominators of given fractions.

The lowest multiple of two or more

denominators.

76

magnitude

The size, or how big something is.

Example

60º

See directed numbers

m

(i) m is the symbol for metre.

(ii) m is also the symbol for prefix milli-. many-to-one

correspondence

M A match between members of two sets in

which more than one element of the first set

(i) M is the symbol for prefix mega-.

is associated with one element of the second.

(ii) In Roman numerals M means 1000. Arrows are used to show the relationship.

Example

Children and their favourite drinks

M MAB

See multibase arithmetic blocks Mary

Jane

magic square

John

A puzzle where the numbers are arranged in a

square so that each row, column and diagonal

Ling

add up to the same total.

Example Peter

9 2 7 18 Paul

4 6 8 18

Kylie

5 10 3 18

Sanjay

18 18 18 18 18

Three elements (Mary, Jane and Peter) of

the first set are associated with one element

(Cola) of the second set.

See arrow diagram, one-to-one

correspondence

77 maximum

mapping matching

A matching operation between two sets in See many-to-one correspondence, one-to-one

correspondence

which each member of the first set is assigned

only one member of the second set as a

partner or image.

Example mathematical shorthand

×3

Instead of long sentences, mathematics uses

→ numbers, symbols, formulas and diagrams.

2 6

→ Example

5 15

→ The sentence, ‘The area of a triangle is

8 24 found when its base is multiplied by its

→ perpendicular height and then divided by

10 30 two,’ is written in mathematical shorthand as:

First set Second set

In the above example, 2 maps onto 6, so 6 is b×h

A =

the image of 2. h 2

See image, many-to-one correspondence, one-

to-one correspondence, set b

See formula

mass

The amount of matter contained in an

M

maximum

object.

The greatest or biggest value.

Units of mass:

Examples

gram g

(i) The maximum temperature this month

kilogram kg was 39˚ C.

tonne t

1000 g = 1 kg

1000 kg =1t

Example

This boy has a mass

of 28 kilograms.

per hour.

incorrectly used instead of mass.

See beam balance, unit of measurement,

weight

See minimum

maze 78

A kind of puzzle in which a person has to find tendency

a way through a network of lines, paths, etc.

The three measures of central tendency are:

Example mode, median and mean. They usually lie

about the middle of the distribution and tell

us certain facts about it.

See mean, median, mode

B

median

A In statistics, median is the middle

measurement or score, when items are

Follow the path from A to B without crossing

any lines. arranged in order of size.

Example

Scores: 2, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10

mean

→

The mean is the average of a set of scores. It median = 5

is found by adding up all scores and dividing Where there is no middle score, an average of

the sum by the number of scores. the two central scores is taken.

Mean = sum of scores

M number of scores Example

See average, measures of central tendency Scores: 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10

→

→

median = 4+8 =6

2

measure See average, mean, measurements of central

(i) Find out the size of something. tendency, mode, score

Examples

How long? How tall? How heavy? How hot?

mega

(ii) Compare quantities. A number assigned (Symbol: M)

to a quantity which indicates its size

compared to a chosen unit. Prefix meaning one million times.

Example See megalitre

m

30 c

See unit of measurement

79 milli

(Symbol: ML) A decimal system of weights and measures.

A unit of capacity. The base unit for length is metre, for mass is

1 megalitre = 1 000 000 litres kilogram, and for time is second.

1 ML = 1 000 000 L See decimal system, SI, unit of measurement

Example

Volume (capacity) of this swimming pool is:

midpoint

m 50 m A point in the middle of an interval.

20

Example

6m

M AM = MB

2m

A B

Volume = [50 × 20 × (6 – 2)] m3

The point M is the midpoint of the interval AB.

= 4000 m3

= 4 000 000 L See bisect, bisector

= 4 ML

This swimming pool contains four megalitres

(4 ML) of water.

mile

See Decimal system prefixes on page 153 M

An imperial measure of length.

1 mile ≈ 1.6 km

mensuration

The branch of mathematics concerned mileage

with the measurement of lengths, areas and

volumes. The distance travelled during which the

car uses a certain amount of petrol. It used

to mean miles per gallon of petrol. It now

means the number of kilometres per litre

metre of petrol, or consumption of petrol per 100

(Symbol: m) kilometres.

The base unit of length (distance). See gallon, mile

1 m = 100 cm

1 m = 1000 mm

Example milli

(Symbol: m)

Prefix meaning one-thousandth.

See milligram, millilitre

8m

See distance, unit

milligram 80

milligram minimum

(Symbol: mg) The smallest or least value.

A very small unit of mass, used when Example

working with medicines and chemicals. It is The minimum temperature in July was 4º C.

one-thousandth of a gram.

See maximum

1

1 mg = 1000

g

1 mg = 0.001 g

minuend

See gram

A number from which another number is to

be subtracted.

millilitre Example

(Symbol: mL) 29 – 7 = 22

→

A unit of capacity.

minuend subtrahend difference

1000 mL = 1 L

29 is the minuend.

Note: One millilitre of water at 4˚C has a

mass of one gram. See difference, subtract, subtrahend

Examples

minus

M (Symbol: –)

(i) Subtract or take away.

Example

See centimetre, volume Eight minus two is written as 8 – 2 and means

two subtracted from eight.

8–2=6

millimetre (ii) A symbol to mark negative numbers.

(Symbol: mm) Example

A unit of length. –1, –2, –3, –4…

10 mm = 1 cm See integers, negative numbers, subtract

Examples

1 mm

minute

(Symbol: min ’)

0 10 mm 40 50

(i) A measure of time.

See centimetre, length one minute = sixty seconds

1 min = 60 s

There are sixty minutes in one hour.

million (ii) Angle measurement.

One thousand thousands: 1 000 000. 1 ‘ (min) = 1

(degree)

60˚

See billion

1˚ (degree) = 60 ‘

81 month

A reflection, as in a mirror. In statistics, the score that occurs most often

in a collection.

Example

In scores,

1, 1, 2, 4, 4, 6, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, 8, 10,

6 is the mode.

See image, reflection

See average, mean, measures of central

tendency, median

mixed number

A whole number and a fraction. model

Examples A three-dimensional representation of

1 1

3

5 an actual or designed object. It may be a

2 2

physical structure, for example, a model of a

This is another way of writing an improper cube made from cardboard.

fraction:

35

Examples

3

2

= 1 12 30

= 1 305 = 1 16

See fraction, improper fraction, whole

numbers

M

möbius strip

(moebius)

a model of a cube a model of an aeroplane

A surface with only one side. It is made by

giving a strip of paper or any other flexible See cube, net, scale drawing, three-

material a half twist and then fastening the dimensional

ends together.

If a line is drawn down the middle of the

strip, it will come back to the starting point, month

having covered both sides of the strip, A measure of time. There are twelve months

without the pencil being lifted. in a year. The lengths of different months

Example vary from twenty-eight to thirty-one days.

An easy way to remember the number of

can be given

days in each month is to learn the following

A thin strip of paper … rhyme.

a twist …

Thirty days has September,

April, June and November.

All the rest have thirty-one,

Except for February alone,

joined to make a Which has but twenty-eight days clear,

and have the ends … And twenty-nine in each leap year.

möbius strip.

See calendar, day, leap year, year

more 82

small cubes – units or

Greater in amount. ones

Example longs – 10 small cubes

Four dollars is more than three dollars. joined together

most small cubes formed

into a square

The greatest amount.

Example

small cubes formed

into a large cube

Betty has thirty-five cents.

Peter has thirty cents.

See base

multilateral

M

multibase arithmetic Having many sides.

blocks (MAB)

A set of wooden blocks used to give a multiple

concrete representation of numbers. They

can be used for any base. A multiple of a given number is any number

into which it will divide exactly.

Example

Examples

Base 3 blocks

Multiples of two are 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 …

Multiples of three are 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 …

Multiples of four are 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 …

See division, lowest common multiple

unit long flat cube

the base ten blocks.

The number that is to be multiplied.

Example

8 × 7 = 56

→

See multiplication, multiplier, product

83 multiply

multiplication multiplier

(Symbol: ×) The number by which another number is

Multiplication is repeated addition. multiplied.

Example Example

5 × 7 = 35

means

→

(i) 2 groups of 3, 2 × 3 = 6 or multiplicand multiplier product

(iii) 3 made 2 times bigger.

Sign × refers to two operations:

(i) lots of or groups of, and

multiply

(ii) multiplied by. Carry out the process of repeated addition or

See addition, operation multiplication.

See addition, multiplication

multiplication facts

See table

multiplication property M

of one

When a number is multiplied by one, the

product is equal to the original number. This

is the multiplication property of one.

Examples

7×1=7

1 × 138 = 138

Use of the property is made when a fraction

is converted to an equivalent form.

Example

2

3

= 12

2 2 4

3

×1= 3

× 4

= 8

12

2

3

has been multiplied by one

(or by 4 , which is equal to one)

4

See equivalent fractions

84

net

A flat pattern which can be cut out, folded

and glued together to make a three-

dimensional model of a solid.

Examples

net of a cube cube

natural number

One of the counting numbers.

Examples

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 …

See counting number, positive numbers

pyramid

nautical mile net of a pyramid

Unit of length. Used for aviation and See cube, model, pattern, pyramid

maritime purposes. A nautical mile is based

on the circumference of the Earth.

N One nautical mile equals 1852 metres or net mass

1.852 kilometres.

See knot The mass of an object without packaging.

See gross mass

negative numbers

network

A negative number is a number less than

zero. Negative numbers are written with the A system of lines or arcs and intersections

minus sign (–) in front of them. (nodes) drawn to represent paths and their

intersections.

Examples

Examples

–0.1, –0.2, …–0.9, …–1, –1.1, …

–2, …–2.55 …

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5

See integers, minus, positive numbers, zero

part of topology.

See intersection, node, topology

85 number

A point where straight lines or curves A three-dimensional figure. A solid or space

intersect. It is also called a junction. figure.

Examples Examples

node node

box cube square pyramid

See planar figure

nonagon

A polygon with nine sides and nine angles. not equal

Examples (Symbol: ≠)

4≠5

Four is not equal to five.

See inequality

nothing N

See polygon (Symbol: 0)

Not one. Having not a thing. Not anything.

None. Zero.

none

Nothing. Not one. Not any.

number

Example

How many things. A measure of quantity.

Numbers are grouped into many different sets:

I have (i) Natural (counting) numbers:

two apples. I have none.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, …

(ii) Whole numbers:

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, …

(iii) Integers:

(iv) Rational numbers, which include

fractions and ratios:

1

1:3 100

number continued...

number 86

number machine

Other kinds of numbers include complex, Number machines can carry out operations

composite, prime, odd, even, square, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication

triangular, rectangular numbers, etc. and division. Calculators and computers are

See composite number, even number, types of number machines.

irrational number, integers, natural number,

odd number, prime number, rational number,

Example

rectangular numbers, square number, triangle input number

8

number, whole numbers

×3

number expander

A folded strip of paper used to learn place value. ? output number

Example

1 The number 8 is put into the machine.

This is the input number.

7 6 0

2 The number is multiplied by three. This

is the rule.

7 hundreds 6 tens 0 units

3 What comes out is the answer.

See calculator, rule

number line

A line on which equally spaced points are number pattern

marked. The points correspond, in order, to See pattern

N the numbers shown.

Example

number sentence

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 A statement about numbers, usually in

symbols rather than words.

On a number line, the points are labelled

Examples

from zero and move left of zero for negative

numbers and right of zero for positive 6 + 7 = 13 (true)

numbers. The numbers show the distance 4≠9 (true)

from zero to each point (using the distance 5+ =9 (open)

between successive points as one unit).

7 + 9 = 10 (false)

Operations with numbers can be shown on a

number line. 3+1<3×1 (false)

See open number sentence, symbol

Example

+4

3

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

3+4=7

See operation, order

87 numerator

A track, as used in dice games, where the cells The top number in a fraction. It tells how

are numbered. many parts of the whole there are.

Example Example

3 numerator

14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 denominator

3

15 30 29 28 FORWARD

TO 35 27 26 25 24 3 In

4

the numerator is 3.

16 31 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 23 2

17 43 GOTOBACK 35 1

GO BACK

GO BACK

TO 29

TO 29

34

32 GOTOBACK 33 FORWARD

34 TO 41

GO BACK

23

TO 9

GO BACK

18 19 TO 30 20

FORWARD

TO 13 21 22

Example

5 is the numeral which represents the number

five.

N

5 apples

five.

See numeration, Roman numerals, symbol

numeration

A system of symbols used to represent

numbers. Our system uses the symbols

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.

See Hindu–Arabic, symbol

88

obtuse angle

An angle bigger than a right angle (90˚) but

smaller than a straight angle (180˚).

Examples

obtuse angle

oblique

A slanting line that is neither vertical nor

horizontal.

Examples

horizontal

line 162º obtuse angle

oblique

lines

oblique

line

vertical

line

See angle, right angle, straight angle

See askew

O

obtuse triangle

oblong

A triangle with one obtuse (larger than 90˚)

Another word for a rectangle or for angle.

rectangular.

Examples

Example

95º

oblong

120º

89 one-to-one correspondence

Used when telling time. A number which, when divided by two,

Example leaves a remainder of 1.

We say: six o’clock, ten o’clock … only when

All odd numbers finish with one of the digits

talking about full hours. 1, 3, 5, 7 or 9.

Not used when telling hours and minutes: six

See even number

fifteen, quarter to seven.

one-dimensional

octagon (1D)

A plane shape (polygon) with eight sides and A figure which has only length is said to be

eight angles. one-dimensional.

Examples Examples

A line has only length; therefore, it has only

one dimension.

regular

octagon

irregular

octagons 1D figures

See plane shape, polygon

O

one-to-one

octahedron

correspondence

A solid (polyhedron) with eight faces.

(i) A matching of the objects of two sets.

A regular octahedron is formed by eight

congruent equilateral triangles.

Examples

Examples

Cups and saucers

Straws and bottles

Jumpers and

regular children

octahedron

(ii) A correspondence between two sets

for which each member of each set is

paired with only one member of the

irregular

other set. Arrows are used to show the

octahedron corresponding objects.

one-to-one correspondence

See polyhedron, regular polyhedron continued...

one-to-one correspondence 90

operation

Example There are four arithmetic operations:

Examples

Addition + 2+4

Subtraction – 7–3

Multiplication × 10 × 5

Division ÷ 8÷4

See addition, arithmetic, basic facts,

division, multiplication, order of operations,

SET A = ( Jenny, Dad, Jim ) subtraction

→

→

→

See arrow diagram, correspondence, many-to-

one correspondence The signs used in operations.

+ – × ÷

open curve Examples

10 + 2 7×3 8–4 18 ÷ 6

A curve which has a beginning and an end

which do not meet. See operation

Examples

opposite numbers

open curves

Numbers that add up to zero.

O

Example

–5 + 5 = 0

closed curves The opposite to –5 is 5;

the opposite to 320 is –320.

See closed curve, curve

A mathematical sentence that contains (i) To order means to arrange in a pattern

numbers and variables. It can be an equation or a sequence.

or an inequation. (ii) Order means a pattern or a sequence.

Examples (iii) Order of numbers on a number line.

Equations Inequations See ascending order, descending order,

number line, pattern, sequence

5+ = 10 4a ≠ 9

3 –1 = 25 5x – 5 < 33

x

2

–5=7 10 – y ≥ 28

See equation, inequality, inequation, number

sentence

91 order of operations

Two numbers (called x-coordinate and Used when evaluating complex number

y-coordinate) written in a certain order. sentences.

Ordered pairs are usually written between (i) Number sentences with grouping

brackets. symbols.

Example When grouping symbols are used,

working is done from inside the

(5, 3)

brackets out.

The x-coordinate is always written first.

Example

The ordered pair (3, 5) is not the same as

the ordered pair (5, 3). 5{3 – [(4 × 9) – (20 – 4)] + 19}

= 5{3 – [36 – 16] + 19}

y

= 5{3 – 20 + 19}

7

6

=5×2

(3,5)

5 = 10

4 (ii) When no grouping symbols are

(5,3) used, starting from the left do all

3

multiplications and divisions, then

2

again from the left, do all additions and

1

subtractions.

x

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Example

See axis, brackets, coordinates 48 ÷ 3 + 2 – 4 × 3

(48 ÷ 3) + 2 – (4 × 3) Insert brackets

around multiplication O

ordering and division.

subtraction.

numerical value, etc. = 18 – 12

Example

=6

The rabbits have been ordered from smallest

to largest. (iii) Sometimes ‘of ’ is used.

Example

1

5 (3 + 8) – 2 of 10

1

= 5 × 11 – ( 2

× 10)

= 55 – 5

= 50

Note: To remember the order of

operations, do: Brackets first, Of, Division,

Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction.

Think : BODMAS.

See braces, brackets, operation, parentheses

ordinal number 92

A number which indicates position. The result of an experiment or trial involving

the unknown.

Examples

Example

1st 2nd 3rd 4th

In tossing a coin, there are two possible

outcomes, either heads or tails.

output

See cardinal number See number machine

ordinate oval

The y-axis in a Cartesian coordinate system is (i) An egg-shaped figure which is

also called the ordinate. symmetrical about one axis. One end is

See axis, coordinates more pointed than the other.

Example

origin

axis

A point at which something begins.

Example

axis y

O (ii) Another word for an ellipse, which is

symmetrical about two axes.

Example

origin

0 axis x

axis

The point where axes x and y intersect is

called the origin and is marked 0. axis

See axis, coordinates, intersect, ordered pair See axis, ellipse, symmetry

93 parabola

palindrome

A number or word that reads the same

forward as backward.

Examples

1991 19.9.1991 madam

pantograph

An instrument for tracing a drawing, map or

p.a. a picture. Also used for the enlargement or

Per annum. Per year. reduction of an original.

Example Example

The bank charges 7% interest p.a. pencil drawing

the enlargement

pace

The distance between your feet when you

take a step. It is measured from heel to heel.

It is used as an arbitrary unit for estimating pin is guiding the

pantograph around the shape

distances.

Example See enlargement

My pace measures

55 centimetres.

parabola

P

A parabola is a conic section made by the

intersection of a right circular cone and a

plane. It can also be defined as a locus of

points that are equidistant from a given point

1 pace (the focus) and a fixed line (the directrix).

See arbitrary unit, distance, estimate

Example

parabola

pair

Two things that belong together.

Example

a pair of socks

parallelepiped 94

(make Z-shape). They are equal.

A prism, made of parallelograms.

Example

3 cointerior angles

See parallelogram, prism (make U-shape). They add up to 180˚.

parallel lines a a

(Symbols: ) b

aº + bº = 180º

b

Two or more lines that go in exactly the same

direction. Parallel lines always remain the

same distance apart. They never meet. See transversal, vertically opposite angles

Example

Train lines are parallel. parallelogram

A four-sided figure (quadrilateral) in which

both pairs of opposite sides are parallel and

equal, and the opposite angles are equal.

Examples

P

When parallel lines are crossed by a

transversal, pairs of angles are formed.

They have special properties:

1 corresponding angles

(make F-shape). They are equal.

of lines are parallel.

95 pattern

Example A connected set of points.

The route or line along which a person or

object moves.

Example

T

A

R hop step jump

T

parentheses

the path of my hop-step-jump

Word for ordinary brackets used for grouping

numbers together.

Example pattern

( ) (2 + 3) – (5 + 2) A repeated design or arrangement using

shapes, lines, colours, numbers, etc.

parenthesis, =5–7

or ordinary = –2 Examples

brackets (i) Shape pattern

partition

See division (ii) Colour pattern

Pascal’s triangle P

Used in probability.

(iii) A ‘number pattern’ is a sequence of

1 numbers formed by following a ‘rule’:

1 1 1, 4, 7, 10 … (rule: add three)

1 1 1

1 2 1 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 2 , 4 , 8 …

1 3 3 1 (rule: divide by two)

1 5 10 10 5 1

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

numbers are made by adding the numbers in

the previous line.

pattern blocks 96

Sets of plastic, wood or cardboard shapes in A shape (polygon) with five straight sides and

the form of triangles, squares, parallelograms, five angles.

hexagons, etc. Examples

Examples

See polygon

per annum

pegboard (p.a.)

Plastic or wooden board containing holes in Yearly, per year.

which pegs can be placed.

Example

per cent (percentage)

(Symbol: %)

A number out of one hundred.

patterns or shapes.

P

pendulum

A small heavy object attached to a string

suspended from a fixed point.

Example

This is a ‘hundred square’. Fifteen out of the

hundred little squares have been coloured in.

They represent:

1m

15

100

= 15 % = 0.15

→

See decimal fraction, fraction

If the string is one metre in length, then

it takes about one second to make a single

complete swing, over and back.

See second

97 perspective

perimeter perpendicular

The distance around a closed shape, or the Forming a right angle.

length of its boundary. (i) Perpendicular height.

Example The line segment drawn from the vertex

(top) of a figure to the opposite side at a

4m 90˚ angle.

5

m

Examples

3m

height

6m

height height

To find the perimeter of a shape, add the

lengths of all its sides.

The perimeter is: The height of a triangle, cone or pyramid

See boundary, circumference Lines which intersect to make

right angles.

Examples

permutation

An ordered arrangement or sequence of a

group of objects.

Example See altitude, apex, cone, line segment,

Three shapes pyramid, triangle, vertex

six permutations. perspective P

When drawing on paper, we can show depth

by drawing all parallel lines running into one

or several points on the horizon. These points

are called vanishing points. The drawing

looks as if it is three-dimensional. We say it

has perspective.

Example

The order in which the shapes are arranged is

important in a permutation. When the order

is not important, the arrangement is called a

combination.

See combination

pi 98

pi picture graph

(Symbol: π) Another name for a pictograph.

The ratio of the circumference of a circle to

its diameter.

nce pie graph

fere

c um (pie chart)

cir

= circumference ter Example

diameter me

dia

travel

work

The approximate value of π is 3.14.

sleep

The exact value cannot be worked out.

eat

See chronological order, circle, circumference,

play

diameter, infinite decimal, radius

pictograph See graph

(pictogram)

A graph drawn with pictures that represent

the real objects. place holder

Example (i) A symbol which holds the place for an

unknown number.

P GRADE 7B – FAVOURITE FRUIT Examples

In w + 3 = 7, w is the place holder.

In – 6 = 10, is the place holder.

(ii) Zero, when used with other digits, is

used as a place holder.

Example

6800

The zero in place of units and tens helps us to

see that the numeral 8 means eight hundreds,

Key: 1 picture stands for 1 person

the numeral 6 means six thousand and that

who prefers that fruit

there are no units and no tens.

See digit, equation, variable

A pictograph must have a heading and a key.

See graph

99 plane

The value of each digit in a number depends A two-dimensional shape, such as a triangle.

on its place or position in that number. Also called a plane figure or plane shape.

Examples Examples

4 8 6

1 8

8 2 3

(eight tens).

In the number 18 the value of digit 8 is 8

(eight units).

In the number 823 the value of digit 8 is 800

(eight hundreds).

See decimal place-value system, digit, value See plane shape, triangle, two-dimensional

plan plane

(i) To prepare ahead of time.

A flat surface, like the floor of a house or a

Example wall.

Plan for a holiday. A plane extends infinitely in all directions.

(ii) A diagram of an object as seen from Two-dimensional objects are called plane

above. shapes or planar figures because they can be

Example drawn in one plane. P

3A CLASSROOM FLOOR PLAN Example

plane

shelf

plane shapes

dimensional

sk

de

cupboard

view, side view

plane shape 100

A plane shape is a closed shape that can be (i) Small dot on a surface. It has no

drawn on a flat surface. dimension.

Examples .P

The dot shows where the point P is.

(ii) The dot, called the decimal point,

shows that 4 means four dollars and 50

is fifty cents.

$4.50

See decimal point

polygon

See non-planar figure, planar figure

A plane shape which has three or more

straight sides; for example, a triangle,

platonic solids quadrilateral, pentagon or hexagon.

See regular polyhedron Examples

plus

(Symbol: +)

The name of the symbol that means

addition.

Example See closed shape, hexagon, irregular

4 + 6 = 10 polygon, line segment, octagon, pentagon,

P See addition quadrilateral, regular polygon, triangle

p.m. polyhedron

(post meridiem) (Plural: polyhedrons or polyhedra)

The time from immediately after midday

A three-dimensional shape with plane faces.

until immediately before midnight.

Examples

The abbreviation p.m. is used only with

12-hour time.

Example

pyramid pyramid

prism

The time is half past seven.

It is 7.30 p.m. See cube, dodecahedron, icosahedron, prism,

pyramid, regular polyhedron

See a.m.

101 prefix

A plane shape made of squares of the same Numbers greater than zero. We sometimes

size, each square being connected to at least write the plus sign (+) in front of them.

one of the others by a common edge. Examples

Examples

domino – two squares –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6

See integers, negative numbers, plus, zero

triomino – three squares

power of a number

In 24 the power is 4. It is also called

tetromino – four squares

the index.

It means 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 16

Say: two to the power of four.

When the power is zero, the value is one.

10° = 1 1000° = 1

pentomino – five squares

See cubed number, index, index notation,

square number, zero power

prediction

See planar figure

In mathematics we can predict or estimate

possible answers. P

See estimate, probability

position

Describes the place where something is.

Examples prefix

A word before a unit, showing us how large

on the table the measure is.

Example

next to One millimetre means one thousandth of a

the table metre.

See section Prefixes tables on pages 153–4

under the table

between, next to, outside, etc.

See coordinates, ordered pair

prime factor of a number 102

A prime number that will divide exactly into A solid figure with two faces that are parallel

a given number. and the same in size and shape. They can be

Example any polygon.

2, 3 and 5 are the prime factors of thirty. (10 is Examples

a factor of thirty, but not a prime factor.)

30

3 × 10

rectangular prism

3 × 2 × 5

These two faces

are parallel and

Prime factors of 30 the same shape

See factor tree, factors, prime number and size.

triangular prism

A counting number that can only be divided See cuboid, face, parallel lines, polygon,

polyhedron, prism, three-dimensional

by one and itself.

Examples

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17 … probability

The factors of two are 2 and 1.

The likelihood of an event happening.

The factors of five are 5 and 1.

P Example

A prime number has only two factors, itself

If a coin is tossed, the probability of getting

and 1. tails is 12 .

Note: Number 1 is usually considered to be See chance event, equally likely

neither prime nor composite.

See composite number, counting number,

factors

problem solving

Using your understanding and knowledge of

principal mathematical concepts and principles to find

a solution in a new or unfamiliar situation.

The amount borrowed or invested is called

the principal.

Example

Joe borrowed $100 from a bank. The principal

is $100.

See interest, interest rate

103 proper fraction

product projection

The answer to a multiplication problem. The transformation of one shape or picture

Example to another.

Example

3 × 2 = 6

→

→

multiplicand multiplier product

Six is the product.

See associative property of multiplication,

commutative property of multiplication,

multiplicand, multiplication, multiplier

profit

Projecting a picture onto a screen

If the selling price is higher than the cost

price the seller makes a profit. See transformation

Example

A car dealer buys a car for $10 000 and sells

the same car for $12 000. As the selling price

pronumeral

is higher than the buying price, the dealer Another word for the symbol representing

makes a profit of $2000.

an unknown value in an equation. The

See cost price, loss, selling price pronumeral stands for a particular value.

Examples

2a = 6 7–x=5 12 × = 24

progression

a=3 x=2 =2

A sequence of numbers following a given P

rule. The numbers in a progression increase a, x and are pronumerals.

or decrease in a constant way. See algebraic expression, symbol, variable

(i) If the rule is ‘add a number’, it is called

an arithmetic progression.

Examples proper fraction

Rule: add 3 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, … A fraction where the numerator is less than

the denominator.

Rule: subtract 2 21, 19, 17, 15, 13, 11, …

(ii) If the rule is ‘multiply by a number’, it

Examples

is called a geometric progression.

Examples

Rule: multiply by 4 1, 4, 16, 64, 256, … 4

__ 36

___

5 100

Rule: divide by 2 12, 6, 3, 1.5, 0.75, …

See decrease, increase, sequence

See denominator, fraction, improper fraction,

numerator, simple fraction

property 104

property protractor

A characteristic of an object. An instrument used to measure and draw

See attribute, classification, classify angles.

Example

proportion 80 100 1

10

70 90 120

60 110 100 80 7

0

A statement of equality between two ratios. 50 120 60

50

13

0

130

14

40

0

(i) Direct proportion.

40

14

150 20 10 0

30

150

30

When a relation between two variables

160

20

60

180 170 1

170 180

0 10

remains constant, they are said to be in

direct proportion.

Example

Mary reads three pages of a book every ten

minutes. prove

pages

The ratio time is constant. Test correctness of calculation.

3 pages = 6 pages = 9 pages = 12 pages …

10 min 20 min 30 min 40 min

pyramid

When one variable is multiplied by

a number and the other variable is A solid (3D shape) which has a polygon for a

divided by the same number, they are base and all the other faces are triangles.

said to be in indirect proportion. Example

Example This pyramid has a square base and the other

faces are congruent triangles.

It takes four hours for one person to mow the

lawn.

P

It takes two hours for two people to mow the

lawn.

base

Number of

people 1 2 3 4 8

Time in 1 base

hours 4 2 1 13 1 2 a net of a pyramid

A tetrahedron

is a pyramid

with a triangular

base.

See apex, base, face, isosceles triangle, net,

polygon, solid, tetrahedron, vertex

105 Pythagoras’ theorem

Pythagoras’ theorem

In any right-angled triangle, the square of the

hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares

of the sides.

Example

B c2 = a2 + b2

a c a2 = c2 – b2

b2 = c2 – a2

C A

b

2

B c

2 2 2

c =a +b

a c

2

52 = 32 + 42 a

b

25 = 9 + 16 A

C 2

25 = 25 b

a =√c 2 – b 2

b = √c 2 – a 2

c = √a 2 + b 2 P

See right-angled triangle

106

quadrant

(i) A quarter of the circumference of a circle.

Example

qu

ad

ra

nt

r

quadrilateral

A plane shape with four sides and four (ii) A plane figure made by two radii of a

angles. circle at a 90˚ angle and the arc cut off

by them.

Example

Example

quadrant

between the x-axis and y-axis. We can

extend the x-axis and the y-axis so that

kite arrowhead

all four quadrants of the number plane

can be seen. Quadrants are numbered in

an anticlockwise direction.

rhombus

Q Example

y

square

6

parallelogram

5

QUADRANT 2 4 QUADRANT 1

3

2

trapezium rectangle

1

–6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x

See kite, parallelogram, planar figure,

–1

rectangle, rhombus, square, trapezium

–2

QUADRANT 3 –3 QUADRANT 4

–4

–5

–6

107 quotition

quadruple quotient

Increase the amount four times. The answer to a division problem.

Example Example

quadruple $20 means 10 ÷ 2 = 5

→

4 × $20 = $80

dividend divisor quotient

See double, treble

Five is the quotient.

See dividend, division, divisor

quantity

The amount or number of something. quotition

Example See division

is one litre.

quarter

One of four equal parts.

Examples

1 is shaded

Q

4

108

radius

(Plural: radii)

(i) The distance from the centre of a circle

to its circumference (or from the centre

to the surface of a sphere).

Example

radius

12 mm

radian

The radian is the angle at the centre of a

circle (approximately 57.3˚), when the length (ii) The line segment joining the centre

of the arc is equal to the radius. and a point of the circle (like the spoke

Example of a wheel) or a line segment joining

the centre of a sphere to a point on its

surface.

= Example

rad

=

A point from which rays or radii start. segment, sphere

point

A term in statistics meaning a part or portion

which is chosen to represent the whole.

Example

A bag with twenty black and twenty white

balls. A random sample may be three white

See ray and two black balls.

See statistics

109 real number

The range is the difference between the A number that can be expressed as a fraction

largest and the smallest number in a set. or ratio of integers.

Example Examples

8

{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} 3

4

0.5 = 1

2

8= 1

The smallest number is 1. All rational numbers can be represented by

The largest number is 6. either:

The range is 6 – 1 = 5.

(i) decimal numbers that terminate

Examples

3 1

4 = 0.75 8

= 0.125

rate (ii) non-terminating, repeating decimals.

(i) The comparison between two Examples

quantities, which may be of different

2 –4

things. 3 = 0.6 11

= –0.36

Example See fraction, ratio, recurring decimal

of travel.

(ii) The exchange rate is the comparison of

ray

values of money. A line that has a starting point but no end.

Example It extends in one direction only.

US$1 = A$0.67 Examples

See comparison

a ray of sunlight

point

(Symbol: :) starting point

A comparison of two quantities.

We express one quantity as a fraction of the

ray R

other.

Example See angle, line, line segment, radiant point

5 parts water

real number

The set of real numbers is made up of all

1 part cordial rational and irrational numbers.

See irrational number, rational number

To make a jug of cordial, mix the cordial and

water in the ratio of 1 : 5. This means that you

mix one part of cordial to five parts of water.

The order of the numbers is important:

1 : 5 ≠ 5 : 1.

See comparison

reciprocal 110

The reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction A polyhedron whose base is a rectangle.

obtained by interchanging the numerator Another name for a cuboid.

and denominator. Examples

Example

Reciprocal?

Turn the fraction

upside down.

rectangle

rectangle

See cuboid

4

(i) Since we can write 4 as the

1

reciprocal of 4 is 1 .

4 recurring decimal

2 3

(ii) Reciprocal of is or 1 12 .

3 2 A decimal fraction in which one or more

digits are repeated indefinitely.

Examples

rectangle 1

(i) 3

= 0.33333 … = 0.3

A quadrilateral with two pairs of equal and

It is written 0.3. The dot shows that the

parallel sides, and four right angles. digit is repeated.

Example (ii) 0.17

These dots show that the digits 1 and 7

are repeated.

0.171 717 171 7 …

(iii) 1 = 0.142 857 142 857 …

7

It is written either as 0.142 857 or

A rectangle is sometimes called an oblong.

0.142857 to show the repeated digits.

R See parallel lines, quadrilateral, right angle

See decimal fraction, digit, rational number,

terminating decimal

rectangular numbers

Numbers that can be represented by dots reduce

arranged in a rectangle. (i) Simplify. Express a fraction in its

Examples simplest form.

Example

5 1

can be reduced to 6

30

(ii) Make smaller.

See cancelling, enlargement, fraction,

6 12 15 8 transformation

111 regroup

reflection region

Being reflected. Reflecting. (i) Plane region.

All the points inside a simple closed

Examples

mirror shape together with all of the points on

the boundary of the shape.

Example

aº aº

plane plane

angle of region region

reflection

All the points inside a closed surface

mirror together with all the points on the

surface.

Example

solid

region

regroup

Exchange.

reflex angle Examples

An angle greater than a straight angle (180˚) (i) Twelve unit blocks can be regrouped

but less than a revolution (360˚). (exchanged) for one long (10) and two

units. R

Examples

straight angle

reflex

angle

210º and two units have been regrouped into

seven tens and twelve units.

7

224º 8212

– 15

320º

67

See carrying, group, multibase arithmetic

See angle, revolution, straight angle blocks (MAB)

regular polygon 112

A polygon is regular if its sides are equal in See regular polygon

length and its angles are equal in size.

Some common regular polygons are:

relation

=

Connection, correspondence or contrast

= = four =

=

three between a pair of objects, measures, numbers,

sides

sides etc. Also called relationship.

=

=

equilateral triangle square Examples

(i) Family relationship:

=

=

=

=

five six

= sides sides

=

= =

=

=

polygon, pentagon

(ii) Size relation:

Jan is taller than Helen.

regular polyhedron

A polyhedron whose faces are congruent

regular polygons that are exactly the same in

shape and size. Internal angles are also the

same in size. Regular polyhedrons are also

called platonic solids. (iii) Mathematical relation.

There are only five regular polyhedrons: 1 1

2 2

2 3

1 4

R tetrahedron hexahedron dodecahedron

(cube)

2 is half of 4

octahedron icosahedron Often presented in a table.

hexahedron, icosahedron, octahedron, y 6 7 8 9 10

polyhedron, tetrahedron

y=x+5

See arrow diagram, correspondence

113 right angle

remainder revolution

The amount left over after division. One complete turn. There are 360˚ in one

Example revolution.

There are different ways of

There are four right angles in one revolution.

25

expressing the remainder in

5 128 the answer. They depend on 0º 360º

28 the question.

3

→

remainder

90º 90º 90º

90º 90º 270º

(i) Question: Five boys share 128

marbles. How many marbles each?

Answer: Each boy gets 25 marbles. 180º

3 marbles are left over.

(ii) Question: Share $128 among five See angle, right angle

girls.

3

Answer: Each girl gets $25 and 5

of a dollar; that is, $25 and 60c. rhombus

See division

A shape (parallelogram) with four equal

sides. Opposite angles are equal.

Examples

repeating decimal

See recurring decimal

reverse

The other way round, or opposite way

round.

Example See diamond, parallelogram

The reverse of 385 is 583. R

right angle

reverse operation (Symbol: )

Multiplication is the reverse of division. An angle measuring exactly 90˚.

Addition is the reverse of subtraction. Examples

See inverse operations, operation

90º

See angle

right-angled triangle 114

A triangle with a right angle. Not flexible. Stiff. A jointed structure is rigid

Examples when its angles cannot be changed (the struts

will not move out of place).

90º

A triangle forms a rigid structure.

Examples

90º

triangle

90º triangle

90º

rigid shape rigid shape

angle, tangent ratio

right 3D shape

See flexible

A solid with ends or base perpendicular to

height.

Examples rise

See gradient

height

Roman numerals

An ancient system of numeration, where

the numbers are represented by letters of the

right cone Roman alphabet.

R The numerals are made up of a combination

of these symbols.

height

height

I II III

right cylinder IV V X

right prism I (1) C (100) centum

V (5) D (500)

See cone, cylinder, prism

X (10) M (1000) mille

L (50)

115 rounding

2000 – MM

When a shape is turned through an angle

2002 – MMII less than 360˚ and remains the same, it has

See numeration, see section Roman numerals rotational symmetry.

on page 148 Example

A B C

rotate

= = =

Move around an axis or centre. Revolve. Turn = = =

round and round.

=

B C C A A B

Examples

N

An equilateral triangle has

Moon rotational symmetry.

Earth

S rounding

Writing an answer to a given degree

The Earth rotates around its axis.

of accuracy.

The Moon revolves around the Earth. Example

2764 rounded to the nearest ten

becomes 2760

rotation rounded to the nearest hundred

The process by which an object changes becomes 2800

position by turning about a fixed point rounded to the nearest thousand

becomes 3000

through a given angle.

(i) Numbers ending in 1, 2, 3 and 4 round

Examples

down to the lower number.

Examples

A A

A

R

54 rounded to the nearest ten

A 348

becomes 50.

rounded to the nearest hundred

becomes 300.

fixed point

(a rotation through 90˚) (a rotation through 180˚) round up to the higher number.

Examples

A 55

356

rounded to the nearest 10

becomes 60.

rounded to the nearest 100

A

becomes 400.

See accurate, estimate, significant figure

three-quarter turn

(a rotation through 270˚)

route 116

route rule

A path. A way taken from start to finish, (i) An instruction to do something in a

which may be traversed. particular way.

Example Example

Find the rule for this sequence.

1, 4, 7, 10, 13

school +3 +3 +3 +3

my house The rule is ‘add 3’.

(ii) Numbers in a relation are following a

rule.

My route to school Example

t 1 2 3 4 5 6

D 15 30 45 60 75 90

row The rule is D = 15t

(i) A horizontal arrangement. (iii) To draw a line using a ruler.

Example Example

3 rows of pears

line going from left to right. See cycle game, number machine,

progression, sequence

Example

A row of numbers: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, …

ruler

R An instrument for drawing straight lines,

usually made of plastic or wood. It has a scale

for measuring length.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4

See column, horizontal line 30 29 28 27 26

run

See gradient

117 scale

satisfy

In mathematics it means ‘make the equation

true’.

Example

If x < 5, which of the numbers 8, 3, 35 or 4

satisfy the inequation?

Answer: 3 and 4, because 3 < 5 and 4 < 5.

s scale

(i) A thermometer, a ruler and a balance

Symbol for second. each have a scale marked on them to

measure temperature, length and mass,

respectively.

same Examples

Identical, alike, unchanged, not different.

scale

Example

50 60 70 80

40

scale

same shapes

scale

See congruent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

A selection of a few items taken from a larger Example

set.

y

Example

3

2 S

1

0 x

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

In a biscuit factory they take a sample of each ratio for making things larger or smaller.

batch of biscuits.

Example

SCALE OF KILOMETRES

1 cm = 10 km

0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60

1: 1 000 000

reduce, ruler, thermometer

scale drawing 118

A drawing or plan on which the real object A shorthand way of writing very large or very

is made bigger or smaller while keeping the small numbers using powers of ten.

same proportions. Examples

Example (i) 6 300 000 = 6.3 × 1 000 000

→

6

50 cm 25 cm = 6.3 × 10

6 places

m (ii) 0.000 567 = 5.67 × 0.000 1

28 c 48 cm

→

m

56 c

–4

96 cm = 5.67 × 10

4 places

See expanded notation, index notation

The child’s chair was made

similar to the adult’s chair

on a scale of 1 to 2 or 1 : 2.

See proportion score

The amount of points or marks gained in a

competition or test.

scalene triangle

Example

A triangle with each side different in length.

Example

score

See triangle

See average, mean, median, mode

scales

Instruments used for finding or comparing second

weights or masses. (i) second (2nd): The ordinal number

which comes after first (1st) and before

Examples

third (3rd).

S

Example

and comparing masses

1st 2nd 3rd

See ordinal number

40

time. There are sixty seconds in one

minute.

bathroom scales

a balance for

comparing masses

119 semicircle

Example segment

A part, a section of something.

1m

Examples

etr

(i) A line segment

e

A line segment B

1 second

One second is the time taken by a pendulum (ii) A segment of a circle is the part of the

about one metre long to make one complete circle between an arc and its chord.

swing, over and back. arc segment

See pendulum

(iii) second in angle measurement

1

(symbol: "). A second is 60 of a minute, chord

1

which is 60 of a degree.

See degree

section

(i) A flat surface obtained by cutting segment

through a solid in any direction. See arc, chord

Example

elliptical section cut

selling price

This section of a

cone is an ellipse Price at which something is sold.

Example

A car dealer sells a car for $12 000. The selling

price of the car is $12 000.

(ii) When the cut is parallel to the base of

the solid, it is called a cross-section. See cost price, loss, profit

Example

semicircle S

cross-

section Half a circle.

When you cut a circle along its diameter, you

get two semicircles.

base

cross-

section Example

See cone, cross-section of a solid, ellipse, flat, semicircle

frustum, segment, solid, surface

diameter

cutting line

See pie graph

sentence 120

sentence Example

Set of whole numbers = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4 …}

A statement. In mathematics a sentence may

contain pronumerals, numerals and other See braces, cardinal number, element of a set,

symbols. subset, whole numbers

numeral, open number sentence, pronumeral,

symbol, true sentence set square

An instrument used for geometrical

drawings, made of wood, plastic or metal.

sequence Examples

A pattern, following an order or rule.

Examples 45º set square

(i) 1, 3, 5, 7, … 45º

30º

The rule of this sequence is ‘add 2’.

(ii)

45º

In this sequence each shape is following a

pattern of rotation anticlockwise by the same

amount of turn. 60º

rotation, rule

Set squares are used for drawing parallel lines,

right and other angles, etc.

See parallel lines, right angle

seriate

To put in order.

Example shadow stick measuring

A useful, old method for calculating heights

that cannot be directly measured. It is based

on the properties of similar triangles.

S

These sticks are seriated Example

according to length. sun

h 2

set h 3

=

1

(Symbol: { }) 2m

h=6m

A group of objects or numbers. Each object 1m

in a set is called a member or an element 3m

of the set. The elements of a set are written

We measure the shadow of a stick of a known

inside braces { }. length and the shadow cast by the tall object.

The length of the stick and the object, and

their shadows, are in the same ratio.

See ratio, similar

121 significant figure

The form of an object. A diagram, as seen from the side.

Examples Example

2D shapes: triangles, quadrilaterals

3D shapes: cubes, prisms, pyramids

See cube, dimension, prism, pyramid,

quadrilateral, three-dimensional, triangle,

two-dimensional side view side view

See cross-section of a solid, front view, plan

sharing

See division sign

A symbol used to show an operation or a

statement.

SI

Examples

The international metric system.

Addition sign +

The symbol SI comes from the initials of the

French term Système Internationale d’Unités Subtraction sign –

(international unit system). Multiplication sign ×

This system is based on the metre, gram, Division signs ÷

second, ampere, kelvin, candela and mole.

Equal sign =

See metric system

See operation, symbol, see section List of

symbols on page 147

side

A line segment which is a part of a perimeter significant figure

or of a figure. A digit in a number that is considered

Examples important when rounding off or making an

side approximation.

sid

e sid

e Examples S

3745 rounded to two significant figures is

3700.

side

side

sid

e

side See approximately, rounding

See line segment, pentagon, perimeter, regular

polygon

similar 122

similar simplify

The same in shape but not in size. Make simple. Write in the shortest, simplest

Two shapes are similar if the corresponding form.

angles are equal and all sides are enlarged or Examples

reduced in the same ratio. Simplify 8 + 4 Simplify a2 b

10 20 ab

Examples

= 4

5

+ 1

5

= a × a1 × b1

a1 × b1

= 55 = a

25º = 1

25º

See cancelling

60º 95º

60º 95º simultaneous equations

similar triangles

Equations that have the same unknown

See congruent, enlargement, ratio, reduce quantities and are solved together.

Example

simple fraction a + b = 10

2a = 6 ⇒ a=3 ✓

A fraction such as 34 , 12 , 107 .

Also called a common, proper or vulgar fraction.

Example 3 + b = 10 Check:

1

2

b = 10 – 3 a + b = 10

b =7 ✓ 3 + 7 = 10 ✓

1 One whole has been divided into

2 two equal parts (halves) The solution is a = 3 and b = 7.

whole (numerator)

2 → number of parts the whole has been size

divided into (denominator)

The amount, magnitude or dimension.

See denominator, fraction, numerator

Examples

S (i) The size of this angle is 37˚.

simple interest

Interest payable on the principal alone is

called simple interest. The interest is charged

each year for the period of the loan. 37º

Example

(ii) Helen wears size ten clothes and size

John borrows $1000 from his bank to buy a two shoes.

guitar at a simple interest rate of 6 per cent

over a period of 5 years.

6

John has to pay × $1000 = $60 each year.

100 skew lines

John has to pay a total amount of interest of

$60 × 5 = $300 on the loan. Lines that do not lie in the same plane; they

See interest, interest rate, principal cannot intersect and are not parallel.

123 sorting

Examples solution

The answer to a problem or question.

Example

The equation x+4=9

has a solution x = 5.

solve

Find the answer.

slide

See calculate, solution

Change position on the surface.

See flip, rotation, translation, turn

some

Not all of the whole. At least one.

slope

Examples

The slope of a line measures the steepness of (i)

rise

the line. Slope is calculated by run (rise over

run).

Example

slo rise

(ii) Some of the children are walking away.

run

solid

sorting

A solid is a figure with three dimensions,

usually length, width and height (depth). Putting objects into groups according to S

Examples attributes.

Example

height green not green

height

thick

th gt

h

ng

le len

width width not

thick

See height, length, three-dimensional, width (thin)

See attribute, Carroll diagram, classification,

classify, group

space 124

space spinner

Space is a three-dimensional region. A disc marked with numbers used in chance

Spatial figures (solids) have three dimensions. games.

See dimension, region, solid, three-dimensional Examples

0 1

2

span

3

Stretch from side to side, across.

4

7 5

See handspan 6

spatial

spiral

Things which are relating to, or happening

A curve like a coil on a flat surface.

in, space.

Example

The distance travelled in a unit of time.

Example

a fixed point so that its distance from the

fixed point is always increasing.

A car travelled sixty kilometres in one hour. See curve, distance

Its speed was 60 km/h.

See distance, knot, unit of measurement

spring balance

sphere An instrument that measures weight.

A three-dimensional shape like a round ball. A spring inside it is extended by the force

S

A sphere has one curved surface and no equal to the mass of the object.

corners or edges. Every point on the sphere’s

surface is the same distance from the sphere’s

centre.

Examples

See mass, weight

See three-dimensional

125 square number

square

1 346 200 km2.

A quadrilateral with four equal sides and four

right angles.

Example

Northern

Territory

suburbs, are measured in hectares.

1 km2 = 100 ha

See area, hectare, unit of measurement

See quadrilateral, right angle

square metre

(Symbol: m2)

square centimetre A unit for measuring area.

(Symbol: cm2) 1 m2 = 10 000 cm2

A square centimetre is a unit for measuring area. Examples

Examples (i) This man is holding a piece of cardboard

1 cm which has an area of one square metre.

The area is one

square centimetre.

1 cm

The area of

1m

this shape is

1 cm 1m

three square

centimetres.

3 cm (ii) This rug has an area of 4.5 m2.

3 cm × 1 cm = 3 cm2

1.5 m

See area, unit of measurement

3m

measurement

(Symbol: km2)

A unit for measuring very large areas.

1 km2 = 1 000 000 m2 square number

Examples A number that can be represented by dots in

the shape of a square.

Examples

1 km

2

1 km

4 9 16

1 km

See index, index notation, triangle number

square of a number 126

The answer you get when you multiply a Units of measure that are internationally

number by itself. accepted by agreement are said to be

Examples ‘standard measures’; for example, the metric

measures.

22 = 2 × 2 = 4 See SI, unit, unit of measurement

32 = 3 × 3 = 9

(0.5)2 = 0.5 × 0.5 = 0.25

statistics

See index, index laws, square root

The study concerned with the collection

and classification of numerical facts. The

information collected is called data. Data can

square paper be represented in a table or on a graph, and

Paper ruled in squares, used for scale drawing interpreted and analysed.

and graphing. Example

Examples FAVOURITE FOODS

Meat Vegetables Fruit Sweets

Paul S. Carlo Anne Dean

John Hirani James Belinda

Tibor Paul B. Quong

Jackie Claire Brad

Toula Ranjit Ali

Sarah Anna

David Jhiro

Jeremy Peter

Samantha

Halima

See dot paper, graph, isometric paper, scale The information in the table is the data. There

drawing are 25 children in the class.

8 children prefer meat

S 8

∴ 25 × 100

1

= 32% of the class prefer

meat

square root 2 children prefer vegetables

A number which, when multiplied by itself, ∴ 25

2

× 100 = 8% of the class prefer

1

produces the given number. vegetables

The inverse operation of squaring a number. 5 children prefer fruit

∴ 25

5

× 100 = 20% of the class prefer

Examples 1

fruit

2× 2=2 10 children prefer sweets

9× 9=9 ∴ 10

25

× 100

1

= 40% of the class prefer

sweets

+22 = 2 × 2 = +4

The percentages are statistics about the food

(–2)2 = –2 × –2 = +4 } ∴ 4 = ±2 preferences of the class.

See square of a number See data, per cent

127 subtraction

An angle of 180˚. (i) Something standing in place of another.

Example (ii) The replacement of a variable (a letter

in a code message or a place holder in a

number sentence) by a number.

180º Examples

(i) If a = 5 and b = 2, what is value of

straight angle

2a + 2b?

See angle 2a + 2b = 2 × 5 + 2 × 2

= 10 + 4

= 14

straight edge (ii) In this secret code, numbers are

substituted for letters.

An object that can be used to draw straight

lines. A B C D E F G … 2 1 4 7 5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 … B A D G E

Example See code, number sentence, place holder,

variable

blackboard ruler

subtract

straight line Take away.

See line, line segment Find the difference. Find the complement.

See difference, subtraction

subset

A set within a set. subtraction

Examples (i) Taking away (finding what is left).

(i) If each element of a set S (below) is also Example

an element of a set T, then S is called a

subset of T. Jessica had five pencils and gave three to

Mario. How many pencils did Jessica keep?

Set T = {natural numbers to twenty-five}

Set S = {square numbers to twenty-five} S

5–3=

1 15 11 Set S Set T

2 3 4 18 5–3= 2

9 10

20 14 16 5

7 6 25 8

Jessica kept 2 pencils.

13

19 23

17

12 21 24 22

subtraction continued...

Set B = {all girls in your class}

Set B is a subset of set A, because all

the elements in set B are also in set A.

See combination, set

subtraction 128

subtrahend

(ii) Difference (comparison). A number which is to be subtracted from

Example another number.

Remy has seven pencils and Robin has three Example

pencils. How many more pencils has Remy

than Robin? 12 – 4 = 8

→

minuend subtrahend difference

Remy

7–3= Four is the subtrahend.

See difference, minuend, subtract

7–3= 4

Robin

sum

Remy has 4 more pencils than Robin.

The answer to an addition problem. It is the

(iii) Complementary addition (missing total amount resulting from the addition

addend, counting on). of two or more numbers (called addends),

Example quantities or magnitudes.

Rowan has three pencils, but needs seven. Example

How many more must he get?

3 + 4 = 7

→

→

3+ =7

addends sum

3+ 4= 7 Seven is the sum.

See addend, addition

Rowan must get 4 more pencils.

number line. supplementary angles

Example Two angles which together make 180˚.

Show on the number line:

Example

5–3=2

S

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

117º 63º

number line Angles 117˚ and 63˚ are supplementary.

Angle 117˚ is called the supplement of 63˚.

Angle 63˚ is called the supplement of 117˚.

See complementary angles, parallel lines

129 Systéme Internationale d’Unités

surface symbol

(i) The outside of something. A letter, numeral or mark which represents

Example something. We do not write a full stop after

The surface of the tennis ball is furry.

a symbol.

(ii) The top level of a liquid. Examples

Example 1 2 3 + – × ÷

Leaves float on the surface of a lake. = ≠ > < ≈ %

The surface of an object may be flat or cm kg ha m 3

curved. 2

a b x 2x

Example See abbreviation, place holder, pronumeral,

see section Useful information pages 146–7

flat surface

symmetry

curved surface

A shape has symmetry or is symmetrical

when one half of the shape can fit exactly

flat surface over the other half.

Shapes are called symmetrical if they have

A cylinder has two flat surfaces and one one or more lines (axes) of symmetry.

curved.

Examples

See area, cylinder

surface area

The total area of the outside of a 3D shape.

Example

S

2 cm

m

2 cm 2c

See asymmetry, axis, line of symmetry,

rotational symmetry

A cube with two centimetre sides has a

surface area of

See area, cube, surface

d’Unités

See SI

130

take away

Remove, subtract. It is one method of

subtraction.

Example

I had fifteen marbles and I lost seven.

How many do I have now?

15 – 7 = 8 (take away seven from fifteen)

t

Symbol for tonne.

(i) An arrangement of letters or numbers in See subtraction

rows or columns.

Example

tally

× 1 2 3 4 5 6

A record of items made by placing a mark to

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 represent each item. The marks are usually

drawn in groups of five, with the fifth mark

2 2 4 6 8 10 12

in each group crossing the other four, to

3 3 6 9 12 15 18 make them easy to count.

Example

4 4 8 12 16 20 24

A tally of 13 items

5 5 10 15 20 25 30

6 6 12 18 24 30 36

(ii) When multiplication facts are tangent ratio

arranged in order, they are then called

multiplication tables. (Symbol: tan)

T Example In right-angled triangles the terms opposite

and adjacent always refer to the two

The tables of nine

shorter sides. The longest side is called the

1×9=9 6 × 9 = 54 hypotenuse.

2 × 9 = 18 7 × 9 = 63 The side opposite angle A is called ‘opposite

side’. The side adjacent to angle A is called

3 × 9 = 27 8 × 9 = 72

‘adjacent side’. The side opposite the right

4 × 9 = 36 9 × 9 = 81 angle is called ‘hypotenuse’.

5 × 9 = 45 10 × 9 = 90 The ratio opposite side = tan A

adjacent side

See multiplication

131 term

Example temperature

How hot or how cold something is.

hypotenuse Temperature is measured in degrees Celsius

opposite

side

(˚C).

A

Examples

(i) Water freezes (changes to ice) at 0 ˚C.

adjacent side

Pythagoras’ theorem

(iii) Normal body temperature is about 37 ˚C.

A Chinese puzzle made up of a square cut

into seven pieces that can be rearranged to See degree Celsius, thermometer

make many varied shapes.

Example

template

An instrument for drawing shapes. It may be

one of two types:

(i) Cardboard or plastic pieces around

which we draw.

Example

tape measure

A strip of tape or thin metal marked with

centimetres.

(ii) A sheet of cardboard or firm plastic out

of which shapes have been cut.

Example

T

tare template

Mass of packaging in which goods are

packed.

See gross mass term

(i) Each of two quantities in a ratio or a

fraction.

Example

3

4 1:7

term continued...

term 132

tetragon

(ii) Each of the quantities connected by + or A plane shape with four sides and four

– in an algebraic expression or equation. angles.

Example See quadrilateral

3a – 3b y=x+1

tetrahedron

terminate A solid (polyhedron) with four faces. Also

To come to an end, finish, not to go any called a triangular pyramid.

further. A regular tetrahedron is made of four

congruent equilateral triangles and belongs to

the group called platonic solids.

terminating decimal Examples

A decimal fraction that is not recurring, that

has ‘an end’.

Example

0.25

4 1.00

1

–8 net of regular

4 = 0.25 regular tetrahedron tetrahedron

20

–20

= (end)

See recurring decimal irregular

tetrahedron

tessellation

A complete covering of a plane by one or

more figures in a repeating pattern, with no thermometer

overlapping of, or gaps between, the figures.

Mosaic and pavement shapes tessellate. An instrument for measuring temperature.

T Examples Example

a temperature of 100 ˚C.

tessellate.

completely: squares, equilateral triangles,

hexagons, etc. These are said to ‘tessellate’. See degree Celsius, temperature

See circle, pattern, plane, square, triangle

133 time line

third Example

(i) The ordinal number which comes after height

second and before fourth.

The sketch produces

th

Example wi

d an illusion of depth,

length length and height.

(ii) One third means one of three equal The time that passes between two events.

parts. Written as 13 .

Some units of time are:

Example second s

1 1 1 1

3

has been coloured in 3 3 3 minute min

hour h

See ordinal number day d

week, month, year, decade,

century, millenium

thousand See unit of measurement

Ten hundreds, written as 1000.

See hundred

time line

A line on which intervals of time are

thousand separator recorded in chronological order.

For easy reading, large numbers are divided Example

into groups of three digits either side of the

1770 Captain Cook at Botany Bay

decimal point.

1788 Arrival of the First Fleet; convict

Example settlement at Sydney Cove

26 375 159.123 45 1793 First free settlers arrive

The correct separator is a narrow space 1800 Hobart founded

between the groups of digits, as shown, not

1808 Rum rebellion

the comma that was used in the past.

1810 Macquarie becomes governor of NSW T

1816 Sydney Hospital opened

three-dimensional 1821 Governor Brisbane arrives

(3D) 1835 John Batman arrives at Port Philip

Bay; Melbourne founded

When something has length, width and

height, that is, three dimensions, then it is See time interval

three-dimensional. Space figures (solids) are

three-dimensional.

times 134

times Example

(Symbol: ×) Square ABCD can be distorted to look like this:

Examples D C

R R

When we multiply 3 × 5, we say ‘three times

five’. A A B

R

A B B

Also, in 5(a + b), we say ‘five times (a + b)’.

R always remains inside the figure.

Topology is sometimes called ‘rubber-sheet

tonne geometry’.

(Symbol: t) See property

A tonne is a metric unit for measuring mass.

1 t = 1000 kg

Examples

torus

A 3D shape, like a doughnut or a tyre tube.

1435 kilograms or 1.435 tonnes.

total

(i) Sum. When you add things or values

This water tank contains 1000 litres of water. together, the answer is the total.

The mass is 1000 kilograms or one tonne.

Example

See kilogram, litre, mass, metric system

10 + 20 + 25 = 55

→

total

topology

T (ii) Whole.

The part of mathematics that deals with

non-measurable properties of things; of Example

insides and outsides, surfaces, shapes and The total area of the farm is 80 hectares.

connections. See add, sum

Topology is concerned with relative

positions, not measurement.

transformation

(i) The process by which the shape,

position or size of an object is changed.

See enlargement, flip, projection, reduce,

reflection, rotation, translation

135 treble

expression is changed.

Examples

1 isosceles

2

= 0.5 = 50%

trapezium

The formula for finding the area,

A = l × w, can be transformed into:

A

l=

w

(iii) The process by which a set of numbers

(or objects) is associated in one-to-one

or many-to-one correspondence with When the two sides that are not parallel are

another set of numbers (or objects). equal, then the trapezium is isosceles.

See many-to-one correspondence, one-to-one See isosceles triangle, parallel lines,

correspondence quadrilateral

translation trapezoid

When a shape is moved along a straight line A quadrilateral with no parallel sides.

without being flipped, rotated or reflected,

we say it has been translated.

Example traversable

A curve or route is traversable if it can be

traced without lifting the pencil or going

over any part of the curve more than once.

Examples

See flip, reflection, rotation, slide, turn

transversal

A straight line crossing two or more lines.

Example

transversal

T

transversal

treble

Make three times bigger or multiply by three.

trapezium See multiplication

A four-sided figure (quadrilateral) with one pair

of sides parallel and the other pair not parallel.

tree diagram 136

180˚.

A diagram that has a branch tree-like

See equilateral triangle, isosceles triangle,

structure and shows all possible outcomes. plane shape, right-angled triangle, scalene

Example triangle, sum

could have been a girl or a boy, so could have

the second and third child. triangle number

A tree diagram shows all possible outcomes (triangular number)

as follows:

A number that can be represented by dots in

1st child 2nd child 3rd child the shape of a triangle.

G

G Examples

B

G

G

B

B

G

G

B

G

G

B

B

3 6 10

See triangle

triangle

A polygon with three sides and three angles.

We can classify triangles by sides or by angles. trillion

(i) By sides.

A trillion is a million millions, that is,

Examples 1 000 000 000 000, or 1012.

See section Large numbers on page 152

true sentence

A sentence about numbers that is true or

equilateral isosceles scalene

3 sides equal 2 sides equal all sides different correct.

in length

Examples

T 3 × 2 = 2 × 3 is a true sentence.

(ii) By angles.

6 ≠ 5 is a true sentence.

Examples

The open number sentence 2 + =9

becomes true, if is replaced by 7.

If is replaced by any other number, then it

will become a false sentence.

See false sentence, number sentence, open

number sentence

right-angled obtuse acute

1 angle = 90º 1 angle > 90º all angles < 90º

137 two-dimensional

A wheel, usually one metre in circumference, A period of one day divided into twenty-four

used for measuring distance. The wheel often hourly divisions, to prevent errors between

gives a click sound at each revolution (one a.m. and p.m. times.

metre), so the number of metres can be counted. Example

24

23 13

22 14

21 15

50 20 16

40 60

19 17

18

70

30

20

80

1m

90

10

A 24-hour clock

12-hour time 24-hour time

See circumference, metre

1 a.m. 0100 one hundred hours

10 a.m. 1000 ten hundred hours

turn

1 p.m. 1300 thirteen hundred hours

Move. Change position. Rotate. 3.40 p.m. 1540 fifteen-forty hours

See a.m., p.m., twelve-hour time

twice

Two times, or double.

Example

Twice six is 2 × 6 = 12

See rotation

two-dimensional

(2D)

twelve-hour time

When something has length and width, then

A period of one day (twenty-four hours) it has two dimensions and is two-dimensional.

divided into two halves of twelve hours each. Plane shapes and surfaces have two dimensions. T

Twelve-hour time should include a.m. and p.m. Examples

Example

This clock shows either 7.45 a.m. or 7.45 p.m.

See dimension, length, plane shape, region,

See a.m., p.m., twenty-four hour time surface, width

138

unitary method

A simple way of solving problems, by

working out the value of one unit.

Example

Five kilograms of grapes cost $14.50. How

much for three kilograms?

5 kg = $ 14.50

$14.50

1 kg = 5 = $ 2.90

3 kg = $ 2.90 × 3 = $8.70

unequal

(Symbol: ≠)

Not equal. unit, basic

Example Units, including those for mass, length

3≠4 and time, form the basis for a system of

measurement.

Read as: ‘Three is not equal to four’.

See inequality, not equal Example

The metre, the kilogram and the second are

base units of the metric system (SI).

metric system, unit of measurement

Combining two or more things.

unit of measurement

unit A standard unit such as a kilometre, gram,

Unit is another name for one. minute, litre, etc.

The unit column in our number system See standard unit

refers to the first column to the left of the

decimal point. In 425.0, the unit digit is 5.

Example unit square

A square with sides of length equal to one

425.0 unit of length or distance.

Example

U tenths column

A square with sides one metre long has an

units column

area of one square metre (1 m2).

tens column

hundreds column

See metric system, unit of measurement

1m

1 m2

1m

139 unlike terms

unknown value

In number sentences, algebraic expressions

or equations, the unknown values are

represented by pronumerals or variables.

Examples

2 = 10 x–7≥5

→

→

unknown value unknown value

2a – 2b

→

unknown values

See number sentence, pronumeral, variable

unlike terms

Terms that are not like. Unlike terms cannot

be combined or simplified by adding or

subtracting.

Examples

2a + 3b 2a + a

→

→

→

U

140

vanishing point

In perspective, the point or points at which

all parallel lines appear to meet.

Example

vanishing

point

V

Symbol for volume. See perspective

value variable

(i) When an expression is simplified, the (i) A symbol or letter representing an

result is the value of the expression. unknown member of a set. In algebraic

Example expressions, a variable stands for a value.

3+5

×7 Sometimes it is called an unknown.

2

= 8

×7 Example

2

In x 2 + 3x + 2 = 0, x is the variable.

=4×7

(ii) The same variable may have different

= 28 values under different conditions.

28 is the value of 3+5 ×7

2 Example

(ii) When solving equations, we evaluate

them. x+3=5 x=2

Example x – 1 = 10 x = 11

Find the value of x+5

, if x = 10. (iii) A mathematical sentence that has at

2

10 + 5 least one variable is called an open

Answer: = 7.5

2 number sentence.

7.5 is the value.

Example

(iii) The amount of money something is

x + 3 = 7 is true only when x = 4.

worth.

The number 4 is called the solution

Example of x + 3 = 7.

If x is replaced by any other number, the

V sentence will become not true (false).

See algebraic expression, constant, number

sentence, open number sentence, place

holder, pronumeral, symbol

See equation, evaluate, place value

141 vertically opposite angles

A diagram used to represent sets and A vertical line is perpendicular (at right

relationships between sets. angles) to the horizon.

Example Examples

Lesley Xiang Judy Kim Anne

vertical line

Rowan Jim Bev Alf (upright)

horizontal line

likes apples likes bananas

The top of a table is horizonal.

vertex

(Plural: vertices)

Top, the highest part or point. The legs of a table are vertical.

A point where two or more adjacent lines

meet to form an angle or a corner. See axis, horizon, horizontal line,

perpendicular, right angle

Example

vertex

angle

vertically opposite

h

angles

When two lines intersect, they make four

A cube has angles at the vertex. The angles opposite each

8 vertices. other are equal in size and are called vertically

opposite angles.

Example

In plane or solid figures, the vertex is the

point opposite the base. vertex

See apex, arm of an angle

aº

bº bº

aº

V

See complementary angles, parallel lines,

supplementary angles, vertex

volume 142

volume

The amount of space inside a container,

or the actual amount of material in the

container.

Example

The volume of this object is 36 cubic units.

(i) For the volume of solids:

cubic centimetre cm3

cubic metre m3

(ii) For the volume of liquids:

millilitre mL

litre L

kilolitre kL

megalitre ML

See capacity, cubic centimetre, cubic metre,

cubic unit, section Metric relationships on

page 149, solid

vulgar fraction

See simple fraction

V

143 width

Astronaut in space:

his mass is still 75 kg

but he is weightless.

when they really mean mass.

A period of time: seven days. There are fifty-

two weeks in a year. See mass

See days of the week

whole numbers

weight Zero together with all counting numbers.

The pull of gravity on an object. The true {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, …}

meaning of the term ‘weight’ is a complicated See counting number, zero

physics problem. The weight of an object

changes with the change of the gravitational

pull. The mass of an object (the amount width

of matter the object is made of ) remains

constant. The measurement from side to side. Also

called breadth.

Example

Example

Astronauts become weightless in space but

the mass of their bodies does not change. length

width

height

bench is 70 cm.

Astronaut on Earth:

his mass = 75 kg

his weight ≈ 75 kg

W

144

3 ÷ 0 = can’t do

The digit zero is used as a place holder in

numerals.

Example

In the number sixty, 0 is a place holder for

units to show that the 6 means six tens and

there are no single units.

Note: These words all mean zero: nil,

x-axis, y-axis nought, none, nix, null, oh, void, empty set,

zilch, duck (in cricket), love (in tennis).

See coordinates

See digit, place holder

yard

An imperial measure of length.

1 yard = 36 inches ≈ 90 cm

zero power

When working with indices, any number

raised to the power zero always equals one. It

year happens because when we divide indices, we

subtract the indexes and get zero.

The period of time it takes the Earth to make

one complete revolution around the sun: 365 20 = 1 3760 = 1 x0 = 1

days, 5 hours and 48 34 minutes. The extra Example

hours, minutes and seconds are put together Find the value of:

into an extra day every four years to form a

‘leap year’. 52 ÷ 52 52 ÷ 52

See day, leap year, revolution =5×5÷5×5 = 5(2 – 2)

= 25 ÷ 25 = 50

zero

(Symbol: 0, Ø) =1 =1

See index, index laws, power of a number

The numeral 0 (nought). Nothing.

Rules for working with zero:

1 A number + 0 = same number

5+0=5

2 A number – 0 = same number

7–0=7

3 A number × 0 = 0

6×0=0

4 0 ÷ any number = 0

X 0 ÷ 10 = 0

Y

Z

146

Useful Information

Units of measurement

length time

10 millimetres (mm) = 1 centimetre (cm) 60 seconds (s) = 1 minute (min)

100 centimetres (cm = 1 metre (m) 60 minutes (min) = 1 hour (h)

1000 millimetres (mm) = 1 metre (m) 24 hours (h) = 1 day (d)

1000 metres (m) = 1 kilometre (km) 7 days = 1 week

365 days = 1 year

366 days = 1 leap year

area 12 months = 1 year

10 years = 1 decade

100 square millimetres (mm2)

100 years = 1 century

= 1 square centimetre (cm2)

1000 years = 1 millenium

10 000 square centimetres (cm2)

= 1 square metre (m2)

10 000 square metres (m2) = 1 hectare (ha) symbols

100 hectares (ha) = 1 square kilometre (km2) m metre

= 1 000 000 square metres (m2) g gram

L litre

t tonne

mass m2 square metre

1000 milligrams (mg) = 1 gram (g) m3 cubic metre

1000 grams (g) = 1 kilogram (kg) ha hectare

1000 kilograms (kg) = 1 tonne (t) ˚C degree Celsius

Remember: These are the correct symbols.

mm cm m km

liquid volume mL L kL

mg g kg t

1000 millilitres (mL) = 1 litre (L)

mm2 cm2 m2 ha km2

1 mL (for liquids) = 1 cm3 (for solids) 3 3

cm m

1000 litres (L) = 1 kilolitre (kL)

s min h d

1 kL (for liquids) = 1 m3 (for solids)

angle measure

solids volume

1 degree (1˚) = 60 minutes (60')

1 cubic centimetre (cm3)

1 minute (1') = 60 seconds (60'')

1 cubic metre (m3)

1 right angle = 90 degrees (90˚)

1 straight angle = 180 degrees (180˚)

1 revolution = 360 degrees (360˚)

1 radian = approx 57.3 degrees

(57.3˚).

147 Useful Information

A list of symbols

Symbol Meaning Example

addition sign, add, plus 2+1=3

subtraction sign, subtract, take away, minus 7–6=1

multiplication sign, multiply by, times 3×3=9

division sign, divide by 9 ÷ 2 = 4.5

is equal to, equals 2+2=1+3

is not equal to 2 5

is approximately equal to 302 300

is less than or equal to x

12

is greater than or equal to 5y

is greater than 7 6.9

is less than 2
4

is not less than 65

is not greater than 3.3 3.4

c cent(s) 50c

$ dollar(s) $1.20

. decimal point (on the line) 5.24

% per cent, out of 100 50%

° degree Celsius, degree (angle measure) °C 35 °C 90°

' minutes (angle measure) 5° 35'

' foot feet (imperial system) 1' 30 cm

" seconds (angle measure) 12°05'24"

" inch inches (imperial system) 12" = 1'

angle AOB BOC

triangle ABC

parallel lines, is parallel to AB CD

line segments of the same length

b

square root 4 = ±2

3

cube root 3

27 = 3

π pi, π 3.14 C = 2πr

is congruent to ABC DEF

Useful Information 148

Roman numerals

Thousands Hundreds Tens Units

1 M C X I

2 MM CC XX II

3 MMM CCC XXX III

4 CD XL IV

5 D L V

6 DC LX VI

7 DCC LXX VII

8 DCCC LXXX VIII

9 CM XC IX

Example 2 0 0 7 = MMV II

MM VII

Parts of a circle

nce quadrant

fere segment

um sector

chord

c

cir

radius diameter

centre centre

e

arc rcl

semici

concentric

circles

area of a circle

annulus

149 Useful Information

Metric relationships

1 cm

1 cm

1 cm 1 cm2

1 cm

1 cm

1 cm 1 cm2 1 cm3 1 mL

10 mm 100 mm2 1000 mm3 One 1 cm cube (cubic

centimetre) has a

capacity of 1 millilitre.

10 cm 1000 1L

900

10 cm 800

700

0.75 L

600

10 cm 10 cm2 500

400

0.5 L

300

0.25 L

10 cm ml

200

100

10 cm

100 mm 10 000 mm2 1 000 000 mm3 One 10 cm cube

(1000 cm3) has a

capacity of 1 litre.

1m

1m 1 m2 1m

1m 1m

1m 1 m2 1 m3 1 kL

100 cm 10 000 cm2 1 000 000 cm3 One cubic metre has a

capacity of 1 kilolitre.

These 5 drums each

hold 1 kilolitre.

Useful Information 150

Formulae

Plane shapes Diagram Area Perimeter

circle d r A = πr 2 C = 2πr = πd

square a A = a2 P = 4a

a

rectangle a A = ab P = 2 (a + b)

b

b

kite ab

a A=

2

A= ×h

2

a

parallelogram h b A = ah P = 2 (a + b)

a

rhombus h A = ah P = 4a

a

a c

A = 1 bh

triangle h P=a+b+c

2

b

151 Useful Information

More formulae

Solids Diagram Volume Surface area

a

cube V = a3 S = 6a2

a

a

h

cuboid V = l wh S = 2(l w + hl + hw)

w

l

h

1 S = area of base + 4

pyramid V= base × h

3 × Area of

r

S = 2 × πr 2 + 2πrh

cylinder h V = πr 2h

= 2πr (r + h)

1

cone h V= πr 2h

3

r

4

sphere

r V= πr 3 S = 4πr 2

3

c2 = a2 + b2

c

a a = c2 + b2

Pythagoras’ theorem

b = c2 − b2

b c = c2 + b2

Useful Information 152

Large numbers

million 1000 × 1000 106

billion 1000 millions 109

trillion 1000 billions 1012

quadrillion million billions 1015

in sets

I integers

N natural numbers

Q rational numbers

R real numbers

W whole numbers

in geometry

a, b, c, d, … sides of polygons

lengths of intervals

names of lines

A, B, C, D, … points, vertices

A area of polygons

b base of polygons

C circumference of a circle

d diameter of a circle

h height

l length

O origin, centre of a circle

P perimeter

r radius of a circle

s side

S, SA surface area

V volume of solids

w width

153 Useful Information

Prefix Symbol Value Value in words Example Meaning

–12

pico p 10 one trillionth of 1 pF picofarad

–9

nano n 10 one thousand millionth of 1 ns nanosecond

micro μ 10 –6

one millionth of 1 μs microsecond

–3

milli m 10 one thousandth of 1 mg milligram

–2

centi c 10 one hundredth of 1 cm centimetre

–1

deci d 10 one tenth of 1 dB decibel

unit

deca da 101 10 times not commonly used in Australia

hecto h 102 100 times 1 hL hectolitre

3

kilo k 10 1000 times 1 kg kilogram

6

mega M 10 1 million times 1 ML megalitre

9

giga G 10 1 thousand million times 1 GB gigabyte

Numerical prefixes

Prefix Meaning Example

mono 1 monorail

bi 2 bicycle, binary

tri 3 tricycle, triangle

tetra 4 tetrahedron, tetrapack

quad 4 quadrilateral, quads

penta, quin 5 pentagon

hexa 6 hexagon

hepta, septi 7 heptagon

octa 8 octagon

nona, non 9 nonagon

deca 10 decagon, decahedron

undeca 11 undecagon

dodeca 12 dodecagon, dodecahedron

icosa 20 icosahedron

hect 100 hectare

kilo 1000 kilogram

mega 1 000 000 megalitre, megawatt

giga 1000 million gigabyte

Useful Information 154

Other prefixes

Prefix Meaning Example

anti opposite, against anti clockwise

circum around circumference

co together cointerior, coordinate

geo earth geometry

hemi half hemisphere

macro very big macrocosmos

micro very small microbe

multi many, much multibase blocks

peri around perimeter

poly many polygon

semi half semicircle

sub below, under subset

trans across, beyond, over transversal

uni one, having one unit

× 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30

4 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40

5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

6 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60

7 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70

8 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80

9 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90

10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

155 Useful Information

Greek alphabet

The letters of the Greek alphabet are used as symbols for angles, mathematical operations, etc.

Examples

C

γ

α , β , γ , δ, … …

Σ sum β

infinity

α

A B

A α alpha

B β beta

Γ γ gamma

Δ δ delta

E ε epsilon

Z ζ zeta

H η eta

Θ θ theta

I ι iota

K κ kappa

Λ λ lambda

M μ mu

N ν nu

Ξ ξ xi

O ο omicron

Π π pi

P ρ rho

Σ σ sigma

T τ tau

Y υ upsilon

Φ φ phi

X χ chi

Ψ ψ psi

Ω ω omega

Useful Information 156

length

Metric Imperial

1 mm 0.03937 in

1 cm 10 mm 0.3937 in

1m 100 cm 1.0936 yd

1 km 1000 m 0.6214 mile

Imperial Metric

1 in 2.54 cm

1 ft 12 in 0.3048 m

1 yd 3 ft 0.9144 m

1 mile 1760 yd 1.6093 km

1 nautical mile 2025.4 yd 1.853 km

area

Metric Imperial

2 2

1 cm 100 mm 0.155 in2

1 m2 10 000 cm2 1.1960 yd2

1 ha 10 000 m2 2.4711 acres

1 km2 100 ha 0.3861 mile2

Imperial Metric

2

1 in 6.4516 cm2

1 ft2 144 in2 0.0929 m2

1 yd2 9 ft2 0.8361 m2

1 acre 4840 yd2 4046.9 m2

1 mile2 640 acres 2.59 km2

157 Useful Information

mass

Metric Imperial

1 mg 0.0154 grain

1g 1000 mg 0.0353 oz

1 kg 1000 g 2.2046 lb

1t 1000 kg 0.9842 ton

Imperial Metric

1 oz 437.5 grain 28.35 g

1 lb 16 oz 0.4536 kg

1 stone 14 lb 6.3503 kg

1 hundredweight

(cwt) 112 lb 50.802 kg

1 long ton 20 cwt 1.016 t

volume temperature

Metric Imperial to Fahrenheit:

1 cm3 0.0610 in3 9

F = × Celsius + 32

1 dm3 5

(decimetre) 1000 cm3 0.0353 ft3

1 m3 1000 dm3 1.3080 yd3 To convert from Fahrenheit

to Celsius:

1L 1 dm3 1.76 pt (pint)

1 hL (hectolitre) 100 L 21.997 gal C = 5 (Fahrenheit – 32)

9

110

Imperial Metric 40

100

1 in3 16.387 cm3 90

30

1 ft3 1728 in3 0.0283 m3 80

1 fl oz 20 70

Fahrenheit

Celsius

10 50

1 pt 20 fl oz 0.5683L

40

1 gal 8 pt 4.5461L 0 32

20

-10

10

-18 0

Useful Information 158

Computing terms

bit CPU

The smallest representation of computer (Central Processing Unit)

storage. A bit can be either a 0 (off ) or 1 The central part of the computer which

(on). A bit represents the electrical state of a controls all of the processing of data. It is

circuit on a motherboard (i.e. on or off ). situated on the motherboard of a computer

See byte system and its speed is measured in hertz.

See hertz, kilohertz, megahertz, gigahertz

Boolean function

Mathematical logic used for searching flowchart

computer databases. Common Boolean A method of describing an algorithm using

functions include AND, OR and NOT. symbols.

Example Symbols used:

Database Search: first name = ‘John’ AND age Terminal – to begin and end the

= ‘20’ flowchart

This will only return all people with the first Process – an action or step

name of John who are aged 20.

Decision – alternate options or pathways

Database Search: first name = ‘John’ OR age

= ‘20’ Flowline – used to connect symbols

together and to describe the path of the

This will return all people with the first name

algorithm

of John and all people who are aged 20.

See algorithm

Database Search: first name = ‘John’ NOT age

= ‘20’

This will return all people with the first name gigabyte

of John who are not 20 years old.

(Gb)

A measurement of computer-based storage.

byte 1 gigabyte = 1024 megabytes

A measurement of computer-based storage See bit, byte, kilobyte, megabyte, terabyte

and also representation of computer data.

1 byte = 8 bits

Example gigahertz (GHz)

10011101 = 1 byte (computer-based storage) One billion cycles or electrical pulses per

second of a computer CPU.

10011101 = 157 (computer data)

1 GHz = 1000 MHz = 1 000 000

See bit, kilobyte

Kz = 1000 000 000 Hz

See CPU, hertz, kilohertz, megahertz

159 Useful Information

hertz kilohertz

(Hz) (KHz)

A measurement of clock speed of a computer One thousand cycles or electrical pulses per

CPU. It is also used to measure sound second of a computer CPU.

frequencies for hearing aids and radio 1 KHz = 1000 Hz

transmission. See CPU, hertz, gigahertz

1 hertz = 1 cycle or electrical pulse of a CPU

per second

See CPU, megahertz, gigahertz megabyte

(Mb)

hexadecimal A measurement of computer-based storage.

1 megabyte = 1024 kilobytes

Containing 16 parts or digits. It is a base 16

number system that is made up of 16 digits. See bit, byte, kilobyte, gigabyte

The digits represented by this number system

are 0 to 9 and then A to F. This number

system is used primarily by computer megahertz

systems, particularly by the programming (MHz)

languages that control computer hardware. It

One million cycles or electrical pulses per

is also the number system used to represent

second of a computer CPU.

colours on web pages.

1 MHz = 1000 KHz = 1 000 000 Hz

Example

See CPU, hertz, kilohertz

Digits represented:

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

A = 10

octal

B = 11 Containing 8 parts or digits. It is a base 8

number system that is made up of 8 digits.

C = 12

The digits represented by this number system

D = 13 are 0 to 7. This number system is used

E = 14 primarily by computer systems, particularly

F = 15

by certain programming languages.

See binary, decimal, octal Example

Digits represented: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

See binary, decimal, hexadecimal

kilobyte

(Kb)

A measurement of computer-based storage.

1 kilobyte = 1024 bytes

See bit, byte, megabyte

Useful Information 160

RAM

(Random Access Memory)

The primary memory of a computer system.

When a computer system is turned off, all

contents in RAM are lost. The capacity of

RAM is measured in bytes.

See byte, kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte,

terabyte

resolution

A measurement of the quality of a digital

image. It is calculated by multiplying the

number of dots (pixels) horizontally of

the image by the number of dots (pixels)

vertically of the image.

Example

Resolution of an image with 1024 horizontal

pixels by 768 vertical pixels:

Resolution = 1024 × 768 = 786 432 pixels

terabyte

(Tb)

A measurement of computer-based storage.

1 terabyte = 1024 gigabytes

See bit, byte, kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte