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::PROJECT REPORT::

Title: Wadebolhai village.


Name: Abbas Khedwala
Div.: B Roll No.: 124
Class: S.Y B.com
College: Ness Wadia College of Commerce
Year: 2010- 2011
Geographical location: the village is located around 20 kms from Pune city and near about 10
kms from wagholi village. It lies in the outskirts of the city and falls on the Ahmednagar road.
Objective: To study the environment at Wadebolhai village.
Projects implemented at Wadebolhai village are as under:

Water conservation:
What is water conservation:
Water conservation refers to reducing the usage of water and recycling of waste water for
different purposes such as cleaning, manufacturing, and agricultural irrigation.

Need for water conservation:


 Sustainability: To ensure availability for future generations, the withdrawal of fresh water
from an ecosystem should not exceed its natural replacement rate.
 Energy conservation: Water pumping, delivery, and wastewater treatment facilities
consume a significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world over 15% of total electricity
consumption is devoted to water management.
 Habitat conservation: Minimizing human water use helps to preserve fresh water habitats
for local wildlife and migrating waterfowl, as well as reducing the need to build new dams and
other water diversion infrastructure.

Bunding:
A bund is an embankment or wall of brick, stone, concrete or other impervious material, which
may form part or all of the perimeter of a compound and provides a barrier to retain liquid. Since
the bund is the main part of a spill containment system, the whole system (or bunded area) is
colloquially referred to within industry as the ‘bund'. The bund is designed to contain spillages and
leaks from liquids used, stored or processed above ground, and to facilitate clean-up operations.
As well as being used to prevent pollution of the receiving environment, bunds are also used for
fire protection, product recovery and process isolation.
Bunding should be used for the storage of all liquids except rainwater. All operators working with
bunds should know how to carry out preventive maintenance and use standard operating
procedures to stop escaping substances from entering the environment.
Types of bunds:

All the bunds constructed in wadebolhai village work on ‘arrest water, percolate water, i.e: it
reduces the velocity of water as a result of which this water is collected and can be used for
future uses. As the water is stored for a good duration, we get more time to make efficient use of
this resource. It also helps water to infiltrate into soil, which goes and joins the underground water
reserves. Even this underground water reserrve can be used for future purposes through wells,
fountains, etc.
Benefits of water conservation:
• Saves money
• Protects drinking water resources
• Minimizes water pollution and health risks
• Reduces the need for costly water supply and new wastewater treatment facilities
• Maintains the health of aquatic environments
• Saves energy used to pump, heat, and treat water
Energy conservation:
Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption. Energy conservation
can be achieved through increased efficient energy use, in conjunction with decreased energy
consumption and/or reduced consumption from conventional energy sources.

Need for energy conservation:


The sweltering summer heat and worsening power situation means frayed tempers and rising
intolerance of the ineptitude of the electrical staff. However, at the same time, energy consumers
also need to understand the value of energy conservation.
Additionally, from the perspective of wasting a precious national resource, adverse ecological
implications as also a budgetary burden, energy management ultimately has a direct, positive
impact.
In order to create energy for heating, cooling buildings or to produce electricity, we have to use
gas, diesel, coal, water and other natural resources.
We want to conserve energy and use our resources wisely because once you run out, you have
to get those resources from somewhere else. That is why the middle east is so important. North
American demand for oil exceeds our production so we have become dependent on others.

1.) Solar lights:


To understand what are solar lights it would be essential for us to first understand how they work
and from where do they derive their energy from.
Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV),
or indirectly using concentrated solar power. CSP systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking
systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. PV converts light into electric current
using thephotoelectric effect.
A solar lamp is a portable light fixture composed of a LED lamp, a photovoltaic solar panel, and a
rechargeable battery. Outdoor lamps are used for lawn and garden decorations. Indoor solar
lamps are also used for general illumination. Solar lamps recharge during the day. At dusk, they
turn on (usually automatically, although some of them include a switch for on, off and automatic)
and remain illuminated overnight, depending on how much sunlight they receive during the day.
Discharging time is generally 8 to 10 hours.
Applications :
• ATMs
• Call Centres
• Fuel Pump Stations
• Hospitals
• Hotels
• Internet Centres
• Laboratories
• Residential Colonies
• Transmission and Communication Towers
• Village Electrification

Benefits
• No line voltage, trenching, or metering
• No power outages
• No scheduled maintenance for up to 5 years
• Controlled charging to prolong battery service life
• Long life PV modules with more than 25 years of power generation capacity
• Environmentally friendly - 100% powered by the sun, solar panels reduce fossil fuel
consumption, eliminating pollution
• Better light source - LED lamps feature cool white light without flickering and higher
brightness than sodium lamps
• Safe 12 volt/24 volt circuit, no risk of electric shock
Wadebolhai village is well equipped with the concept of solar energy and they put it to good use.
There are provisions for solar lights, solar cookers, solar water heaters, etc. This village model is
perfect for energy conservation.

2.) Biogas plant


To get a better understanding of what a biogas plant really is. We must revise our basics.
Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the
absence of oxygen. Biogas originates from biogenic material and is a type of biofuel. Biogas is
produced by anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as biomass,
manure,sewage, municipal waste. This type of biogas comprises primarily methane and carbon
dioxide. Other types of gas generated by use of biomass is wood gas, which is created by
gasification of wood or other biomass. This type of gas consist primarily of nitrogen, hydrogen,
and carbon monoxide, with trace amounts of methane.

A biogas plant is the name often given to an anaerobic digester that treats farm wastes or energy
crops.Biogas can be produced utilizing anaerobic digesters. These plants can be fed with energy
crops such as maize silage or biodegradable wastes including sewage sludge and food waste.
During the process, an air-tight tank transforms biomass waste into methane producing
renewable energy that can be used for heating, electricity, and many other operations that use
any variation of an internal combustion engine. There are two key processes: Mesophilic and
Thermophilic digestion.
Landfill gas is produced by wet organic waste decomposing under anaerobic conditions in a
landfill. The waste is covered and mechanically compressed by the weight of the material that is
deposited from above. This material prevents oxygen exposure thus allowing anaerobic microbes
to thrive.
The process of how the biogas plant works at Wadebolhai village is given below:

Applications:
Biogas can be utilized for electricity production on sewage works, in a gas engine, where the
waste heat from the engine is conveniently used for heating the digester; cooking; space heating;
water heating; and process heating. If compressed, it can replace compressed natural gas for use
in vehicles, where it can fuel an internal combustion engine or fuel cells and is a much more
effective displacer of carbon dioxide than the normal use in on-site plants.

Afforestation:
Planting of trees or seeds in order to transform open land into forest or woodland is termed as
afforestation. It can also refer to giving land the status of 'royal forest'. Most countries have seen
rapid decline in forest cover since the dawn of the industrial revolution. Hence, both government
and Non-governmental organisations (NGO's) have been directly propagating afforestation &
reforestation programs. Afforestation and reforestation can go a long way in minimizing the Green
Houseeffect. These are relatively quick, easy to accomplish options with no economicpenalties. It
is a viable option to reduce net emissions. The essential benefits that these programs include
climate stabilization, food and forest products.
The need for afforestation:
In some places, forests need help to reestablish themselves because of environmental factors.
For example, once forest cover is destroyed in arid zones, the land may dry and become
inhospitable to new tree growth. Other factors include overgrazing by livestock, especially
animals such as goats, and over-harvesting of forest resources. Together these may lead to
desertification and the loss oftopsoil; without soil, forests cannot grow until the long process of
soil creation has been completed - if erosion allows this. In some tropical areas, forest cover
removal may result in a duricrust orduripan that effectively seal off the soil to water penetration
and root growth. In many areas, reforestation is impossible because people are using the land.

Benefits from trees:


• Trees serve as a natural habitat, which provides support to a wide variety of flora and
fauna. They provide a sense of privacy and security to the wildlife, seeking shelter in the woods,
apart from providing them with food and nutrients.
• Trees remove excess amount of carbondioxide and air pollutants present in the
atmosphere, including sulfur dioxide, ozone and nitrogen oxide. In return, they give us oxygen
required for living life.
• Planting trees is very important to improve the quality of air and reduce its pollution.
• The visual quality of a landscape is improved by planting trees, which, in turn, improves
the quality of life.
• Planting trees help reduce ozone levels in urban cities. Even the biodiversity gets
enriched in turn.
• Trees control the climate by moderating the effects of sun, wind, and rain. While they
moderate summer temperature by providing shade, in winters, they act as windbreaks for your
home, thereby helping you save on heating cost.
• Trees reduce soil erosion, because they bind the soil through their roots, which would
otherwise have been washed away in rainstorms and flood. Trees also help improve the fertility of
soil. Rich soil transfers nutrients to food, which contributes to human health.
• The greenery of trees adds color to the landscape and enhances the picturesque beauty
of the environment.

There are certain trees and plants that consume low water for their survival and yet provide the
environment with good returns. Some of them even have a healthy life. Below are some plants
and trees that use low water for growth and survival:
• Catclaw Acacia, Deciduous.
• Sweet Acacia, Deciduous.
• Netleaf (Canyon) Hackberry, Deciduous
• Blue Palo Verde, . Deciduous.
• Littleleaf Ash, Semi-Evergreen.
• Alligator Juniper, Evergreen.
• One-seed Juniper, Evergreen.
• Mexican Palo Verde, .
• Afghan Pine, Evergreen.
• Aleppo Pine, Evergreen.
• Mt. Atlas Pistache, Deciduous.
• Texas Pistache, Semi-evergreen.
• Chilean Mesquite, Semi-evergreen.
• Honey Mesquite, Deciduous.
• Screwbean Mesquite, Deciduous.
• Arizona White Oak, Evergreen.
• Gray Oak, Evergreen.
• Mexican Blue Oak, Deciduous.
• Cork Oak, Evergreen.
• Mexican Elder, Semi-eveergreen.
Emu breeding:
Introduction:
Far from its native habitat in Australia, the flightless emu is leaving its footprint across the plains
of India, with an increasing number of farmers commercially rearing the ostrich-size bird. From a
single farm in 1996, there are today 900 emu farms in 14 states, with a majority of them in Andhra
Pradesh, Maharashtra and other progressive states of India. The reason for the growth of emu
farms today is the increasing demand for the bird’s meat and oil, which is believed to have
medicinal properties, especially for treating joint pains. This large bird of Australian origin, which
offers the fat-free, healthful qualities of white meat and the flavoursome taste of red meat, is
proliferating in emu breeding centres in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra, even
Orissa and Madhya Pradesh.
Emu farming as a complementary to agriculture is going to be the most profitable business in the
near future. Emu is a sober bird, living on grains, cereals, pulses and grass, its immune system is
so strong that it hardly suffers from any disease. It survives in any type of climate. Each and
every part of emu’s body is commercially valuable. Hence in India too, emu- farming is taking its
roots. The Government as per 1972 forest animal husbandry act for protection and raring of forest
animals, has permitted emu farming which offers great opportunity for foreign investments and
export.
Benefits of Emu for the medicinal uses:
With the increasing acceptability of alternate medicine, emu oil (removed from the fat deposited
below the surface of the skin) containing the pain-relieving oleic acid, and believed to be good for
arthritis, has huge commercial potential. Leather products from emu skin, made on a pilot basis
by the Central Leather Research Institute, were showcased at Delhi's Pragati Maidan some years
ago to great acclaim. Additionally, the medical industry uses the oil for therapeutic rubbing oil,
skin and facial moisturizing lotions and medical applications used for treating the skin of burn
victims. Emu flesh is pulpy and has 98% fatty portion with least cholesterol and high percentage
of iron in it. The oil extracted from emu-fat has medicinal value.

Emu Farming in India


Business such as poultry, dairy, sheep or goat raring or animal husbandry often suffer due to
various factors such as eruption and spread of infectious and contagious diseases, resulting in
sudden fall in production, climatic charges, excessive heat and scarcity of water. Emu is naturally
immune to all these. The genus and species names of the emu are Dromaius novaehollandiae.
Emu-birds are members of the ratite family along with ostrich, kiwi etc. Emus are raised
throughout the world and have adapted to a variety of conditions ranging from the cold winters to
the extreme heat. Normally Emu's lives up to 40 years. The emu-bird lives in the grassy plains
and dry open farms. Emu grow to be between 5 and 6 feet tall and weighing between 45 to 60
kgs. This makes the emu the size of most humans as adults. Adversities; hence emu farming is
preferred all over the world today. Emu farming as a complementary to agriculture is going to be
the most profitable business in the near future. Emu is a sober bird, living on grains, cereals,
pulses and grass, its immune system is so strong that it hardly suffers from any disease. It
survives in any type of climate. Each and every part of emu’s body is commercially valuable.
Hence in India too, emu- farming is taking its roots. The Government as per 1972 forest animal
husbandry act for protection and raring of forest animals, has permitted emu farming which offers
great opportunity for foreign investments and export. Emu farming is a big venture with a huge
growth potential. Emus are hardy birds and are even immune to bird flu, but have to be protected
from other specific diseases including encephalitis. With a little faith, emu farmers can sit back
and count their money, if they get together to promote emu meat in households as well as hotel
menus. With growing awareness of eating healthy, emu meat is sure to be in demand.
There are many reasons as to why we should expand emu farming. In the first place this is a very
fast growing business in north America and now in India with a very high percentage of profit on
investment. Emu is capable of surviving any type of climate and adversities. This is a non
aggressive bird so it is easy to look after it. The birds do not need special structures for their stay
neither do they need large chunk of land. A small piece of land is fine. In one acre of land 100 to
150 birds can be easily accommodated. Emu farming is eco friendly, highly effective, excellent
business. This can be complementary to conventional agriculture.

Honey bee breeding: (Apiculture)


Beekeeping is the maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. A
beekeeper (or apiarist) keeps bees in order to collect honey and beeswax, to pollinate crops, or to
produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or
"bee yard". Apiculture means scientific method of rearing insects that can produce honey and
wax.
Breeding bees is at its busiest stage in the spring season. There is so much going on that you
have to be prepared for. Of course, this assumes that proper management has been done during
the fall and winter seasons.
Origins
There are more than 20,000 species of wild bees. Many species are solitary, and many others
rear their young in burrows and small colonies, like mason bees and bumblebees. Beekeeping, or
apiculture, is concerned with the practical management of the social species of honey bees,
which live in large colonies of up to 100,000 individuals. Many bee breeding companies strive to
selectively breed and hybridize varieties to produce desirable qualities: disease and parasite
resistance, good honey production, swarming behaviour reduction, prolific breeding, and mild
disposition. Some of these hybrids are marketed under specific brand names, such as the
Buckfast Bee or Midnite Bee. The advantages of the initial F1 hybrids produced by these crosses
include: hybrid vigor, increased honey productivity, and greater disease resistance. The
disadvantage is that in subsequent generations these advantages may fade away and hybrids
tend to be very defensive and aggressive.
Almost all the bees in a hive are female worker bees. At the height of summer when activity in the
hive is frantic and work goes on non-stop, the life of a worker bee may be as short as 6 weeks; in
late autumn, when no brood is being raised and no nectar is being harvested, a young bee may
live for 16 weeks, right through the winter. During its life a worker bee performs different work
functions in the hive which are largely dictated by the age of the bee.
Period Work activity
Days 1-3 Cleaning cells and incubation
Day 3-6Feeding older larvae
Day 6-10 Feeding younger larvae
Day 8-16 Receiving honey and pollen from field bees
Day 12-18 Wax making and cell building
Day 14 onwards Entrance guards; nectar and pollen foraging

Process of breeding:
They are two things that go on in spring to your bees which is brood rearing and swarming
The process whereby young bees are maintained is called brood rearing. Pollen is needed in
order to maintain young bees. If there's not much pollen in the bee hive, then brood rearing can
be effected. To avoid this, pollen substitutes should be used.

The issue of swarming need management as well. Swarming is the process by which honey bees
begin to create new colonies from the colony of bees that are in the hive. It is often that the queen
bee will leave the nest along with the worker bees in the swarming season.
As a beekeeper, this is important because if your colony successfully swarms then this will allow
your colony to die. So make sure you don't allow swarming to take place. But this is difficult
because the process of swarming is natural.

One thing to help prevent swarming is obtaining a new queen bee that can produce eggs in your
colony and never stop or another suggestion would be to clip the wings of the queen bee to
ensure that they are unable to leave the colony.

The Benefits of Beekeeping...


Beekeeping is an activity that anyone can undertake as it requires minimal or no land. Men,
women, elderly and youth can participate!
Bees pollinate the indigenous flora, adding value to wild harvested fruits, nuts and economic trees
and plants as well as 1/3rd to any food production through targeted pollination!
Beekeeping projects can be linked with many other production projects to bolster participant
numbers and income generation!
Honey is a valuable non-wood forest product thus contributing to the preservation of forests
around the world!
Honey is a commodity that can be traded internationally as well as locally or regionally without
special consideration as to storage or loss!
Honey is a high value product with a stable and lucrative supply versus demand economy.
Honey is very portable as well!
Honey and its by-products have many healthy benefits for the consumer and are lucrative trade
commodities in value addition form!
Most honeybee products can be consumed as food, dietary supplements or used as medicine.
And bee products have a long shelf life and are a valuable food source!

Importance of bees in the ecosystem:


Bees play an important, but little recognized role in most terrestrial ecosystems where there is
green vegetation cover for atleast 3 to 4 months each year. In tropical forests, savannah
woodlands, mangrove, and in temperate deciduous forests, many species of plants and animals
would not survive if bees were missing. This is because the production of seeds, nuts, berries
and fruits are highly dependent on insect pollination, and among the pollinating insects, bees are
the major pollinators. In rain forests, especially in high mountain forests where it is too cold for
most bees, other pollinators like bats and birds play a greater role in plant pollination. In farmed
areas, bees are needed for the pollination of many cultivated crops, and for maintaining
biodiversity in ‘islands’ of non-cultivated areas. The main role of bees in the different ecosystems
is their pollination work. Other animal species are connected with bees: either because they eat
the brood or honey, pollen or wax, because they are parasitic to the bees, or simply because they
live within the bees nest

Oxyrich mineral water plant:


They are the principle manufacturers of packaged drinking water. Keeping in mind the desirable
hygienic conditions, they ensure 100% pure and safe drinking water. Their product range includes
drinking water, mineral drinking water and premium packaged drinking water. Manufacturers of
drinking water, mineral drinking water and premium packaged drinking water. Their products are
widely acknowledged for their low maintenance requirement and high efficiency.

They undertake turnkey projects to manufacture packaged drinking water plants. They employ a
wide variety of Pre-treatment systems based on water test report, in conjunction with R.O, UV,
Ozanization and other processes to ensure that the water meets the BIS standards. They also set
up the necessary labs and undertake training modules to assist the operators understand the
working as well as to instruct them in the various testing procedures necessary for proper
operation of the plant.
Oxyrich is reckoned as one of the prestigious manufacturers and exporters of industrial water
filtration system. Their gamut of industrial water treatment systems is widely appreciated for its
sturdy construction, durability and high performance.

This is the oxyrich mineral plant at the village Wadebolhai. It was established in the year 2000 on
an area of 5 acres. But manikchand owns around 35 acre land adjoining the factory where they
pump all the raw material (water) from bore wells.
The factory works on a 12 hour shift and is completely mechanised with hardly any human
intervention. They manage to pump 12000 litres of water everyday. In 1 hour they finish filling
7000 bottles; estimating 150,000 bottles in a day, ready for transport.
The employees there were kind enough to guide us with their expertise and give us some
valuable information. It takes a capital of about 10 crores to install a water purification plant.
There are various licences required to set up and start the functioning of the plant. The scientists
and the testing staff are put through a stringent chemical test every 6 months from the
government to ensure safe and standard water consumption.
They have a good network of plant spread over Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh,
Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kolkata, Gujarat, etc.

Health benefits:
Water and oxygen are the two most basic essentials of life and energy. Oxygen is a natural
energizer and body purifier.
You can survive weeks to months without food, days without water, but only minutes without
oxygen. Providing sufficient levels of oxygen to every part of the body promotes optimum health.
Oxygen provides the energy for immune system, growth, maintenance, repair, and all the other
functions of the body. It also allows you to detoxify chemical pollutants. Needless to say, more the
amount of oxygen, bette it becomes for a pure, healthy living. Oxyrich water guarantees 300%
more oxygen in the water that boosts our energy levels and keeps us hydrated for a good period
of time.