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Biodiversity

Form 2 science
Chapter 3
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3.1 Diversity of Living Organisms

1. The diversity of living organisms is the variety of


different kinds of living organisms.

2. The place where organisms live is called the habitat.


3.2 Classification of Living Organisms

Vertebrates
Animal
Inveterate
Organisms
Flowering
Plant
Non-
flowing
Vertebrate and Invertebrates Animals

1. More than 90% of the world's animal species consist


of invertebrates.

2. Vertebrates are animals with backbones whereas


invertebrates are animals without backbones.
Invertebrates Animals

Animals without backbones


Fish

1. Live in water

2. Cold-blooded (Poikilothermic)

3. Body covered with scales

4. Breathe through gills

5. Usually lay eggs and the eggs are fertilised externally

6. Move or swim using fins .


Amphibians

1. Live on land and in the water.

2. Cold-blooded (Poikilothermic)

3. Have moist skin without scales or hair

4. Breathe through lungs and moist skin

5. Usually lay eggs and the eggs are fertilised externally

Mexican salamander
Reptiles

1. Most reptiles live on land

2. Cold-blooded (Poikilothermic)

3. Body covered with dry and hard scales

4. Breathe through lungs.

5. Lay eggs and the eggs are fertilised internally.


Birds
1. Live on land

2. Warm-blooded (Homoiothermic)

3. Body covered with feathers

4. Have beak and scaly legs

5. Breathe through lungs

6. Lay eggs and the eggs are fertilised internally


Mammals

1. Most mammals live on land (whales and dolphins live in


the sea)

2. Warm-blooded (Homoiothermic)

3. Body covered with hair or fur

4. Breathe through lungs

5. Give birth to young (except for platypus and anteater)

6. Feed the young with milk


from mammary glands
Plants

Dicotyledons

Flowering

Monocotyledons

Plants Algae

Conifers

Non-flowering

Mosses

Ferns
Flowering plants ~~ Dicotyledon

1. Has two cotyledons in the seed

2. Has net-veined leaves

3. Has a taproot system

4. Has a woody stem


Flowering plants ~~ Monocotyledon

1. Has one cotyledon in the seed

2. Has parallel-veined leaves

3. Has a fibrous root system

4. Has a non-woody stem


Dicotyledon or monocotyledon ?

A B

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Non-flowing plants

1. Non-flowering plants do not produce


flowers and seeds.

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Non-flowing plants ~~ Algae

1. Do not have leaves, stems and roots

2. Have chlorophyll

3. Grow in water or damp areas.

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Non-flowing plants ~~ Conifers

1. Have true roots, stems and needle-


like leaves
2. Have chlorophyll
3. Produce cones
4. Reproduce by seeds

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Non-flowing plants ~~ Mosses

1. Do not have real leaves, stems and


roots
2. Have chlorophyll
3. Reproduce by spores
4. Grow in damp areas

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Non-flowing plants ~~ Ferns

1. Have leaves, stems and roots


2. Have chlorophyll
3. Leaves have spore-producing
structures
4. Grow in moist and shady places

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3.3 The Importance of Biodiversity to
the Environment

1. Biodiversity is important to maintain


balance in nature.

2. Biodiversity is important to our


environment. It brings us ecological,
economical and cultural benefits.

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