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The S.S.

Carnatic: A Historical and Archaeological Analysis of the Underwater Cultural Heritage of a 19th Century Steam Powered Screw Propelled Ship By: Janelle Harrison

A dissertation submitted to the University of Bristol in Accordance with the requirement for the Degree of Masters of Arts in Maritime Archaeology and History in the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, Faculty of Arts September 2007
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AUTHOR’S DECLARATION

I declare that the work in this dissertation was carried out in accordance with the Regulations of the University of Bristol. The work is original except where indicated by special reference in the text and no part of the dissertation has been submitted for any other degree.

Any views expressed in the dissertation are those of the author and in no way represent those of the University of Bristol.

The dissertation has not been presented to any other University for examination either in the United Kingdom or overseas.

SINGED:

DATE:

ABSTRACT
The S.S.Carnatic: A Historical and Archaeological Analysis of the Underwater Cultural Heritage of a 19th Century Steam Powered Screw Propelled Ship (September 2007). Janelle Lee Diane Harrison, University of Bristol
The S.S. Carnatic was a combination sail and steam powered screw propelled ship built in 1863 for the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co. by the Samuda Brothers. The ship carried passengers, Royal Mail Packets, species, and other cargo between Suez Egypt, India, and China for approximately five years before foundering in 1869 off an uncharted reef in the Straits of Gubal. This study analyses the historical background of the Carnatic utilizing historical documents to ascertain the social and economic conditions prevalent during the mid 19th century, and how these conditions affected maritime history. This study also reviews Egyptian law pertaining to UCH. The Carnatic was a British merchant ship but the underwater cultural resources are located in Egyptian territorial waters; a major factor in the implementation of submerged cultural resources management plans (SCRMP) and the laws that are in place to protect UCH. A non-intrusive survey was conducted over the summer, 2007 to document and record the Carnatic’s structure, the orientation of the site, and the machinery to assess the post-depositional processes that affect the site. The results of the survey are discussed and analyzed with final suggestions for future study of the site.

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DEDICATION

To the memory of my loving grandparents, Bill and La Verne Arellanes:

Both worked hard all their lives to give their children and grandchildren a home and I owe them eternally for their love and support. I owe my grandmother, who passed away a month before I started this degree for teaching me the value of knowledge. I owe my grandfather, who passed away in 2001 for teaching me the value of hard work. Without their love and support as a child, I may never have gotten where I am today; or able to have completed this work. I also would like to dedicate this work to my stepfather Steven and my mother for their continued love and support.

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Acknowledgements
I would like to thank the Dive Masters Ali Ahmed Ali and Kjell Nylund from the Colona Dive Centre in El Gouna, Egypt, for helping me with the survey measurements for the Carnatic. I would also like to thank Andrew Chong from the National Maritime Museum, Brass Foundry in Greenwich, for all the valuable information regarding the Denny Brothers and the Denny’s collection. Mike Bevan for always responding to all my email enquiries about the P&O collection and the many others that contributed to this research. Thank you all.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
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ABSTRACT………………………………………………….……………………….……i DEDICATION……………………………………………………………………………..ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………………….iii TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………………….iv LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………….vii LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………………x LIST OF ABBRIVIATIONS………………………………………………………………xi CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH PLAN……………………….……….1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………2 THE RESEARCH PLAN…………………………………………………3 RESEARCH METHODS…………………………………………………4 II THEORETICAL CONTRIBUTIONS AND LITERTURE IN REVIEW…………………………………………………....7 CONTRIBUTIONS IN MARITIME ARCHAEOLOGICAL METHODS AND TECHNIQUES……………………………….……….7 CULTURAL HERITAGE AND SUBMERGED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT…………………………………………………….…….9 TEXTS ON 19TH CENTURY BRITISH MERCHANT STEAM SHIPS…………………………………………………………..10 PRIMARY SOURCES ON THE PENINSULAR AND ORIENTAL STEAM NAVIGATION COPANY……………………………………...10 OTHER WORKS………………………………………………………..12 III SUBMERGED CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND THE RED SEA……………………………………………………….13 MODELING CRMP’S BASED ON CULTURAL VALUE…………...14 EYGPTIAN LAW, THE RED SEA AND SUBMERGED CULTURAL RESURCES……………………………………………..16

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CHAPTER IV

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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF 19TH CENTURAY SHIPS………….19 BEFORE IRON, BEFORE STEAM……………………………………19 IRON FRAME, WOODEN SKIN……………………………………….20 IRON SAILING SHIPS………………………………………………….21 19TH CENTURY STEAM POWER………………………………….....22

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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE S.S. CARNATIC: 1862-1869………………………………………………29 THE MARINE STEAM ENGINE……………………………………….32 LAMB & SUMMERS MARIE BOILER……………………………...…39 THE CARNATIC: AN IRON SHIP……………………………………..41 THE CARNATIC’S CAREER…………………………………………..44

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THE SITE LOCATION AND FROMATION PROCESS…………………49 WRECK SITE OF THE CARNATIC……………………………….…..58 STRAITS OF GUBAL OCEANOGRAHY……………………….…….59 THE SITE FORMATION PROCESS……………………………….…64 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN SITE FORMATION……………………………………………………..67

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THE SURVEY……………………………………………………………….69 ORIGINS OF THE CARNATIC’S IDENTIFICATION………………..69 RECORDING AND SURVEY………………………………………….72 AMIDSHIPS……………………………………………………………...76 AMIDSHIPS UNDER THE FALLEN STARBOARD HULL………….79 THE WINE RACK: UNDER A SECTION OF THE HULL……………79 THE BOW SECTION……………………………………………………85 THE STERN SECTION…………………………………………………92 THE THREE-BLADED SCREW PROPELLER………………………95

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ANALYSIS AND CONCULSION…………………………………………...97 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS………………………………………………97 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………..98

BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………………101

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PAGE APPENDIX I………………………………………………………………………………107 APPENDIX II……………………………………………………………………………...109 APPENDIX III……………………………………………………………………………..131 APPENDIX IV…………………………………………………………………………….153 APPENDIX V……………………………………………………………………………..157 APPENDIX VI…………………………………………………………………………….173 APPENDIX VII……………………………………………………………………………188 APPENDIX VIII…………………………………………………………………………..206 APPENDIX IX…………………………………………………………………………….211 APPENDIX X……………………………………………………………………………..216 APPENDIX XI…………………………………………………………………………….242 VITA……………………………………………………………………………………….246

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LIST OF FIGURES
COVER S.S. Carnatic Shipwreck located off Abu Nuhâs reef: A view of the stern by Janelle Harrison (the author).

FIGURE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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Diagram depicting the relationship of cultural resource value……………....14 Flow-chart of social institutions effecting UCH………………………………..17 Profile drawing of the S.S. Peshawur, built 1871……………………………..24 News clipping of the Suez Canal Opening, Illustrated London News………26 Profile of the S.S. Bangalore, built 1867……………………………………….28 Profile of the S.S. Indus, built 1871………………………………………….....28 Color Print of the S.S. Carnatic, built 1863…………………………………….29 The Carnatic’s figurehead for color print……………………………………….30 Photograph of Carnatic’s Figurehead…………………………………………..30

10 Photograph of the bow profile for the Indus……………………………………31 11 Photograph of details for the engines of the Carnatic………………………...32 12 Photographs: front and back sides of engine scale model of the Carnatic....33 13 Photographs: Side views of the Carnatic’s engine scale model………….….33 14 Photograph: Close-up front view of Carnatic’s engine scale model………...34 15 Humphry’s Provisional Protection Patent Nº 613……..……………………….35 16 Side elevation illustration f a mid 19th century inverted steam engine………36 17 Line drawing and description of Humphry’s tandem compounding engine…36 18 Photograph of a scale model of a horizontal direct-acting steam engine…...37 19 Illustration of a vertical tandem direct-acting stem engine and pistons……..38 20 Lamb’s Provisional Protection Patent Nº 880………………………………….40 21 Illustration of a Lamb & Summers sheet flue boiler for H.M.S. Himalaya…..40 22 Illustration of an early design two-bladed screw propeller……………………42 23 Photograph of a model two-bladed screw propeller by Peacock, c.1855…..42 24 Photograph of model screw propellers of various pitch………………………42 25 Illustration of Maudslay’s feathering screw propeller………………………….42 26 Illustration of Griffith’s patent common three-bladed screw propeller……….43 27 Illustration of Lloyd’s specifications for iron ships’ keels, circa 1863………..44

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FIGURE

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28 Illustration of Lloyd’s rules for specifications for building iron ships…….…45 29 Illustration of Lloyd’s rules for deck bracing for iron ships……………...…..45 30 Illustration of Lloyd’s rules for placement of scantlings for iron ships…..….46

31 Illustration of Lloyd’s rules for arrangement of bolts through strakes….…...46
32 Illustration of the comparative merits for constructing iron ships…….….….47 33 Map of Eastern Hemisphere and the Carnatic’s mail routes..……………....49 34 Photograph of a Time table of the Suez & Mauritius, circa 1861……….…..50 35 Photograph of a P&O table of passenger contract rates, circa 1861……….52 36 Copy of a P&O crew agreement for the Carnatic, circa 1863…..…………...53 37 Copy of a P&O crew agreement for the Carnatic, circa 1869…………….….54 38 Copy of a P&O crew agreement for the Carnatic, circa 1869………………..55 39 Copy of a P&O crew agreement for the Carnatic, circa 1869………………..56 40 Letter to Superintendent of Mercantile Service office, circa 1870…………...57 41 Chart of the Gulf of Suez and the Sinai Peninsular……………………..…….58 42 Admiralty chart of Abu Nuhâs reef & Shadwan Island………………………..59 43 Diagram of the evolution of shipwrecks…………………………………….…..65 44 Photographs: A glass soda bottle and ironstone china (Ghisotti, 2004)……70 45 Site map drawn by author, with photographs…...……………………………..73 46 Copy of ship drawing used on permatrace paper during the survey………..74 47 Two photos of the shipwrecks amidships from above………………………..79 48 Photograph o the starboard side of the ships hull, amidships…………..…..80 49 Photograph of the collapsed starboard hull looking aft………………………80 50 Photograph of an unidentified object that may belong to the engine……….81 51 Two close-up photos of the object in fig. 50…………………………………..81 52 Two photographs of the Carnatic’s boilers…………………………….………82 53 Photograph of the hollow iron main mast near the base…………………….82 54 Photographs of the main mast………………………………………………….83 55 Photograph of the two sections of the broken main mast……………………83 56 Photograph of the mizzen mast……….………………………………………..84 57 Photograph of the collapsed main deck amidships..…………………………84 58 Photograph of a half section of the starboard ship hull………………………85

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FIGURE

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59 Photograph of the starboard side hulls scantlings……………………….…85 60 Close-up photo of scantlings shown in fig. 59………………………………86 61 Photographs of the funnel and mizzen mast………………………………..87 62 Photographs of the wine rack…………………………………………….…..87 63 Photograph of what could be the ships steering wheel…………………....88 64 Photograph of the bow section taken fro the port side………………….….88 65 Photograph of the bow decking frames on the first deck…………….…….88 66 Photograph of the first bulkhead on the second deck………………………89 67 Photograph of the port side of the inside of the ship from third deck……..89 68 Photograph at 180° angle of the bow section of deck three……………….89 69 Photograph of schooling glass fish inside the Carnatic…………………….90 70 Photographs of the authors taking measurements of the bow…………….91 71 Photograph of objects inside the Carnatic………………………………...…91 72 Photograph of the figurehead mounting……………………………………...91 73 Photograph of the bowsprit ring mount……………………………………….94 74 Photograph of concreted fragments of decking and frame…………………94 75 Photograph of the torn stern section of the starboard hull………………….93 76 Photographs of a porthole, starboard side……………………………………93 77 View of stern windows from inside at first deck………………………….…..94 78 Photographs of the remaining steering mechanism…………………………94 79 Photographs of the three-bladed propeller and rudder. …………………….95 80 Close-up of the pin for the rudder……………………….……………………..96 81 Cover photograph: A view of the stern and of Ali the volunteer……….……96

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LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PAGE

Number of vessels and tonnage register as belonging to the UK………….23 Dimensions and specifications of the Carnatic……………………………….30 Two year weather sampling from the GFS model……………………………61 The Beaufort’s criterion table…………………………………………………...62 Ships foundered or claimed by Abu Nuhâs reef………………………………63 Definitions of disaster response salvage………………………………………66 List of Biological, Physical, and chemical parameters for SCR’s……………68 Measurements of the Carnatic wreck and site area…………………………..75

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
APS BOT Co. CRM CRMP DSM ECHO GIS GPS ICOMOS INA MHA MOT NAS NMM NOAA Acoustic Positioning System Board of Trade, United Kingdom Company Cultural Resource Management Cultural Resource Management Plan Direct Survey Method Egyptian Cultural Heritage Organization Geographic Information Systems Global Positioning System International Council on Monuments and Sites Institute of Nautical Archaeology Maritime History Archive, Newfoundland Ministry of Transport, United Kingdom Nautical Archaeology Society National Maritime Museum, Greenwich National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P&O P&OSN Co. PRO Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Co. Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Co. Public Record Office (now known as the National Archives, Kew) SCA SCR SCUBA S.S. UCH UN UNESCO Supreme Council of Antiquities, Egypt Submerged Cultural Resource Self Contained Breathing Apparatus Steam Ship Underwater Cultural Heritage United Nations United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization U.S.G.S. United States Geological Survey

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CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH PLAN
The purpose of this current research is to examine the development of 19th century iron hulled, combination sail and screw, steam-powered British merchant ships using a multi-dimensional approach to the field of Maritime Archaeology by investigating the S.S. Carnatic. Built in 1863 for one of the most successful merchant companies to travel eastward from Great Britain. This ship represents a nostalgic period in history and operated during a period of rapid cultural developments. By investigating the Carnatic the author purports that individual 19th century steamers are both historically and archaeologically significant and that, numerous methods of investigation such as historical research and archaeological data analysis should be conducted on wrecks that are considered well documented from a historical perspective. By using methods of investigation for historical maritime archaeology and the science of underwater archaeology, the author hopes to contribute to the body of knowledge already established. Therefore, the major aims are: o To investigate the historical record and archaeological remains of a 19th century iron, combination sail and steam screw powered ship that wrecked in the Red Sea. o To Research the current laws and regulations for underwater cultural heritage in the Red Sea While the major objectives are: o To conduct an archaeological survey and to record the findings o To compare and contrast the material cultural from the wreck site of the Carnatic with the historical record of the Carnatic and place this information in the context of maritime ethnology and the meaning of 19th century iron screw propelled steamers in general.

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o To analyze the evidence and contribute to the current body of knowledge associated to the topics discussed in this work o To document the wreck site using an underwater video camera, still photographs and basic measurements to draw a scaled sketch map of the site. This work is divided into eight chapters, each contributing to the aims and objectives already laid out. The first chapter introduces the topic of research undertaken by the author. This is followed by a chapter outline and the proposed research plan and methods. Chapter two discusses the theoretical contributions to the study of maritime archaeology, UCH, and survey methods; this discussion is built around a review of the literature used to support this work. Chapter three introduces the submerged cultural resource management and specifically addresses the approaches the Egyptian government has taken to protect UCH. It also introduces the international laws and legislation that affect Egyptian UCH. Chapter four introduces the historical setting and background of 19th century iron screw steamers built in Britain. The aim is to gain an appreciation for the rapid change in shipbuilding during this period from a historical and technological perspective. Chapter five is an in depth historical investigation of the S.S. Carnatic. Chapter six introduces the surveying aspects of this research and covers the site location and the site formation process based on Muckelroy’s model (1978). Chapter seven is the presentation of evidence, collected by means of photography by the author during the survey and it also includes an artist conception drawing to scale (where possible) of the site. Chapter eight is the final chapter. This chapter summarizes the authors thesis and makes several final recommendations for the site and what research could further be conducted on the Carnatic wreck site to improve the field of maritime archaeology and the opinions held regarding more modern shipwrecks. The final conclusion is to elucidate the subject of archaeological study of 19th century iron screw steamers.

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The Research Plan
The research plan will be carried out in four phases: 1) Phase one will be archival research of the vessel, the company that built the ship, the owners who employed the ship, the wrecking, and the cultural context of 19th century shipbuilding. Also to research and gain a comprehensive understanding of cultural heritage management and the laws effecting UCH in the Red Sea. 2) Phase two will be researching appropriate contacts, contacting them, contacting dive operators and any other persons located in Egypt that can help with conducting a non-intrusive surveyof the Carnatic. This also includes contacting the Supreme Council of Antiques to inquire if a permit is required for a non-intrusive survey of the site, and to apply for a permit for permission to conduct an extensive survey if the means become available in the future.

3) The third phase is to conduct a non-intrusive survey to the best of the authors’ ability given both financial and time constraints. Therefore, to maximize on both of these constraints the author will invest in an underwater video camera housing and a digital video camera to record the site, and to use the video and photograph obtained in the final analysis and interpretation of the site.

4) The fourth and final phase of the research plan is to correlate all of the historical and archaeological data into one report that will conclusively support the author’s thesis based on the evidence found.

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This research plan will be the guidelines for the work being undertaken by the author. The focus of this research is to view younger shipwrecks like the Carnatic 1 from several dimensions inherent to the field of maritime archaeology and the current issues effecting the preservation of sites, and the various dimensions of maritime culture.

Research Methods
For conducting an underwater archaeological investigation there are many methods to choose from for recording and surveying a site. There are also a number of factors that need to be evaluated before a method should be chosen; these are: o Location of the site (easy access, difficult, is there lots of boating traffic etc.) o Maximum depth and minimum depth o Sea conditions o Local weather at the site o Bottom topography o Visibility o What type of equipment should be used o Skill level of the team o Amount of time o Level of funding (if any)

This concept of younger and older shipwrecks is a concept that archaeologist’s such as Muckelroy first purported in the 1970’s. Muckelroy (1978) considered anything after the 1800’s to be a younger shipwreck, or a vessel not distanced from the present (his present) and thus not really historical (yet) or even if historical, there is enough documentation on these types of ships to make archaeological research redundant. But more and more maritime archaeologist are starting to understand that time, used as a method of measuring historical value can become irrelevant. With the investigation of these documented vessels archaeologist that do conduct an archaeological investigation are discovering more flaws in the historical record. The Carnatic for instance, from Muckelroy’s point of view, is young and documented enough that it is not of enough historical value archaeologically to investigate, but the Carnatic is one of the oldest shipwreck known in the Red Sea. If the Carnatic is compared to the Sadana, an Ottoman-period shipwreck on the historical timeline of measuring value by age, then yes, the Carnatic is young (Ward, 1996). Conversely though, the Carnatic represents a very historical period, not the Ottoman-period of trade but the Victorian. In 400 years time the study of Victorian age shipwrecks will want to be analyzed in great detail to the extent that today archaeologist want to investigate Ottoman-period wrecks, one can presume, but due to the rapid rate of corrosion of iron ships there more than likely will not be A Carnatic wreck site resting on the sea-bed for one of the greatest shipping trade and passenger routes of the Victorian era.
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The method chosen for this work resulted from the evaluation of this list (Oxley, 1992; Green, 2004; MAP II Design Notes. NAS, 2007). The decision was made to video record the site with a Panasonic PV-GS320 digital video camera housed in a Wet N Rugged Pro 6 underwater video camera housing. 2 The digital video camera was fitted with a 0.45mm wide-angle macro lens. 3 This caused some distortion of the photographs and in the video, but it captures 180° rather than a field of view of only 90° (Singh, 2000). This method of recording rather than to scale drawings in situ is the most logical, given the constraints of diving on a 12 or 15-liter scuba tank at a maximum depth of 27m (Oxley, 1992; Green, 2004; Gaur et al., 1998; Gould, 1991). The original survey plan included conducting a 3D Direct Survey Method (DSM) and inputting the data collected in Site Recorder (Higgins, 2007). After further consideration, this option was not feasible due to several factors: 1) A small budget with no volunteers other that the author 2) The SCA had not responded to the authors’ request for a permit to conduct non-intrusive surveys of the wreck site prior to the dates set. 3) Volatility of the weather and prospect of not getting in enough dives to properly establish control points to start or complete a DSM. The final decision for surveying method is to make a series of simple direct measurements from stable points that are easily identifiable, such as the length of the bow section that is still intact, the length of the stern section, the sterns keel, and distances between the keel, propeller blades and rudder and lengths of the masts. The main objective will be to obtain enough data from the measurements to begin a scale drawing of the entire site area. 4 Eventually, if research continues in the future, more data can be collected and collaborated with this work.

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See appendix I for photographs of the video camera housing. A diagram of the field of view with the 0.45X wide angle lens:
Normal 130°

0.45X
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180°

The hope is that future survey work will continue at the site and that a full DSM survey will be conducted with the data added to the GIS program Site Recorder.

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By using the various areas or disciplines and their respective source materials to develop supporting evidence for this work, it is possible to purport that this work will contribute to the body of knowledge for the field of maritime archaeology— providing a new dimension of understanding by building on that which has already been established. Beginning with the traditional definition and working through the more modern and contemporary approaches to the field of archaeological research, it is reasonable to conclude that the recreational scuba diver and their effects on shipwrecks will eventually have to be considered a phenomena of maritime culture. 5 This work is not going to focus on this phenomena, but it is important to keep this idea in mind whilst examining the laws relating to shipwrecks in the Red Sea and the Egyptian Governments approach to protecting and defining historical wreck sites. It is important to reiterate that the purpose of this work is not to ban recreational divers from diving potential cultural resources, but to evaluate the efforts being made to educate the public about these sites, and the methods used in doing this (Spirek et al., 2003).

Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes. One specialty is underwater archaeology, which studies the past through any submerged remains. Another specialty within maritime archaeology is nautical archaeology, which studies vessel construction and use (Wikipedia, 2007). Maritime archaeology then, must include the study of recreational scuba divers since scuba is a human interaction with the sea. Many divers are also interested in and dive shipwrecks. They are as much apart of the study of maritime archaeology as a ship captain or a shipbuilder, it’s just at the present the behavior and actions of the diver is not considered an area of study because the sport is new and there isn’t the distance between our current cultural and the diving community.
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CHAPTER II THEORETICAL CONTRIBUTIONS AND LITERATURE IN REVIEW

The scope of literature reviewed for this dissertation can be divided into five major areas of disciplines or sources: I. Maritime archaeological methods and techniques; II. Underwater Cultural Heritage and Resource Management. III. The development of 19th century iron hulled, combination sail/steam screw propelled merchant ships built in Great Britain; IV. Primary archival source documentation on the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Fleet of the 19th century and the Suez/India mail route. V. Other works. Each of these areas of sources contains a pantheon of works. These range from journal articles to books; governmental pamphlets, reports, news clippings and T.V. documentaries to legislation. All of which form the foundations for the research, analysis and writing of this current work.

Contributions in Maritime Archaeological Methods and Techniques

It is possible that the writings of Keith Muckelroy (1980a) and his ideological model influenced those in the field of maritime archaeology so much that his argument which states “As an academic discipline archaeology becomes redundant at the point where archives, representations, and oral histories provide more cultural information than can be obtained from the materials themselves” deterred many members of the archaeological community from conducting through archaeological surveys and recordings of these types of vessels ; leaving the reporting of their stories only to the historians until fairly recently (1980a, p.10). Furthermore, Muckelroy (1980a, p.10) sets a cut-off date, which marks an

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ending date for vessels worthy of archaeological investigation around the early 1800’s. This cut-off date however, is on a continuously forward perpetuating timeline, and whilst there may be extensive historical documentation of vessels post-dating the cut-off point he set, these documents do not provide information about a vessels transformation once it reaches the seabed or the interaction between the recreational divers and the shipwreck site (McCarthy, 2000; Spirek et al., 2003). Unlike woods vessels deposited on the sea floor, iron vessels have a faster rate of disintegration than wooden vessels and therefore a shorter lifespan, depending on the enviromental conditions (Green, 2004; Clark, 1990; Spirek et al., 2003; McCarthy 2000). These contemporary texts and other reports from numerous maritime archaeologists published in the International Journal of Nautical Archaeology proved to be an invaluable informational resource in understanding the processes involved in maritime archaeological surveying, recording, excavation, analysis, and interpretation. Many of the theoretical approaches used by them collaborate with the views of George Bass, the American Professor known for his underwater excavation of a Bronze Age Wreck off Cape Gelidonya in Turkey circa 1960 (Easterbrook et al., 2003). Perhaps not as academically recognized, but just as informative as, and certainly more entertaining than his publications is the documentary series Green stars in called Shipwreck Detectives (aired on ABC and UKTV History, 5 July 2007). Green’s opinion of the archaeological study of more modern iron shipwrecks is now the more popular view in the field of maritime archaeology (UKTV History, 5 July 2007). He stated on one of his recently re-aired series that “corrosion will destroy these wrecks…iron ship wrecks appear to not be surviving…and we will be left with wooden wrecks but not iron” (UKTV History, 5 July 2007) and so Green purports that the archaeological study of these wrecks are important in the field of maritime archaeology and his opinion was influential in the development of the current work.

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Cultural Heritage and Submerged Resource Management
Approaches to cultural heritage and resource management vary greatly from region to region. A large portion of the literature reviewed for this research also points out that it was not until the 20th century that there was a need for protection of cultural heritage, attributing this to schemes for “social and economic development” on land— this is just as true for submerged cultural resources (Cleere et al., 1884; Dromgoole, 1999; Spirek, 2003). The technologies that are propelling the discoveries, survey methods and data acquisition in maritime archaeology forward into realm of science fiction are also threatening the cultural heritage that was once safe in the deep, dark waters of the world’s oceans. These texts address the issues of threats to cultural heritage and propose was of managing it. Working from a wide range of papers from proceedings on underwater archaeology and books dedicated to managing submerged cultural recourses to publications from UNSECO, 6 for both ancient sites and monuments on land and more recently publications dealing specifically with cultural heritage underwater, a body of knowledge was gathered to compare and contrast the current situation of cultural heritage management in the Red Sea. Without these various works the idea of placing a cultural value on a 19th century shipwreck and defining that value according to its associative, symbolic, informational, aesthetic, or economical values would prove impossible (Lipe, 1984). The combined opinion of these texts forms a census about the importance of cultural heritage and how it is defined for the broader world community. They can be used as guides or as stepping-stones to further developments in the understanding of managing and defining submerged cultural heritage and maritime landscapes. But in most cases these works lead to legislation, which is used to protect the world’s submerged cultural resources.

See appendix VII for a copy of UNESCO’s Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage.
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Texts on 19th Century British Merchant Steam Ships
The texts used for research into 19th century ships are both contemporary for that period as well as historical texts contemporary to the current time. They are comprised of both primary and secondary sources. When ever possible, the primary source of information was sourced out for this research. Major treatise on steam power and screw prolusion as well as iron construction for vessels was reviewed in detail to support or refute the historical accounts which were also used from the secondary sources written about this subject. After careful review of these texts, they were used to formulate a study of the technological changes in merchant shipping, and how these changes affected the lives of those who lived during that period. Using the texts to reach beyond the historical account they were also used in the interpretative process of the archaeological research undertaken, and used to formulate a theory of current human activity associated with the case study that was researched: The S.S. Carnatic. Many of the secondary texts reviewed the technological development of 19 century ships, comparing and contrasting these developments by region, usually by countries, i.e. America, Britain and France. In most cases the economic environment, which contributed to or hindered the developmental process was also discussed from a historical perspective. The aims of this current research are to apply the same analysis on a more micro level, focusing on one British merchant shipping company; the P&O, and more specifically to the S.S. Carnatic and the Suez/India passenger and mail route.
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Primary Sources on the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co.
The Caird Library at The National Maritime Museum in Greenwich is the official P&O depository. The majority of primary sources regarding the company and their fleet were located there and used for the research into the economic, political, social and technical dimensions associated with the study and analysis of the Carnatic as a case study for the research discipline of maritime archaeology (Muckelroy, 1978, p.227). The original company account ledgers

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and ledgers filled with transcribed letters between the P&O and the Postmaster General revealed numerous interesting details that contributed further to this research. The official Wreck Register and the courts official review of the wrecking, summary of the results, the official number of reported deaths from the wrecking of the Carnatic, and numerous statistics that elucidate the errors made in books and on internet websites about the death total from the wrecking can be found at the National Archives, Kew. Conversely, both locations housed very little information about the company that built the Carnatic: the Samuda Brothers. 7 The Caird Library outstation in Woolwich does house the plans of several P&O vessel built in the 1860’s that look to be very similar to the Carnatic; two masts, one funnel, around the same tonnage, etc. but built by a different company. These plans were good to review for comparison with the material cultural remains of the Carnatic, and in helping to identify aspects of the wreck site that were unidentifiable due to corrosion and the wrecking of the ship, but it would seem unreasonable to assume these vessels were exactly alike, and therefore these ships plans could only be used as a general reference.

See appendix IV for details of the Samuda Bros. Company Disillusion. At the height of the Samuda Bros. Shipyard’s production in 1863 Barry wrote “Messr. Samuda Brothers have at the moment 15,700 tons in hand [one of these vessels was the Carnatic’s sister ship the Rangoon]. The other week they turned out H.M. transport ship Tamar, 3,000 tons, of the Himalaya class. In construction at present they have H.M Cupola frigate Prince Albert, 2,29 tons, another vessel for the British Government; two for the Viceroy of Egypt; two for the Peninsular and Oriental Company; and four for foreign governments and steam navigation companies of importance. If to the 15,700 tons now in construction in the Messrs. Samuda’s yard is added the tonnage of the Tamar just out of hand, their new tonnage compares with the new tonnage of all dockyards, Pembroke included, as follows; it being to be borne in mind that although there is a considerable aggregate tonnage in construction in all the dockyards, Pembroke included, there are only the Achilles frigate, the Enterprise sloop and the Favorite and the Research corvettes really are new work; the Prince Consort, Ocean, Caledonia, Zealous, Royal Alfred, Royal Oak, and Royal Sovereign being nothing more than old line of battle ships down and armour clad. The comparison between the new work in all the dockyards is Messrs. Samuda’s 18,700 tons against the Achilles, the sloop, and the corvettes, 10,508 tons. The Messrs. Samuda are therefore doing almost twice the new work of all the dockyards put together, and be it observed that the whole tonnage in the Messrs. Samuda’s yard is iron, while the whole new tonnage in all the dockyards put together is represented by the one ship the Achilles” (pp. 62,63).
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Other Works
Other Works is not just other mediums of knowledge such as internet websites, videos, and photographs, but also other disciplines that contribute to the understanding of a 19th century iron hulled, steam powered shipwreck in a particular type of biological environment: Namely warm, high salinity water with volatile currents. Reports on biological growth forming coral and artificial coral reefs were examined to determine the effect these living organisms have on the Carnatic wreck site. This brief review of the body of knowledge and theoretical contributions to cultural resource management, the science of maritime archaeology and the historical context of 19th century screw steamers is based on the research of the author and is the foundation from which this work is built from. This work also is unique and the authors’ aim is to contribute to the current debate regarding the archaeology of modern historical shipwrecks.

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CHAPTER III SUBMERGED CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT & THE RED SEA
Underwater cultural heritage (UCH) and resource management is based on the ideology that objects from that past, both near and far represent the “values, aspirations, beliefs, patterns of behavior and interpersonal relations established or predominant within a given social group”, and it also represents that groups heritage as a resource that should be valued just like our natural resources such as oil (Trotzig, 1989, p.59) According to Green (2004), Emad Khalil and Mohamed Mustafa (2002), Sarah Dromgoole et al. (1999), and Paul Clark (1990). It is legislation that needs to be put into place to protect what has been defined as UCH and from there a cultural resource management plan needs to be implemented in order to properly protect these resources. The following chapter will demonstrate the meaning of cultural value and outline what legislation has been implemented in Egypt regarding underwater cultural heritage; what types of cultural resource management plans exist in Egypt, if any, and propose new forms of management plans and schemes for areas of the Red Sea should be modeled after submerged cultural resource management plans from countries that have developed preserves and shipwreck trails around the world: from the West Coast U.S.A. to West Coast Australia. 8 By examining various schemes already implemented in an effort to discuss a CRM design already in place or to re-design a scheme for the Egyptian Red Sea, a coherent understanding of what maritime and submerged cultural heritage is will develop through to progression of this discourse and aid in the investigative study of the Carnatic.

These countries have in recent years developed CRM plans that grant access to, and provide knowledge of shipwrecks in their territorial waters. Patrick O’Keefe (2003) espouses that the world’s governments should adopt one cohesive legal framework for the protection of wrecks, and the author agrees.
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Modeling CRMP’s based on Cultural Value
One of the first steps in creating a CRM scheme according to Lipe (1984, pp.1-10) is to identify the economic, aesthetic, associative/symbolic, or informational aspects of the resource(s). Many cultural resources may have one or more of these values, and this model will be used for investigation and analysis of the Carnatic.

Preserved Cultural Resources

Preserved material form past cultures: Objects, structures, sites, human landscape

Public understanding of & appreciation For cultural resources

Social Institutions

Governmental policies, laws, agencies, Educational institutions; societies & interest groups; and business devoted to cultural resource preservation & study

Books, articles, films, classes, lectures, museum displays about past cultures

Types of Value

Economic

Aesthetic

Associative/symbolic

Informational

Value Contexts

Economic potential market factors; costs of development vs. preservation

Aesthetic standards, stylistic tradition, human psychology, etc.

Traditional knowledge, historical documents, oral tradition, folklore, mythology, etc.

Formal research, history, archaeology, art, & architectural history, folklore studies, etc.

Basic phenomena

Cultural Resource Base, Objects, structures, sites, human landscapes surviving from the past

Figure 1. A flow diagram of cultural resource value (from Lipe, 1984)

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Figure 1 exhibits the relationship between the preserved cultural resources, the social institutions that interpret them, and the types of values these institutions can derive from them. It is on the tier of social institutions that CRM’s schemes play a decisive role. However, it lacks in the details that should expose the numerous threats 9 to these cultural resources that may inherently be derived from them (i.e. the economic gain of dive tourism in the Red Sea) or from their inappropriate application or use. Accordingly, Green (2004, p.369) purports that for cultural resource management plans to work and to be successful they must be a public operation which includes “local, national, and international” interest and desire to protect them; without the public’s desire the effects can be futile on the future preservation of the cultural resource. It is the public that eventually decides what the value of a cultural resource is, whether it is aesthetic, economic, symbolic or informational and therefore, it is a vital role of a CRM plan to educate the public about underwater cultural resources. 10

There are many types of threats to UCH; many of these are unavoidable, such as the biological and physical threats of the UCH’s environment. Recreational divers also pose serious threats when they do not respect a site and loot it of artifacts. Not all recreational divers are threats to UCH and responsible divers should not be banned from stable underwater sites just because it area is of historical or cultural value. Another real threat to shipwreck sites are salvage companies. Ships can have two types of economical value to a salvage company: The first is the cargo the ship carried, i.e. species, Chinese porcelain, etc., the second is the ship itself. Modern shipwrecks are built of hundreds of thousands of tons of iron or steel. In particular areas it has been seen as and economical decision for a country who has the rights to a shipwreck within its territorial waters if abandonment has been established under the UN’s Convention of the Laws of the Sea (UNCLOS) (1973) to sell the wrecks to salvage companies. This is precisely the case that has been recently debated on a forum board (www.bsacforum.co.uk). HEPCA (2007) sent the forum members a letter stating that the Egyptian Ministry of Transport did not have the legal right to sell the alleged 7 shipwrecks to the salvage company, but if abandonment can be established by the salvage company or the Ministry of Transport, which they easily could, then it is quite feasible that this salvage company could blow up these 7 shipwrecks (only two identified on the forum board) for scrap metal. That fact that no one has mentioned UNCLOS on the forum board is shocking. 10 Lipe (1989, p.4) states that a cultural resource of high quality, as measured by the context of the present time, can be a powerful symbol of the past. The person who encounters this cultural resource can have a feeling of being tied to the past, and the cultural resource can then evoke this associated affect, but this affect is “highly conditioned” and is ultimately based on the knowledge that that person has of the past or what is provided for that person “on the spot.” It is the forehand knowledge that provides the quality and meaningfulness of the encounter and not just the material resource itself, yet the resource remains dominant in this subjective experience.
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Egyptian Law, the Red Sea and Submerged Cultural Resources
Now that the symbiotic relationship between associated values, social institutions, and the preserved cultural artifact(s) have been diagramed (Figure 1) it is imperative to implement the model in the context of the institutions, which govern the case study being investigated: the Carnatic wreck site. The Egyptian government, like many governmental bodies is not the last authoritative organization on the social institutional tier that implements laws regarding cultural resources on land or in the oceans and seas of their geographic territory. Any country that is a Member State of the United Nations (UN), has agreed to adhere to the UN’s Convention for Laws of the Sea and treaties established in the Charter. In addition to being a Member State of the UN, Egypt is also a Member State of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 11 Egypt has been a Member States of the UN since 24 October 1945, 12 and a Member State of UNESCO since 4 November 1946 when UNESCO was first established. Due to Egypt’s economic conditions, a great deal of the archaeological work and the cultural heritage management funding that supports Egyptian CRMP’s has had to come from the social institutions out side the Egyptian Government, i.e. UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites are subsidized by UNESCO project funding. The following brief description of each of these social institutions or non-profit organizations will elaborate on the current political and social conditions that effect the implementation of submerged cultural resource management plans. In addition to UNESCO, the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) is a non-governmental advisory body of professionals that counsel’s UNESCO as to which site should be placed on the World Heritage List (ICOMOS, 2007).

It should be noted that not all UN members are Member States of UNESCO, i.e. the United States is a member state of the UN, and form 4 November 1946 to 31 December 1984 was a member of UNESCO, but the U.S. withdraw it’s member status until it rejoined 1 October 2003 (UNESCO, 2007). 12 Egypt and Syria were original Members of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. Following a plebiscite on 21 February 1958, the United Arab Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single Member. On 13 October 1961, Syria, having resumed its status as an independent State, resumed its separate membership in the United Nations. On 2 September 1971, the United Arab Republic changed its name to the Arab Republic of Egypt (UN, Dept. of Public information, 2006).
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United Nations

United Nations Educational Scientific & Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

International Council on Monuments & Sites (ICOMOS)

Egyptian Government

Ministry of Culture

Ministry of Transport

Supreme Council of Antiquities

The Department of Foreign Archaeological Missions

Underwater Archaeology Department

The Egyptian Cultural Heritage Organization (ECHO)

Hurghada Environmental Protection and Conservation Association (HEPCA)

Institute of Nautical Archaeology Egypt (INA)

Figure 2. Is a navigational flow-chart of the social institutions that effect the preservation of submerged cultural resources in the Red Sea and the Mediterranean bordering the Egyptian coastline.

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The flow-chart in Figure 2 illustrates many of the social institutions, governments and international governmental bodies involved in implementing the legislation for protect and preservation of underwater cultural heritage (UCH). It does not represent all relations in the processes involved in UCH, but it does exemplify the main channels through which archaeological work, underwater cultural heritage, and CRM plans must pass through and be approved by for any action to occur. The Egyptian SCA’s has a very board definition of CH and legislation at this time does not refer specifically to UCH, submerged CRM plans, or the specific protection of historical wrecks in the Red Sea. 13 The identification and recognition of CH in Egypt is ruled under law Nº. 117 and is concerned with the identification, registration, and protection of Egyptian antiquities normally defined as anything older than 100 years old of historical, scientific, religious, artistic, or literary value. There are no laws specific to UCH (ECHO, 2006). Legislation specifically relating to UCH in Egypt is based on the laws imposed on Member States of the UN; Member States that have signed the UNESCO and UNCLOS agreements, and Members of ICOMOS. 14 Egypt has always been a founding member these bodies and adheres to the policies imposed by the UNCLOS.
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The focus for UCH and CRM plan implementation

has best been executed in the Mediterranean waters that border Egypt (ECHO 16, 2006). UNESCO and Egypt have worked together to create one of the worlds first underwater World Heritage Sites located in the Alexandria Harbor (Tzalas, 2003). This is an exciting achievement for marine archaeology in Egypt, but there is still a large gap in the efforts being made in the Red Sea in general, and on younger shipwreck sites specifically. Hopefully this work will elucidate the issues that effect the preservation and understanding of our underwater cultural heritage.

For a full report issued by the Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage supported by Egypt’s Ministry of Communications in relation to Egyptian Heritage Management, Site Management, Cultural and Ecotourism, and the National Register Database go to http://www.cultnat.org/download/Pdf_strategic_approach.html 14 See appendix IX for a copy of ICOMOS regulations for UCH. 15 See appendix VII for UNESCO’s Convention for the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage. 16 Egyptian Cultural Heritage Organization at http://www.e-c-h-o.org/weblinks.htm#Associations
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CHAPTER IV HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF 19TH CENTURY SHIPS

The 19th century marks one of the pivotal points of interest in shipping history. The rise of the Industrial Revolution and the technology that it brought with it changed not only how ships were built, but also how they were thought of. An ideological shift developed that changed the way people viewed the world, the ship, and yes, tradition (Arnold, 2000; Gardiner, 1992; Gardiner, 1993a; Gould 200). It is the evaluation of 19th century shipping, its technological advances, the economic and social aspects, as well as the shipyards and builders that shall be considered to develop the historical background and context of the time period from which the Carnatic came from (Arnold, 2000).

Before Iron, Before Steam

The shipping industry in Britain as well as all over the world up to the mid19 century consisted of wooden sailing vessels. There were no screw propellers, no marine steam engines, no paddle-wheels except for the occasional experimental vessel that sometimes was a relative success; as was the case in 1802 when Dr. Shorter built the first screw propelled vessel in Britain (Holmes, 1889, p.23; Gardiner 1993a, p.84). Despite the fact that the screw propeller design would need to under go many changes before it became a functional form of propulsion, there was another factor that held back the use of this invention, and that was the fact that steam power was not yet efficient to be used in shipping, and it would be at least another 35 years before the use of either came into mainstream use in Britain (Holmes, 1889). Since the rise of the inventions of the Industrial Revolution that changed 19th century shipping did not become popularized and efficient in the building industry until the 1850’s and 1860’s the majority of vessels, large and small being built in Britain and Scotland were sailing ships (Arnold, 2000; Gardiner, 1993a). The sailing ship of the 19th century also underwent a great deal of change based on three events in history: The first being the scarcity of strong wood locally to build a
th

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wooden vessel, while conversely there was an increase in iron availably for building. The second would be a series of Merchant shipping Acts 17 around the 1850’s that changed the way in which tonnage was measured in England (Greenhill, 1980). The third event of the 19th century of course, was that sailing ships would eventually have to compete with steam power. These three events, which are interchangeable between economic, political, technological, and social dimensions are well known in the study of maritime history and are the events that led to the design of hybrid ships that will now be reviewed in brief.

Iron Frame, Wooden Skin
One of the most popular changes that took place in the construction of purely wind-powered sailing vessels was the development of the composite built ship (MacGregor, 1979; MacGregor, 1983a; MacGregor, 1988b; MacGregor, 1993c; Gardiner, 1993a). A composite built vessel in general terms is a ship that is built of metal and wood. In the early 1800’s they did not have steel so the metal referred to in this case is iron. A composite ship was not limited to only being a sailing vessel, and in fact there were many paddle steamers and screw propelled vessels that were built as composite ships 18 before the complete transition to metal construction (MacGregor, 1983a). But what is crucial in understanding the true definition of a composite built ship is that it was not just a combination of wood and iron materials but also how they were used.
Wooden skin and i ron framework— The system of composite shipbuilding most generally pr acticed i s that pat ented by M r. J ordan 184 9. The w hole out er s kin, including keel, stem, stern-post and planking, is of wood, arranged as in the skin of an ordinary wooden ship; and the framework inside the skin, including frames, beams, keelsons, stringers…transoms, diagonal braces, etc. is of iron, arranged nearly as in an ordinary iron ship. It is to the system inparticular that Underwriters’ Rules refer (Young, 1867, article 46).

The excerpt clearly states that for a ship to be defined by the Underwriters’ Rules as a composite built vessel (as listed in the 19th century), it had to be built to
For further research on calculations used for the new tonnage laws under the Merchant Shipping Act of 1854, see G. Moorsom A brief review and analyses of the laws for the admeasurement of tonnage. This book was published in 1852 and was the guideline handbook for tonnage calculation used by Parliament in creating the Merchant Shipping Act. 18 Captain Andrew Henderson built the Assam in India in the 1840’s. This composite-built steamer was 450 tons. Details of propulsion type (paddle or screw) are not given due to the lack of original construction design (MacGregor, 1983a, p.85)
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numerous specifications. A ship could not just be labeled a composite just because some of the parts were wood and some of the pieces were iron. Therefore a ship with an iron hull, a ship like the Carnatic would not be described as “an iron framed planked passenger ship” as it was by Ned Middleton (1999-2004). This gives the reader the impression that the hull is planked. The Carnatic did have wooden decks just as many iron ships did in her time, but this does not define the vessel as a composite built ship, nor would the surveyor describe the ship by the materials, which made up the decks, but rather the description would simply have been “iron vessel.” Composite ship building in England and Scotland never dominated the industry; at their peak in 1866 they only represented 14% of sailing ship construction in Britain (Greenhill, 1980; Mitchell and Deane as quote in MacGregor, 1993c). But there is great historical interest in the composite built Tea Clippers, known for their fine lines and speed. Eventually they had to succumb to the fate of modernization, and they would be the sailing ships last fight against the power of steam.

Iron Sailing Ships
Ship builders in Britain and Scotland were not just utilizing the benefits of using iron frames to create a stronger, lighter vessel that allowed for more cargo in relation to the registered tonnage— there were builders that had made the transition completely to an iron hull. MacGregor (1993c, p.85) notes that in 1848 the iron barque Panic entered the China tea trade. Other iron-hulled clippers would follow, one of the last being the Torrens built in 1875 (Colton, 1937). The major disadvantage at this time for the ship owners was that no anti-fouling solution was suitable to reduce the fouling that built up on the bottom of the ship whilst crossing the eastern seas (MacGregor, 1993c). To clean this fouling was time consuming and costly, diminishing the benefits gained by building with this material. Charles Young (1867) purported that the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company were expending upwards of £70,000 a year removing the fouling. An examination of the Carnatic’s ship movements for the duration of her service to the P&O line reveals a time period of almost a month of non-service at each final port on their Suez-India mail route (NMM, P&O/40/10/; P&O/40/11; P&O/40/12; P&O/40/13). Undoubtedly a majority of this time was clearing the iron hulls of the

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barnacles and other fouling. Although the P&O SN Co. never owned or operated an iron-hulled, fully wind powered sailing ship, their financial records are extensive and provide a greater breath of understanding the implications involved in operating a passenger and cargo vessel constructed of this material. Another aspect of building with iron that many naval engineers of the early to mid 19th century faced was the magnetic deviation created by the iron. It was hammering of the iron that created this effect. Magnetic deviation affected the accuracy in a compass and the compass, which the navigator relied on heavily, could not detect magnetic north accurately and this was a real cause for concern (Global Security, 2000-2007). Another physical characteristic that slowed the initial use of iron ships, especially in the Royal Navy was its susceptibility to corrosion— rusting that was caused by the iron oxidation. But the Admiralty also claimed that a paddle steamer could not compare in speed and maneuverability against a sailing ship, and the economic inefficiency of the marine steam engine only aided in the slow transition to steam power from sail in the Royal Navy. These were the major reasons wooden built vessels were chosen by Admiralty and composite or wooden built ships were chosen in the merchant sector. But there were some ambitious merchants and they built their companies on the power of steam. It would be Cunard that traveled to the West, whilst it would be the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation company that would travel to the East, fighting against competition like the East India Co. for the Royal Mail Contracts: P&O won the contracts, and it is P&O that can be used as the epitome for the rise in 19th century steam navigation.

19th Century Steam Power
England’s Ministry of Transport (MOT) maintained records of vessels registered as belonging to the United Kingdom and the registered tonnage. Table 1 represents the figures provided. The MOT did not specify whether the vessels registered in the years 1833, 1834, & 1835 were steam powered or sailing, because at this early period of the 19th century a steam powered vessel was usually only the result of an experiment (Fairbairn, 1865). For the years 1869, 1870, & 1871 the MOT does specify how many vessels registered were sailing or steam and the registered tonnage for each category (TNA, MT9/72). Table 1 was supplemented with data from Gardiner (1993).

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By analyzing this information and comparing years and decades, the exponential increase in steam power during the second half of the 19th century is apparent, and by 1880 the registered tonnage of steam vessels is almost equal to the number of sailing vessels and double what it was in 1860. By 1890, the registered tonnage of steam ships doubles again, and is more than twice as much registered tonnage than sailing ships. The most intriguing aspect of this rapid increase in the registered tonnage of steam ships compared to that of the sailing ships, is not necessarily due to an exponential production rate in the overall number of iron hulled steam ships being built (although the total number of stem ships was increasing), but was the result of individual size of each ship; the tonnage for a passenger/cargo vessels had doubled by 1870 (see figures 3 and 6) and tripled by 1890 compared to those registered in 1860.

Table 1. Number of Vessels and Tonnage Registered as Belonging to the United Kingdom Years Sailing Vessels # Of Ships 1833 1834 1835 1850 1860 1869 1870 1871 1880 1890 -------------------23,426 22,475 21,817 -------Tons Steam Vessels # Of Ships ------------------2,963 3,168 3,371 ------Tons ----Totals # Of Ships 19,158 19,447 19,737 ----------26,389 25,643 25,188 ---------Tons 2,233,855 2,274,702 2,320,667 3,565,133 4,658,687 5,634,727 5,617,693 5,622,660 6,574,513 7,978,538

----

-----3,396,659 4,204,360 4,687,706 4,506,318 4,305,112 3,851,045 2,936,021

-----

-----

----

----168,474 454,327 947,021 1,111,375 1,317,548 2,723,468 5,042,517

----

(After TNA, MT9/72; Gardiner 1993, p.10)

The exponential increase in the registered tonnage for steam powered ships reflects the technological brake through that was needed to make alternative propulsion, the use of iron, and eventually steel an economically viable, political acceptable, and socially necessary for the culture of 19th century British society. Table 1 also helps to put into perspective, the uniqueness of the iron hulled, steam powered screw ship built in the United Kingdom from the early1860’s. When the data from Table 1 is compared to the number of shipbuilders, and various patents on engines, steering, screw propellers’ etc., almost every ship built during that time period was unique based on the statistics.

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The total registered tonnage 19 of steam ships in 1869, the year the Carnatic wrecked on Abu Nuhâs Reef amounted to only 11.3% of the total registered tonnage of all vessels within the UK. P&O, one of the leading passenger and mail cargo companies represented less than 0.03% of that total. 20

Figure 3. S.S. Peshawur was built in 1871, less than a decade after the S.S. Carnatic. Some of Peshawur’s cargo holds shown here were built as cabins to hold 164 1 nd class and 52 2 class passengers. Built by Caird & Co. Tonnage comparison: Carnatic’s 2,014 gross tons, Peshawur’s 7,942.67 gross tons (NMM, P&O/61/11, photograph by author).
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st

This is the registered tonnage within the United Kingdom under the Merchant Shipping Act of 1854 (effective starting 1855). This calculation was made by using the P&O fleet list, which gives the companies total tonnage yearly (NMM, P&O/43/3; O&O/60/20; P&O/64/11).

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The increase was not only sparked by the technological advances in marine steam power or the efficiency of the screw propeller over the paddle wheel, but also because of the economic demands that many companies traveling eastward faced with the opening of the Suez Canal in November 1869 (Howarth, 1986, pp.100101). The P&O’s extensive investment since the 1840’s in the Alexandria to Suez overland route had their income falling by £100,000 a year just two years after the canals opening (Howarth, 1986, p.101). One of the major causes had to do with the legal agreements made between the P&O and the Royal Mail General Postmaster for the mail contracts, which specified that the mails had to travel the overland route. P&O wanted to cut their costs and carry the mails through the newly opened Suez Canal, but the Post Office refused. This meant that the P&O could not cut the overhead costs associated with their established overland route. It was only after P&O agreed to a £30,000 reduction in its mail contract subsidies that the Royal Mail Post Office allowed P&O to travel through the canal with the mails rather than offloading them in Alexandria and reloading them in Suez (Howarth, 1986, p.101; NMM, P&O/30/13; P&O/30/84). 21 P&O was the major steam company adversely affected by this event for many years, but other cargo carrying ships were hit even harder by the opening of the Suez Canal. The tea trade from China to Britain was based on the competitively fast sailing passage around the Cape of Good Hope. This competition for seedy returns with tea cargo lead to the increase in the building of composite clippers, not only to compete with the wooden sailing vessels taking the same route, but also with the rising steam powered vessels that carried both cargos and passengers around the Cape of Good Hope (MacGregor, 1979; MacGregor, 1983a; MacGregor, 1988b; MacGregor, 1993c; Gardiner 1993a). The Tea Clippers did not have much competition from steamers in the tea trade prior to the opening of the canal, because it was not cost efficient for steamers to travel around the Cape of Good Hope, but once the canal opened the tea and other various trades were opened to steam ships due to the reduced passage time through the canal. The demand for speed around the Cape of Good Hope was diminished, and the worst aspect of this historical event, was that the canal was virtually impossible to navigate under sail. Therefore, the sailing ships’ career began to decrease with

The P&O collection at the NMM in Greenwich holds the ledgers with letters written between the P&O Co. and the Post Office regarding this issue. Refer to NMM P&O/11/2; P&O/30/13 and appendix V.
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tremendous economic and social affects for those who worked in the industry in Britain (De Leppeps, 1875; Gardiner, 1993a).

Figure 4. The Illustrated London News clipping of the Suez Canal opening dated 20 November 1869 (NMM, P&O/98/7).

The opening of the Suez Canal was a monumental event that may political leaders in Britain thought would never happen, including the P&O’s Board of Directors, but French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps succeeded in building the

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canal and impacted the history of 19th century shipping in as great of measures as the marine steam engine or screw propeller. The Suez Canal opened trade from the East, increased the demand for steam-powered vessels, and forced companies like P&O to build larger and large steamers that could carry more cargo. 22 Eventually, they had to sell off their older steamers that they had continued to build the ten years prior to the opening of Lesseps canal; ships the size and tonnage of the Carnatic because they could no longer carry the amount of cargo necessary to stay profitable against the rise in competition for trade, mail contracts and passengers (Howarth, 1986). 23 Shipping in the 19th century changed dramatically between 1800 and 1875. It continued to change as the development of the triple expansion marine engine took place and the use of steel for marine boilers and ships developed (Sennett, 1885). These changes can be associated with all facets of culture: economic, political, social, and even symbolic. These dimensions, which are affected by time, are the dimensions that define the field of maritime archaeology, and they are what we as maritime archaeologists look at first to analyze the meaning of a shipwreck, not just the construction of the vessel itself, but how all of this, including the archaeological remains links to our understanding the past (Muckelroy, 1978; McCarthy, 2000; Oxley et al., 1992; Green, 2004; Clark, 1990).

De Lesseps reported in his personal narrative that in 1870, 486 vessels used the canal equaling 654,915 gross tons and earned the Suez Canal company £206,373. In 1871, 765 vessels, 1,142,200 grt, £359,748. In 1872, 1082 vessels, 1,744,481 grt, £656,303. In 1873, 1173 vessels, 2,085,072 grt, £915,892. In 1874, 1264 vessels, 2,423,672 grt, £994,375 (1875, p.X) 23 Howarth claims that the P&O had to sell “at a sacrifice about 40,000 tons of their older vessels, most of which could not carry sufficient cargo” (1986, p.98). The Carnatic sank two moths before the opening of the Suez Canal, and her sister ship, the Rangoon another Suez/India routed vessel a year after the canal opened. Is it possible that P&O, soon to be facing financial crisis also scarified several of their ships to access their underwriting funds in order to fund the building of larger vessels?
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Figure 5. Digitally scanned original profile plan of S.S. Bangalore, 1867 (NMM, Brass Foundry, Denny’s Collection Nº 222)

Figure 6. Digitally scanned original profile plan of S.S. Indus, 1871 (NMM, Brass Foundry, Denny’s Collection Nº 146)

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CHAPTER V HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF S.S. CARNATIC: 1862-1869

The Carnatic’s iron keel was laid in 1862 by the shipbuilding company Samuda Brothers Limited, once located on the Thames in an area known as Cubbit Town, Isle of Dogs London: their shipyard shut down in 1892 (TNA, BT31/3530/21537). When building began, the Carnatic was originally to be called Mysore, but by the date of her registration— 24th March 1863 she was officially named the Carnatic and owned by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O/65/91). Her price, according to original P&O account ledgers was £107,013.10 (NMM, P&O/5/611).

Figure 7. Digital photograph (by the author) of a color printer of the S.S. Carnatic, 1863 (NMM, 1PAH9079).

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Table 2: Dimensions and specifications of the Carnatic

Built Length Beam Length-to-beam ration Depth of hold Draft Gross tonnage Net tonnage Power Propulsion Funnel Max Speed Avg. Speed

1862 89.79m (294.7ft) 11.61m (38.1ft) 7.73 5.36m (17.6ft) 5.64m (18.5ft) 2,014 grt 1,254 nrt 2,442 ihp 1 screw/ two masts 1 Funnel 15.384 knots 12 knots

The ship was a combination sail and steam powered vessel, with one screw propeller that had three blades. Specifications could not be found in the historical record pertaining to the design of this vessels screw propeller, or which patent was used. In addition to the technical specifications, the Carnatic was also built with a bearded male figurehead. Because no lines, decks or profile plans exist of the Carnatic, or her sister ship the Rangoon, the color print shown in Figure 7 is one of the only documentary pieces of evidence available of this aesthetic feature that captures the period of sailing ships. 24

Figure 8. Macro digital zoom of fig. 7.
24

Figure 9. Bow of Carnatic (Gardiner et al., 1993)

On p.170 of The Advent of Steam: The Merchant Steamship before 1900 edited by R. Gardiner there is black & white photograph of a ship, the Carnatic, that has been referenced simple P&O. All efforts were made by the author of this dissertation to find the original, which should be held at the National Maritime Museum Caird Library in Greenwich since it is the main depository for the P&O. The photograph could not be found, even with the assistance from staff in the Plans & Photos Dept. located at the Brass Foundry. The photo and the figurehead look vary similar to the color print except that the arms appear to be crossed on the color print & are extended to the sides in the photo that cannot be verified as the Carnatic.

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By the 1870’s most iron ships built lost this feature in order to gain more cargo and passenger space at the bow of the ship. The Bangalore, built by Denny Bros. For the P&O in 1867 also has a figurehead, but it is a female according to the profile drawings that exist. 25 In contrast to these ships and irrespective of who built them, the Indus, also built by Denny Brothers & Co. in 1871 shows the developmental change in the bow and the eventual loss of the figurehead in 19th century iron steam ships.

Figure 10. Digital photograph (take by the author) of the profile plan of the Indus, 1871 (NMM, Brass Foundry, Denny’s Collection Nº 146).

The profile reveals a much fuller, rounder bow and no bowsprit; this development in hull form can be associated with the transition to steam power from the main mode of power of sail. The power of the marine engine developed
The National Maritime Museum’s Brass Foundry in Greenwich houses the original lines, profile, Spar/Main decks and deck plans of the Bangalore. The condition of the sets of plans would not allow for photocopying of the deck plans of the Bangalore but were available for viewing at the time of this writing. The ships plans for the Tamar where also viewed by the author for construction comparisons between the technologies used by the Samuda Bros. for merchant and Royal Navy ships in 1863.
25

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to the point where the hull lines no longer needed to be sharply streamlined to achieve speeds of 12 or 13 knots, and thus, the ships hull could be built fuller to carry more cargo and more passengers; two demands that increased by the late 19th century that had to be met with efficiency.

The Marine Steam Engine
The marine steam engine operating in the S.S. Carnatic for the ship’s entire period of service in the P&O was built by Humphry’s, Tennat & Company; it was a four-cylinder compounding vertical tandem steam engine (P&O/65/91). Two of the cylinders were 43 inches in diameter and the second two cylinders were 96 inches in diameter with a 36 inch stoke at 72 revolutions per minute according to three new paper articles written around the time of her launching in 1863 (NMM, P&O/98/7; P&O/65/11). This information can also be found at the Science Museum in London, where they have a spectacular exhibit with a miniatureoperating model of the S.S. Carnatic’s marine steam engine. 26

Figure 11. The historical information provided about the S.S. Carnatic along with the 1:8 scale model of the ships marine ship engine (The Marine Steam Engine. Museum of Science London, photograph by the author).

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It will be pointed out later from the photographic evidence taken during the archaeological assessment survey that the full description given for the S.S. Carnatic in the display at the Science Museum in London is not accurate regarding the screw propeller: there are three blades and not two. This seemingly innocent mistake not only can mislead the general public but it can also confuse researchers since no other historical documentation of the screw propeller design exists.

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1

2

9

3

Figure 12. 1:8 scale model of the marine steam engine from the S.S. Carnatic. Both sides (The Marine Steam Engine. Museum of Science London, photograph by the author).

(1) Identifies the jacketed high-pressure cylinder, (2) is the jacketed low-pressure cylinder

5

6

4

7

Figures 13. Right side views of the model marine steam engine of the S.S. Carnatic. Unfortunately the reflection of light form the glass box, which incased the model, degrades the picture quality (The Marine Steam Engine. Museum of Science London, photograph by the author).

.

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10

8

9

Figure 14. Close up of the 1:8 scale model of the S.S. Carnatic (The Marine Steam. Engine Museum of Science London, photograph by the author).

(3,4) is the motion link rod, (5,6) are connecting rods, (7) is the screw shaft, (8) are the superheated condensers & air pumps, (9) is the crankshaft, and (10) is the rod directly from the low-pressure cylinder (above) to the air pump.

The link motion identified by in figures 12 & 13 were also discussed by Holmes (1889, p.22) as being specially adapted for the marine steam engines of that period, and renowned for its “simplicity, strength and durability.” Humphry’s used the link motion in marine steam engines he was building for ships of war and for the merchant navy.
Edward Humphry’s, like most engineers in the 19th century placed a patent on any design or improvement that he conceived of relating to the marine engines he built. Between 11 February 1860 and 4 March 1865 Humphry’s placed four patents (two only provisional protection) on his marine engines and boilers.

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Patent Nº 655 (11th March 1862) was only provisional at the time the S.S. Carnatic was built, but most likely represents the design Humphry’s used for the ships marine steam engine. The patent states:
This invention relates to that description of compound steam engine “in which two cylinders, a small one, into which the steam first enters, and a larger one in which it is subsequently allowed to expand, are employed, and i n which the pistons of the cylinders are connected together by a piston rod passing through the cover or partition which separates the small from the l arge cylinder. The improvements consist in applying a trunk to the large piston and a suitable connecting rod, as in ordinary trunk engines, to transmit the power from the two pistons to a crank on a shaft or axis.”

Patent Nº 613 was one of the last listed in the Abridgments of Specifications relating to the steam engine index (Figure 15).

Figure 15. Humphry’s Provisional Patent form Abridgments of Specifications relating to the Steam engine: part 2, AD 1860-1864, Great Britain Commissioners of Patents for Inventions 1871(Photograph by the author).

At the time of acquiring these provisional patents, Humphry’s had not provided drawings to the patent office. Therefore, the engineering specifications and description given by George Holmes, secretary of the Institution of Naval Architects will be used for investigating the machinery that was once on board the

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S.S. Carnatic along with the writings from several other engineers from the 19th century who wrote treatises on the subjects of marine steam engines and screw propellers. Holmes (1889, p.58) praised the inverted compounding steam engine as a satisfactory engine for mercantile ships. Holmes (1889, p.58) also points out that mercantile vessels mostly used the horizontal engine until about 1860 (figure 18). During this same time Humphry’s was filing for multiple patents on steam engine improvements. It’s worth noting that the inverted type of marine steam engine was also called the steam hammer because of the cylinder arrangement standing above the screw-shaft as seen in the in figure 16 (Holmes 1889, p.58; Sennett, 1885; Main, 1865).

Figure 16. Side elevation illustration of a mid-1800’s inverted cylinder marine steam engine (From Holmes, 1889, p.52).

Figure 17. Excerpt describing in words the benefits of Humphry’s tandem compounding marine steam engine accompanied by a simplistic line drawing of its mechanical arrangement (From Main, 1865, p.163, photograph by the author).

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It is also apparent from figure 16 that these engines were not confined below the water line as was the horizontal marine steam engine found in many of the Royal Navy Steam Ships that were being built at that time. The requirements for Royal Navy Ships had a lot to do with the fact that the vessels also had to carry guns and therefore, to maintain the vessels stability the marine engine needed to be confined below the waterline. Even more importantly, this left the decks above the water free for the required guns (Holmes, 1889; Murray. 1868; Sennett, 1885). Holmes (1889, p.58) states that “one of the great advantages of this class [of engines] over the horizontal engine is that the cylinders and pistons wear much better, for, with the latter type, a great proportion of the weight of the piston has to be borne by the lower half of the cylinder, which consequently has a tendency to wear unevenly.”

Figure 18. Model of the horizontal direct-acting marine steam engine built by Messrs. Humphry’s & Tennant in 1864 for the coastal defense armour-plated turret ship the Prince Albert. Scale 1:12 (The Marine Steam Engine. Museum of Science London, photograph by the author).

The main benefit mercantile shipping companies like P&O gained from the use of a vertically arranged steam engine rather than a horizontally arranged engine was purely economic; and not from a coal burning efficiency differential, but from the cost of repairing the engines, replacing unevenly worn pistons, and the cost of labor and down time to do this (Sennett, 1885). While this was noted by naval engineers such as Sennett (1885) and Holmes (1889) twenty years after the use of vertical marine engines began, the actual economic benefit was not known in the early 1860’s and many merchant shipping companies preferred to continue to use the horizontal marine engine.

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The marine engine built for the S.S. Carnatic is also a representation of another change in marine engine design that took place during the time period of her building that was not yet a standardized method of engine construction, but would eventually dominate the design of marine engines by the end of the 19th century. The early 1860’s began to see a shift from the old geared engines, like the second engine installed in the S.S. Great Britain, to what was installed in the Carnatic: a direct-acting engine that connected the crank shaft directly to the screw shaft (Holmes, 1889, pp.50-55; Sennett, 1885). The inverted vertical tandem machine arrangement and the direct-acting method of power are two very notable technological advancements in the marine steam engine. These changes followed the greatest change that contributed to the increase in steam ship construction and use in the mid 19th century and that was the invention of the double expansion engine (Holmes, 1889; Gardiner 1993; Sennett, 1885; Bourne, 1867). Prior to double expansion, fuel efficiency was a major fact in the slow development of the use of steam. Very few mercantile companies could stay profitable or in business due to the cost of coal for fuel (Howarth, 1986). In the early years of steam power, like the P&O’s fleet of seven steamers in 1837, boasting two of the “largest and most powerful ships afloat”, the Don Juan and the Tagus, survival was contingent on government mail contracts (Howarth, 1986, pp.16-19). The P&O was one company that was able to ride out the high expense of the cost of coal due to inefficient marine steam engines solely based on the subsidies it received for the mail contracts. Eventually, the marine steam engine would improve dramatically and by the time the Carnatic was afloat the average fuel used on a ship like the Carnatic was 2 lbs of coal per horsepower per hour at 12 knots (Holmes, 1889, pp.78-81)

Figure 19. This illustration shows a vertical tandem direct acting marine steam engine, the pistons inside the high & low pressure cylinders, and the condenser (From Holmes 1889, p.76, photograph by the author).

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The combination of double expansion along with surface condensers improved the fuel efficiency greatly (Main, 1865; Sennett, 1885; Holmes, 1889). Robert Murray (1868) an engineer and a surveyor for the Board of Trade wrote that from 1859 until the date of his publication in 1868 that surface condensation had made “vast progress” and contributed to the overall fuel efficiency of the marine steam engine. Murray (1868, p.31) states: “the moment of decisive advance was perhaps that of the starting of the Moultan for the Peninsular and Oriental Company, with engines on this principle by Messrs. Humphrey’s & Durrant, with the immediate and permanently sustained result of an economy of fuel amounting to about one-fifth that previously consumed for like performances. Murray attributes much of this efficiency to the surface condensers. 27 This review of the S.S. Carnatic’s marine steam engine is by no means an exhaustive review of 19th century marine steam engines for screw-propelled vessels. 28 However, it does help to built a case for future in situ archaeological study of the ship wreck sites to record what material artifacts remain, and to support the reasoning behind implementing a long-term CRM plan for the submerged site of the Carnatic.

Lamb & Summers Marine Boiler
The boilers built for the Carnatic were of the sheet flue type. The boilers were patented and built by Lamb and Summers of Southampton. Murray (1868, pp.25-34) stated that “ they [the sheet flue boiler] appear to posses some advantages over the tubular boiler, the surfaces in contact with water being more easily kept clean and free of deposit, the joints requiring but little attention to keep them tight and in good repair, and their flues are certainly more durable than either brass or iron.”

Before surface condensation, when boilers were feed salt water directly and worked at “pressures above 35 lbs per square inch the sulphate of line contained in the sea water would be deposited on the inside surfaces of the boiler” and create a barrier that was a “non-conductor of heat”. Thus demanding more fuel (coal) to be burnt to create higher degrees of heat. For further analysis of the surface condenser see Marine Engines & Boilers (Holmes, 1889, p.62). 28 For an in-depth comprehensive review of the marine steam engine up to and including the triple th st nd th expansion engine refer to this 19 century authors: Sennett, Richard 1 ed 1882, 2 ed 1885, 5 ed th 1900; Main, Thomas 5 ed 1885; Evers, Henry 1887; Bourne, John 1867 and 1870. The leading th contemporary author of our time on 19 century steam ships is MacGregor, David 1979, 1983, 1988, 1993 and Gardiner, Robert 1993.
27

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Figure 20. Provisional Patent for the sheet flue boiler designed by Lamb. Abridgments of Specifications relating to the Steam engine: part 2, AD 1860-1864, Great Britain Commissioners of Patents for Inventions 1871 (Photograph by the author).

Figure 21. Illustration of a Lamb and Summers’ Patent Sheet flue boiler in H.M.S. Troop ship Himalaya (From Murray, 1868, p.86. Photograph by the author).

The sheet flue boiler did take up 1/3 more space than the tubular boilers but they made up for this by being more economical in regards to cost and repairs because they were more durable than the tubular boilers (Murray 1868, p.34).

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The Carnatic’s Screw Propulsion
A review of the Carnatic and it’s place in socio-cultural history, and as UCH would not be complete without at the very least a brief review of her method of propulsion and it’s role in 19th century iron hulled steam ships. The previous chapter set the context for a historical archaeological analysis of the Carnatic, which has been the purpose of this chapter. This section is an attempt to tie together the final historical materials before analysis of the archaeological remains that were investigated of the Carnatic are presented in Chapter VII. The Carnatic’s career began in 1863 for the P&O Steam Navigation Co. By this time, the screw had taken over for the paddle wheel in almost all ocean-going vessels built in Britain (Sennett, 1885; Holmes, 1889). But the history of the screw propeller and it’s various successes and failures spans the entire early 1800’s. After Dr. Shorter’s 1802 experiment with the screw, the most notable experiments to follow were the comparative analyses done between the paddle wheels and the screws in the 1840’s (Sennett, 1885). The experiments between the Archimedes screw and a paddle wheel packet boat increased interest in the screw as a method of propulsion (Sennett, 1885; Bourne, 1867; Gardiner, 1993a). But just like the marine engines, and the marine boilers, the screw propeller underwent many different designs, and it was only through trail and error that efficiency was finally met near the end of the 19th century. Despite at times there being screw propeller designs that were less efficient than others Sennett (1885, p.9) notes, “The adoption of the screw propeller in lieu of the paddle wheel was the most important step taken in the progress of marine engineering”. And by his own time, Sennett states that “at the present day it [the screw propeller] is almost solely employed for marine propulsion, the paddle wheel only being applied to special cases” i.e. riverboats, channel ferries etc. The review of literature on the subject of screw propulsion supports the authors claim that there existed a wide diversity of designs, and the one used on the Carnatic is only one of many that were employed in the 19th century. There was no typical screw blade that was employed until the 1860’s. When Griffith’s introduced his patent it became a popular alternative to the propeller blades in use, but the technology was quickly surpassed by new designs (Murray, 1868). His design employed three-blades that were wider at the base that at the tip. Figure 26 is an illustration of Griffith’s patent. Murray (1868, p.144) purports that this design is “the

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best modification of the common screw to date. Later designs would make this type of screw blade obsolete, but experiments proved it to be more efficient than many of the other designs being employed at that time.

Figure 22. A two-blade screw propeller (From Murray, 1868, p.142, photograph by the author).

Figure 23. This two-blade spoon cup propeller was patent by G. Peacock in 1855 (Science Museum London, photograph by author).

Figure 24. Display of various types screw propellers; each one with a different blade shape and a different pitch (Science Museum London, photograph by author).

Figure 25. Maudslay’s feathering screw (From Murray, 1868, p.149, photograph by the author).

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Amongst the many documentary errors the author found in researching the Carnatic, it was no surprise to find little, if any details about the type of screw employed on this vessel. The P&O online Encyclpaedia Peninsular (2003)
29

describes it as a “one screw” with no details as to what type of blade the Carnatic actually employed during the 5 1/2 years of service on the Suez/India route. The Times reported on 20 April 1863 “she is propelled by a two-bladed screw, with the leading corners cut off diameter 16 ft. and 23 ft. pitch”. This is the same information provided by the Science Museum in London (Figure 11). This information is plausible and used as a primary source of information since no survey documents, lines plans, or profile plans exist of the ship stating and showing that originally she was fitted with a two-bladed screw and later modified with a blade similar to the Griffith’s patent, but there seems to be no financial transaction for a propeller change in the P&O account ledgers which are very accurate with regards to the replacing of machinery. 30 According to the archaeological remains of the ship, it is conclusive that this information is misleading and incorrect. The results of the investigation lead the author to purport that the blade must have been changed sometime during the Carnatic’s service or was incorrectly reported form the onset, and that the blade which is now a piece of material cultural lying on the sea floor in the Straits of Gubal, is of the Griffiths’ patent type (Figure 26).

Figure 26. Drawing of Griffiths’ three-bladed propeller. The centers of the blades are hollow and trails showed that this reduced the absorption of screw power by 20% (Murray, 1868, p.144).
See appendix XI for full historical account of the shipwreck as reported by the P&O. The National Maritime Museum’s Caird Library in Greenwich holds these ledgers, and on of the only records found of machinery replacements was a new set of boilers purchased in 1865 for £5100. (NMM, P&O/60/4; P&O/5/611). See appendix VI.
29 30

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These findings will be evaluated in Chapter VII, but it is worth noting at this juncture since the topic currently being reviewed is the Carnatic’s screw propeller.

Carnatic: An Iron Ship
The last aspect to be reviewed in the historical construction of the Carnatic as a mid 19th century combination steam and sail powered iron with one screw propeller vessel is the hull and frame design. The historical record pertaining to the Carnatic specifically on this subject is nil, since all ships’ plans are lost, but the Annals of Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping does provide general details on the requirements for iron built ships. Even though the Carnatic wasn’t listed in the Lloyd’s of London Register because P&O were their own underwriting company, it is plausible to conclude that the Carnatic was built to the highest survey standards, since it was employed for the government carrying the Royal Mail and government species.

Figure 27. Lloyd’s specifications for iron built ships, 1863 (NNM, Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, 1863).

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Figure 28. Lloyd’s specifications for iron built ships, 1863 (NNM, Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, 1863).

Figure 29. Lloyd’s specifications for iron built ships, 1863 (NNM, Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, 1863).

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Figure 30. Lloyd’s specifications for iron built ships, 1863 (NNM, Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, 1863).

Figure 31. Lloyd’s specifications for iron built ships, 1863 (NNM, Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, 1863).

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Figure 32. Illustration by John Price of Sunderland showing the results of the comparative merits of the rules for constructing iron ships between Lloyd’s and Liverpool Underwriters (Price, 1867, pp. 60, 61).

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The specifications listed by Lloyd’s can be used as a general guide to the hull and frame construction of the Carnatic (Fairbairn, 1865). Unlike the differences in engine machinery, screw propulsion and screw blades, steering, boilers, and other parts of the ship that make up the whole, the framing and skin of the ships’ hull varied much less due to Lloyd’s requirements for ship registry. That is not to say the Lloyd’s specifications were exclusively used in building iron ships. 31 If a shipping company or ship owner wanted their particular vessel insured by Lloyd’s then their vessel had to meet Lloyd’s specifications. P&O however, were their own Underwriters 32 and set funds aside to insure their ships, so it was not a requirement that they adhere specifically to purchasing ships that were built to Lloyd’s requirements (NMM, P&O/64/4; P&O/60/4; P&O/60/20). The final conclusion is that it is best to have the original ships’ plans for any survey, but when this vital information is lost through time, it only strengthens the argument that a full in situ survey of a wreck site such as the Carnatic’s should be undertaken.

See figure 32. The illustration in Figure 32 is from a book published by the Institute of Engineers in Scotland and is a comparative analysis of the Lloyd’s and the Scottish iron ship specifications. 32 See appendix VI.
31

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The Carnatic’s Career
This section covers the historical data pertaining to the Carnatic’s 5 ½ year career before she sank. 33 The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co. employed the Carnatic from the time the ship came of the stocks to the wrecking near Shadwan Island. During the Carnatic’s career she was captained by 13 different men, all well experienced captains, including Captain Jones, the captain that was in charge of the ship when it struck the reef just north of Shadwan Island (NMM, P&O/40/10; P&O/40/11; P&O/40/12; P&O/40/13).

Figure 33. This map shows the Eastern Hemisphere and the major routes the Carnatic followed during the 5 ½ years service as a mail, cargo, and passenger steamer for the P&O. The Carnatic rounded the Cape of Good Hope only once, on her out-bound journey from Southampton to the East (routes drawn by the author from P&O/4010; P&O/40/11; P&O/40/12; P&O/40/13).
See appendix II for the Carnatic’s 5 ½ years of ship movements, including the P&O logbook account from the captain of S.S. Samutra on 14 Sept. 1869. See appendix III for original signed crew lists from 1863 and 1869.
33

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P&O had already been employing steam vessels from Suez to the Far East since the 1840’s, so the routes for the Royal Mail Packets, and the dates of pick-up and delivery, which were a crucial element in acquiring the mails contracts were already established by the time the Carnatic entered into the Suez/India Route (NMM, P&O/30/37; Howarth, 1986).

Figure 34. 1861 Suez and the Mauritius Mail contract between Her Majesty’s Postmaster General and the P&O (NMM, P&O/30/37, photograph taken by the author).

The importance of these schedules has been noted by several author’s (Howarth, 1986; Gardiner, 1993a; McCarthy, 2000) as one of the main reasons for the early success of P&O steamer’s in acquiring mail contract’s. It was their ability to create and maintain a schedule that was predicable that provided the company with the contract subsidies that kept the company afloat in times of increasing costs of coal. And unlike the sailing vessels, which were at the mercy of the winds, a ship powered by coal could guarantee a specific date of arrival, and in P&O’s case, if that date was not met the company incurred fines by the Postmaster General (Howarth, 1986; NMM, P&O/11/2; P&O/30/84; P&O/30/13).

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That maybe one of the reasons P&O tested the Carnatic’s sea worthiness in the Mediterranean before sending the vessel around the Cape Of Good Hope to begin service on the Suez/India Route schedule. In the first quarter of the Carnatic’s service to the P&O, she was placed on the Mediterranean side of the route to the East, making stops at Gibraltar, Malta and finally Alexandria, where she no doubt picked up passengers and mail returning from China and India (NMM, P&O/40/10; P&O/40/11). Eventually, the Carnatic rounded the Cape of Good Hope to begin a career on the eastern side of the P&O mail packet and passenger route. This is also where, in the Straits of Gubal the Carnatic would forever rest as a source of cultural resources for archaeological investigation and a tourist diver site. Figures 35-40 are copies of historical documents pertaining to the career of the S.S. Carnatic and the P&O; for the reader’s personal review of a few of the primary historical documents in existence before beginning Chapters VI & VII—site location and the survey.

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Figure 35. Table of passenger prices, dated 1861 (NMM, P&O/71/22, photograph by the author).

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Figure 36. This is the first section of the first crew agreement for the Carnatic leaving Southampton for the Eastern Mail route on the other side of the African continent. Captain Purchase was the first captain to be assigned to the Carnatic after Captain Burne who ran the Southampton/Alexandria route (MHA, 47298/1863/ J1/schedule C. This reference also contains the only surviving official log).

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Figure 37. Signed crew list for the Carnatic. Top of the list, Captain Jones signature (MHA, 47298/1869/ A2/schedule C.).

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Figure 38. Particulars relating to the wages and effect of seamen decreased during the voyage. This is an official list of crew members who did not survey the sinking of the Carnatic (MHA, 47298/1869/ A2.).

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Figure 39. These are the names of the passengers that did not survey the wrecking of the Carnatic, plus 15 un-named native crew members that were also lost (MHA, 47298/1869/ A2).

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Figure 40. An official letter referring to the wrecking of the Carnatic and the reported number of deaths, which is also the official number of lives reported lost on 14 Sept. 1869 by the MOT (TNA, M9/72; MHA, 47298/1869/P2).

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CHAPTER VI THE SITE LOCATION & FORMATION PROCESS
Wreck Site of the Carnatic
The location of the wreck site of the S.S. Carnatic is approximately 2.5 nautical miles north of Shadwan Island (Gezîret Shâkir) where a reef exists that is just below the sea surface at low tide. The geographical coordinates are listed in several recreational diving guidebooks as 27°34.25’N, 33°55.75’E (Ghisotti, 2004, p.62; Middleton, 1999-2004; Buckles, 1995). Comparison of the coordinates on multiple large area charts of the Red Sea from U.S.G.S. & British Admiralty Chart #2375 (1999) confirms these coordinates.

Figure 41. Chart drawing (no scale) showing a view of some of Egypt’s coastal land, Islands, and sea south of the Mediterranean. A red arrow indicates Abu Nuhas reef.

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Figure 42. British Admiralty Chart #2375 (1999) showing the depth soundings, shallow waters, reefs, islands and contemporary shipping lane with strong southern currents. Scale 1;500,000 (photograph by the author).

Shadwan Island is located at the mouth of Gubal Straits where it meets the Red Sea. The island is the biggest in the Northern Red Sea and is now an Egyptian military zone with no access restrictions. One, of a number of reef patches near Shadwan Island is called Sha’ab Abu Nuhâs, meaning copper reef in Arabic (Collings, 1996, p.57). The Egyptians named Sha’ab Abu Nuhâs this because of the cargo onboard the Carnatic when it struck the reef and sank. It was the location of this reef, nearest the popular shipping lane, and its characteristics that determined the Carnatic’s fate. The ship now rests at a maximum depth of 27m.

Straits of Gubal Oceanography
The tidal range near the mouth of the Gulf of Suez where Shadwan Island and Abu Nuhâs reef are geographically located is approximately 0.6 meters (Wikipedia, 2007)

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At low tide Abu Nuhâs is approximately 0.5—0.6 meters below the surface of the sea making it difficult to see on calm days because there isn’t the presence of waves breaking over the top of the reef. But calm days are few in this location; in the summer there are northeasterly winds through the Straits of Gubal and into the north facing side of Abu Nuhâs reef. In the winter the winds switch directions, but for this particular reef, the threat it has posed to ships over the historical timeline has been the winds that blow directly towards the north-face of the reef. The current powered by these winds pulls ships into the northern face of Sha’ab Abu Nuhâs, and in 1869, the year the Carnatic struck this reef that is exactly what happened. There appears to be a lack of historical data pertaining to the tides and winds that affected the Straits of Gubal in the 1860’s. The wind speeds and sea conditions could be compiled from the logbooks of ships that used the passage at that time, and the author attempted this, but the logbooks for the Carnatic are no longer in existence in any archive and due to time constraints decided researching for a different ships’ logbooks would not be useful for this discussion. Therefore, to illustrate the average speed of wind near Abu Nuhâs the author has used an online weather forecasting provider, which was also used in determining the days to conducting diving at the site as well as to compile a weather profile covering the period from January 2005 until August 2007. The nearest location a weather reading is taken for use on this website is the town of El Gouna, which is located to the west of Abu Nuhâs reef and as a coastal area is usually less windy than further out into the Straits of Gubal. The information obtained from Windguru is compiled from various forecasting models: 34 I. GFS Model: Global Forecast System II. NAM Model: North American Mesoscale III. MM5 Model: Mesoscale and Microscale IV. WRF Model: Weather Research and Forecasting

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These models are a collaborative effort between the National Center for Atmospheric Research

(NCAR), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and the Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL). The model used in Table 3 is a GFS Model.

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Table 3. From the Global Forecast System Model (Weatherguru, 2007). Numbers represent the percentage of days during that month that were rated at that number on the Beaufort scale. The Beaufort scale numbers are represented by colors (see color scale at bottom). Egypt - El Gouna, Lat: 27.37, Lon: 33.67, Timezone: GMT+2
Month 1/2005 2/2005 3/2005 4/2005 5/2005 6/2005 7/2005 8/2005 9/2005 10/2005 11/2005 12/2005 1/2006 2/2006 3/2006 4/2006 5/2006 6/2006 7/2006 8/2006 9/2006 10/2006 11/2006 12/2006 1/2007 2/2007 3/2007 4/2007 5/2007 6/2007 7/2007 8/2007 8+ Bft 7 Bft 6 Bft 6 30 26 43 5 Bft 4 Bft 3 Bft 13 3 4 16 40 39 70 68 100 25 6 17 23 32 54 55 68 67 71 93 61 3 35 35 57 52 60 68 3 7 18 23 27 26 53 55 63 65 90 87 77 83 10 29 61 3 19 30 39 68 63 6 60 3 13 39 52 26 60 4 10 30 68 100 68 74 93 74 Wind - % of days with x+ Beaufort 14 39 39 43 68 71 73 Day Night temp. temp. 21 20 24 28 30 33 35 35 33 28 23 21 19 21 24 27 31 34 34 35 34 29 22 18 18 21 24 28 33 35 36 36 15 15 18 21 24 25 27 28 26 22 18 16 14 15 17 19 23 26 26 28 26 22 16 13 12 14 16 19 23 27 27 28

2- Bft

From Table 3 we can extrapolate the mean average Beaufort number for the month of September as a 4. A hydrographer and British admiral called Sir Francis Beaufort created the Beaufort scale in 1805, and it is now commonly used to

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indicate wind force (Met Office, 2007). Table 3 has been created to elucidate the data in Table 2; for the understanding of the wind forces historically affecting Abu Nuhâs reef.

Table 4. Beaufort’s criterion circa 1832. (from the Met Office, 2007).

Beaufort Number
0

Wind Speed MPH

Description Of Wind Calm Light air Light breeze Gentle breeze Moderate breeze Fresh breeze Strong breeze Near gale Gale Strong gale Storm Violent storm Hurricane

Wave Height 0 .33 .66 2 3.3 6.6 9.9 13.1 18 23 29.5 37.7 46+ Flat

Sea Condition

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1-3 4-7 8-12 13-18 19-24 25-31 32-38 39-46 47-54 55-63 64-73 74-95

Ripples w/o crest Small wavelets Moderate wavelets Small waves Moderate waves Large waves Sea heaps Mod. Waves, breaking crest High waves Very high waves Exceptionally high waves Huge waves

Using Tables 3 & 4 it is evident from the small sampling over time that the area near Abu Nuhâs reef during the month of September has a Beaufort number 4 approximately 60% of the month. This data provides strong evidence for the conditions that may have affected the current flowing towards Abu Nuhâs reef from the Gulf of Suez through to the Straits of Gubal and out to the Red Sea at the time of the wrecking, as well as the following century after until our present time. Additional oceanographic site information about the Gulf of Suez includes the high salinity of the water. The Red Sea’s salinity ranges between 3% and 3.8%, making it one of the highest saline bodies of water on the planet

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(Buckles, 1995; Wikipedia, 2007). The climate, which is dictated by two monsoon wind seasons, is a result of the “differential heating between the land surface and the sea (Wikipedia, 2007). The land that embodies the Red Sea is desert, and the average air temperature in the summer is approximately 42ºC in the summer with an average sea surface temperature of 26ºC in the Gulf of Suez; there is approximately a 2ºC variation in sea surface temperature between the summer and winter months making this a year round warm water scuba diving location in addition to it historical meaning as a passage route to the East (Wikipedia, 2007). The environmental conditions for the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea have been reviewed briefly. It is valuable scientific data used in oceanographic sciences. The information based on these sciences elucidates the events that occurred over hundred years ago, and events that have occurred in more recent years with the wrecking of seven known additional ships between 1978 and 1983.
Table 5. Ships foundered or claimed by Abu Nuhâs reef (From Collings 2002, p.51)

Date
Sept 1869 May 1978 September 1978 December 1978 August 1981 January 1982 April 1983 February 1987

Ship Name
Carnatic Marcus Seastar Kimon M Chrisoula K SanJuan Giannis D Olden

Cargo
Gold, copper & silver Granite floor tiles Refloated not at reef Lentils Tiles Refloated, not at ref Wood Lentils

Most of the wrecks listed, including the S.S. Carnatic are now apart of the seafloor environment and have developed from a cargo-transporting vessel into an artificial ecosystem and a recreational dive site (Riegal, 2001; Schuhmacher, 1977; Wilhelmsson, 1998; Wilkinson 2002).

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The Site Formation Process
In the early morning hours of the 13th of September 1869, the S.S.Carnatic struck an uncharted reef, now called Sha’ab Abu Nuhâs. That event was the first in a series of events corresponding with Muckelroy’s model of the wrecking process. Muckelroy purported in his model that before the first process of wrecking occurred “a ship floating or sailing on the surface of the sea is a complex machine containing a large number of constituent parts arranged in a specific order” (Muckelroy, 1978, p.169). Chapter IV illustrated this with the historical investigation of the S.S. Carnatic. The ships’ marine steam engine and screw propeller was researched and the information obtained was necessary for establishing the uniqueness of this mid 19th century steamship and the technology it employed. The patent boilers by lamb and Summers were also included in evaluating the technological achievements for shipbuilding in the early 1860’s. The period itself, and its technologies changed so rapidly that one could argue that few ships had the same marine engine design, boilers, screw propeller blade and hundreds of other parts that make up a ship. That is why the earlier review of 19th century British Merchant iron hulled steam ships and the Carnatic is conclusive evidence to support Muckelroy’s statement that a ship is a complex machine. But, once a ship strikes a reef, or begins to take on water due to warfare or strong storms, that well organized complex machine begins to breakdown and this is the first stage in his flow-chart of the process of wrecking (Muckelroy, 1978, p.169).

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Ship

Closed system Process of wrecking Material which Floated away

Salvage operations

Material Salvaged Material that disintegrated

Disintegration of perishables

Material Subsequently Deposited On site

Seabed movement

Characteristics of excavation

Observed Seabed distribution

Output

Figure 43. Diagram of Muckelroy’s evolution of a shipwreck (from Muckelroy, 1978, p.158)

This traditional model for the site-formation process was re-evaluated in 1996 by Martin Gibbs (IJNA, vol. 35.1, pp.4-19) with the intent to synthesize the more contemporary views with those purported in this somewhat archaic model. For instance, Muckelroy’s model does not incorporate the study of documentary sources regarding salvage (one of the tiers in his model), which Gibbs (1996) purports can aid in the archaeological study of the sea-bed remains, or cultural deposits as well as understanding the motives for undertaking or abandoning such operations.

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This re-evaluation of the site-formation process begins with listing two classes of shipwreck sites defined by Gibbs (1996). The first being the class and fate of the Carnatic: Catastrophic shipwreck. These types of disasters are more likely to under go additional stages such as crisis salvage, survivor salvage, systematic salvage, and opportunistic salvage before there is a chance to properly record the cultural materials that remain (Gibbs, 1996, p.17). The second type, which will not be discussed, is the intentionally deposited or abandoned vessels, such a hulk. Gibbs (1996) examination of the available literature at the time of his publication thus supports his thesis that there exists a wider range of cultural processes that need to be extracted and expanded upon for the archaeological record to create different data sets that can be used for comparative analysis.
Table 6. Definitions of disaster response salvage (from Gibbs, 1996)

Crisis Salvage:

is focused on easily removable cargo and contents for survival purposes. might have included cargo, contents, some fittings and minor structure. is accessed at all levels and is usually the most formal and structured salvage operation with the potential to remove the most significant quantities of materials- even the whole vessel.

Survivor & Opportunistic Salvage:

Systematic Salvage:

These stages of salvage, inherent in the disaster response model proposed by Gibbs (1996) are particularly critical for analysis of the Carnatic wreck site. When the Carnatic began to sink, there was a rush to gather the bags of mail (crisis salvage). Saving the mail seemed to be on of the most important events aside form saves their own lives. Prior to the ship breaking in half and slipping off the reef, a large cargo of cotton bails was jettisoned to lighten the ship, which was later used in the survivor or opportunistic salvage stage when the survivors gathered the cotton bails to burn whilst stranded on Shadwan Island waiting for the S.S. Samutra 35 to rescue them. Within weeks the last stage of salvage
35

See the end of appendix II for extracts of the account as recorded by the Captain of the Sumatra, transcribed by P&O staff into the P&O ship movements ledger.

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occurred when Lloyd’s of London sent Captain Henry D. Grant out on the Tor to salvage the £40,000 species on board the ship (Collings, 1996). This type of systematic salvage was documented by the Board of Trade and helps to confirm what cultural materials are no longer present at the site. What is less documented is how much of the cultural material that remained on the ship when it sank was later looted (systematic salvage) by locals and recreational scuba divers once it was discovered in the 1980’s, and how much of these materials were effected by other post-depositional processes. All of this gives the maritime archaeologist a more coherent understanding of cultural actions over time, i.e. the formation of the present site and maritime culture & history associated with this vessel.

Environmental Factors Involved in Site Formation
Muckelroy’s site formation model, while applicable to almost all shipwrecks, only addresses the environmental factors associated around the UK’s coastline and/or other dark, mudding, cold water environments (Muckelroy, 1978, pp.157214). Therefore, while the application of extracting filters 36 and scrambling devices 37 can be used in the analysis of the Carnatic site, there are considerable differences between the environmental factors that contribute to these processes of site formation. Table 3 already provides the scientific data relating to wind and temperature in that region, which contributes directly to the rate of current that affects the wreck site of the Carnatic. More recent studies have tried to establish models based on various environmental factors and ship building materials (Green, 2004; Gould, 2000; Barto et al., 1989; Clark, 1990). McCarthy’s (2000) archaeological investigation and excavation of the S.S. Xantho was useful in developing a model based on post-depositional processes that affect the submerged site due to environmental factors. Given the authors limitations in time and resources, direct sampling of the biological, physical and chemical parameters (as shown in Table 7) effecting the Carnatic wreck site was not possible, but general information of the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea’s oceanographic

Muckelroy termed the three processes that lead to the loss of material culture at a wreck site as extracting filters: 1) the process of wrecking, 2) any salvage operations, and 3) the disintegration of perishables (1978, p.165). 37 Scrambling devices begin at the moment of wrecking according to Muckelroy, and include breakage of the wreck due to seabed movement, which is caused by environmental factors such as current, topography, and winds (1978, p.105).
36

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environmental has been compiled from secondary sources, analyzed, and applied to the final assessment of this pre-disturbance survey. 38

Table 7. A list of the biological, physical, and chemical parameters of relevance to the conserving and managing of shipwrecks (from McCarthy, 2000, p.71).

Temperature: Water temperature is an important variable in determining the rate of marine growth, corrosion of metal objects and the biodeterioration of organic materials. Salinity: Water salinity has a pronounced effect on the stability of metal objects, ceramics, and biological growth, e.g., bacteria an fungi that have a marked effect on the deterioration of wood. Salinity, therefore, is an important factor to be considered and measured. pH and dissolved oxygen content: Both should be measured on site where possible as they are 39 major factors in determining the stability of both inorganic and organic materials. Water movement and purity: Wave action, water movement, and non-marine water sources nearby, e.g., rivers, sewers, etc., should be recorded in view of their effect on Temp., Salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen content. Bottom-type analysis: This variable also needs to be recorded since it has chemical as well as immediate physical effects on the wreck material and on the site itself. Samples of bottom sediment should be taken with a view to analyzing microorganism’s present and mainly the sulphate-reducing bacteria content with a view to their effect on organic material and artifacts. Corrosion products and marine concretions: These are best initially retained, where practical, due to their protective coatings, which help prevent damage of artifacts in transit and also for the information conservators can gain from an analysis of the corrosion products and marine concretions. Some marine concretions, however, harden considerably on artifacts such as ceramics, and experience has shown that these are best removed soon after being taken from the site.

The wreck site of the Carnatic would benefit enormously from the sampling of the factors in Table 7. The non-intrusive pre-disturbance survey’s photographs yield an extensive amount of visual data for assessment, but it are the affects of the environmental and human factors surrounding the site on the sea-floor that will determine when and if the ship will ever reach a state of equilibrium (Muckelroy, 1978).

For additional oceanographic and geographic details see U.S. Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, USGS Open-File Report 99-50-A (http://greenwood.cr.usgs.gov/energy/WorldEnergy/OF9950A/overburd.html) 39 For a comparison of material survival rate in aerobic and anaerobic environments see Archaeology Underwater: The NAS Guide to Principles and Practice (1992, p.31).
38

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CHAPTER VII THE SURVEY
The S.S. Carnatic has not been an unknown wreck site since that fatal disaster in the early morning hours of 13 Sept. 1869 when the vessel struck Abu Nuhâs reef and sank. The ship was positively identified as the S.S. Carnatic circa 1987 (Ghisotti, 2004, pp.64-71). Soon after it’s discovery and identification it became a popular scuba diving site. There has been no real attempt to survey and record this wreck site as a historical cultural resource to the knowledge of the author. Recently, there has been interest in another well-known, WWII shipwreck called S.S. Thistlegorm by sport diver members of the Nautical Archaeology Society through their Adopt A Wreck Program, and the have implemented a wreck survey and monitoring scheme, but have not yet published their findings. The difficulty with these sites, which are located in the Egyptian Red Sea, is that they have always been considered a major scuba diving tourist attractions rather than cultural resources that need to be surveyed, monitored and reported on from an archaeological and cultural heritage perspective (Barto et al., 1989; Spirek, 2003).

Origins of the Carnatic’s Identification
The S.S. Carnatic has been a recreational dive spot since at least 1987, when Andrea Ghisotti (2004, pp.64-71) claims to have positively identified the wreck as the Carnatic. Therefore, most of the archaeologist’s archival research for the ship identification process was carried out by Ghisotti’s mother; with the help of scuba divers Renzo and Mauro uncovering archaeological clues to help them identify the ship (Ghisotti, 2004, pp.66, 67). Ghisotti states that “Renzo continued his meticulous search of the wreck in the hope of finding more clues, and eventually he did…the named started with a ‘C’”. He continues to write “I shouted ecstatically down the line to him: ‘Carnatic', it’s the only ship still [sic] in the list that starts with a ‘C’”.

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Figures 44. (Left) A London soda water bottle made of tinted green glass and (Right) a piece of plate made of Ironstone china (Photos by Ghisotti, 2004 p.64).
40

Ghisotti’s (2004) publication on Wrecks of the Red Sea was one of the sources that initially provided the author with information regarding the Carnatic’s history, along with several Internet websites, which give a brief description of the vessel as a recreational wreck dive site rather than a site of cultural material deposits (Tour Egypt, 1999-2004; Vercoe, 2004). There was little variation between the accounts of the shipwreck, number of lives lost, and general construction of the vessel; except that Ghisotti (2004, p.65) stated that the Carnatic has a large three-bladed propeller. Middleton (Tour Egypt, 1999-2004) described the ship as a composite “iron framed [sic] planked ship”. It wasn’t until the authors own archival research that many of these stated facts about the ship were revealed to be inaccurate. As it was stated in Chapter III, the Carnatic is not a composite built ship. Yet, the author discovered that there is even an inaccuracy in the historical documentation compared with the archaeological evidence regarding the ships propeller. 41 Ghisotti (2004) appears to be the only source, primary or secondary that accurately identifies the ships propeller as a three-bladed propeller.

Artifacts like these are no longer to be found at the wreck site of the Carnatic. Ghisotti noted that in 1987 there was an abundance of fixtures and fittings still on the wreck, along with wine bottles, passenger’s personal items etc., and makes a plea for divers to leave everything exactly as it was found. But from the recent photographic and video survey of the site, it appears that nothing apart for the wrecks structure remains. It is possible that artifacts may be buried until the build-up of sand and silt on the port side of the wreck, but an archaeological excavation would have to be conducted to make any final conclusions. 41 Figures 79-81 show the Carnatic’s three-bladed screw propeller, rudder and fittings.
40

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These inconsistencies, as relatively insignificant as they may seem to many, still need to be rectified, and thus provided the author with the reassurance that conducting an archaeological investigation was necessary and a useful approach to analyzing the Carnatic from both the field of archaeological study and the dimensions involved in cultural resource management. To ascertain the validity of the information and details found before the survey investigation began, the author contacted the writer of the Carnatic’s details for the Dive Site Directory— an online directory of dive sites, and inquired how actuate the wreck site map on the website. A meeting was arranged to discuss various details of the wreck site and the difficulties of accessing the site by means of a small rib (R. Vercoe, personal communication, February 2007). The meeting took place at the London International Dive Show on 11 March 2007. Ric Vercoe, a BSAC advanced instructor and former Red Sea Dive Master brought his own person copies of an admiralty chart and pointed out the difficulties in reaching the wreck site by a small boat like a rib. Most of the information he provided was useful for the planning of the projects logistics. Mr. Vercoe also clarified in a later email communication that the ships hull is iron and not wood as previously thought by the author. Further reading into 19th century ships would also confirm the hull was iron before the survey was undertaken (Gardiner, 1993a, p.105). Therefore, the purpose of this survey was not to identify the shipwreck, nor to correct any grotesques errors in the historical record, but rather to re-evaluate the meaning of the ship as a significant and potential site for archaeological survey, and to draw attention to the critical issue that if further recording is not conducted, additional archaeological evidence pertaining to the cultural history of the vessel will be lost.

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Recordation and Survey
A non-intrusive survey of the S.S. Carnatic was undertaken by the author (Janelle Harrison), Ali Ahmed Ali, and Kjell Nylund, two Dive Masters from the Colona dive center in El Gouna, Egypt over a period of two days separated by several weeks with a total of three dives
42

on SCUBA. Due to the adverse wind

conditions, many of the local dive operators located in El Gouna, Egypt would not make the trip to Abu Nuhâs reef for the dates 1 June to 30 June 2007. Several other reasons may be taken into consideration; June through September is the low season for recreational diving anywhere in the Red Sea, and the dive operators require a minimum number of divers that want to dive a specific reef like Abu Nuhâs before they will schedule a trip. The option of privately chartering a book for 300 euros a day was considered by the author, but without a permit issued by the SCA to the author as the principle investigator of this site, the author would have to be accompanied by a Diver Master or Instructor that held a permit to dive this area recreationally and to have clearance from the Egyptian Coast Guard before being able to leave the harbor. Privately hiring a Divermaster or Instructor that holds a permit in addition to the 300 euros a day and the cost of renting tanks and weights was too high per day to be a reasonable expenditure for the first investigative dives of the site. If the SCA grants the author a permit, which is still being reviewed by the SCA at the time of this writing, then the private charter option will be re-evaluated for future work at the wreck site. Dive Number one took place on 10 June 2007. The dive plan for the first dive was to get familiarized to the site as well as obtain video footage and still photographs in case the weather worsened and did not permit the author to return on another day. The equipment that was used on all dives included: a 1-meter folding ruler 43, an A-4 acrylic board, permatrace paper, a 30m measuring tape— open casing, a Panasonic PV-GS320 digital video camcorder with 3.2 mega pixel still picture capability fitted with a 0.45X macro wide angle lens, and a PRO 6 Wet N Rugged Sports underwater video camera housing. 44
See pages 80-82 for authors dive profiles created with a Sherwood Wisdom dive computer and software. 43 The 1-meter folding ruler is divided into 6 parts: 18.5, 16.5, 16.5, 17, 16.5, 15mm used for scale. 44 See appendix I for the specifications listed for the digital video camera, and the 2 DVD’s of dives 1-3 made on the Carnatic for the purpose of analyzing the wreck site and documenting the survey work.
42

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Figure 45. The author’s conception of the wreck site. All photographs of the Carnatic wreck site taken by the author.

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Figure 45 is the author’s conception of the Carnatic site using the data that was obtained during the pre-disturbance dives, including the one on 10 June 2007; the second and third dives commenced on 24 June 2007. Unable to complete a full survey using the DSM, the author was only able to retrieve measurements that could be used to draw the wreck site area, and the three major sections that the ship has become: the bow, amidships (the rubble) and the stern. The length of the remaining intact portion of the stern keel was measured. Another measurement was taken from the end of the stern keel to the propeller blades, from the propeller blades to the end of the rudder, and finally from the end of the rudder to the end of the stern at main deck level. The wreckage and debris field located within the site area mapped is approximately 110m long x 36m wide x 11m high. The height is not the sea depth that the wreck rests in, but rather, the beam of the ship turned on its side, since the Carnatic now rests on her port side with the starboard side located 11m shallower than the port side — this figure is closer to the original beam of the ship than the ships depth because she rests on her side rather than up right on her keel. The width is the result of four measurements: from the bottom of the reef to the stern keel at amidships; the height of the ship calculated at the magical angle of 54.7°, which compensates for the resting angle of the ship 45 on its port side; out to the end of the main mast; and beyond the mast to what appears to be the end of the debris field.

Figure 46. The authors’ first drawing used for noting the measurements during the dives (after Ghisotti, 2004). A Magic angle is a precisely defined angle, the value of which is approximately 54.7°. The magic angle , and so any interaction which is a root of a second-order Legendre polynomial, depends on this second-order Legendre polynomial vanishes at the magic angle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_angle).
45

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Table 8. A list of measurements that were taken by the author and used to construct the site map in figure 45. Bare in mind the actual width of the ship wreckage is only an approximation based on estimated values and a survey conducted using the DSM would greatly increase the accuracy of the figures reported I this table.

Sections of the Wreck Site
Remaining intact Stern section Remaining stern keel From end of keel to propeller blades From end of propeller blades to end outside end of rudder Outside end of rudder to the end of the stern at main deck level Distance from reef to amidships keel Estimation of wreckage width based on original depth of Vessel and the magical angle Length of main mast extending from portside of wreckage To the open sea From the top end (deepest end) of the main mast to the end of the debris field Remaining Bow section From Stem to end of figurehead mount & bowsprit support Amidships (the massive rubble area where the ship snapped In two before sinking) Also the distance between the two masts From main mast to center of funnel

Length
25.71m 21.74m 0.86m 1.05m 2.6m 3.10m 9.4m

19.98m

3.62m

26.52m 3.51m 39.69m

30m

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Dive Profiles of the Principal Investigator (the author) DIVE #1

76

DIVE #2

77

DIVE #3

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Survey Photographs
The bulk of the photographs were stills captured from the survey video rather than switching the video camera over to still picture mode to capture the large 3.2-mega pixel images. According to Dean (1988) photography surveys play an important role in the overall site survey, but metric or imperial scales need to be visual in the photographs to evaluate size and distance (1988, p.9). Due to the time constraints of diving on one tank at an average depth of 23m, and the necessity to gather as much video footage of the wreck site as possible, the author was not able to stop and place a scale in all photographs. Additional surveying in the future would yield more to scale measurements. Amidships

Figure 47: Two views looking down to the collapsed amidships nearest the bow section with a clear view of the broken main mast.

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Figure 48: A view of the collapsed starboard hull looking aft. To the left of the photo is the reef.

Figure 49: View of the same section as in figure 48 but closer to the stern section, you can see that part of the starboard hull has collapsed outward toward the reef.

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Figure 50: Unidentified object/artifact that may be part of the engine machinery.

Figure 51: Both photos are close-ups of figure 50.

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Figure 52: Top and bottom photos may be of one of the Lamb patent boilers.

Figure 53: The hollow of the main mast, which was also constructed of iron and not wood.

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Figure 54: Top photo is the broken lower section of the main mast whilst the photo below it is of the 19.98m long section of the main mast.

Figure 55: Another view of the two sections of the main mast, clearly displaced.

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Figure 56: Photo viewing the second mast and the stern section of the wreckage from the port side and looking aft.

Figure 57: A section of the collapsed main deck amidships near the port side, center of the rubble section. The 1-meter tape measure gives the scale of the spacing of the framing.

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Amidships Under the Fallen Starboard Hull

Figure 58: Deep inside the tangled wreckage on the starboard side near the bottom of the hull remains of the ships scantlings and wooden interior wooden skin can be found, but this area is a tight squeeze.

Figure 59: Close-up of the starboard side scantlings covered in soot and concretion. Due to the area being confined and the bottom covered in silt and the author holding an underwater video camera housing, there posed too much danger in trying to obtain measurements of the scantlings on this dive.

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Figure 60: Top photo: The Carnatic’s one funnel is in the left of the frame, whilst the second mast is in the background. Bottom photo: is a close-up of the funnel.

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The Wine Rack: Under a Section of the Hull

Figure 61: The wine rack, which carried the hundreds of bottles of wine that contributed to the locals naming this wreck “the Wine Wreck.”

Figure 62: At first glance the author believed this to be a gear wheel for the engine but upon further investigation into the marine steam engine employed on the Carnatic, this became implausible since the direct acting engine did not have gear wheels. The final conclusion from the author is that it is in the right location to be the steering wheel form the wheelhouse amidships.

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The Bow Section

Figure 63: A view of the bow section just below the port side. The davits are hung covered with soft coral.

Figure 64: The bow section of the 3 deck. The frames are encrusted in concretion and the wooden planking of the deck has eroded away only to leave jagged concerted bits.

rd

Figure 65: The most forward bulkhead on the 3 deck level, with a concreted door outline visible.

rd

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Figure 66: A view at the port side of the vessel from the 3 deck. The frames for the floor decking of deck two are in the foreground, and objects can be seen on the bottom (port side of the hull) between deck two and three.

rd

Figure 67: This is a photograph of the 3 deck looking towards the bow section of the ship. The camera has bee rotated 180° to achieve the look of an up right ship. The silt and objects can be seen on the port side (now the bottom of the ship) and remains of concreted wood paneling on the starboard side.

rd

Figure 68: Looking aft from the bow on the first deck level. The wreck is now an artificial reef that now only houses a wide variety of hard and soft coral, it is also the home for a school of glassfish.

89

Figure 69: All three photographs are of the author taking a distance measurement from the main mast to the start of the bow structure. The method of photography was a video camera securely mounted to an object and left videotaping whilst the author took the measurement.

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Figure 70: The port side between the fist deck and the main deck. Objects can be seen resting in the silt- some could be important artifacts. There is also a stonefish hiding amongst the objects. One of the many dangers if an in situ excavation took place.

Figure 71: The first section of the ship the author descended upon was the bow; eager to start taking measurements the author measures the figurehead mounting: 240mm wide.

Figure 72: The mounting for the bowsprit: 530.50mm, which also provides us with the actual base circumference of the bowsprit.

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The Stern Section

Figure 73: The author measuring the size of the concreted remains of the first deck level floor frame on the stern section of the wreck.

Figure 74: Looking aft at the starboard side and keel of the vessel.

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Figure 75: Measuring one of the first decks portholes: 250mm. The historical account claims that the salvage diver found a man’s head stuck in one of these portholes trying to escape the ship as it sank.

Figure 76: Looking aft from the first deck the decorative windows at the stern are visible as well as the steering mechanism from where the aft steering wheel once was located on the main deck down to the rudder.

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Figure 77: A view from above the main deck of the stern section looking down. The concreted framing for deck level two can be seen.

Figure 78: Top: the remains of the aft steering. Was the steering wheel salvaged in 1869? Was it broken off in a violent storm as part of the post-depositional process? Or was it looted? Was it even a wheel? The ship was equipped with a hydraulic steering mechanism, perhaps it was just a lever that moved from left to right? Archaeologists my never know without further investigation of the site. Bottom: Same view from a distance.

The steering lever ring for the patented hydraulic steering

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The Three-Bladed Screw Propeller

Blades 1 & 2 are clearly visual

The rudder

Connecting pin

Blade number 3

Figure 79: In the foreground is the rudder and in the background is the three-bladed propeller.

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Close- up of the pin with a scale. 750mm

Figure 80: The connecting pin that mounts the end of the screw shaft and propeller to the rudder appox.750mm in width.

Figure 81. View of the Carnatic’s Stern and Ali, also the cover photo (by the author).

The value of this non-intrusive pre-disturbance survey cannot be under rated. Enough measurements were taken to start a site map to scale as seen in figure 45. It will take many seasons of surveying the wreck site to fully document the entire site area, but the main aims and objects that were set at the beginning of this work were met. The material culture was used as evidence to support the claim that the written word cannot always be taken as fact. It was the use of archaeological data that proves either the Carnatic always had a three-bladed propeller and the newspapers issued in 1863 were wrong, and thus, the researchers at the Science Museum just collaborated with the historical documents, or the changing of the screw propeller blade was not recorded in the P&O account ledgers. In either case, the fact that the Carnatic shipwreck has a three-bladed propeller has not historically documented properly until now is material evidence that new discoveries can be made on shipwrecks from the 19thcentury.

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CHAPTER VIII: ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION

Analysis of Results The results of the pre-disturbance survey recording amounted to several hours of video footage for viewing and analyzing. The main purpose of this survey was gather archaeological data for analysis and interpretation; to create and continue to add to any measurements site map to scale of the wreck site of the Carnatic. It was also carried out to propose excavation 46 of any loose artifacts such as glass bottles, dish wear, cutlery, etc., that may be located on or near the main site area under the permission of the SCA. The disappointing aspect of the survey was to find that very little, if any of these objects remaining, or at least, not visual to the naked eye (or camera). It is possible that much of these items have washed away as part of the postdepositional process, or Muckelroy’s scrambling effect. The surge that was encounter on dives two and three on 24 June 2007 was the strongest the author or Kjell (one of the volunteers) had ever experienced. This type of surge over a century would have multiple affects on the site— erosion, artifact movements etc. The survey yielded several observational results: I. Possible danger due to environmental conditions of the area, i.e. current and surge II. Biological dangers: fire coral, stonefish, lionfish, blowfish, sharks, barracuda, triggerfish, cone shells and auger shells. III. Danger due to unstable structure of the wreck in areas below the collapsed starboard hull IV. Silting in confined areas V. The average depth to work in is between 22-27m on SCUBA
46

While the author wishes to be the person who is granted this permission, the prospects of excavation entails the help of many professionals. Any artifacts found would need to be properly cared for by a conservationist and then preserved and housed. All this takes time and money and Egypt’s resource for this is not as great as in countries like the UK. The author proposes that if Egypt did not want to house any of the artifacts in a museum in Egypt that a scheme could be arranged with the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich for these artifacts for an exhibition the author envisions in two ways: Shipwrecks of the P&O or Shipwrecks of the Red Sea. Arranging conservation and storage is the main issue for reasons not to excavate, but if any of the loose artifacts are still at this dynamic site, it is worth consideration of preserving what is left for future display, education and public understanding.

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These may not be the only dangers, but they are the most apparent. The author, whilst taking a measurement from the funnel to the second mast placed the tape measure and her hand only millimeters from a cone shell without even realizing it until analyzing the video footage ex post facto.

Conclusions
It has been purported throughout this dissertation that further, in depth surveying of the wreck Site of the Carnatic should be considered. There are two main factors involved: I. The first is project funding. II. The site is currently a publicly dived recreational site that contributes to the tourism economy in Hurghada. Addressing the first issues: If the Egyptian Government or the numerous organizations such as the INA or NAS will not fund a more complete survey of the site, allowing for various methods of recordation such as sidescan sonar, ROV technology, GIS applications such as Site Recorder 47 (used on the site of the Mary Rose) with the use of an acoustic positioning system (APS) used to “provide high accuracy positioning” 48 of material culture, basic hand held GPS applications, and high quality digital photomosaics, it is possible to continue to monitor, measure and survey the site on a much more basic level; such as the methods implemented for this work. But at the very least, permission from the SCA to install permanent control points and secondary points would be necessary to obtain quality data for future use of 3D mapping (Holt, 2007). The survey that was under taken in June 2007 has been titled a “predisturbance survey” implying future excavation, and it is the authors contention that some amount of excavation should be conducted, but as it has already been reviewed, involves the processes diagramed in Figure 1: the social institutions, the types of values attributed to the site, the context of these values in today’s culture, and the public’s perception of this site. It also includes
47 48

See http://www.3hconsulting.com/SitesMaryRoseMain.htm and http://www.3hconsulting.com/ See http://www.sonardyne.com

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involving numerous professional that know how to conserve artifacts and a plan for long term holding of any items retrieved from the excavation. This brings the second issue to the table: That the Carnatic is currently one of the most famous recreationally dived wreck sites in the Red Sea next to the S.S. Thistlegorm and those located within the boundaries of Ras Mohammed National Park. If the site were to become an archaeological excavation site, even temporarily, it would be closed to the public during this process. It is highly unlikely that the dive industry would suffer for a temporary restriction of diving this one wreck. But would the entire reef including other popular wrecks have to be restricted to recreational divers whilst a project commenced given the close proximity of the wrecks? The answer is yes. Therefore, the diving industry that functions in the Red Sea would lose several of its most popular dive sites temporarily, and this could alarm many who make a living form the dive tourist industry. That is why it is so vital to educate the community (local, national, and international) about UCH and the need for long term CRM plans. The research undertaken for this work attempted to address several aims and objectives: o To investigate the historical record and archaeological remains of a 19th century iron, combination sail and steam screw powered ship that wrecked in the Red Sea. o To Research the current laws and regulations for underwater cultural heritage in the Red Sea. o To conduct an archaeological survey and to record the finds o To compare and contrast the material cultural from the wreck site of the Carnatic with the historical record of the Carnatic and of 19th century iron screw propeller steamers in general. o To analyze the evidence and contribute to the current body of knowledge associated to the topics discussed in this work o To document the wreck site using an underwater video camera, still photographs and basic measurements to draw a scaled map of the site.

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The aims and objectives were met to reasonable satisfaction for the purpose of this work. New evidence from the material cultural of the Carnatic supports the argument that whilst historical records are a vital source of information for younger shipwrecks that fall outside of the cut-off date set by Muckelroy (1978), as archaeologically worthy of the time, money, and effort to survey and record, they (the historical documents) should not be the only source of information. If a vessel is known, accessible and found to be of historical interest and can provide the present and the future with a detailed archaeological record then the work should be promoted to the social institutions that implement UCH programs and CRM plans. This is particularly true in the case of iron ships that corrode at a much faster rate than wooden ships. The timeline that has been imbued on today’s society as signifying historical importance has to be reevaluated with this post-depositional factor as a guideline, and therefore, more studies need to be conducted on the environments that these ships rest in, i.e. the water salinity, water temperature, pH balance, dissolved oxygen content, etc. The final conclusion at this time is that the Carnatic wreck site is a valuable source of underwater cultural heritage, and should be fully surveyed and promoted as one of the leading sites for a submerged cultural resource management plan in the Red Sea. More resources 49 should be invested into promoting the site and the ships’ history, with consideration of in situ analysis dedicated to the environmental impact that rapid coastal developments, and increased diver tourism that will have a long-term affect on the wreck itself and the environmental elements it is located in. And finally, to recognize that there are continuous biological, physical, chemical and human threats to the survival of what remains of a beautifully and uniquely built 19th century combination sail and steam-powered iron ship, that will over time, succumb to these threats and the data that could be retrieved now will be lost forever.

49

These resources could be other public, non-profit, private (rarely done) and governmental.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
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NMM (1860-1906) (P&O/17/1) Manuscripts: Documents relating to the Suez Canal. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum. NMM (n.d.) (P&O/43/3) Papers: Relating to ships movements, timetables, distance, tonnage. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum. NMM (n.d.) (P&O/93/1) Manuscripts: Framed documents, notice of fares Calcutta Line. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum. NMM (1847-70) (P&O/89/10) Manuscripts: Ports, Places, Records, Overland Route—Egypt Ports. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum. NMM (1840) (P&O/30/25) Manuscripts: Royal Charters & Mail Contracts. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum. NMM (n.d.) (P&O/60/20) Manuscripts: Papers relating to design & Construction of Ships, Specifications. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum. NMM (1843-53) (P&O/43/1) Manuscripts: Ships movements, passage times opening of Calcutta/Suez run. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum. NMM (1860-1875) (P&O/3/6) Reports and Proceedings of Nautical Committee. Greenwich: National Maritime Museum. NMM (1867) Bangalore. The Denny’s Collection, No.222. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum Brass Foundry. NMM (1867) Indus. The Denny’s Collection, No.146. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum Brass Foundry. NMM (1837-1979) (P&O/62/5) Manuscripts: Fleet Lists. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum. NMM (1871) (P&O/61/11) Manuscripts: Peshawar Capacity Plans. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum. NMM (n.d.) (P&O/64/4) Manuscripts: P&O Register & Dimensions. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum. NMM (1868-71) (P&O/11/2) Manuscripts: Government Letters. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum. NMM (1866-1929) (P&O/91/7) Manuscripts: Misc. Doc’s, Illustrated London News, Conventions etc.. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum. NMM (n.d.) (1PAH9079) Color Print: Carnatic. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum. TNA (1873) (MT9/72) Official Inquiries into wrecks, casualties and collisions. Kew, The National Archives.

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TNA (1885-92) (BT31/3530/21537) Ledger of Stockholders and Letter of Dissolution. Kew, The National Archives.

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APPENDIX I SURVEY DIVES 1-3 RECORDED TO DVD’S ONE AND TWO PHOTOGRAPHS OF VIDEO CAMERA AND HOUSING

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PANASONIC DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERA INSIDE UNDERWATER CAMERA HOUSING WITH LEVEL

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APPENDIX II S.S. CARNATIC’S SHIPMOVEMENTS 1863-1869

Captain 1st Officer Year Date Month
Burne Johnson 1863 27 27 27 1 1 5 6 9 12 15 15 19 20 20 21 24 April April April May May May May May May May May May May May May May

Time Ship Activity
7:15 AM Left Southampton Dock 7:35 AM Made fast to W.I. Buoy 2:00 PM Rec'd Mails, 2:35 pm started 3:40 PM Arrived at Gibraltar, 3:50 pm mails left 7:25 PM Rec'd mails, 1 am, 2 am started 6:30 AM Arrived at Malta, 6:40 mails left 9:10 AM Rec'd mails, 10:10 stated 9:35 AM Arrived Alexandria, 10:45 mail left 11:30 AM Rec'd mails, 5:15 pm started 1:15 PM Arrived at Malta, mails left 7:45 PM Rec'd mails, 8:10 started Midnight Arrived at Gibraltar, mails left 1:00 AM Rec'd mails, 2:30 started Extract Extract

Extract

2:15 pm departed this life Mrs. Boyd, 1st Class Passenger, 7:30 am committed the body of the deceased to the deep

1:25 PM Arrived at Southampton, mails left

109

Captain
Purchase

1st Off
Johnson

Year Date Month
27 27 27 15 16 21 June June June August August August October October October October October October October October October October November November November November December December December

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

7:30 AM Left Southampton Dock 8:00 AM Anchored off Nutley Noon Started

8:10 AM Arrive at Galle 6:20 AM Started ***** 12:30 AM Rec'd mails 8:30 AM Started from Calcutta 2:33 PM Anchored in 6:10 PM Pilot left the ship at Sandheads 2:15 PM Arrived at Madras, 2:45 mails left 2:53 PM Rec'd mails, 4:15 started 6:32 AM Arrived at Galle, 7:30 mails left 11:00 AM Rec'd mails, 5:15 pm started 1:40 PM Arrived at Aden, 1:50 mails left 6:40 PM Rec'd mails 6:28 AM Arrived at Suez, 9 am mails left 6:10 AM Rec'd mails, 7:15 started 2:20 PM Arrived at Aden, mails left 11:12 PM Rec'd mails, 11:40 started 6:15 AM Arrived at Galle, 6:40 mails left 6:20 PM Rec'd mails, 7:30 started Arrived at Madras, 10:15 mails left 9:06 AM Missing

Farguhar

Johnson

9 9 9 10 13 14 17 21 30 30 5 20 26 26 6 6 9

110

Captain

1st Off

Year Date Month
9 12 12 13 13 December December December December December January January January January January January January January January January January January January February February February February February February February

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

2:30 PM Rec'd mails, 3:20 started 2:20 PM Rec'd Pilot at Sandheads 6:17 PM Anchored in 8:00 AM Started 5:15 PM Arrived at Calcutta, 6:30 mails left 2:30am Rec'd mails 8:10 AM Started from Calcutta 3:30 PM Anchored at Culpee 10:00 AM Started 4:30 PM Pilot left the ship at Sandheads 7:30 PM Arrived at Madras, 7:45 mails left 7:20 AM Rec'd mails,, 7:30 started 8:55 AM Arrived Galle, 9 am mails left 11:55 AM Rec'd mails, noon started 3:35 AM Arrived at Aden, 4 mails left 12:20 PM Rec'd mails, 12:40 started Extract Extract 6 am John Palmer 2nd Class passenger died 8:15 am committed the body to the deep

Farguhar

Johnson

1864

10 10 10 11 11 14 15 17 18 26 26 31 31 1 4 11 11 20 21 21

4:00 AM Arrive at Suez, 8 mails left 1:10 PM Rec'd mails, 10:40 pm started 6:52 AM Arrive at Aden, 5:03 mails left 1:17 PM Rec'd mails, 1:40 started 9:25 PM Anchored in 5:30 AM started Arrived at Galle, 6:20 mails left 5:50 AM

111

Captain

1st Off

Year Date Month
21 24 24 27 27 27 27 February February February February February February February April April April April April April April April April April April April April April May May May May

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

6:30 PM Rec'd mails, 10:25 started 12:20 AM Arrived at Madras, 4 mails left 11:30 AM Rec'd mails, 12:10 pm started 12:20 AM Received Pilot at Sandheads 12:55 AM Anchored in 7:00 AM started 6:15 PM Arrived at Calcutta, 6:30 mails left 7:00 AM Rec'd mails 9:55 AM Started form Calcutta 4:00 PM Anchored off Culpee 10:05 AM Started 5:55 PM Pilot left ship at Sandheads 4:45 PM Arrived at Madras, mails left 5:30 PM Rec'd mails, 5:45 started 6:10 AM Arrived at Galle, 6:40 mails left Extract Extract 7:30 am Mr. E. Monell, 1st class passenger died 6 pm sent body of deceased on shore for burial

Grainger

Johnson

9 9 9 10 10 13 14 17 17 17 18 18 27 27 3 12 19 19

6:30 PM Rec'd mails 6:35 PM Started from Galle 10:30 AM Arrived at Aden, Mails left 8:40 PM Rec'd mails, 9 pm started 1:27 PM Arrived at Suez, 3:30 mails left 9:00 AM Rec'd Mails, 10;35 started 2:10 AM Arrived at Aden, 3:45 mails left Rec'd mails, 10:35 started 9:50 AM

112

Captain

1st Off

Year Date Month
25 May June June June June June June June June July July August August August

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

6:20 PM Arrived at Bombay, 6:40 mails left 8:50 AM Rec'd Mails 9:20 AM Started from Bombay 11:10 AM Arrived at Galle, 3 pm mails left 3:30 PM Rec'd mails, 4 pm started 3:00 PM Arrived at Penang, 3:10 mails left 8:40 PM Rec'd mails, started 12:30 AM Arrived at Singapore, 12:50 mails left 1:00 AM Started 8:00 AM Arrived at Hong Kong, mails left 6:30 AM Started 12:40 AM Arrived at Bombay, 5:20 mails left 5:30AM Started 6:15 AM Moored ship at Mazagon

Grainger

Johnson

14 14 18 22 27 27 29 30 6 8 22 22 22

King

Johnson

9 9 21 23 2 7 8

September September September September October October October

12:30AM Rec'd mails 12:45AM Started from Bombay 11:00PM Arrived at Aden, 11:15 mails left 10:10PM Rec'd mails, 11:15 PM 24th Started 4:35AM Arrived at Suez, 5:40 mails left Extract Extract 2:30 PM Mr. Bulter died 11AM Sent the body on shoe for burial

113

Captain

1st Off

Year Date Month
12 13 20 21 30 29 29 October October October October October November November December December December December December December December December December December December December December December December December January

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

7:30PM Rec'd mails 1:00 AM Started from Suez 5:30 PM Arrived at Aden, 5:45 mails left 1:00 AM Rec'd mails, 6:30 Started 8:30PM Arrived at Bombay, 8:40 mails left 9:05AM Rec'd mails 9:15AM Started from Bombay 9:15 AM Arrive at Galle, 9:20 mails left 8:45AM Rec'd mails, 8:52 started 11:30AM Arrived at Penang, 11:35 mails left 5:40PM Rec'd mails, 5:50 started 8:20 AM Arrived at Singapore, *:30 mails left 8:30AM Rec'd mails, 9AM started Blowing a hard Gale SSE Bar 29:41 The sea tumbling on board & 4:00 AM sweeping the side 6:00 AM Bar 28:80 Sea filling the main deck & cabins, drowning the horses and washing away ...the steering gear also gave way 6 to 8 AM Wind veered from SE to SE & SSW, blew a tempest. Found the ship could not be steered right before the wind Wind moderating & sea going down but the Typhoon Port life boat; mail packets, horses, nearly all the live stock, are now NOON lost or left damaged. 10:50 PM Anchored in 5/2 first Green Island SE 5:30 AM Started 6:38AM Arrived at Hong Kong, 6:45 mails left 8:00 AM started 3:00 PM Arrived at Whampoa Started 9:45AM AM

Qugove

Murray

3 6 12 12 14 15 19 19 19 19 19 23 24 24 27 27 11

114

Captain

1st Off

Year Date Month
11 15 20 21 23 23 27 31 1865 4 13 13 14 21 21 26 27 27 13 13 13 14 21 21 28 28 January January January January January January January January February February February February February February February February February March March March March March March March March

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

4:45PM arrived at Hong Kong 9:25AM Rec'd mails, 9:35 started 11:30AM Arrived at Singapore, mails left 3:55PM Rec'd mails, 4PM started 1:40PM Arrived at Penang, 6:40 mails left 12:20PM Received mails, 6 PM started #:35PM Arrived at Galle, 3:30 mails left 5:55 PM Rec'd mail, 6PM started 1:35 PM Moored ship at Mazagon 11:00 AM Started from Mazagon NOON Anchored off Apollo Bunder 11:25 AM Rec'd mails, 11:30 started 4:30AM Arrived at Aden, 4:40 mails left 12:15PM Received mails, started Extract Extract 10PM Mamet Ibrane (Seedee) died 6AM committed the body of the above, to the deep

3:45PM Arrived at Suez, 5 mails left Extract Extract 3AM Mr. William Macartney 1st Clss passenger died Noon, sent the body of the late Mr. Macartney on shore for burial

11:30AM Rec'd mails 8:30AM Started from Suez 12:30AM Arrived at Aden 1:05 mails left 10:05 AM Rec'd mails, 10:45 started 11:20AM Arrived at Bombay, 11:42 mails left Started 5:30 PM

115

Captain

1st Off

Year Date Month
28 13 13 14 21 21 28 1 19 19 27 27 27 March April April April April April April May May May May May May June June June June June June June June July July

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

6:20PM Moored ship at Mazagon 11:00 AM Started from Mazagon 11:35 AM Anchored Apollo Bunder 10:45 AM Rec'd mails, 10:50 started 11:15 AM Arrived at Aden, 11:35 mails left 5:30PM Rec'd mails, 7:20 started 1:35AM Arrived at Suez, 3 o'clock mails left 12:15PM Rec’d mails, 12:50AM 13 started 4:10AM Arrived At Aden, 4:20 mails left 10:08AM Rec'd mails, 10:15 started 11:25AM Arrived at Bombay, 11:45 mails left 4:20PM Started 5:12PM Moored ship at Mazagon 9:00 AM Rec'd mails 9:20 AM Started from Bombay 8:00 AM Arrived at Galle, 8:30 mails left 3:30PM Rec'd mails, 6:25PM Started 5:00 PM Arrive in Penang, 5:10 mails left 9:55PM Rec'd mails, 10:40 started 10:40PM Arrived at Singapore, mails left 9:15 AM Rec'd mails, 10:05 started 5:30PM Arrived at Hong Kong, 5:40 mails left Captain Grainger took charge of the ship from Captain Gribble NOON

Gribble

Dundas

1865

15 15 19 19 26 26 28 30 6

Grainger

Dundas

1865

8

116

Captain

1st Off

Year Date Month
11 18 29 5 7 9 9 16 17 July July July August August August August August August

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

9:30 AM Hauled into dry dock 4:00 AM Hauled out of dry dock 1:50 PM Rec'd mails, 2:15 started 6:00 PM Arrived at Singapore, 6:12 mails left 3:50PM Rec'd mails, 4PM started 9:20AM Arrived at Penang, 9:35 mails left 3:00 PM Rec'd Mails, Started 10:15 AM Arrived at Galle, 10:25 mails left Extract 1:30 PM Mr. Smith Passenger died 5:20PM Transferred the body of the late Mr Smith to S.S. Madras for burial on shore

17 22 Grainger Buckland 9 9 19 20 22 23 30 13 14

August August September September September September September September September October October

5:30PM Rec'd mails, 5:45 started from Galle 5:00 AM Arrived at Mazagon 5:10PM Rec'd mails 5:35PM Started from Bombay 7:15PM Arrived at Aden, mails left 7:30AM Rec'd mails, 7:45 started Extract Extract 2:30AM Mr. Bell (1st class passenger) died 8 PM committed the body to the deep 7:30 AM Mr. Lucas (1st class passenger) died 1 PM committed the body to the deep 8:50AM Arrived at Suez, mails left 2:00 AM Rec'd mails, 6:20 PM started Extract -

3 AM a Seedy (coal worker) died

117

Captain

1st Off

Year Date Month

Time

Ship Activity

Extract
6 AM committed the body to the deep

20 21 29 Parish Dundas 1865 29 29 6 7 12 14 29 30 Parish Dundas 1866 5 5 13 14 14 Rennoldson Dundas 1866 14 14 14 21

October October October November November December December December December December December January January January January January February February February February

11:35 PM Arrived at Aden, 11:45 mails left 9:40AM Rec'd mails, started 11:55PM Arrived at Bombay, 1 AM mails left 11:30AM Rec'd mails NOON Started from Bombay

3:25PM Arrived at Aden, 3:30 mails left 12:10AM Rec'd mails, 12:50 started 11:30 PM Arrived at Suez, 1:15 AM mails left Extract 12:05AM Capiru (Iarcae) died 8AM sent the body on shore for burial 2:45AM Rec'd mails 8:45AM Started from Suez 2:00 PM Arrived at Aden, 2:10 mails left 7:30 PM Rec'd mails, 7:50 started 5:30 Arrived at Bombay, 5:33 mails left 6:00 AM started 6:40 AM Moored ship at Mazagon 8:45AM Started from Mazagon 9:18AM Anchored off Bombay 1:16PM Rec'd mails, 1:33 started Arrived at Aden, 6:06 mails left 5:53AM

118

Captain

1st Off

Year Date Month
21 26 12 14 14 20 20 28 29 29 29 29 7 7 13 27 1 February February March March March March March March March April April April May May May May June

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

1:06PM Rec'd mails, 1:26 started Arrived at Suez, 12:10 AM 27th mails 9:05 PM left Extract 5AM Charles Cole (steward) died 3:30 PM sent body on shore for burial 3:30PM Rec'd mails 8:50PM Started from Suez 10:18AM Arrived at Aden, 10:30 mails left 5:05PM Rec'd mails, 5:35 started 8:43 PM Anchored in to fuel 7:00 AM Started 8:57AM Started form Mazagon 9:35AM Anchored off Bombay 12:24PM Rec'd mails, 12:40 started 9:50 Arrived at Aden, mails left

6:00 PM Rec'd mails, 6:20 started 10:55PM Arrived at Suez, 11:30 mails left 6P PM Rec'd mails, 3:34 AM 28th started Extract 2PM Mr. Bremsue (1st class passenger) died 6PM committed the body to the deep

3 3 8

June June June

4:45AM Arrived at Aden, 5 mails left 1:00 PM Rec'd mails, 1:17 started Extract 9:15AM a private in the Native Military died

119

Captain

1st Off

Year

Date Month

Time

Ship Activity

Extract
10AM committed the body to the deep

11 11 11 10 10 10 12 21 21 27 28 12 17 17 23 24 24 Rennoldson Johnson 1866 14 14 14 21

June June June July July July July July July July July August August August August August August October October October October

12:45AM Arrived at Bombay, 1:27 mails left 5:20AM Started 5:55AM Moored ship at Mazagon 8:45AM Started from Mazagon 9:14AM Anchored off Bombay 9:34AM Rec'd mails, 10th started Extract 7AM, Mr. F. White (2nd class passenger) died 4PM committed the body to the deep 4:08PM Arrived at Aden, 4:20 mails left 11:50PM Rec'd mails, 2:30 AM 22nd started Extract 1PM Mr. Cayzer (1st class passenger) died 3:20PM committed the body to the deep 3:29PM Arrived at Suez, 4:15 mails left 9:45AM Rec'd mails, 10:35 started 11:40AM Arrives at Aden, 11:55 mails left 5:00 PM Rec'd mails, 5:53 started Anchored Apollo Bunder, midnight 11:25PM mails left 5:45AM Started 6:30AM Moored ship at Mazagon 9:00 AM Started from Mazagon 9:35AM Anchored off Bombay 10:15AM Rec'd mails, 10:20 started Arrived at Aden, 8 mails left 7:40 PM

120

Captain

1st Off

Year

Date Month
22 25 26 29 13 20 20 28 28 28 29 29 October October October October November November November November November November December December January January January January February February February February February February February

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

5:25AM Rec'd mails, 5:35 started Extract 10:35PM Capt. Forbes 3 Rg. N.I. Died 7:35AM committed the body to the deep 5:56AM Arrived at Suez, 6:50 mails left 7:05PM Started (9PM 12th Rec'd mails) 5:35AM Arrived at Aden, 5:45 mails left 1:40 PM Rec'd mails, 2:05 started 12:45PM Arrived at Bombay, 1:15 mails left 3:30PM Started 4:00 PM Moored ship at Mazagon 10:15AM Rec'd mails 10:35AM Started from Bombay 12:34PM Mails left, anchored at Aden 9:15PM Rec'd mails, 9:30 started 7:55AM Arrived at Suez, 10:30 mails left 3:00 AM Rec'd mails, 5:15 PM started 5:10AM Arrived at Aden, 5:45 mails left 1:40PM Rec'd mails, 2:10 started 12:45PM Arrived at Bombay, 1:24 mails left 4:00 PM Started 4:30PM Moored ship at Mazagon 12:30PM Rec'd mails, 1:05 started Extract 7:45PM G Young (4th Engineer) died

Rennoldson Johnson

1867

4 4 10 27 2 2 9 9 9 20 23

121

Captain

1st Off

Year

Date Month
24 27 27 5 14 19 20 27 27 27 15 19 20 26 26 28 29 5 8 8 25 25 30 February February February March March March March March March March April April April April April April April May May May May May May

Time
-

Ship Activity

Extract
7:30AM committed the body to the deep

2:30AM Arrived at Aden, 2:30 mails left 10:30AM Started 8:45AM Arrived in Suez 2:00 AM Rec'd mails, 4:45 started 7:40PM Arrived at Aden, 7:15 mails left 5:55AM Rec'd mails, 6:15 started 8:54AM Arrived at Bombay, mails left 11:35AM Started NOON Moored ship at Mazagon

9:45Am Rec'd mails, started from Bombay 6:25AM Arrived at Galle, 6:30 mails left 7:40AM Rec'd mails, 8:30AM 21st started 6:58AM Arrived at Penang, 7:05 mails left 1:50PM Rec'd mails, and started 7:45AM Arrived at Singapore, 8:20 mails left 9:45AM Rec'd mails, 10AM Started 9:40AM Arrived at Hong Kong, 10:10 mails left 9:00 AM Started 3:30PM Anchored 4:30PM Started 11:15PM Arrived at Hong Kong 2:35PM Started with mails

122

Captain

1st Off

Year

Date Month
8 10 12 12 21 22 27 27 ***** June June June June June June June June

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

5:30PM Arrived at Singapore, 5:40 mails left NOON Started with mails 6:30AM Arrived at Penang, mails left 11:30AM Rec'd mails, 11:45 started 9:00 AM Arrived at Galle, 9:15 mails left 5:50AM Started 7:45AM Landed mails at Bombay 8:15AM Moored ship at Mazagon Missing 28 June to 28 November?

Dundas

Wyatt

1867

29 29 29 30 30

November November November November November

3:45PM Started from Mazagon 4:20PM Anchored off Apollo Bunder 6:05PM Rec'd mails, 6:30 started Extract Extract The daughter of Mrs. Burnett (1st class passenger) fell overboard and was drowned 7:45 PM Theil Hupau/Agwallab died 10PM committed the body to the deep

5 6 11 27 Dundas Wyatt 1868 29 29 29 5 5

December December December December January January January February February

11:20 PM Arrived at Aden, 11:30 mails left 12:15PM Rec'd mails, 4 started 6:10PM Arrived at Suez, 9:15 mails left 2:00 PM Rec'd mails, 12:27AM started 3:50PM Started from Mazagon 4:20PM Anchored off Apollo Bunder 5:15 Rec'd mails, 5:36 started 7:05AM Arrived at Aden, 7:10 mails left Rec'd mails, 6:20 started 5:45PM

123

Captain

1st Off

Year

Date Month
6 6 11 27 4 5 11 11 12 28 28 28 4 5 11 18 25 25 2 2 2 February February February February March March March March March March March March April April April April April April May May May May May

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

6:45PM Discharged Abypinian mails 7:00 PM Started 12:30AM Arrived at Suez, 4:05 mails left 8:00 AM Rec'd mails, 12;05 AM 28th started 5:55PM Arrived at Aden, mails left 2:10PM Started 9:15PM Anchored at Bombay, 10:10 mails left Midnight Started 1:00 AM Moored ship at Mazagon 3:30PM Started from Mazagon 4:10PM Anchored at Bombay 5:40PM Rec'd mails, 6th started 9:00 AM Arrived at Aden, mails left 4:45PM Rec'd mails, 5th started 7:45 AM Arrived at Suez, 19 mails left 8:00 PM Rec'd mails, 10 started 6:25AM Arrived at Aden 3:30 PM Rec'd mails, 4:20 started 8:25PM Arrived at Bombay, 9:20 mails left 10:20PM Started 11:00 PM Moored ship at Mazagon 3:20PM Started form Mazagon Anchored off Apollo Bunder 3:50 PM

Jones

Wyatt

1868

12 12

124

Captain

1st Off

Year Date Month
12 21 22 29 7 12 12 19 27 7 7 13 18 24 24 30 30 30 May May May May June June June June June July July July July July July July July July August August August August August August

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

4:45PM Rec'd mails, and started 8:15AM Anchored at Aden 75:30PM Rec'd mails, 7:45 started 12:45AM Arrived at Suez, mails left 2:00 AM Started, rec'd mails, 10AM on 6th 11:10AM Arrived at Aden, 11:25 mails, left 6:00 PM Rec'd mails, 1:05AM 13th started 9:10AM Arrived at Bombay, 10:30 mails left 5:00 PM Started from Bombay 3:10AM Arrived at Aden 2:00 PM Started 7:30AM Arrived at Suez 7:15AM Rec'd mails, midnight started 7:00 AM Arrived at Aden, 7:10 mails left 1:35PM Rec'd mails, 1:40 started 1:15PM Arrived at Bombay, 1:40 mails left 1:45PM Started 2:36PM Moored ship at Mazagon 3:40PM Started form Mazagon 4:25PM Anchored off Apollo Bunder 6:30PM Rec'd mails, started 6:15AM Extract Arrived at Aden, 6:40 mails left 5:15PM R. Davidson (2nd Engineer) died 7AM committed the body to the deep

Perrins

Wyatt

1868

11 11 11 14 15 21

125

Captain

1st Off

Year

Date Month
21 28 5 11 11 18 18 August August September September September September September October October October October October October October October October October November November November November November November November

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

6:00 PM Rec'd mails, 6:25 started 6:00 AM Arrived at Suez, mails left 8:45AM Rec'd mails, 5:10 PM started 5:28AM Arrived at Aden, 5:40 mails left 4:30 PM Rec'd mails, 5:10 started 2:15PM Landed mails at Bombay 3:00 PM Moored ship at Mazagon 3:30PM Started from Mazagon 3:55PM Anchored off Apollo Bunder 5:30PM Rec'd mails, 5:40 started 8:30AM Arrived at Aden, 8:25 mails left 5:30PM Started 6:56AM Arrived at Suez, 10 mails left 4:30Am Rec'd mails, 11:40 started 1:50AM rived at Aden, 2:25 mails left 11:40AM Rec'd mails, noon started 9:45AM Landed mails at Bombay 10:30AM Moored Shipp at Mazagon 9:30PM Started from Mazagon Anchored off Apollo Bunder 10:10Am Extract 8:30PM Mrs. Simpson (1st class passenger) died 7:40AM committed the body to the deep Extract 11:40PM Charles Parish (2nd class passenger) died 8AM committed the body to the deep

Coleman

Wyatt

1868

10 10 10 13 14 17 17 20 21 23 1 7 7 14 14 28 28

126

Captain

1st Off

Year

Date Month
28 5 5 11 20 26 26 November December December December December December December January January January January January January January January January February February February February February February February

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

6:00 PM Rec'd mails, 6:15 started 5:05AM Arrived at Aden 5:00 PM Rec'd mails, 5:30 started 10:30AM Arrived at Suez, 12:30Pm mails left NOON Rec'd mails, 5:20PM started 6:30AM Arrived at Aden, 6:40 mails left 12:10 PM Rec'd mails, 12:30 started 10:00 AM Arrived at Bombay, 10:30 mails left 10:35AM Started 11:30AM Moored ship at Mazagon 3:45PM Started from Mazagon 4:10PM Anchored off Apollo Bunder 5:15PM Rec'd mails, 5:30 started 6:50AM Arrived at Aden, 7:20 mails left Rec'd mails, 5:30 started with a lighter 4:30PM in tow Arrived at Suez, 12:30 AM 31th mails 11:35 PM left Extract 8PM Mombanack Native died 6AM Landed the body for burial

Coleman

Wyatt

1869

3 3 3 16 16 16 23 23 30 3 4 8 13 14 21 21

Rec'd mails, 4:15 Pm started from 4:00 AM Suez 11:40PM Arrived at Aden, mails left 7:40AM Rec'd mails, 9:20 started 3:10 PM Landed mails at Bombay Moored ship at Mazagon 3:40PM

127

Captain

1st Off

Year

Date Month

Time

Ship Activity

Extract

Coleman

Wyatt

1869

15 15 15 22 22 28 2 5 10 11 18 18

May May May May May May June June June June June June June June June July July July July July August August

3:35PM Started from Mazagon 4:10PM Anchored off Apollo Bunder 5:40PM Rec'd mails, 5:45 started 1:05PM Arrived at Aden, 1:30 mails left 8:30PM Rec'd mails, 10:15 PM started 8:55AM Arrived at Suez, 11 AM mails left Extract Allie Amber coaler died of small pox on board Precursor, buried on shore

11:30 AM Rec'd mails, 1:45 PM started 7:07 PM Arrived at Aden, 7:15 mails left 8:00 AM Rec'd mails, 8:10 started 8:45 AM Discharged mails 9:50Am Moored at Mazagon 3:30PM Started from Mazagon 4:05PM Anchored off Apollo Bunder 5:00 PM Rec'd mails, 5:25 started 7:15AM Arrived at Aden, 7:30 mails left 6:00 PM Rec'd mails, 6:30 started 11:00 AM Arrived at Suez, noon mails left 7:00 AM Rec'd mails, 10:40 started 1:45PM Rec'd mails, 9:40 started 7:00 AM Landed mails at Bombay 8:00 AM Moored ship at Mazagon

Jones

Wyatt

1869

29 29 29 9 9 16 25 30 6 6

*This logbook was received 17 Sept. 1869. Its contents were from 29 June to 6 Aug. 1869*** Captain Jones started a new logbook, but it did not survive the wrecking. The Captain of the Sumatra did make several entries into hi logbook and the P&O transcriptions are included at the end of this appendices.

128

129

130

APPENDIX III CREW LISTS

131

132

133

134

135

136

137

138

139

140

141

142

143

144

145

146

147

148

149

150

151

152

APPENDIX IV INFORMATION IN RELATION TO THE SAMUDA BROS.

153

154

155

156

APPENDIX V DOCUMENTS RELATED TO THE P&O AND THE SUEZ CANAL

157

158

159

160

161

162

163

164

165

166

167

168

169

170

171

172

APPENDIX VI P&O ACCOUNT LEDGER DOCUMENTS

173

174

175

176

177

178

179

180

181

182

183

184

185

186

187

APPENDIX VII UNESCO

CONVENTION ON THE PROTECTION OF THE UNDERWATER CULTURAL HERITAGE
The G eneral C onference of t he U nited N ations Educational, Scientific a nd C ultural O rganization, meeting in Paris from 15 October to 3 November 2001, at its 31st session, Acknowledging the importance of und erwater c ultural heritage as an i ntegral par t of t he cultural heritage of humanity and a particularly important element in the history of peoples, nations, and their relations with each other concerning their common heritage, Realizing the importance of protecting and preserving the und erwater cultural heritage and that responsibility therefor rests with all States, Noting growing public interest in and public appreciation of underwater cultural heritage, Convinced of t he i mportance of r esearch, information an d e ducation t o t he protection a nd preservation of underwater cultural heritage, Convinced of t he p ublic’s r ight t o enj oy t he educational an d r ecreational benefits of responsible non-intrusive access to in situ underwater cultural heritage, and of the value of public education to contribute to awareness, appreciation and protection of that heritage, Aware of t he f act t hat un derwater c ultural her itage is t hreatened by unauthorized ac tivities directed at it, and of the need for stronger measures to prevent such activities, Conscious of t he ne ed t o r espond a ppropriately to t he pos sible n egative impact on underwater cultural heritage of legitimate activities that may incidentally affect it, Deeply concerned by the increasing commercial exploitation of underwater cultural heritage, and i n par ticular b y c ertain ac tivities ai med at t he s ale, ac quisition or b arter of under water cultural heritage, Aware of the availability of advanced technology that enhances discovery of and access to underwater cultural heritage, Believing that c ooperation among S tates, i nternational or ganizations, s cientific i nstitutions, professional organizations, archaeologists, divers, other interested parties and the public at large is essential for the protection of underwater cultural heritage, Considering that survey, excavation and protection of underwater cultural heritage necessitate t he availability and a pplication of s pecial s cientific m ethods and the us e of

188

suitable techniques a nd equipment as w ell as a high degree of pr ofessional specialization, all of which indicate a need for uniform governing criteria, Realizing the nee d t o c odify and pr ogressively develop r ules r elating t o the protection and preservation of underwater cultural heritage in conformity with international law and practice, including t he U NESCO C onvention on t he Means of P rohibiting and Preventing t he I llicit Import, E xport and T ransfer of O wnership of C ultural P roperty of 14 N ovember 1970, t he UNESCO Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage of 16 November 1972 a nd the U nited N ations C onvention on t he La w of t he S ea of 10 December 1982, Committed to improving the effectiveness of measures at international, regional and national levels for t he pr eservation in s itu or, i f nec essary f or s cientific or protective p urposes, t he careful recovery of underwater cultural heritage, Having decided at its twenty-ninth session that this question should be made the subject of an international convention, Adopts this second day of November 2001 this Convention. Article 1 – Definitions For the purposes of this Convention: 1. (a) “Underwater c ultural her itage” m eans al l t races of hum an ex istence hav ing a cultural, historical or archaeological character which have been partially or totally under water, periodically or continuously, for at least 100 years such as: (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (c) 2. (a) (b) sites, s tructures, bui ldings, ar tefacts and hum an r emains, t ogether w ith their archaeological and natural context; vessels, ai rcraft, ot her v ehicles or any p art t hereof, t heir c argo or other contents, together with their archaeological and natural context; and objects of prehistoric character.

Pipelines an d c ables placed on t he s eabed s hall not be c onsidered as underwater cultural heritage. Installations other than pipelines and cables, placed on the seabed and still in use, shall not be considered as underwater cultural heritage. “States Parties” means States which have consented to be bound by this Convention and for which this Convention is in force. This C onvention app lies mutatis mut andis to t hose t erritories r eferred t o i n Article 26, par agraph 2( b), w hich b ecome P arties t o t his C onvention i n accordance with t he c onditions s et out i n t hat paragraph, and t o t hat extent “States Parties” refers to those territories. Scientific and C ultural

3. “UNESCO” m eans t he U nited N ations E ducational, Organization. 4. “Director-General” means the Director-General of UNESCO.

189

5. “Area” m eans t he s eabed and ocean f loor and s ubsoil t hereof, be yond t he l imits of national jurisdiction. 6. “Activities directed at underwater cultural heritage” means activities having underwater cultural h eritage as t heir primary object a nd which m ay, directly or indirectly, ph ysically disturb or otherwise damage underwater cultural heritage. 7. “Activities i ncidentally af fecting u nderwater c ultural he ritage” m eans ac tivities which, despite not having underwater cultural heritage as their primary object or one of their objects, may physically disturb or otherwise damage underwater cultural heritage. 8. “State vessels an d a ircraft” means w arships, and ot her v essels or ai rcraft t hat were owned or oper ated b y a S tate an d us ed, at t he t ime of sinking, onl y f or gov ernment non commercial purposes, that are identified as such and that meet the definition of underwater cultural heritage. 9. “Rules” means the Rules concerning activities directed at underwater cultural heritage, as referred to in Article 33 of this Convention. Article 2 – Objectives and general principles 1. This Convention aims to ensure and strengthen the protection of underwater cultural heritage. 2. States Parties shall cooperate in the protection of underwater cultural heritage.

3. States Parties shall preserve underwater cultural heritage for the benefit of humanity in conformity with the provisions of this Convention. 4. States P arties s hall, i ndividually or j ointly as ap propriate, t ake al l ap propriate measures in conformity with this Convention and with international law that are necessary to protect underwater c ultural her itage, using f or t his p urpose t he bes t practicable m eans at their disposal and in accordance with their capabilities. 5. The preservation in situ of underwater cultural heritage shall be considered as the first option before allowing or engaging in any activities directed at this heritage. 6. Recovered underwater cultural heritage shall be deposited, conserved and managed in a manner that ensures its long-term preservation. 7. Underwater cultural heritage shall not be commercially exploited.

8. Consistent with State pr actice an d i nternational l aw, including t he United Nations Convention on t he Law of t he S ea, no thing in t his C onvention s hall be interpreted as modifying the rules of international law and State practice pertaining to sovereign immunities, nor any State’s rights with respect to its State vessels and aircraft. 9. States Parties shall ensure that proper respect is given to all human remains located in maritime waters. 10. Responsible non-intrusive access to observe or document in situ underwater cultural heritage shall be encouraged to create public awareness, appreciation, and protection of the heritage except where such access is incompatible with its protection and management. 11. No act or activity undertaken on the basis of this Convention shall constitute grounds for claiming, contending or disputing any claim to national sovereignty or jurisdiction.

190

Article 3 – Relationship between this Convention and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice the rights, jurisdiction and duties of States under international l aw, including t he U nited N ations C onvention o n t he Law of t he S ea. T his Convention shall be interpreted and applied in the context of and in a manner consistent with international law, including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Article 4 – Relationship to law of salvage and law of finds Any activity relating to underwater cultural heritage to which this Convention applies shall not be subject to the law of salvage or law of finds, unless it: (a) is authorized by the competent authorities, and (b) is in full conformity with this Convention, and (c) ensures that any recovery of the underwater cultural heritage achieves its maximum protection.

Article 5 – Activities incidentally affecting underwater cultural heritage Each State Party shall use the best practicable means at its disposal to prevent or mitigate any adverse effects that might arise from activities under its jurisdiction incidentally affecting underwater cultural heritage. Article 6 – Bilateral, regional or other multilateral agreements 1. States P arties ar e enc ouraged t o ent er i nto bi lateral, r egional or ot her m ultilateral agreements or dev elop e xisting a greements, f or t he pr eservation of under water c ultural heritage. A ll s uch agreements s hall be in f ull c onformity with t he pr ovisions of t his Convention an d s hall not dilute its u niversal c haracter. S tates m ay, i n s uch a greements, adopt r ules an d r egulations w hich would ens ure b etter pr otection of under water c ultural heritage than those adopted in this Convention. 2. The P arties t o s uch bi lateral, r egional or ot her m ultilateral agr eements may i nvite States with a verifiable l ink, es pecially a c ultural, historical or archaeological l ink, t o t he underwater cultural heritage concerned to join such agreements. 3. This Convention shall not alter the rights and ob ligations of States Parties r egarding the pr otection of s unken v essels, ar ising f rom ot her bilateral, r egional or ot her multilateral agreements c oncluded b efore i ts ad option, a nd, i n p articular, t hose t hat ar e i n c onformity with the purposes of this Convention. Article 7 – Underwater cultural heritage in internal waters, archipelagic waters and territorial sea 1. States Parties, in the exercise of their sovereignty, have the exclusive right to regulate and au thorize ac tivities di rected at und erwater c ultural her itage i n t heir i nternal waters, archipelagic waters and territorial sea. 2. Without pr ejudice t o ot her i nternational agr eements and r ules of i nternational l aw regarding the protection of underwater cultural heritage, States Parties shall require that the

191

Rules be applied to activities directed at underwater cultural heritage in their internal waters, archipelagic waters and territorial sea. 3. Within their archipelagic waters and territorial sea, in the exercise of their sovereignty and i n r ecognition of gener al pr actice am ong S tates, S tates P arties, w ith a v iew t o cooperating on the best methods of protecting State vessels and aircraft, should inform the flag S tate Party t o t his C onvention an d, i f ap plicable, ot her S tates with a verifiable l ink, especially a c ultural, h istorical or ar chaeological link, w ith r espect t o t he di scovery of s uch identifiable State vessels and aircraft. Article 8 – Underwater cultural heritage in the contiguous zone Without prejudice to and in addition to Articles 9 and 10, and in accordance with Article 303, paragraph 2, of t he U nited N ations Convention o n the Law of t he S ea, States Parties may regulate an d authorize activities d irected at un derwater c ultural h eritage within t heir contiguous zone. In so doing, they shall require that the Rules be applied. Article 9 – Reporting and notification in the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf 1. All States Parties have a responsibility to protect underwater cultural heritage in the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf in conformity with this Convention. Accordingly: (a) a State Party shall require that when its national, or a vessel flying its flag, discovers or intends to engage in activities directed at underwater cultural heritage located in its exclusive economic zone or on its continental shelf, the national or the master of the vessel shall report such discovery or activity to it; in the exclusive economic zone or on the continental shelf of another State Party: (i) States Parties shall require the national or the master of the vessel to report such discovery or activity to them and to that other State Party; (ii) alternatively, a State Party shall require the national or master of the vessel to report such discovery or activity to it and shall ensure the rapid and effective transmission of such reports to all other States Parties. 2. On depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, a State Party shall declare the manner in which reports will be transmitted under paragraph 1(b) of this Article. 3. A State Party shall notify the Director-General of discoveries or activities reported to it under paragraph 1 of this Article. 4. The Director-General shall promptly make available to all States Parties any information notified to him under paragraph 3 of this Article.

(b)

192

5. Any State Party may declare to the State Party in whose exclusive economic zone or on whose continental shelf the underwater cultural heritage is located its interest in being consulted on how to ensure the effective protection of that underwater cultural heritage. Such declaration shall be based on a verifiable link, especially a cultural, historical or archaeological link, to the underwater cultural heritage concerned. Article 10 – Protection of underwater cultural heritage in the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf 1. No authorization shall be granted for an activity directed at underwater cultural heritage located in the exclusive economic zone or on the continental shelf except in conformity with the provisions of this Article. 2. A State Party in whose exclusive economic zone or on whose continental shelf underwater cultural heritage is located has the right to prohibit or authorize any activity directed at such heritage to prevent interference with its sovereign rights or jurisdiction as provided for by international law including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. 3. Where there is a discovery of underwater cultural heritage or it is intended that activity shall be directed at underwater cultural heritage in a State Party’s exclusive economic zone or on its continental shelf, that State Party shall: (a) (b) consult all other States Parties which have declared an interest under Article 9, paragraph 5, on how best to protect the underwater cultural heritage; coordinate such consultations as “Coordinating State”, unless it expressly declares that it does not wish to do so, in which case the States Parties which have declared an interest under Article 9, paragraph 5, shall appoint a Coordinating State.

4. Without prejudice to the duty of all States Parties to protect underwater cultural heritage by way of all practicable measures taken in accordance with international law to prevent immediate danger to the underwater cultural heritage, including looting, the Coordinating State may take all practicable measures, and/or issue any necessary authorizations in conformity with this Convention and, if necessary prior to consultations, to prevent any immediate danger to the underwater cultural heritage, whether arising from human activities or any other cause, including looting. In taking such measures assistance may be requested from other States Parties. 5. The Coordinating State: (a) shall implement measures of protection which have been agreed by the consulting States, which include the Coordinating State, unless the consulting States, which include the Coordinating State, agree that another State Party shall implement those measures; shall issue all necessary authorizations for such agreed measures in conformity with the Rules, unless the consulting States, which include the Coordinating State, agree that another State Party shall issue those authorizations; may conduct any necessary preliminary research on the underwater cultural heritage and shall issue all necessary authorizations therefor, and shall promptly inform the Director-General of the results, who in turn will make such information promptly available to other States Parties.

(b)

(c)

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6. In coordinating consultations, taking measures, conducting preliminary research and/or issuing authorizations pursuant to this Article, the Coordinating State shall act on behalf of the States Parties as a whole and not in its own interest. Any such action shall not in itself constitute a basis for the assertion of any preferential or jurisdictional rights not provided for in international law, including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. 7. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 2 and 4 of this Article, no activity directed at State vessels and aircraft shall be conducted without the agreement of the flag State and the collaboration of the Coordinating State. Article 11 – Reporting and notification in the Area 1. States Parties have a responsibility to protect underwater cultural heritage in the Area in conformity with this Convention and Article 149 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of t he Sea. A ccordingly when a na tional, or a vessel f lying t he f lag of a S tate Party, discovers or intends to engage in activities directed at underwater cultural heritage located in the Area, that State Party shall require its national, or the master of the vessel, to report such discovery or activity to it. 2. States P arties s hall n otify t he D irector-General an d t he S ecretary-General of t he International Seabed Authority of such discoveries or activities reported to them. 3. The D irector-General s hall pr omptly m ake av ailable to al l States P arties an y such information supplied by States Parties. 4. Any State Party may declare to the Director-General its interest in being consulted on how to ensure the effective protection of that underwater cultural heritage. Such declaration shall be based on a verifiable link to the underwater cultural heritage concerned, particular regard being paid to the preferential rights of States of cultural, historical or archaeological origin. Article 12 – Protection of underwater cultural heritage in the Area 1. No a uthorization s hall b e gr anted f or a ny activity directed at un derwater c ultural heritage located in the Area except in conformity with the provisions of this Article. 2. The D irector-General s hall i nvite all S tates P arties which ha ve declared an interest under A rticle 11 , p aragraph 4, t o c onsult on ho w b est t o pr otect t he underwater c ultural heritage, and to appoint a State Party to coordinate such consultations as the “Coordinating State”. The Director-General shall also invite the International Seabed Authority to participate in such consultations. 3. All S tates Parties m ay take al l practicable m easures i n c onformity with t his Convention, i f nec essary prior t o c onsultations, t o prevent any immediate da nger t o t he underwater cultural heritage, whether arising from human activity or any other cause including looting. 4. The Coordinating State shall: (a) implement measures of pr otection which ha ve been agreed b y t he c onsulting States, w hich i nclude t he C oordinating S tate, u nless t he c onsulting States, which include t he C oordinating State, agr ee t hat another State Party s hall implement those measures; and

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(b)

issue all necessary authorizations for such agreed measures, in conformity with this C onvention, u nless t he c onsulting States, w hich i nclude t he C oordinating State, agree that another State Party shall issue those authorizations.

5. The C oordinating State m ay c onduct an y necessary preliminary r esearch on t he underwater cultural heritage and shall issue all necessary authorizations therefor, and shall promptly inform the Director-General of the results, who in turn shall make such information available to other States Parties. 6. In c oordinating c onsultations, t aking m easures, c onducting preliminary r esearch, and/or issuing authorizations pursuant to this Article, the Coordinating State shall act for the benefit of humanity as a whole, on behalf of all States Parties. Particular regard shall be paid to the preferential rights of States of cultural, historical or archaeological origin in respect of the underwater cultural heritage concerned. 7. No State Party s hall un dertake or aut horize ac tivities di rected a t State vessels an d aircraft in the Area without the consent of the flag State. Article 13 – Sovereign immunity Warships and other government ships or military aircraft with sovereign immunity, operated for non -commercial pur poses, under taking t heir n ormal m ode of oper ations, and not engaged in activities directed at underwater cultural heritage, shall not be obliged to report discoveries of un derwater c ultural h eritage under Articles 9, 1 0, 11 a nd 12 of t his Convention. However States Parties shall ensure, by the adoption of appropriate measures not impairing the operations or operational capabilities of their warships or other government ships or military aircraft with sovereign immunity operated for non-commercial purposes, that they c omply, as f ar as is r easonable and pr acticable, with Articles 9, 10, 11 an d 12 of t his Convention. Article 14 – Control of entry into the territory, dealing and possession States Parties shall take measures to prevent the entry into their territory, the dealing in, or the possession of , un derwater c ultural h eritage i llicitly exported a nd/or r ecovered, where recovery was contrary to this Convention. Article 15 – Non-use of areas under the jurisdiction of States Parties States P arties s hall t ake m easures t o pr ohibit t he use of t heir t erritory, including t heir maritime ports, as well as artificial islands, installations and structures under their exclusive jurisdiction or control, in support of any activity directed at underwater cultural heritage which is not in conformity with this Convention. Article 16 – Measures relating to nationals and vessels States Parties shall take all practicable measures to ensure that their nationals and vessels flying t heir f lag d o n ot engage in an y activity directed at underwater c ultural h eritage in a manner not in conformity with this Convention. Article 17 – Sanctions 1. Each S tate P arty s hall i mpose s anctions f or v iolations of measures i t has t aken t o implement this Convention.

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2. Sanctions applicable i n r espect of v iolations s hall be ad equate in s everity t o be effective in securing compliance with this Convention and to discourage violations wherever they occur and shall deprive offenders of the benefit deriving from their illegal activities. 3. States Parties shall cooperate to ensure enforcement of sanctions imposed under this Article. Article 18 – Seizure and disposition of underwater cultural heritage 1. Each State Party shall take measures providing for the seizure of underwater cultural heritage in i ts t erritory t hat has bee n r ecovered i n a m anner not i n c onformity with t his Convention. 2. Each State P arty s hall record, pr otect and t ake al l r easonable m easures t o s tabilize underwater cultural heritage seized under this Convention. 3. Each State Party shall notify the Director-General and any other State with a verifiable link, especially a cultural, historical or archaeological link, to the underwater cultural heritage concerned of any seizure of underwater cultural heritage that it has made under this Convention. 4. A State Party which has seized underwater c ultural her itage s hall ens ure t hat i ts disposition b e f or t he pu blic b enefit, t aking into ac count the ne ed f or c onservation an d research; t he need f or r eassembly of a di spersed c ollection; t he ne ed f or pub lic ac cess, exhibition and ed ucation; and t he interests of an y State with a verifiable l ink, es pecially a cultural, historical or archaeological link, in respect of the underwater cultural heritage concerned. Article 19 – Cooperation and information-sharing 1. States Parties shall cooperate and assist each other in the protection and management of under water c ultural heritage u nder t his C onvention, including, where practicable, collaborating in the investigation, excavation, documentation, conservation, study and presentation of such heritage. 2. To t he ex tent c ompatible with t he pur poses of t his C onvention, eac h State P arty undertakes t o s hare i nformation w ith ot her S tates P arties c oncerning und erwater c ultural heritage, including discovery of her itage, l ocation of her itage, her itage ex cavated or recovered contrary to this Convention or otherwise in violation of international law, pertinent scientific methodology and technology, and legal developments relating to such heritage. 3. Information shared between States Parties, or between UNESCO and States Parties, regarding the discovery or location of underwater cultural heritage shall, to the extent compatible with t heir national l egislation, be k ept c onfidential a nd r eserved t o c ompetent authorities of States Parties as long as the disclosure of such information might endanger or otherwise put at risk the preservation of such underwater cultural heritage. 4. Each State Party shall take all practicable measures to disseminate information, including where feasible through appropriate international databases, about underwater cultural heritage excavated or recovered contrary to this Convention or otherwise in violation of international law.

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Article 20 – Public awareness Each State Party shall take all practicable measures to raise public awareness regarding the value a nd s ignificance of under water c ultural her itage and t he i mportance of pr otecting i t under this Convention. Article 21 – Training in underwater archaeology States P arties s hall c ooperate i n t he pr ovision of t raining i n un derwater ar chaeology, in techniques for the conservation of underwater cultural heritage and, on agreed terms, in the transfer of technology relating to underwater cultural heritage. Article 22 – Competent authorities 1. In order to ensure the proper implementation of this Convention, States Parties shall establish c ompetent aut horities or reinforce t he ex isting ones where ap propriate, with t he aim of providing for t he establishment, maintenance and updating of an inventory of underwater c ultural heritage, t he effective pr otection, c onservation, presentation a nd management of underwater cultural heritage, as well as research and education. 2. States Parties shall communicate to the Director-General the names and addresses of their competent authorities relating to underwater cultural heritage. Article 23 – Meetings of States Parties 1. The Director-General shall convene a Meeting of States Parties within one year of the entry into f orce of t his C onvention an d t hereafter at l east o nce every two years. A t t he request of a majority of States Parties, the Director-General shall convene an Extraordinary Meeting of States Parties. 2. 3. The Meeting of States Parties shall decide on its functions and responsibilities. The Meeting of States Parties shall adopt its own Rules of Procedure.

4. The Meeting of States Parties may establish a Scientific and Technical Advisory Body composed of ex perts nom inated b y t he States P arties w ith du e r egard t o t he principle of equitable geographical distribution and the desirability of a gender balance. 5. The S cientific and T echnical Advisory B ody s hall app ropriately assist t he Me eting of States Parties in questions of a scientific or technical nature regarding the implementation of the Rules. Article 24 – Secretariat for this Convention 1. The Director-General shall be responsible for the functions of the Secretariat for this Convention. 2. The duties of the Secretariat shall include: (a) (b) organizing Meetings of States Parties as provided for in Article 23, paragraph 1; and assisting States Parties in implementing the decisions of the Meetings of States Parties.

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Article 25 – Peaceful settlement of disputes 1. Any d ispute b etween t wo or m ore S tates P arties c oncerning the i nterpretation or application of this Convention shall be subject to negotiations in good faith or other peaceful means of settlement of their own choice. 2. If t hose negot iations do n ot s ettle t he d ispute within a r easonable period of t ime, i t may be s ubmitted t o U NESCO f or mediation, b y ag reement bet ween t he S tates P arties concerned. 3. If mediation is not undertaken or if there is no settlement by mediation, the provisions relating to the settlement of disputes set out in Part XV of the United Nations Convention on the La w of t he S ea ap ply mutatis mut andis to an y d ispute bet ween S tates P arties t o t his Convention c oncerning t he i nterpretation or app lication of t his C onvention, whether or not they are also Parties to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. 4. Any procedure chosen by a State Party to this Convention and to the United Nations Convention o n t he Law of t he S ea p ursuant t o A rticle 287 of t he l atter s hall a pply t o t he settlement of disputes under this Article, unless that State Party, when ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Convention, or at any time thereafter, chooses another procedure pursuant to Article 287 for the purpose of the settlement of disputes arising out of this Convention. 5. A State Party to this Convention which is not a Party to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, when ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Convention or at any time thereafter shall be free to choose, by means of a written declaration, one or more of the means set out in Article 287, paragraph 1, of the United Nations Convention on the La w of the Sea for the purpose of settlement of disputes under this Article. A rticle 2 87 shall ap ply t o s uch a declaration, as well as t o a ny dispute t o which s uch S tate i s party, which is not covered by a declaration in force. For the purpose of conciliation and arbitration, in accordance with Annexes V and VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, such State shall be entitled to nominate conciliators and arbitrators to be included in the lists referred to in Annex V, Article 2, and Annex VII, Article 2, for the settlement of disputes arising out of this Convention. Article 26 – Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession 1. This C onvention s hall be subject t o r atification, acceptance or appr oval b y M ember States of UNESCO. 2. This Convention shall be subject to accession: (a) by States t hat ar e not m embers o f U NESCO b ut ar e m embers o f t he U nited Nations or of a specialized agenc y within t he U nited N ations s ystem or of t he International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as by States Parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice and any other State invited to accede to this Convention by the General Conference of UNESCO; by territories which e njoy f ull i nternal s elf-government, r ecognized as s uch b y the United Nations, but have not attained full independence in accordance with General Assembly r esolution 151 4 ( XV) and which h ave c ompetence o ver the matters gov erned b y t his Convention, including t he competence t o e nter into treaties in respect of those matters.

(b)

3. The instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Director-General.

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Article 27 – Entry into force This C onvention s hall e nter i nto f orce t hree m onths af ter t he d ate of t he deposit of t he twentieth instrument referred to in Article 26, but solely with respect to the twenty States or territories t hat ha ve s o de posited t heir i nstruments. I t s hall ent er i nto f orce f or each ot her State or territory three months after the date on which that State or territory has deposited its instrument. Article 28 – Declaration as to inland waters When ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Convention or at any time thereafter, any State or t erritory m ay dec lare t hat t he R ules s hall ap ply t o i nland waters not of a maritime character. Article 29 – Limitations to geographical scope At the t ime of r atifying, accepting, ap proving or ac ceding t o this C onvention, a S tate or territory m ay make a declaration to t he depositary that this C onvention s hall not be applicable t o s pecific par ts of i ts t erritory, i nternal w aters, ar chipelagic w aters or t erritorial sea, and s hall i dentify t herein t he r easons f or s uch dec laration. S uch State s hall, t o t he extent pr acticable a nd a s qui ckly as pos sible, promote c onditions un der w hich t his Convention will apply to t he ar eas s pecified in i ts declaration, a nd to t hat en d s hall al so withdraw its declaration in whole or in part as soon as that has been achieved. Article 30 – Reservations With the exception of Article 29, no reservations may be made to this Convention. Article 31 – Amendments 1. A St ate Pa rty m ay, b y written c ommunication a ddressed t o t he D irector-General, propose am endments t o t his C onvention. T he Director-General s hall c irculate s uch communication to all States Parties. If, within six months from the date of the circulation of the c ommunication, not l ess t han one h alf of t he States Parties r eply f avourably to t he request, t he D irector-General s hall pr esent s uch pr oposal t o t he nex t M eeting of S tates Parties for discussion and possible adoption. 2. Amendments shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of States Parties present and voting. 3. Once ado pted, am endments t o t his C onvention s hall b e s ubject t o r atification, acceptance, approval or accession by the States Parties. 4. Amendments s hall ent er i nto f orce, but s olely with r espect t o t he S tates P arties t hat have ratified, accepted, approved or acceded to them, three months after the deposit of the instruments r eferred t o i n paragraph 3 of t his A rticle b y t wo t hirds of t he States P arties. Thereafter, f or eac h S tate or t erritory t hat r atifies, ac cepts, ap proves or ac cedes t o i t, t he amendment shall enter into force three months after the date of deposit by that Party of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. 5. A State or territory which becomes a Party to this Convention after the entry into force of amendments in conformity with par agraph 4 of this A rticle s hall, failing an ex pression of different intention by that State or territory, be considered: (a) as a Party to this Convention as so amended; and

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(b)

as a P arty t o t he u namended C onvention in r elation t o an y State P arty no t bound by the amendment. Article 32 – Denunciation

1. A S tate P arty m ay, b y written notification ad dressed t o t he D irector-General, denounce this Convention. 2. The denunc iation s hall t ake effect t welve m onths af ter t he dat e of r eceipt of t he notification, unless the notification specifies a later date. 3. The denu nciation shall not i n any way affect t he dut y of any State Party to fulfil any obligation embodied in this Convention to which it would be subject under international law independently of this Convention. Article 33 – The Rules The R ules ann exed t o t his C onvention f orm an i ntegral p art of i t and , un less ex pressly provided otherwise, a reference to this Convention includes a reference to the Rules. Article 34 – Registration with the United Nations In conformity with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations, this Convention shall be registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations at the request of the Director-General. Article 35 – Authoritative texts This Convention has been drawn up in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish, the six texts being equally authoritative. Annex Rules concerning activities directed at underwater cultural heritage I. General principles Rule 1. The protection of underwater cultural heritage through in situ preservation shall be considered as the first option. Accordingly, activities directed at underwater cultural heritage shall be authorized in a manner consistent with the protection of that heritage, and subject to that r equirement m ay b e a uthorized f or t he pur pose of making a s ignificant c ontribution to protection or knowledge or enhancement of underwater cultural heritage. Rule 2. The commercial exploitation of underwater cultural heritage for trade or speculation or its irretrievable dispersal is fundamentally incompatible with the protection and proper management of un derwater c ultural h eritage. Underwater c ultural her itage s hall n ot be traded, sold, bought or bartered as commercial goods. This Rule cannot be interpreted as preventing: (a) the provision of professional archaeological services or necessary services incidental t hereto whose nature a nd pur pose ar e i n f ull c onformity with t his Convention and are subject to the authorization of the competent authorities;

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(b)

the de position of under water c ultural her itage, r ecovered i n t he c ourse of a research pr oject i n c onformity with t his C onvention, pr ovided s uch dep osition does not prejudice the scientific or cultural interest or integrity of the recovered material or r esult i n i ts i rretrievable d ispersal; i s in ac cordance with t he provisions of Rules 33 and 34; and is subject to the authorization of the competent authorities.

Rule 3. Activities di rected at un derwater c ultural her itage s hall n ot ad versely af fect t he underwater cultural heritage more than is necessary for the objectives of the project. Rule 4. Activities d irected a t un derwater c ultural heritage must us e non -destructive techniques and survey methods in preference to recovery of objects. If excavation or recovery is necessary for the purpose of scientific studies or for the ultimate protection of the underwater cultural heritage, the methods and techniques used must be as non-destructive as possible and contribute to the preservation of the remains. Rule 5. Activities di rected at u nderwater c ultural her itage s hall a void t he u nnecessary disturbance of human remains or venerated sites. Rule 6. Activities d irected at un derwater c ultural her itage s hall b e s trictly regulated t o ensure proper recording of cultural, historical and archaeological information. Rule 7. Public a ccess t o in s itu underwater c ultural h eritage s hall be pr omoted, ex cept where such access is incompatible with protection and management. Rule 8. International cooperation in the conduct of activities directed at underwater cultural heritage s hall be encouraged i n or der t o f urther t he ef fective exchange or us e of archaeologists and other relevant professionals. II. Project design Rule 9. Prior t o any activity directed at underwater c ultural h eritage, a pr oject design f or the activity shall be developed and submitted to the competent authorities for authorization and appropriate peer review. Rule 10. The project design shall include: (a) an evaluation of previous or preliminary studies; (b) the project statement and objectives; (c) the methodology to be used and the techniques to be employed; (d) the anticipated funding; (e) an expected timetable for completion of the project; (f) the c omposition of t he team and t he qualifications, r esponsibilities a nd experience of each team member;

(g) plans for post-fieldwork analysis and other activities; (h) (i) a c onservation pr ogramme f or ar tefacts and t he s ite in c lose c ooperation with the competent authorities; a site management and maintenance policy for the whole duration of the project;

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(j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p)

a documentation programme; a safety policy; an environmental policy; arrangements for collaboration with museums and other institutions, in particular scientific institutions; report preparation; deposition of archives, including underwater cultural heritage removed; and a programme for publication.

Rule 11. Activities directed at underwater cultural heritage shall be carried out in accordance with the project design approved by the competent authorities. Rule 12. Where unex pected d iscoveries ar e m ade or c ircumstances c hange, t he pr oject design shall be reviewed and amended with the approval of the competent authorities. Rule 13. In cases of ur gency or c hance d iscoveries, ac tivities di rected at t he u nderwater cultural heritage, including conservation measures or activities for a period of short duration, in particular site stabilization, may be authorized in the absence of a project design in order to protect the underwater cultural heritage. III. Preliminary work Rule 14. The pr eliminary work r eferred to in R ule 10 ( a) shall i nclude an as sessment t hat evaluates t he s ignificance an d vulnerability of t he underwater c ultural her itage and t he surrounding nat ural en vironment t o d amage b y t he proposed pr oject, an d t he potential to obtain data that would meet the project objectives. Rule 15. The as sessment shall al so i nclude b ackground studies of available historical and archaeological e vidence, t he ar chaeological an d e nvironmental c haracteristics of t he s ite, and the consequences of any potential intrusion for the long-term stability of the underwater cultural heritage affected by the activities. IV. Project objective, methodology and techniques Rule 16. The methodology s hall c omply with t he pr oject o bjectives, a nd t he t echniques employed shall be as non-intrusive as possible. V. Funding Rule 17. Except in cases of emergency to protect underwater cultural heritage, an adequate funding base shall be assured in advance of any activity, sufficient to complete all stages of the project des ign, i ncluding c onservation, d ocumentation and c uration of r ecovered artefacts, and report preparation and dissemination. Rule 18. The pr oject des ign s hall demonstrate an ab ility, s uch as b y s ecuring a bond, to fund the project through to completion. Rule 19. The project design shall include a contingency plan that will ensure conservation of underwater cultural heritage and supporting documentation in the event of any interruption of anticipated funding.

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VI. Project duration - timetable Rule 20. An a dequate timetable s hall be d eveloped t o as sure i n a dvance of an y ac tivity directed at und erwater c ultural her itage t he c ompletion of al l s tages of t he pr oject design, including c onservation, d ocumentation a nd c uration of r ecovered und erwater c ultural heritage, as well as report preparation and dissemination. Rule 21. The project design shall include a contingency plan that will ensure conservation of underwater cultural heritage and supporting documentation in the event of any interruption or termination of the project. VII. Competence and qualifications Rule 22. Activities d irected at un derwater c ultural h eritage s hall only be undertaken un der the di rection and c ontrol of , and i n t he r egular pr esence of , a qua lified underwater archaeologist with scientific competence appropriate to the project. Rule 23. All per sons on t he pr oject t eam shall b e qua lified and h ave dem onstrated competence appropriate to their roles in the project. VIII. Conservation and site management Rule 24. The conservation programme shall provide for the treatment of the archaeological remains during the activities directed at underwater cultural heritage, during transit and in the long t erm. C onservation shall b e c arried out i n a ccordance with c urrent p rofessional standards. Rule 25. The s ite m anagement pr ogramme s hall pr ovide f or t he pr otection and management in situ of underwater cultural heritage, in the course of and upon t ermination of fieldwork. T he pr ogramme s hall i nclude p ublic information, r easonable pr ovision f or s ite stabilization, monitoring, and protection against interference. IX. Documentation Rule 26. The doc umentation pr ogramme s hall s et out t horough doc umentation i ncluding a progress report of activities directed at underwater c ultural heritage, i n ac cordance w ith current professional standards of archaeological documentation. Rule 27. Documentation s hall i nclude, at a m inimum, a c omprehensive r ecord of t he s ite, including the provenance of underwater cultural heritage moved or removed in the course of the activities directed at underwater cultural heritage, field notes, plans, drawings, sections, and photographs or recording in other media. X. Safety Rule 28. A safety policy shall be prepared that is adequate to ensure the safety and health of t he pr oject t eam and t hird par ties and t hat i s i n c onformity with an y ap plicable s tatutory and professional requirements. XI. Environment Rule 29. An en vironmental po licy s hall be prepared t hat i s a dequate t o e nsure t hat t he seabed and marine life are not unduly disturbed.

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XII. Reporting Rule 30. Interim and final reports shall be made available according to the timetable set out in the project design, and deposited in relevant public records. Rule 31. Reports shall include: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) an account of the objectives; an account of the methods and techniques employed; an account of the results achieved; basic graphic and photographic documentation on all phases of the activity; recommendations concerning c onservation and c uration of t he site and of any underwater cultural heritage removed; and recommendations for future activities. XIII. Curation of project archives Rule 32. Arrangements f or c uration of t he pr oject archives s hall be agr eed t o b efore an y activity commences, and shall be set out in the project design. Rule 33. The pr oject ar chives, i ncluding a ny underwater c ultural h eritage r emoved and a copy of all supporting documentation shall, as far as possible, be kept together and intact as a collection in a manner that is available for professional and public access as well as for the curation of the archives. This should be done as rapidly as possible and in any case not later than ten years f rom t he c ompletion of the project, i n s o f ar as m ay be c ompatible with conservation of the underwater cultural heritage. Rule 34. The pr oject ar chives s hall be m anaged ac cording t o i nternational pr ofessional standards, and subject to the authorization of the competent authorities. XIV. Dissemination Rule 35. Projects shall provide for public education and popular presentation of the project results where appropriate. Rule 36. A final synthesis of a project shall be: (a) made public as soon as possible, having regard to the complexity of the project and the confidential or sensitive nature of the information; and

(b)

deposited in relevant public records.

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The foregoing is the authentic text of the Convention duly adopted by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization during its thirtyfirst session, which was held in Paris and declared closed the third day of November 2001. Le t exte q ui pr écède es t l e t exte au thentique de l a C onvention dûm ent ado ptée p ar l a Conférence générale de l 'Organisation des Nations U nies pour l 'éducation, l a s cience et l a culture à sa trente-et-unième session, qui s'est t enue à Paris et qui a été déclarée c lose le troisième jour de novembre 2001. Lo anterior es el texto auténtico de la Convención aprobada en buena y debida forma por la Conferencia General de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, en su trigésimo primera reunión, celebrada en París y terminada el tres de noviembre de 2001. Приведенный выше текст является подлинным текстом Конвенции, надлежащим образом принятой Генеральной конференцией Организации Объединенных Наций по вопросам образования, науки и культуры на ее тридцать первой сессии, состоявшейся в Париже и закончившейся третьего ноября 2001 года.

‫ﻭﻳﻌﺗﺑﺭ ﺍﻟﻧﺹ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻘﺩﻡ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻧﺹ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﻟﻼﺗﻔﺎﻗﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺍﻋﺗﻣﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻧﺣﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺟﺏ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺗﻣﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻣﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺗﺭﺑﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺛﻼﺛﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﻌﻘﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﻳﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺃﻋﻠﻥ ﺍﺧﺗﺗﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻳﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻟﺙ ﻣﻥ‬ .2001‫ﻧﻭﻓﻣﺑﺭ/ﺗﺷﺭﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ‬
Done in Paris this 6th day of November 2001 in two authentic copies bearing the signature of the President of the thirty-first session of the General Conference and of the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, which shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and certified true copies of which shall be delivered to all the States and territories referred to in Article 26 as well as to the United Nations. Совершено в г. Париже 6 ноября 2001 года в двух аутентичных экземплярах за подписью Председателя Генеральной конференции, собравшейся на тридцать первую сессию, и Генерального директора Организации Объединенных Наций по вопросам образования, науки и культуры, надлежащим образом заверенные копии которых будут направлены всем государствам и территориям, указанным в статье 26, а также Организации Объединенных Наций.

،2001 ‫ﺻﺩﺭﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﻳﺱ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻳﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺳﺎﺩﺱ ﻣﻥ ﻧﻭﻓﻣﺑﺭ/ﺗﺷﺭﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻥ ﻧﺳﺧﺗﻳﻥ ﺃﺻﻠﻳﺗﻳﻥ ﺗﺣﻣﻼﻥ ﺗﻭﻗﻳﻌﻲ ﺭﺋﻳﺱ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺗﻣﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺛﻼﺛﻳﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺩﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻣﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺗﺭﺑﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ، ﻭﺳﺗﻭﺩﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺣﻔﻭﻅﺎﺕ ﻣﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺗﺭﺑﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ، ﻭﺳﺗﺭﺳﻝ ﻧﺳﺦ‬ ّ 26 ‫ﻣُﺻﺩﻕ ﻋﻠﻳﻬﺎ ﻣﻁﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻸﺻﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻳﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺎﺩﺓ‬ .‫ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﺩﺓ‬

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APPENDIX VIII EGYPTIAN LAW & THE SCA

National Legislation Protecting Egypt's Cultural Heritage
The E gyptian law go verning ar chaeology and t he antiquities t rade, i s Law no. 2 15 ( 31 1965 and no. 117 of 1983. Under this law: 1. Antiquities are defined as all movable and immovable objects, which are produced by the arts, s ciences, l iteratures, customs, r eligions, etc. f rom pr ehistoric t imes to the r eign of Ismail. Also i ncluded are an y m ovable or i mmovable o bjects pr oduced by f oreign civilizations that were at one time related to Egypt (i.e. Greek, Ptolemaic, Roman, Libyan, Persian, et c.) t hat ar e f ound within E gypt's bor ders. A ny m ovable or immovable obj ect declared to be an antiquity. 2. All antiquities, either known or concealed, ultimately belong to the State, and are required to be r egistered o n an of ficial i nventory. Mo dification, di splacement or dem olition of classified antiquities is prohibited. The State maintains the right to expropriate any antiquity, or land containing antiquities. Discovery of antiquities should be reported immediately t o the n earest adm inistrative official; the State may acquire any s uch antiquity for national collections, and the displaying of such antiquity. 3. A permit is legal required for all field research, the conditions of which are set at the time of granting of the permit. All foreign nationals are required to submit a security declaration form to the Ministry of Culture Security Office, via the SCA. 4. Exportation of cultural property (including environmental and biological samples) is strictly prohibited without a permit, which must be obtained 30 days prior to the intended date of export. Movement of antiquities within the country must be approved 15 days prior to their transportation. 5. Dealers in antiquities must be licensed, and must maintain a daily register of transactions. Antiquities offered for sale must be authorised by the museums in advance. 6. The S upreme Council of A ntiquities und er t he aus pice of t he Mi nistry of C ulture, ar e responsible for the restoration and preservation of Egypt's cultural heritage.
st

October 195 1) on t he Protection of A ntiquities, r evised b y laws n o. 52 9 of 195 3, no. 2 4 of

Other l aws a nd r egulations app ly to r elated issues of zoning of c ities and t ownships t he organisation of l ocal go vernments and t he c reation of non -governmental o rganizations (NGOs) and their roles and responsibilities:

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1. Law 32 of 1964 on NGOs is now being updated by a new revised law. This law does not pr ovide f or an y m anagement of s ites or bui ldings and t he r ealisation of r egular income and ec onomic as sumption of pr ojects due t o s trong r estriction s and di rect supervision of the Ministry of Social Affairs. 2. Law 106 of 1976, and its amending Law 101 of 1996, related to the organization of erection or demolition of buildings etc. This law does not touch on cultural heritage. 3. Law 43 of 1979 r elates t o t he or ganization of l ocal g overnments, gov ernors, c ity managers, mayors, and local councils, and sets their roles and responsibilities. Note: while this law provides regulatory and supervisory responsibilities for the zoning and organization of t ownships and c ities, as w ell as gi ving per mits for t he er ection of buildings or sites, the law does not touch on the issue of cultural heritage. Law 158 of 1981, modified by Law 187 of 1993, relates to taxation for income for individuals, corporations and commercial activities.

MINISTRY OF CULTURE SUPREME COUNCIL OF ANTIQUITIES
SCA’s Regulations for Foreign Archaeological Missions The S upreme C ouncil of A ntiquities ( SCA) has c reated a n ew de partment t itled T he Department of F oreign Archaeological Mi ssions. T his depar tment will s tandardize t he r ules and regulations concerning the application and execution of all archaeological work in Egypt. The director or assistant director of a foreign mission will deal solely with this department. The application process: 1. Three months prior to excavation work, the mission’s director is required to submit a list of the ex pedition t eam, s pecifying t he n ationalities a nd pos itions of eac h m ember. This application must be written in English, clearly stating the time frame of the excavation season. A survey map showing the location of the requested site should be attached to the application form. 2. With the application, the CV’s of every team member must be included. The SCA expects that all team members will be affiliated with a recognized institution. According to the antiquities protection laws, permission will not be given to anyone who is not a professional in the field. 3. The ex pedition t eam w ill not b e per mitted t o s tart t heir work unt il t hey h ave r eceived a security clearance, signed a contract with the SCA, and their application has been accepted by the Permanent Committee of Antiquities. 4. A n as sistant di rector s hould be s pecified f or eac h mission, t o ac t i n t he abs ence of t he mission director.

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5. The S CA has the r ight to request the details of t he s ource of any expedition’s funding a t any time. Additional Requirements for concession applications concerning the West and East Desert or Coastal areas: 1. For missions wanting to pursue work at their current site, four survey maps signed by the director of t he m ission need to be s ubmitted to the SCA t hree months pr ior to t he following excavation season. The map should use the 1 to 50,000 scale or 1 to 25, 000 scale. 2. A ccording t o t he pr esidential d ecree no . 41 3 of 1998, t he f ollowing ar eas a re r estricted, even for research purposes: a. T he N orthern bor der, f rom Mer sa Wadi L ahmi on t he R ed S ea C oast t o Kom-Ombo. b. The Southern border, Latitude 22 from the Red Sea Coast to Ashkeet. c. T he Western bor der, f rom t he eastern shore of Lak e N asser, i ncluding Kom-Ombo Aswan and el-Mafarq, to Ashkeet on latitude 22 d. The Eastern border, the Egyptian Red Sea coast. Security Regulation: 1. T hree m onths pr ior t o excavation work, per sonal app lication f or e ach m ission m ember, including the ap plicants f ull name, dat e of bi rth, n ationality, pas sport ph oto-copy, pos ition, institution of affiliation, religion and five passport photos must be submitted to the SCA. The Department of F oreign A rchaeological M issions r equires p ersonal applications i n or der t o issue security clearance for each team member. 2. A f ee of 10. 50 L E f or each p ersonal a pplication should be pa id to t he D epartment of Security in order to process the security clearance. 3. S ending s amples a nd specimens abr oad f or an alyses i s prohibited; s amples m ust be examined i n t he R esearch and Ma intenance La b of t he S CA or i n a pproved al ternative Egyptian labs. 4. A dding ad ditional m embers t o t he m ission’s team af ter appl ication ac ceptance i s prohibited. 5 F or missions w anting t o w ork at a l ocation c lose t o t heir c urrent s ite i n t he West or E ast Deserts or Coastal regions, eleven survey maps signed by the director of the mission need to be submitted to the SCA three months prior to the excavation. The maps should use the 1 to 50,000 scale or the 1 to 25,000 scale. Rules for the missions working on sites: 1. N o ne w c oncessions will be given t o a c urrent t eam member w anting t o c reate a new excavation area within the granted site of the mission. 2. The working mission will not be allowed to open new sites anywhere until they publish their current site completely. 3. The mission will be granted only one season per year. The season’s start and finish dates must be specified in the application. If the mission needs another season within the year, they should request this at the beginning. 4. The SCA prohibits missions to work at more than one site at the same time.

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5. In order to renew the contract with the SCA the mission is required to reapply and meet the above mentioned conditions. 6 Working on Thursdays can be gr anted with pe rmission. However, no r estoration or excavation is allowed at the site on Fridays. 7 N o c oncessions w ill b e gi ven t o gr aduate s tudents. G raduate s tudents c an obt ain permission f or s tudy or r esearch on ar chaeological s ites t hrough h is or her supervisor’s proposal. 8. No concession will be granted to any expedition director who does not have good experience in the field. Responsibilities after application approval: 1. After the application has been approved by the Permanent Committee, and security clearance h as bee n i ssued, T he D epartment of F oreign A rchaeological M issions w ill then notify, in writing, the Sector of the Egyptian Antiquities of the SCA and the mission director. 2. The Department of Excavations of the SCA will assign inspectors, who have been trained in recognized fieldschools, to accompany the mission. 3. Before excavation work the head of the mission is required to submit two reports confirming the bor ders of t he ex cavation ar ea b oth s igned b y the d irector of t he m ission an d t he inspector. 4. The inspector must send a monthly report on the work progress. 5. The director of the mission must notify the Secretary General of the SCA immediately with any new discoveries. The SCA will suspend the mission’s concession if formal notification is neglected. 6. The mission is responsible for providing adequate containers for storing and protecting the artifacts. 7. T ransportation of t he artifacts f rom t he s ite t o m agazines or m useums w ill be at t he mission’s expense. 8. D uring t he ex cavation season, t he s ecurity guards w orking on s ite will be pai d b y the mission. However, they should be approved by the SCA site director. 9. Employment of recognized expert(s) in conservation and preservation is mandatory. 10. Restoration or site management programs for any archaeological site should be stated in a d etailed r eport and s ubmitted t o the P ermanent Committee. T he c onservator m ay be requested to discuss the methods of restoration or conservation. 11. The inspectorate will oversee all conservation work. 12. A m ember from t he C enter of R esearch an d Ma intenance of t he SCA n eeds t o accompany missions that are working in the field of anthropology and geophysics. The final report of such work should be submitted to the SCA. 13. Every precaution should be taken to protect the monuments during epigraphical work. A copy of all epigraphical work should be submitted to the SCA. 14. F ive c opies of the m ission’s pr eliminary r eport, written in English, m ust be submitted t o the SCA immediately after the end of the season, prior to the mission’s departure.

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15. Within three months of the season’s completion a detailed report, written in either: French, German, or English an d t ranslated into Arabic, i ncluding c opies of p hotographs, c harts and plans must be sent to The Department of Foreign Archaeological Missions. 16. T he S CA r equests t hat eac h m ission donat es f ive c opies of r ecently p ublished b ooks, written by t he m ission r egarding t he s ite, t o T he D epartment of F oreign Archaeological Missions. They will be distributed to the libraries and the museums of the SCA. 17. E very ex pedition i s r esponsible f or t he c onservation of ar tifacts and t he r estoration of tombs and t emples d iscovered by the ex pedition. Any expedition that f ails to c onserve t he findings of t he pr evious s eason will n ot be a llowed t o r eturn t o t heir c oncession u ntil t he conservation is complete. Relationship between the SCA Inspector and the Mission: 1. The SCA will rotate the accompanying Inspectors every season; no mission has the right to request an Inspector for consecutive seasons. 2. The mission is required to pay the SCA either: C. 1500 LE / month for the overtime and transportation of inspectors who do not live with the expedition. b. 1000 LE /month for Inspectors who do live with the expedition. 3. The Inspectors are prohibited from accepting any cash rewards or getting involved in any money transactions separate from those stated above. 4 Any problems concerning the behavior of the accompanying Inspector should be reported to the Secretary General of the SCA. New Policies: 1. For the upcoming ten years, new concessions will not be granted from Giza to Abu-Simbel. Concessions will o nly be granted i n t his ar ea f or r estoration, pr eservation, ar chaeological survey, documentation and epigraphical work. 2. New applications for excavation concessions will be granted only for the Western Desert, Eastern Desert and the Delta for the next ten years. 3. The SCA requires that the mission publishes the site within five years after work has been completed. T he D irector a nd I nstitution b acking an y m ission t hat do es not c omply will be denied any future concessions. 4. It is absolutely prohibited for any member of a mission to be involved with dealers of stolen artifacts. Mem bers of f oreign m issions ar e ex pected t o yield any, information t hey have regarding stolen artifacts to the Department of Stolen Artifacts. People who are found by court evidence t o be involved with s tolen artifacts w ill b e r emoved f rom t he ex cavation. I f t he director is involved, the mission will be terminated. 5. E gypt will n ot c ooperate w ith an y m useum or i nstitution w ho bu ys s tolen a rtifacts from Egypt. . Signed, Magdy El-Ghandour General Director, Foreign and Egyptian Missions Affairs Dr. Zahi Hawass Secretary General, SCA

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APPENDIX IX ICOMOS
CHARTER ON THE PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT OF UNDERWATER CULTURAL HERITAGE (1996) th Ratified by the 11 ICOMOS General Assembly in Sofia, Bulgaria, October 1996. INTRODUCTION This Charter is intended to encourage the protection and management of underwater cultural heritage in inland and inshore waters, in shallow seas and in the deep oceans. It focuses on the specific attributes and circumstances of cultural heritage under water and should be understood as a supplement to the ICOMOS Charter for the Protection and Management of Archaeological Heritage, 1990. The 1990 Charter defines the “archaeological heritage” as that part of the material heritage in respect of which archaeological methods provide primary information, comprising all vestiges of human existence and consisting of places relating to all manifestations of human activity, abandoned structures, and remains of all kinds, together with all the portable cultural material associated with them. For the purposes of this Charter underwater cultural heritage is understood to mean the archaeological heritage which is in, or has been removed from, an underwater environment. It includes submerged sites and structures, wreck-sites and wreckage and their archaeological and natural context. By its very character the underwater cultural heritage is an international resource. A large part of the underwater cultural heritage is located in an international setting and derives from international trade and communication in which ships and their contents are lost at a distance from their origin or destination. Archaeology is concerned with environmental conservation; in the language of resource management, underwater cultural heritage is both finite and non-renewable. If underwater cultural heritage is to contribute to our appreciation of the environment in the future, then we have to take individual and collective responsibility in the present for ensuring its continued survival. Archaeology is a public activity; everybody is entitled to draw upon the past in informing their own lives, and every effort to curtail knowledge of the past is an infringement of personal autonomy. Underwater cultural heritage contributes to the formation of identity and can be important to people’s sense of community. If managed sensitively, underwater cultural heritage can play a positive role in the promotion of recreation and tourism. Archaeology is driven by research, it adds to knowledge of the diversity of human culture through the ages and it provides new and challenging ideas about life in the past. Such knowledge and ideas contribute to understanding life today and, thereby, to anticipating future challenges. Many marine activities, which are themselves beneficial and desirable, can have unfortunate

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consequences for underwater cultural heritage if their effects are not foreseen. Underwater cultural heritage may be threatened by construction work that alters the shore and seabed or alters the flow of current, sediment and pollutants. Underwater cultural heritage may also be threatened by insensitive exploitation of living and non-living resources. Furthermore, inappropriate forms of access and the incremental impact of removing “souvenirs” can have a deleterious effect. Many of these threats can be removed or substantially reduced by early consultation with archaeologists and by implementing mitigatory projects. This Charter is intended to assist in bringing a high standard of archaeological expertise to bear on such threats to underwater cultural heritage in a prompt and efficient manner. Underwater cultural heritage is also threatened by activities that are wholly undesirable because they are intended to profit few at the expense of many. Commercial exploitation of underwater cultural heritage for trade or speculation is fundamentally incompatible with the protection and management of the heritage. This Charter is intended to ensure that all investigations are explicit in their aims, methodology and anticipated results so that the intention of each project is transparent to all. Article 1 – Fundamental Principles The preservation of underwater cultural heritage in situ should be considered as a first option. Public access should be encouraged. Non-destructive techniques, non-intrusive survey and sampling should be encouraged in preference to excavation. Investigation must not adversely impact the underwater cultural heritage more than is necessary for the mitigatory or research objectives of the project. Investigation must avoid unnecessary disturbance of human remains or venerated sites. Investigation must be accompanied by adequate documentation. Article 2 – Project Design Prior to investigation a project must be prepared, taking into account: • the mitigatory or research objectives of the project; • the methodology to be used and the techniques to be employed; • anticipated funding; • the time-table for completing the project; • the composition, qualifications, responsibility and experience of the investigating team; • material conservation; • site management and maintenance; • arrangements for collaboration with museums and other institutions; • documentation; • health and safety; • report preparation;

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• deposition of archives, including underwater cultural heritage removed during investigation; • dissemination, including public participation. The project design should be revised and amended as necessary. Investigation must be carried out in accordance with the project design. The project design should be made available to the archaeological community. Article 3 – Funding Adequate funds must be assured in advance of investigation to complete all stages of the project design including conservation, report preparation and dissemination. The project design should include contingency plans that will ensure conservation of underwater cultural heritage and supporting documentation in the event of any interruption in anticipated funding. Project funding must not require the sale of underwater cultural heritage or the use of any strategy that will cause underwater cultural heritage and supporting documentation to be irretrievably dispersed. Article 4 – Time-table Adequate time must be assured in advance of investigation to complete all stages of the project design including conservation, report preparation and dissemination. The project design should include contingency plans that will ensure conservation of underwater cultural heritage and supporting documentation in the event of any interruption in anticipated timings. Article 5- Research objectives, methodology and techniques Research objectives and the details of the methodology and techniques to be employed must be set down in the project design. The methodology should accord with the research objectives of the investigation and the techniques employed must be as unintrusive as possible. Post-fieldwork analysis of mail rs and documentation is integral to all investigation; adequate provision for this analysis must be made in the project design. Article 6 – Qualifications, responsibility and experience All persons on the investigating team must be suitably qualified and experienced for their project roles. They must be fully briefed and understand the work required. All intrusive investigations of underwater cultural heritage will only be undertaken under the direction and control of a named underwater archaeologist with and experience appropriate to the investigation. Article 7 – Preliminary investigation All intrusive investigations of underwater cultural heritage must be preceded and informed by a site assessment that evaluates the vulnerability, significance and potential of the site. The site assessment must encompass background studies of available historical and archaeological evidence, the archaeological and environmental characteristics of the site mail rs qualifications

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and the consequences of the intrusion for the long term stability of the area affected by investigations. Article 8 – Documentation All investigation must be thoroughly documented in accordance with current professional standards of archaeological documentation. Documentation must provide a comprehensive record of the site, which includes the provenance of underwater cultural heritage moved or removed in the course of investigation, field notes, plans and drawings, photographs and records in other media. Article 9 – Material conservation The material conservation programme must provide for treatment of archaeological remains during investigation, in transit and in the long term. Material conservation must be carried out in accordance with current professional standards. Article 10 – Site management and maintenance A programme of site management must be prepared, detailing measures for protecting and managing in situ underwater cultural heritage in the course of an upon termination of fieldwork. The programme should include public information, reasonable provision for site mail rs d n, monitoring and protection against interference. Public access to in situ underwater cultural heritage should be promoted, except where access is incompatible with protection and management. Article 11 – Health and safety The health and safety of the investigating team and third parties is paramount. All persons on the investigating team must work according to a safety policy that satisfies relevant statutory and professional requirements and is set out in the project design. Article 12 – Reporting Interim reports should be made available according to a time-table set out in the project design, and deposited in relevant public records. Reports should include: • an account of the objectives; • an account of the methodology and techniques employed; • an account of the results achieved; • recommendations concerning future research, site management and curation of underwater cultural heritage removed during the investigation. Article 13 – Curation The project archive, which includes underwater cultural heritage removed during investigation and a copy of all supporting documentation, must be deposited in an institution that can provide for public access and permanent curation of the archive. Arrangements for deposition of the archive should be agreed before investigation commences, and should be set out in the project design. The archive should be prepared in accordance with current professional standards.

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The scientific integrity of the project archive must be assured; deposition in a number of institutions must not preclude reassembly to allow further research. Underwater cultural heritage is not to be traded as items of commercial value. Article 14 – Dissemination Public awareness of the results of investigations and the significance of underwater cultural heritage should be promoted through popular presentation in a range of media. Access to such presentations by a wide audience should not be prejudiced by high charges. Co-operation with local communities and groups is to be encouraged, as is co-operation with communities and groups that are particularly associated with the underwater cultural heritage concerned. It is desirable that investigations proceed with the consent and endorsement of such communities and groups. The investigation team will seek to involve communities and interest groups in investigations to the extent that such involvement is compatible with protection and management. Where practical, the investigation team should provide opportunities for the public to develop archaeological skills through training and education. Collaboration with museums and other institutions is to be encouraged. Provision for visits, research and reports by collaborating institutions should be made in advance of investigation. A final synthesis of the investigation must be made available as soon as possible, having regard to the complexity of the research, and deposited in relevant public records. Article 15 – International co-operation International co-operation is essential for protection and management of underwater cultural heritage and should be promoted in the interests of high standards of investigation and research. International co-operation should be encouraged in order to make effective use of archaeologists and other professionals who are considered as a means of disseminating best practice. mail rs d in investigations of underwater cultural heritage. Programmes for exchange of professionals should be

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APPENDIX X EMAILS RELATING TO THIS RESEARCH
From: To: Subject: Date: Hi Miss Janelle Can we have more info regarding your project, Leslie (my wife) and I worked on the Sadana Island shipwreck project which was in 30m+ of water between Hurghada and Safaga in 1996 and would be very interested in getting back to the area and working on another similar project. We both had Egyptian work visas in our passports so it would be easy to get them updated if needed. We also have an Egyptian contact living in Alexandria but who is a main player in Egyptian maritime archaeology who could help/guide you through their red tape, which can be a major headache. We are both experienced archaeological divers and have been involved with NAS projects for many years. My expertise is in early ship construction and underwater surveying and Leslie’s is in computer applications used within archaeology, i.e., Graphics, databases etc. Hope we can be of help/use to your project. Regards Colin Colin & Leslie McKewan www.ArchSites.co.uk ”We are all mail rs in the wilderness of this world and the best that we can find in our travels “Colin” <colin@archsites.co.uk> miss_janellee@yahoo.co.uk Survey Egypt Tue, 13 Mar 2007 12:11:26 –0000

is an honest friend” R.L. Stevenson

From PlansandPhotos <plansandphotos@nmm.ac.uk> Sent Friday, March 16, 2007 11:13 am To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject Ref BF07/420: Response to enquiry re P & O steamer Carnatic (lost 1869) Dear Ms. Harrison, Thank you for your email. I have been through our records, but I am afraid the Carnatic does not appear to be represented in our collections. Plans for vessels built by the Samuda Brothers and even Thames Iron Works are regrettably virtually non-existent. I am sorry I have not been able to help you on this occasion. Yours sincerely, Andrew Choong Curator, Historic Photographs & Ship Plans Section Tel: +44 (0)20 8312 8600. Fax: +44 (0)20 8317 0263 Historic photographs website: www.nmm.ac.uk/historicphotographs

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Ships plans website: www.nmm.ac.uk/shipplans DISCLAIMER Any opinions expressed in this email are those of the individual and not necessarily those of the National Maritime Museum or Royal Observatory Greenwich. This e-mail and any files transmitted with it, including replies and forwarded copies (which may contain alterations) subsequently transmitted from the National Maritime Museum or Royal Observatory Greenwich, are confidential and solely for the use of the intended recipient. If you are not the intended recipient or the person responsible for delivering to the intended recipient, be advised that you have received this e-mail in error and that any use is strictly prohibited. If you have received this email in error please notify the IT Manager by telephone on +44 (0)20 8312 6677 or via e-mail to postmaster@nmm.ac.uk, including a copy of this message. Please then delete this email and destroy any copies of it. From FAA NACG Chart Sales <9-AMC-Chartsales@faa.gov> Sent Friday, March 16, 2007 11:34 am To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject Contact information change notification

This email is your confirmation that on Friday, March 16, 2007 at 7:34 AM Eastern Time, the Contact/Billing information for User ID ‘’ was added or changed. Please review the following information: User ID: missJanellee Customer #: Name: Janelle Harrison Business/Org. Name:Janelle Harrison Address Line 1: 606 Chantry Court Address Line 2: Denmark Street City: Bristol State: Zip: BS1 5DH Country: UNITED KINGDOM Phone Number: Fax Number: Email Address: jharris2@csusb.edu If you believe that someone made this change without your consent, please contact NACG immediately. Thank You, The FAA NACG Distribution Division

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From FAA NACG Chart Sales <9-AMC-Chartsales@faa.gov> Sent Friday, March 16, 2007 11:41 am To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject Confirmation of your order Here is a complete summary of your FAA NACG Chart Sales order. One-Time Order Info Customer #: One-Time Order #: Order Date: PO Number: Status: Billing Info JANELLE HARRISON 606 CHANTRY COURT DENMARK STREET BRISTOL BS1 5DH UNITED KINGDOM jharris2@csusb.edu 4114529 March 16, 2007 missJanellee Paid Shipping Info – [shipping] JANELLE HARRISON 606 CHANTRY COURT DENMARK STREET BRISTOL BS1 5DH UNITED KINGDOM

ID 62001

Product Name RED SEA W/PLAN: GULF OF SUEZ

Edition Qty 5 1

Price $19.75 Total:

Subtotal $19.75 $19.75

Status Submitted

Should you have any additional questions, or notice any discrepancies, please contact NACG immediately and reference receipt# T4114529.1. Thank You, The FAA NACG Distribution Division For Assistance Monday – Friday 8 a.m. – 4:30 p.m. Eastern Time Email: Internet: Toll Free: Telephone: FAX: 9-AMC-Chartsales@faa.gov http://naco.faa.gov/ecomp (800) 638-8972 (Within the U.S.) (301) 436-8301 (301) 436-6829

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Write:

FAA, National Aeronautical Charting Group Distribution Division, ATO-W (AJW-3550) 10201 Good Luck Road Glenn Dale, MD 20769-9700 USA

From Rik Vercoe <RikVercoe@listening.co.uk> Sent Wednesday, March 21, 2007 2:14 pm To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject RE: Hi- A question about The Carnatic Hi Janelle, The hull is still intact and covered in coral, which would lead me to believe the hull itself is iron as there are no holes or missing wood and the wooden planking is gone deck side. I’ll do some more checking and let you know -----Original Message----From: jharris2@csusb.edu [mailto:jharris2@csusb.edu] Sent: 21 March 2007 13:49 To: Rik Vercoe Subject: Hi- A question about The Carnatic Hi again, Well I’ve been dong some research (on line only still) and I have been stumped! I read one a few dive site pages I The Carnatic is She is of iron framed planked construction- which is how a composite built ship is described, but then in a book I have called The Advent of Steam, Gardnier lists her as an iron hulled ship, making her not really a true composite (I is what I wanted her to be) Could you tell me form your memory of diving the site, whether the hull was wood or iron? I know the frames were iron and the decking but I wanted a wooden hull and I think I’ve got iron. It will still be a good idssertation though. Oh, and I contacted The National Maritime Museum’s Ship Plans and drawings dept and they do not hold any ship plans of her or any ship built by The Samuda Bros. Ahhhh! I really wanted I of “factual” primary sources, oh well Did you enjoy Innes talk on Submarines? regards, Janelle

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From Harry Tzalas <htzalas@yahoo.co.uk> Sent Thursday, March 22, 2007 10:43 am To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject Re: A question about permits? Hi Janelle, Replying to your questions. As far as I know to dive on any wreck or on any antiquities in Egypt you must have a proper permit from the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Cairo. After obtaining this permission you have to get permission for every diver from the Security Authorities. Some of our divers could be willing to help but you have to go through all this time consuming bureaucratic formalities first. Kind regards, Harry jharris2@csusb.edu wrote: Hello Harry, Well I have also been in contact with someone fro NAS who has a connection in Egypt and I was told to contact this person for all me queries: Mr. Karim Helal, Chairman of The Red Sea Diving and Water Sports Association at (info@h2omag.com). I was really hoping to find a few divers that would help me with a few measurements but it looks like I have to go with my original plan of taking a stave down for scale and photographing key parts of the vessel for survey documentation. If you have any further information for me, I’d appreciate it, but now I know who I need to email in Egypt. Many thanks, Janelle From PlansandPhotos <plansandphotos@nmm.ac.uk> Sent Thursday, March 22, 2007 12:16 pm To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject Ref BF07/420: Response to follow-up enquiry re P & O steamer Rangoon Dear Ms. Harrison, Had another look just to be sure, but I am afraid the answer is still nothing as far as our plans collections are concerned. Sorry again. Yours sincerely, Andrew Choong Curator, Historic Photographs & Ship Plans Section Tel: +44 (0)20 8312 8600. Fax: +44 (0)20 8317 0263 Historic photographs website: www.nmm.ac.uk/historicphotographs

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Ships plans website: www.nmm.ac.uk/shipplans -----Original Message----From: jharris2@csusb.edu [mailto:jharris2@csusb.edu] Sent: 17 March 2007 22:56 To: PlansandPhotos Subject: Re: Ref BF07/420: Response to enquiry re P & O steamer Carnatic (lost 1869) Hi, So I guess that means you would have plans for Rangoon built by Samuda Brothers either? From Malvern Archaeological Diving Unit <diving@madu.freeserve.co.uk> Sent Thursday, March 22, 2007 7:43 pm To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject NAS Part I Course th th – Chepstow – 17 & 18 March 2007 Hi Janelle, It was good to see you at Chepstow last weekend, I we hope you enjoyed the course. As promised, attached is a sketch of the site dived (site sketch.jpg), and a copy of all the surveyed results obtained from the two dives in the quarry at the National Diving Centre (Survey Results.xls). You can see that 6 depths, plus 15 measurements were required to fix all 6 Control Points to each other, and we actually made 34 measurements as double checks. I averaged the duplicate measurements between Control Points, entered the data into Site Recorder, and after ignoring the one short dimension CP3 to CP4, the attached file (cabin cruiser cp.jpg) shows the result. You can also see from the table of Survey Results, that of the 108 possible measurements from the 6 Control Points to the 18 secondary tags on the Cabin Cruiser, we managed to obtained 64 measurements, which was a very good effort. However as I hope you remember from the weekend, 4 Direct Survey Measurements (DSM’s) are required for the 3D software to function, and of the 18 secondary tags fixed to the Cabin Cruiser, only 9 have 4 or more measurements to them, and one of those (P1) looks to have one measurements that is far too long. Of the rest, more measurements would be required before the software can be made to run. Have a play with the data & the software, and I hope you find it helpful when you eventually come to survey your own site. Kind regards. Ian Cundy Malvern Archaeological Diving Unit (MADU) Tel:Fax:E-mail:Web Site:01684 574774 08700 509706 diving@madu.freeserve.co.uk www.madu.freeserve.co.uk

From orders@antiqbook.com Sent Sunday, March 25, 2007 3:32 pm To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject Antiqbook order: #19286/DAVID HOWARTH & - The Story of P&O

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Antiqbook has sent your order/inquiry message to: Rivermead Books 19 North St, Wilton, Wilts SP2 0HE, UK. Tel.: +44 (0)1722 744802 <Derek Myhill>: **** Please use this address for your correspondence on your order or inquiry **** I would like to order this book: Booknumber: 19286 DAVID HOWARTH & STEPHEN HOWARTH. The Story of P&O: The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1986. 0-297-78965-1, ISBN: 0-297-78965-1. VG/VG, black/cream-grey pictorial dj with gilt titles on spine, contents are clean & unmarked, quarto 224pp. A very overweight & oversized book so please check exact shipping costs directly with Rivermead Books BEFORE ordering on the internet. Elaborately illustrated in colour & b/w. Steam & sail; onward to India; Overland via Suez; cruising; crews & passengers; eastern seas; Crimean War & the canal; Pax Brittanica; merger & expansion; endurance; end of empire; changing patterns; local wars; a new era.. USD 5.00 [Appr.: EURO 4 | £UK 2.75 | JP¥ 603] From Association <association@redseaexperience.com> Sent Sunday, March 25, 2007 5:42 pm To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject FW: Student Project on The Carnatic Karim Helal Chairman FOR A BETTER RED SEA Red Sea Association For Diving & Watersports Sheraton Road Opposite Marriott Hotel PO Box 461 Hurghada – Red Sea – Egypt Tel: +2 065 3 447243 Fax: +2 065 3 447209 association@redseaexperience.com www.redseaexperience.com (under construction) -----Original Message----From: Association [mailto:association@redseaexperience.com] Sent: Sunday, March 25, 2007 3:41 PM To: ‘jharris2@csusb.ed’ Cc: ‘H2O Mag’ Subject: RE: Student Project on The Carnatic Hello Janelle, Thank you for your e-mail, this sounds like an interesting project. We will be more than happy to help. As you said this wreck is typically dived from a live aboard and would probably need a few dives to complete your task. In any event, there is nor problem in terms of what you would like to do so long as nothing is moved or touched and a proper brief is given to the dive operator with whom you would be diving. Please do not hesitate to let me know if we can be of any assistance. Best of luck Karim Helal

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Chairman FOR A BETTER RED SEA Red Sea Association For Diving & Watersports Sheraton Road Opposite Marriott Hotel PO Box 461 Hurghada – Red Sea – Egypt Tel: +2 065 3 447243 Fax: +2 065 3 447209 association@redseaexperience.com www.redseaexperience.com (under construction) -----Original Message----From: H2O Mag [mailto:info@h2o-mag.com] Sent: Saturday, March 24, 2007 10:06 PM To: Karim Helal Subject: Fw: Student Project on The Carnatic did u reply this one?????????? ----- Original Message ----From: <jharris2@csusb.edu> To: <info@h2o-mag.com> Sent: Thursday, March 22, 2007 10:30 AM Subject: Student Project on The Carnatic Dear Mr. Karim Helal, Hello, my name is Janelle. I am an MA student at The University of Bristol, in Maritime Archaeology & History. I am also a recreational diver. I recently decided to write my dissertation on a 1869 P&O shipwreck called The Carnatic- located off Hurghada, the Abu Nuhas reef. I placed a posting for a few NAS divers to join me in an unofficial survey of her (non-intrusive- just taking measurements with a tape measure and taking photographs) I was contacted by a couple that have done work in The Red Sea before and they have a contact in Egypt that suggested I email you to discuss my plans. Ideally, I would, like I said, like to set up some control points around the shipwreck and then also some secondary points on the vessel to get the measurements and create a 3D site map with GPS location etc. As of now, I am still traveling alone, and it will take at least one other person to take measurements. So it is looking unlikely that I will be able to approach my dissertation project from this perspective, but I felt I should contact you just in case I do get a person to help me. I have been told by a few members of NAS (Nautical Archaeological Society) that I wouldn’t even need a permit to do this. Is that true?

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I know it is difficult to get to this dive site because most dive operators only go there for one dive, once a week. I am going to have to be creative and maybe contact many operators and go with each one when they go (i.e. one goes on a Mon, another on a Wed, etc.) It seems more than likely Sir, that I will only be taking photographs with a stave (for scale) of various parts of the wreck like the keel, the steam engine, the rudder, etc. unless I can perhaps hire a private dive guide who will hold one end of a tape measure. Are there any legal steps you would recommend for the process I have just explained to you? This is at most just a small scale survey for a dissertation, no funding, and I am certainly not planning on moving anything or conducting any type of “excavation”. I was hoping that if I found some help, we could just go down there and measure. I wouldn’t run into any trouble doing that would I? Any advise you can give me would be helpful. Kind regards, Janelle From “Kristian E. Volsing” <KEVolsing@nmm.ac.uk> Sent Monday, March 26, 2007 12:41 pm To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject Items requested from the Caird Library

Dear Janelle Harrison Thank you for your recent request to view items from the Caird Library at the National Maritime Museum. We have the date of your intended visit recorded as 10 &11 April; please th note that Monday 9 April is a Bank Holiday and we will not be open. Your request tracking numbers are: REQ-138, REQ-139, REQ-140. Where available, the first three books and the first three manuscript items requested will be retrieved for you in advance. The remaining items on the list can be requested on the day of your visit, as can books located in the Caird Library reading room. Some items in our collections are held in offsite storage and can take up to two weeks to retrieve. Where it applies, this information is displayed on the catalogue record. Please ensure that you have requested your items with enough time in advance for us to retrieve them. We will retrieve up to 12 items located in offsite storage – for larger orders please contact us directly. About the Caird Library Tel: +44 020 8312 6516 Email: library@nmm.ac.uk The Caird Library (see www.nmm.ac.uk/cairdlibrary) offers research facilities to visitors. Staff are on hand to advise but are unable to undertake research for enquirers. Anyone over 16 years of age with a research enquiry can gain free access to the Library. Formal identification is required on the day for entry. The Library is open Monday to Friday with Saturday being by appointment only. Hours are 10.00–16.45, closed between 13.00 and 14.00 on Saturdays. The Library is closed on Sundays, public holidays and during the third week of February.

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mailto:library@nmm.ac.uk Thanks again for your request; we wish you well in your research. Yours faithfully, Mr Kristian Volsing Library Co-ordinator National Maritime Museum From Renee Orr <Rorr@nmm.ac.uk> Sent Monday, March 26, 2007 3:56 pm To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject Items requested from the Caird Library Dear Janelle Harrison, Thank you for your recent request to view items from the Caird Library at the National th th Maritime Museum. We have the date of your intended visit recorded as the 9 and 10 of April. However, please note that we are closed on Monday, 9 April for the Easter holiday. th th th th We’re closed on the following days: Friday 6 , Saturday 7 , Sunday 8 , and Monday 9 . We open again on Tuesday 10 April. Where available, the first three books and the first three manuscript items requested will be retrieved for you in advance. The remaining items on the list can be requested on the day of your visit, as can books located in the Caird Library reading room. Please note that some items in our collections are held in offsite storage and can take up to two weeks to retrieve. Where it applies, this information about the location of each item is displayed on the catalogue record. Please ensure that you have requested your items with enough time in advance for us to retrieve it. About the Caird Library Tel: +44 020 8312 6516 Email: library@nmm.ac.uk The Caird Library (see www.nmm.ac.uk/cairdlibrary) offers research facilities to visitors. Staff are on hand to advise but are unable to undertake research for enquirers. Anyone over 16 years of age with a research enquiry can gain free access to the Library. Formal identification is required on the day for entry. The Library is open Monday to Friday with Saturday being by appointment only. Hours are 10.00–16.45, closed between 13.00 and 14.00 on Saturdays. The Library is closed on Sundays, public holidays and during the third week of February. Thanks again for your request; we wish you well in your research. Yours faithfully, Renee Orr. Renee Orr Digital Resources Librarian Caird Library National Maritime Museum Ph: +44 020 8312 8624 www.nmm.ac.uk From Paula <pmarshal@mun.ca> Sent Monday, March 26, 2007 7:57 pm To “’by way of Heather <mha@mun.ca>’” <jharris2@csusb.edu> Subject RE: Ordering Crew Agreement Dear Ms. Harrison:

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Thank you for your e-mail of 26 March 2007 regarding the crew agreements of the vessel Carnatic O.N. 47298 for 1869. According to our index we hold the vessel’s crew agreements for voyages terminating in 1863, 69 (no log) We search and photocopy or scan crew agreements subject to the following guidelines: For Typical Vessels The one hour research fee is based on a search of two years of crew agreements for one vessel (or two vessels for one year). Crew agreements and official log books can contain anywhere from 4 to 20 plus pages per voyage. You can estimate your cost based on this information and the fees outlined below. For Passenger Liners If we identify the vessel you have requested as a passenger liner, we will contact you with an estimate. Many passenger liners carried hundreds of crew members and produced extensive crew agreements for each of several voyages during the course of a year. Therefore you must allow for a research fee of up to three hours per vessel, per year, and a much larger quantity of photocopies. Fees $40.00 per hour minimum research fee $.50 per page for photocopies $2.50 per scanned page Air mail and handling charges (e.g. 30 pages or under to U.K. = $6.00) Payment We recommend you make payment by Visa or Mastercard, but we also accept bank drafts issued in Canadian funds. We send packages by air mail only. We are working towards establishing a secure site for accepting credit cards; in the meantime, we recommend that you send your credit card number and date of expiry in separate e-mail messages, or by telephone, fax, or regular mail. Please ensure that you include your complete mailing address with your request. Payment Authorization Required Before Research Request Can Proceed Before we can proceed with any research request, we must have your credit card authorization or bank draft in hand. Photocopies and Scans All photocopies are reduced from the original size of the agreement 11” x 17” to 8 ½” x 11”. We do not copy blank pages in the agreements or the log books. Quality of the copies varies, th depending on the condition of the original document. Many 19 century crew agreements were produced on large sheets of paper that do not fit on a scanner. We photocopy these large sheets in sections, but we do not scan them.

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The MHA’s Crew Agreement Collection The Maritime History Archive holds approximately 75 percent of the surviving crew agreements and official log books of British registered vessels for the periods 1863-1938 and 1951-1976. The National Archives, Kew, has retained all surviving documents prior to 1861, and for 1939-1950, as well as a 10 percent sample in the 1861-1938 and 1951-1976 periods. All surviving documents for 1861-1862 and years ending in ‘5’ (e.g. 1925 ) are held at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. Not all Voyages Survived It is essential to note that crew agreements are filed by the year in which a voyage terminated. And although the existence of crew agreements for any indicated year is confirmed by our indexes, records for all of a vessel’s voyages for that year may not be part of the collection. Thus despite holding the documents of a vessel for the desired year, we may not have the particular voyage you require. Unfortunately there is no way to determine the existence of records for a particular voyage until we begin the research process. If you ask to have a particular year or voyage searched, you will be charged the $40.00 fee. We look forward to hearing from you. Paula Marshall Senior Clerk Maritime History Archive Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John’s, NL A1C 5S7 Canada Web Site: http://www.mun.ca/mha From Paula <pmarshal@mun.ca> Sent Tuesday, March 27, 2007 1:13 pm To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject RE: RE: Ordering Crew Agreement Dear Ms. Harrison: The 3hrs. research is only an estimate of the research time if it is a passenger vessel. Some passenger vessels have up to 2 boxes or more of crew agreements and we have to allow for scanning or copying time. The passenger vessel Carnatic O.N. 47289 for 1869 will only require 1 hr. research time. If you ask to have a particular year or voyage searched, you will be charged the $40.00 fee. I am sorry, but that is our policy. Documents scanned and sent by e-mail are $2.50 per page. The agreements are on very large sheets and would have to be scanned in parts, approx. 40 pages. Payment Authorization Required Before Research Request Can Proceed Before we can proceed with any research request, we must have your credit card authorization or bank draft in hand. Please let me know if require us to proceed. Paula Marshall

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From Harry Tzalas <htzalas@yahoo.co.uk> Sent Tuesday, March 27, 2007 4:59 pm To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject Re: A question about permits? Hi Janelle, Bureaucracy in Egypt moves very slowly and I very much doubt that you have sufficient time to get the necessary permissions from the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Cairo and then the Security permissions for your divers. On the other hand you do not have the volunteers divers available so you lack the basic details needed to ask for a permit. But one never knows in Egypt and before saying that I do not believe that you stand any chance I would suggest that you write explaining your case to: Mr. Magdy El Ghandour Director General at the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Cairo For the Foreign Missions sca_missions@hotmail.com Write a short message stating who you are, your nationality and exactly what you want to do...and good luck. Best, Harry Tzalas jharris2@csusb.edu wrote: Hi Harry, Well I’ve emailed a gentleman that has said as long as I don’t touch anything what I plan to do is fine. He is from a non-governmental, non-profit organization for diving in the Red Sea: http://www.redseaexperience.com/ As of now I can’t even take basic measurements of the site because I haven’t found any volunteers for a number of reasons: 1) I can not pay anyone to help me 2) I can not pay for the volunteers diving costs 3) I can not afford to charter a boat so we have to go out on a normal recreational diving operation boat, and that cost a lot 4) the dive operators only make trips to the site one day a week for one dive making work on the site very short and costly for each person who might be involved I would love to really tackle this project with a team and create a 3D site map using Site Recorder but it is not necessary for my dissertation. I am still going to ‘recreationally” dive the site as much as possible and take photographs and sketch a site map myself if the “team” and “permit” falls through. If I were to pursue the bureaucratic red tape route so that some of your divers could help me with taking measurements, do I have enough time from now until my planned trip in June 2007 to take care of the permit? And the SCA.gov.eg website is down and I have tried calling one telephone number

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for them from the Internet with a wrong number message so I was wondering if you could forward the contact details I would need to apply for a permit. I know you are a very busy person, and I appreciate you taking the time to answer my questions and to help me with so much. Hope to hear from you soon, Janelle ----- Original Message ----From: Harry Tzalas Date: Thursday, March 22, 2007 10:43 am Subject: Re: A question about permits? To: jharris2@csusb.edu Hi Janelle, Replying to your questions. As far as I know to dive on any wreck or on any antiquities in Egypt you must have a proper permit from the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Cairo. After obtaining this permission you have to get permission for every diver from the Security Authorities. Some of our divers could be willing to help but you have to go through all this time consuming bureaucratic formalities first. Kind regards, Harry jharris2@csusb.edu wrote: Hello Harry, Well I have also been in contact with someone fro NAS who has a connection in Egypt and I was told to contact this person for all me queries: Mr. Karim Helal, Chairman of The Red Sea Diving and Water Sports Association at (info@h2o-mag.com). I was really hoping to find a few divers that would help me with a few measurements but it looks like I have to go with my original plan of taking a stave down for scale and photographing key parts of the vessel for survey documentation. If you have any further information for me, I’d appreciate it, but now I know who I need to email in Egypt. Many thanks, Janelle From BL@bl.uk Sent Saturday, March 31, 2007 1:04 pm To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject [Spam] Your results from the British Library Integrated Catalogue Date : 31/03/2007 The catalogue records below were selected by a researcher using the British Library Integrated Catalogue. E-mail: jharris2@csusb.edu

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Note for record is :SUEZ CANAL __________________ OLIVEIRA, Benjamin. A few observations upon the works of the Isthmus of Suez Canal, made during a visit in April, 1863. ([London, 1863.]) 8235.c.92.(12.) Note for record is :SUEZ CANAL __________________ ARROW, Frederick, A Fortnight in Egypt at the opening of the Suez Canal. (pp. 67. Smith & Ebbs: London, 1869.) 10095.bbb.32. Note for record is :SUEZ CANAL __________________ BADGER, George Percy. A Visit to the Isthmus of Suez Canal Works ... With a map. (pp. 71. Smith, Elder & Co.: London, 1862.) 8235.c.95.(6.) Note for record is :SUEZ CANAL __________________ NORWOOD, Charles Morgan. The Aspects of the Question as altered by improvements in Steam Navigation. The Suez Canal. [A letter to the Editor of â œThe Times.â ] 8028.bb.1.(5.) Note for record is :SUEZ CANAL __________________ BALFOUR, John Patrick Douglas, Between two seas. The creation of the Suez Canal. [With particular reference to Ferdinand de Lesseps. With plates and a map.] (pp. xiv. 306. John Murray: London, [1968.]) X.519/5721.

Note for record is :SUEZ CANAL _________________ ENGLAND. Foreign Office. [Confidential prints and telegrams respecting the Suez Canal Commission and the right of free passage through the Suez Canal.] ([London,] 1885-87.) B.P.24/22.

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Note for record is :SUEZ CANAL __________________ England. [Miscellaneous Public Documents. (Domestic Transactions, Royal Messages, Speeches from the Throne, etc.). III. Chronological Series. Elizabeth II. [1952.] ] Correspondence exchanged between Mr. Bulganin and Sir Anthony Eden during September and October, 1956 [on the Suez Canal question], etc. (pp. 9. London, [1957.]) B.S.68/72. Note for record is :SUEZ CANAL __________________ PRICE, John Spencer. The early history of the Suez Canal. (Revised edition.). (pp. 43. Privately printed: London, [1875?]) 08235.i.22.(2.) Note for record is :SUEZ CANAL __________________ Saint Hilaire, J. Barthelemy. Egypt and the Great Suez Canal : a narrative of travels / (London : Richard Bentley, 1857.) W67/5607 Note for record is :SUEZ CANAL __________________ ROBERTS, Frank Harold Hanna. Egypt and the Suez Canal. (pp. iv. 68. pl. 25. Washington, 1943.) Ac.1875/19. Note for record is :SUEZ CANAL __________________ Great Britain. War Office. Egypt (Normal series) 1:100,000 , Series GSGS 4085. Scale 1:100 000. ([London] : War Office, 1940-1956.) Maps MOD GSGS 4085 Note for record is :SUEZ CANAL __________________ Egypt—Scale 1 : 25,000. M.D.R. 506. Scale 1: 25 000. (1941-1944.) Maps 64355.(72.) Note for record is :SUEZ CANAL __________________

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From Calcutta to London by the Suez Canal. (Calcutta : [s.n.], 1869) T 38478

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From BL@bl.uk Sent Saturday, March 31, 2007 12:39 pm To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject [Spam] Your results from the British Library Integrated Catalogue
Date : 31/03/2007 The catalogue records below were selected by a researcher using the British Library Integrated Catalogue. E-mail: jharris2@csusb.edu Note for record is :screw propeller __________________ System number Author – personal Title 000435216 BOURNE, John, Civil Engineer.

A Treatise on the Screw Propeller, with various suggestions of improvement. [With plates.] pp. viii. 243. xliv. Longman & Co.: London, 1852. 4º.

Publisher/year Physical Subject mail .

Propellers.

Other editions [A Treatise on the Screw Propeller, with various suggestions of improvement. [With plates.]] pp. x. 247. xliv. Pl. XVIII. Longman & Co.: London, 1855. 4º. Other editions [A Treatise on the Screw Propeller, with various suggestions of improvement. [With plates.]] pp. xxii. 428. cxxiii. Longmans & Co.: London, 1867 [1865-67]. 4º. Holdings note [Another copy.] Held in OIOC.

Shelfmark Shelfmark

8805.f.14. W 4175

Note for record is :screw propeller __________________ System number Author – personal Title 003499441 STEVENS, Francis B.

The First Steam Screw Propeller Boats to Navigate the Waters of any Country. (Reprint from The Stevens Indicator.). pp. 30. New York, [1893.]

Publisher/year

232

Physical Shelfmark

mail .

8º. 08805.cc.10.

Note for record is :screw propeller __________________ System number Title 010562749

The Hand-book to the steam engine, including atmospheric railways, the electric printing telegraph, and screw propeller. Illustrated by wood engravings.

Publisher/year London : printed for the proprietors; and sold by all booksellers, 1846 (Knight and Son [printer] Physical mail . Iv,116p. : ill. ; 15cm. 12°. Printer’s name from colophon.

General note

Binding information With the original covers, bound in. Subject Subject Shelfmark Steam-engines. Traction-engines. RB.23.a.23867

Note for record is :screw propeller __________________ System number Title 001811962

On the Introduction and Progress of the Screw Propeller: with Statistics of the Comparative Economy of Screw Ships and Paddle Vessels for Her Majesty’s Service. London, Greenwich printed, 1856. 8º. INTRODUCTION main entry C.194.a.186.

Publisher/year Physical mail .

Added Entry Shelfmark

Note for record is :screw propeller __________________ System number Author – personal Title 003080750 REÌ VY, Julian John.

The Progressive Screw as a propeller in navigation. London, 1860. 8º. 8806.d.51.(6.)

Publisher/year Physical Shelfmark mail .

Note for record is :screw propeller

233

__________________ System number Author – personal Title 010560623 Chappell, Edward, 1792-1861.

Reports relative to Smith’s patent screw propeller, as used on board the Archimedes steam vessel, in various trials with Her Majesty’s steam packet Widgeon, at Dover, and subsequently in a circumnavigation of Great Britain. To which are subjoined, opinions on the same subject, conveyed in letters from many distinguished persons. By Captain Edward Chappell, R.N. ...

Publisher/year London : James Ridgway ... and Smith, Elder and Co. ..., 1840 (Blatch and Lampert, printers) Physical mail . [2],85,8p.,[1] folded plate. ; 22cm. 8°.

General note General note

With With advertisements for works published by James Ridgway at end. Printers’ name from colophon. Smith, Francis Pettit, 1808-1874. Ridgway, James.

Person as subject Person as subject Shelfmark

RB.23.a.22418

Note for record is :screw propeller __________________ System number Author – personal Title 003048479 RAWSON, Robert.

The Screw-Propeller; an investigation of its geometrical and physical properties, and its

application to the propulsion of vessels. London, 1851.
8º. 8805.ff.6.

Publisher/year
Physical Shelfmark mail .

Note for record is :screw propeller __________________ System number Author – personal Title 003946716 WILSON, Robert, F.R.S.E.

The Screw Propeller: who invented it? With illustrations. (Appendix.). Glasgow, 1860. 8º.

Publisher/year Physical mail .

Other editions [The Screw Propeller: who invented it? With illustrations. (Appendix.)] pp. 82. T. Murray & Son:

234

Glasgow, 1880. 8º. Shelfmark 8805.c.75.(9.)

Note for record is :screw propeller __________________ System number Author – personal Title 003534330 STURDEE, Alfred B.

The twin stern steamer with a protected propeller; being an enunciation of the contemplated advantages of a new form of hull for propulsion of the screw, etc. Corrected edition. In : London.-Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations. Exhibition of the works of industry of all nations, 1851. Prospectuses, etc. Vol. 4. 1851, etc. 8º., etc.

Link note

Shelfmark

7956.e.

************************************************************************ From Martin Salmon <Msalmon@nmm.ac.uk> Sent Tuesday, April 3, 2007 10:28 am To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject Survey Reports Dear Sir or Madam, Thank you for your enquiry concerning Lloyd’s survey reports. I am happy to tell you that we have retrieved the following reports for you: • • • LSR London 876 Hyne LSR Glasgow 1759 Sumatra LSR London 1858 Sumatra

Unfortunatelt the survey report for Glasgow 2408, Sumatra, does not appear to have survived. Please contact me to let me know whether you would like to come to the Museum to view these manuscripts, or if you would prefer to have copies made (where I will send you an invoice). I look forward too hearing from you. With kind regards, Yours sincerely, Martin Salmon Manuscripts Cataloguer National Maritime Museum Park Row Greenwich London SE10 9NF Tel +44 (0)20 8312 6670 Email manuscripts@nmm.ac.uk

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From Martin Salmon <Msalmon@nmm.ac.uk> Sent Wednesday, April 4, 2007 9:14 am To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject RE: Survey Reports Hello Janelle, I’ll make sure the survey reports are available in the Caird Library for your visit on 11/12 April. We look forward to seeing you then, kind regards, Yours sincerely, Martin Salmon ,Manuscripts Department, National Maritime Museum To: Subject: Date: From: Hello, Im a member of NAS and would be interested in working on this wreck. I too am concerned at the diving restrictions (1 dvive twice per week). To take accurate measurements of a 90m wreck with these restrictions might be a bit much to ask for. Is there to be surface supply of air? A wreck at 27 metres deep gives you about 45 mins maximum no decompression and not a great deal of time to take a great many measurement including setup time. Just what level of set is the project? Are datums set, grid in place or is this a start from the beginning project? I look forward to hearing from you and might be interested in going. Bob Ross Nautical archeaologist From The Dive Tribe <elgouna@divetribe.com> Sent Saturday, June 2, 2007 6:32 am To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject RE: Private Boat Hire- for The Carnatic miss_janellee@yahoo.co.uk Voluntary help for hurghada Tue, 01 May 2007 08:33:26 –0400 bobcldnn@aol.com Add to Address Book
th

Dear Janelle, Thank you for the e-mail. We would love to help you any way we can, but unfortunately you have chosen the worst week to come because the weather forecast for the next 2 weeks looks very bad for Abu Nuhas trips. Now you mentioned going next week, so may be the weather can change. It will have to be a short notice trip if we get better weather. Now the boat fee unfortunately is 300 euro and I cannot make it any less, the boat just costs a lot. Doing 4 dives on the wreck could be possible if it is a very early start, but I have to check with our dive staff to check the depth and time limits for a safe dive plan. All we can do now is wait for better weather. What you can also do is may be give us a call daily on our diving centre number 012 3258277, around 3 p.m. I normally by then have a rough plan for the following day, and weather conditions Regards Tanja Romanenkow Logistics The Dive Tribe

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From Liveaboards-hurghada <liveaboard-hurghada@colona.com> Sent Tuesday, June 5, 2007 9:27 am To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject Re: col 070623 Hi! We have place on that safari, so I will book you in. Which day do you arrive? I send a passengerlist in this e-mail, which you can fill out and send back to us. We also need your passport copy for the safari license  Sunny regards, Milla From The Dive Tribe <elgouna@divetribe.com> Sent Friday, June 8, 2007 11:49 am To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject RE: RE: Private Boat Hire- for The Carnatic

Dear Janelle, It looks like the weather will improve on Sunday, I will ask the guides not to go to Abu Nuhas before then, and check with the guests if there are other interested in 2 dives at the Carnatic. If you are still interested please let me know. Regards Tanja Romanenkow Logistics The Dive Tribe From The Dive Connection <info@diveconnection.com> Sent Wednesday, June 20, 2007 4:25 pm To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject AW: mail von Janelle Harrison Hallo Janelle, We are going regularly to Abu Nuhas and the famous wrecks. From El Gouna it’s more or less 1 hour 45 minutes by boat. This we offer in the normal dive packages – if the wind is not th th too strong. At the moment we don’t have a forecast for the 26 or 27 , this we can see 1 – 2 days in advance. The last decision we make in the morning when we can see exactly how the wind is going. We would like to help you – the best thing we stay in contact and check the situation according to the weather possibility. And if there any possibility for the guests and the boats to go to Abu Nuhas in the meanwhile I will block the Carnatic. It would be nice if you can give me some informations about your diving experience: certification level, amount of dives, date of last dive. Are you nitrox certified? About the costs: Each day diving (includes 2 dives, 12 or 15 L Steel tanks and weights) cost 55 €. There is a governmental tax of – at the moment - € 1,60/person/day. Full rental equipment is € 25,--/day. For any further questions or information please feel free to contact us any time. A lot of greetings from the sunny El Gouna

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Andrea Schubert Operations Manager The Dive Connection Panorama Bungalows Resort El Gouna, Red Sea, Egypt email: info@diveconnection.com www.diveconnection.com

From magdy el ghandour <sca_missions@hotmail.com> Sent Sunday, June 24, 2007 12:46 pm To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject RE: surveying a shipwreck in the Red Sea Attachments securty form.doc

Supreme Council of Antiquities
Magdy El Ghandour Department of Foreign Archaeological Mission’s Affairs and P .Committee Cairo 24/6/2007 Dear Miss Janelle Harrisan : In according with your application to survey a shipwreck in the red sea for your dissertation paper for your Masters degree . I would like to inform you that your application is still under study , but please requirements are needed : C. an official letter from your university ( advisor) . 2- in order to finalizing the security permission (Military area ) please you must provide us with . C. 4 photographs . B. security form to be fill in . (find attached) C. copy of the passport . I do hope to hear from you soon . Best regard. Your sincerely Magdy El Ghandour

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Arab Republic of Egypt Ministry of Culture Security Office Supreme Council of Antiquities Security form
Please complete clearly in block capitals Name: (surname, Father & Grandfather in Capital Latin Letters) Nationality: ………………….. Religion: ………………….. Date & Place of Birth: ………………….. Profession Anthropologist: ………………….. Address of Residence in Egypt: ………………….. Date & No. of Passport: ………………….. Cause of visit: ………………….. Duration of visit: ………………….. Which organization sent for you and why? ………………….. What is your relationship with the Antiquities Service? ………………….. Where & what is your job now? …………………………… Do you belong to any foreign mission? …………………….. What mission is it? …………………………………………….

What is the address of that mission? ………………………………………..
For whom do you work here? ……………………...................... How long do you intend to stay? ………………………………… Have you ever visited Egypt? When & Why? ………………….. Who pays you and how much? ………………………………….. ANY INFORMATION ABOUT …………… FROM THE ANTIQUITIES DEPARTMENT (Attach five photographs of applicant) General Director, Security Office Signature of the foreigner

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From Mike Bevan <Mbevan@nmm.ac.uk> Sent Tuesday, July 3, 2007 10:11 am To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject RE: Off-Site Items Pre-Order List Dear Janelle, I have checked the list of manuscript items that you are interested in viewing. Of the list 8 out of 11 of these are actually onsite at the main museum. These are: P&O/90/14 P&O/101/1 P&O/89/5 P&O/89/10 P&O/5/409 P&O/10/15 COMPANY RECORDS, MICROFILM, SWW MANUSCRIPT CO.HISTORY VARIOUS 1841-1933, SWW MANUSCRIPT PORTS, PLACES, EGYPTIAN, KB MANUSCRIPT PORTS, RECORDS OVERLAND ROUTE 1847-70, SWW MANUSCRIPT ****JOURNALS 1869-70 KB CO.HIST, FAMOUS CAPTAINS 1859-93, SWW MANUSCRIPT

P&O/100/15 BIO’S 1840-1960, SWW MANUSCRIPT P&O/91/7 VOL OF OLD DOC’S, 1866-1929, KB MANUSCRIPT 2WKS

The following are at Kidbrooke and will still take in the region of two weeks to be retrieved: MRI/M/13, P&O/93/1 and P&O/5/408. In light of this perhaps you would prefer to come and visit earlier and simply not consult the remaining 3. I shall make a visit to Kidbrooke this Wednesday should you still wish to view these extra manuscripts. Please let me know if you would like to make alterations to your initial plan to visit (in light of this). Best wishes Mike Bevan Manuscripts Department National Maritime Museum Greenwich Tel: 020 8312 6672 from PlansandPhotos <plansandphotos@nmm.ac.uk> Sent Tuesday, July 3, 2007 12:04 pm To jharris2@csusb.edu Subject Ref BF07/420: Response to enquiry re Massilia (1860) et al Dear Janelle, Thanks for your email. We have plans for two of the vessels on your list, the Bangalore (1867) and the Geelong (1865), both built by Denny. There are general arrangement plans for both vessels, but only lines for the Bangalore. You can either arrange an appointment with us to view these items at our outstation (we cannot have them sent to the Caird), or we can send you an ordering form for photocopies. If you could let me know which you would prefer, I will get things moving. Please note that if you want the forms we will need you to provide a

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postal address. With regards the prints and drawings items you want to see, these are out of my remit as they do not come under historic photographs or plans. The people to contact about accessing these items are our Picture Library, and they can be reached at ‘picturelibrary@nmm.ac.uk’ or on 020 8312 6631. I am not sure what their policy is on digital photography, so it would be worth checking as there is currently a photography ban in force in our section. Hope this is of some use. Regards, Andrew Andrew Choong Curator, Historic Photographs & Ship Plans Section Tel: +44 (0)20 8312 8600. Fax: +44 (0)20 8317 0263 Historic photographs website: www.nmm.ac.uk/historicphotographs Ships plans website: www.nmm.ac.uk/shipplans -----Original Message----From: jharris2@csusb.edu [mailto:jharris2@csusb.edu] Sent: 03 July 2007 08:49 To: PlansandPhotos Subject: Re: Ref BF07/420: Response to enquiry re P & O steamer Carnatic (lost 1869) Dear Andrew, Since their seems to be no ship plans for the Carnatic or Rangoon, two ships built by Samuda Brothers in the 1860’s I was wondering if you could check to see if you have lines plans for any of these P&O iron/steam vessels? List: Massilia 1860 Golconda 1866 Delhi 1864 Baroda 1864 Sunda 1866 Bangalore 1867 Travancore 1868 Tanjore 1865 Geelong 1866 I do not have the ships official numbers yet nor the individual builders of these ships but their tonnage and design is very similar to the Carnatic ( two masts, iron/steam, & screw) th th I will be at Caird from 17 of July until the 20 finalizing my dissertation research and anything on these ships you have would be extremely helpful. Also, I have been through the drawings catalogue and I would like to take digital photos of the following items: 1PAH9079- CARNATIC 1862 1PAH9087- GOLCONDA 1863 1PAI6959- SYRIA 1868 1PAH9101- NYANZA 1864 1PAH9059- MOOLTAN (1860?) BUILT 1861 1PAH9056- MASSILIA (1860?) BUILT 1861 1PAH9125- HINDOSTAN 1869

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APPENDIX XI P&O ENCYCLOPAEDIA PENINSULAR
CARNATIC (1863) Base data at 18 April 1863. Last amended February 2003. indicates entries changed during P&O Group service. Type Passenger liner P&O Group service 1863-1869 P&O Group status Owned by parent company Former name(s) Was to have been named Mysore Registered owners, managers and operators The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company Builders Samuda Brothers Yard Poplar Country UK Yard number Registry London, UK Official number 47298 Signal letters VNCF Classification society Gross tonnage 2,014 grt Net tonnage 1,776 nrt Deadweight Length 89.79m (294.7ft) Breadth 11.61m (38.1ft) Depth 5.36m (17.6ft) Draught 5.64m (18.5ft) Construction (if not steel) Iron Engines 4 cylinder vertical tandem steam engine Engine builders Humphrys, Tennant and Dykes Works London Country UK Power 2,442 ihp Propulsion 1 screw Speed 12 knots (trials: 13.9 knots) Passenger capacity Cargo capacity Crew Employment Suez/India service CARNATIC (1863) 0083 1863/0418

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Career 06.12.1862: Launched. 24.03.1863: Registered. 18.04.1863: Completed. 25.04.1863: Ran trials in Stokes Bay. 27.04.1863: Maiden voyage Southampton/Alexandria. 27.06.1863: Left Southampton via the Cape for Galle and Calcutta, for Calcutta/Suez service. 1864/1865: Bombay/Suez and Bombay/Hong Kong services. 09.09.1865: Permanently on Bombay/Aden/Suez service. 13.09.1869: Wrecked on an unchartered reef 5 kilometres (3 miles) north of the island of Jabal at the mouth of the Gulf of Suez, southbound for Aden and Bombay. As the weather remained calm it seemed the best policy to keep all hands on board, but she suddenly parted amidships and 5 European passengers, 11 Asian crew and 10 European crew were lost. 14.09.1869: Survivors rescued by P&O’s Sumatra. Salvage operations were commenced and a large part of the cargo was recovered, including specie worth £40,000. 03.1870: The wreck slipped off the reef and sank into deep water. THE WRECK OF THE CARNATIC. “Illustrated London News”, 16 October 1869 The wreck of the Peninsular and Oriental Company’s steam-ship Carnatic - having struck, on Monday, the 13th ult, an hour after midnight, upon a reef of coral off the desolate isle of Shadwan, or Shadooan, at the mouth of the Gulf of Suez - has been related in former accounts. We have been favoured by one of the passengers, Major J U Champain, RE, with a sketch of the position of the wreck and the people, some clinging to the foremast, others standing up to their waists in the sea, after the vessel broke asunder, on the Tuesday. Major Champain also contributes to our Journal the following narrative, which will be read with interest :– “At ten o’clock on the morning of Sunday, Sept. 12, the steamship Carnatic, a magnificent vessel of 1,700 tons, commanded by Captain Jones, left Suez on her way to Bombay. There were on board, altogether, some 230 souls and a valuable cargo. The weather was lovely and, with a fair breeze, we went at ten or twelve knots an hour. About one o’clock on Monday morning we were roused from our sleep by a smart shock, and, going on deck, we saw what had happened. The night was brilliantly clear, though the moon had set. The Ushruffi lighthouse, which we had passed an hour before, on our starboard side, showed brightly on our port quarter. Close under our bows was a long line of white surf, apparently extending at right angles to our direction several hundred yards on each side of the ship, and high in front of us loomed the island of Shadooan, some 600 ft. above the sea at its most elevated peak. At night the passengers were of opinion that the island was not more than a mile or a mile and a half distant; but when day broke it was evidently much farther, and I shall not be very wrong if I say it was three or four miles from us in a direct line. On examining our position, we found that the vessel, running before the wind at about eleven knots, had struck full on a large coral reef (plainly marked on the chart), and had forced herself into a most critical position. The reef itself lay exactly ahead of the ship, and was about a square mile in extent; nearly out of water at low tide, but about 4 ft. under at high water. Its surface was almost level, though here and there a few small rocks rose above the water-line when the tide was out. The wind was moderate and the sea by no means rough; but, lying on the weather side of the shoal, the vessel was bumped about rather ominously. From the moment of striking every effort was made to get the ship off into deep water, there being at the time about 4 ft. under our bows, 8 ft. or 10 ft. abreast the engines on the starboard side, deep water just above the foremast on the port side, and any depth under our stern. The whole ship, besides sloping steeply from

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bow to stern, lay over considerably on her starboard side. The passengers were quiet and collected from first to last; many of us were accustomed to the sensation, having been on board the Pera, which, on the previous Saturday, had been bumping for three hours and a half on the Alexandria bar. Every one did his utmost to help the crew, by hauling at ropes, throwing cargo overboard, and working at the capstan; anchors having been laid out astern, to drag the ship from an awkward position into what seemed to us one of still greater danger. We were nearly all convinced that the leaks, after a few hours’ bumping, would have sunk the ship had the captain’s first attempt to get her off been successful; but the general belief of the passengers was that the Great Eastern herself would scarcely have sufficed to drag the Carnatic from her place on the reef. Our meals went on as usual, and we even amused ourselves with angling unsuccessfully for the fish, of dazzling colours, that swarmed beneath us. Towards midday on Monday, some of those on board appeared their anxiety to hear from the captain what measures he proposed to adopt. Most of us, however, felt it would be better to remain passive and await his instructions. At half-past five in the evening Captain Jones came aft, and spoke to us for the first time, thanking us for our behaviour, and asking us to nominate a committee, to whom he would explain his views, and the condition of the vessel. Three of us, having been chosen, went forward immediately, but, as the sun had set, and the boats, though alongside, were utterly unfurnished with stores and provisions, we agreed with the captain that, under the circumstances, the weather being calm, it would be advisable to remain on board for the night, and go ashore in the early morning. “I for one went below at eleven o’clock, undressed completely, and slept till one in the morning. At that hour a man awoke me, and told me that, as the water had gained on us so far as to extinguish the fires and thus stop the engines pumping, everyone on board was to proceed at once to the forecastle. There, consequently, we assembled; and, as the wind gradually freshened with the coming day, it proved to be a rather exposed situation. The passengers, however, employed themselves in helping the crew to get cut another anchor forward and to set foresail, foretopsail, and forestaysail, to prevent the ship slipping backwards into deep water. At last, too, the victualling of the boats was commenced. “In the mean time, the angle at which the vessel lay was slowly but steadily increasing, and the rising tide was washing the quarter-deck nearly up to the companion. Some of us, after waiting hours for orders to take to the boats, went below out of curiosity, and were witnesses of a very remarkable sight. The saloon was full of water, which poured in with amazing violence through the shattered skylights, every advancing wave threatening to carry away the whole after part of the ship. Tables, chairs, and benches were careering about, washed hither and thither by the swirling water. On returning to the fore part of the ship, a climb of some difficulty, we found that the only women on board (two passengers and the stewardess), with a little girl about three years old, had just been placed in the life-boat and some of the passengers were on the point of following. It was ten minutes before eleven in the forenoon. At this instant the vessel suddenly fell back, a frightful crash told us that she had parted amid-ships, and we were all plunged with terrific force into a whirlpool. The ship had been, as I mentioned above, lying over on her starboard side, but after the shock she fell completely over to the port side; so that luggage, cargo, mail-bags, and men, with one eighteen-pounder gun in their midst, slid together at lightning speed down the deck until sucked under by the gigantic wave which had already swallowed up half of the ship. Bruised, bleeding, half stunned, and battered by the luggage, we were carried under till all seemed dark. On coming to the surface the sight that presented itself was one which I shall never forget, but which I find it absolutely impossible to describe. Heads, arms, and legs, bales of merchandise, boxes, sheep, fowls, and things of all sorts were being tossed backwards and forwards, up and down, by the rushing water. Drowning men were clutching at each other in their frantic struggles to reach a resting-place, which too many found only at the bottom of the sea. I myself was thus dragged under three times, but, being a good swimmer, I finally got hold of the foretop, which was half above water, and crawled up into the crosstrees, to take breath. In a short time, mutually assisting each other, all the men that could be seen in the water were hauled up. Being now in a safe position, we could look about us; but the foretopsail prevented our seeing the boats, or the men who had escaped direct to the reef, from the

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starboard side of the ship, as she went under, and for about two hours we knew not the state of affairs on the other side. At length a boat came off to us; we fastened those who could not swim and those half stunned by a rope about their waists, and let them down. We were all taken off in three or four trips. Many of the survivors, who had struck out for the surf, and had somehow or other got through it, were standing on the coral up to their waists in smooth water. Happily, no sharks showed themselves, though in these parts they abound, and I am told a large one had been seen the day before. The bodies of Captain Pope, of the purser, and, I believe, of Mr. Warren, were dragged from the surf and laid on a bale of cotton. In each case endeavours were made to restore life, but without avail. “We were busily engaged during the next few hours in dragging the boats across the reef to the deep channel, which was about three miles broad, dividing us from Shadooan; then pulling across to the island, landing the stores there, and getting the boats over the cruel coral fringe to the sandy beach, where they lay high and dry. It was about eight in the evening when, after this fatiguing task, the wet and weary remnant of our company found themselves at last fairly ashore. The island is totally devoid of fresh water, and we had brought but little with us. Many of the casks were empty, having been placed unbunged in the boats, and some had been idiotically emptied by the African stokers to make unnecessary rafts for coming ashore. We knew that the next passing ship would be either the Sumatra or the Neaera, which might be expected at any moment. There seemed at first to be no possible means of making a signal in the dark. It was therefore decided that the chief officer, two of the passengers, and three Chinamen of the crew should launch a boat, make for the usual channel, and lie off all night, in hopes of stopping a ship. If no ship came in the night, the boat would try to beat up or pull up eighteen or twenty miles against current and wind to the Ushruffi lighthouse and obtain all the fresh water that could be spared. One rocket only could be found, and this, with half the only dry box of matches was placed in the boat. But, most providentially, several hundred huge bales of Manchester calicos and cotton cloths had floated, the day before the final break up, on to the island, having been thrown overboard, when we first struck the reef. These bales, very tightly pressed, had remained dry inside, and were of inestimable value in a variety of ways. From their contents we made ourselves turbans, most of us having lost our hats, as well as coats and bedding to lie on the sand. But the grandest notion of all was to collect an immense pile and set it alight. It was found to blaze gloriously, and one of our greatest anxieties was at once dispelled. “Before this discovery, however, we had commenced to launch the cutter, when a Chinaman ran down the bank, shouting that the lights of a steamer were visible. We strained every nerve to haul the boat out over the coral, and got away about nine o’clock at night. There was a doubt whether we should sail fast enough to reach the ship before she got by on her way to Suez; but, after putting a quarter of a mile between ourselves and the land, we looked back and saw the bonfire flaring most conspicuously. By the position of the steamer’s lights, it was evident that her attention was attracted, and at the critical moment we succeeded in firing our rocket. This settled the matter; the ship hove to, and we were soon alongside and on deck of the Peninsular and Oriental Company’s steamer Sumatra, from Bombay, with Lord Napier and other passengers on board. Boats were at once lowered, and, with the one in which we had arrived, went back for the Carnatic’s company. The wind had, however, risen, and all were not on board the Sumatra till ten o’clock on Wednesday morning, when we started on our return voyage to Suez. I cannot overrate the kindness and attention shown to us by all on board the Sumatra, and, in truth, we sorely needed help. Of all the baggage in the Carnatic, one small dressing-bag alone had been saved. We displayed our whole property on our persons, and, as we were all nearly alike, I may state, for example, that my costume consisted of a pair of tattered trousers, a shirt, and fifteen yards of Manchester calico gracefully wreathed round my temples. “The loss of life was fifteen Europeans and as many natives; of the former were five first-class passengers-viz., Captain Pope, R.A; Mr. Cuppage, 35th Regiment; Mr. Warren, Dr. Thomson, and Mr. Pidding, the ship’s purser, Mr. Gardner, and his clerk, Mr. Mackintosh, and the doctor, Mr. Ransford, with two engineers, a steward, and others. A more complete wreck than that of the ill-fated Carnatic has rarely taken

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USAJOBS - Employer View

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Janelle Lee Harrison 901 E Washington Street APT 477 Colton, CA 92324 Mobile: 760-662-3618 Email: janelle_h_99@yahoo.com
Country of citizenship: Veterans' Preference: Highest Grade: Contact Current Employer: United States of America No GS-0102-05, 07/2010-01/2011 Contact me first US

DESIRED LOCATIONS WORK EXPERIENCE

Death Valley National Park Death Valley, CA US

7/2010 - Present Grade Level: GS-05 Salary: 31,315 USD Per Year Hours per week: 40

Archaeological/GIS Technician Major Duties: Serves on survey crews locating and verifying archeological sites. Uses basic scientific and systematic procedures to identify, evaluate, and classify cultural resource areas. Incumbent assists in the preparation of maps, inventories, reports, and records relative to cultural resource sites. Performs archeological examinations of roads, springs, and other areas where archeological material may be subject to destruction or damage. I have completed several major mapping projects in ArcGIS 9.3; built a historic structures file geodatabase with features classes; created multiple ArcMap map templates; and attended ESRI's "How to Improve Productivity with ArcGIS 10" seminar. California State Parks Dept. of Parks & Rec 6/2008 - 3/2010 San Diego, CA US Salary: 13.78 USD Per Hour Hours per week: 45 Archaeological Project Leader Under direction, persons in this class plan, direct, and coordinate the work on a major archeological project or on a number of smaller projects in an area. Tasks: For an assigned project or group of projects determines the scope and extent of work to be done within the limitations of funds and time allocated for such work; recommends staffing, work procedures, equipment, and schedule for projects; assists in the selection of project personnel; supervises the on-site work through Archeological Specialists; establishes procedures and controls to be used on projects; makes on-site decisions regarding problems and departures from procedures; supervises the recording and reporting of project work and its publication as directed; works with landowners, officials of other departments, supervisors of other sections within his/her own department, and the public to establish effective relationships and to maintain liaison necessary for the successful completion of assigned projects; directs such movement, storage, cataloging, and display of specimens as may be specified by supervisor. Scientific Resource Surveys Inc. Orange, CA US 4/2008 - 6/2008 Salary: 14.00 USD Per Hour Hours per week: 40

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Archaeological Lab Technician Duties included cleaning and processing of prehistoric artifacts recovered form a Southern California coast site. Keeping lab area clean, answering the telephone and scheduling trash pick-up. CSUSB Recreational Sports Center San Bernardino, CA US 6/2006 - 9/2006 Salary: 11.50 USD Per Hour Hours per week: 45 Life Guard & Water Safety Instructor Duties included instructing four groups of 3 to 8 children ages 3 to 14 yrs old all levels of swimming techniques and safety. Sessions ran 50 min. each four days a week— when not instructing I was required to conduct lifeguard duties to according to Red Cross standards. (Contact Supervisor: Yes, Supervisor's Name: Rick Craig, Supervisor's Phone: (909)537-BFIT) Mountain High Ski Resort Wrightwood, CA US 12/2005 - 5/2006 Salary: 7.25 USD Per Hour Hours per week: 55

Lead Ski Lift Operator As lead lift operator I was responsible for the safety of my crew (up to 7) and the safety of all guests loading and unloading on the ski lifts, filling in daily log sheets, incident reports, and maintenance of ski ramps to OSHA compliance. I scheduled breaks and lunches for my crew and worked extensively with our guests both at the ticket gates and on the ski lifts. Seasons: 1992/93, 1994/95, 1999/00, 2003/04, & 2005/06. (Contact Supervisor: Yes, Supervisor's Name: Brent Townsley, Supervisor's Phone: (888) 754-7878) 100 Percent Direct Marketing London, Greater London UK 6/2005 - 12/2005 Salary: 9 GBP Per Hour Hours per week: 36 Administrative Assistant As administrative assistant in this small London office I assisted our two marketers by computer entry & data sorting for marketing lists using MS Access, organized files, typed response emails to clients, answered phones, created Power Point Presentations, prepared materials for mass client mailings and other ad hoc duties. (Contact Supervisor: Yes, Supervisor's Name: Michael Howe, Supervisor's Phone: 020 7631 3351) Mountain High Ski Resort Wrightwood, CA US 12/2004 - 5/2005 Salary: 7.25 USD Per Hour Hours per week: 55 Lead Ski Lift Operator As lead lift operator I was responsible for the safety of my crew (up to 7) and the safety of all guests loading and unloading on the ski lifts, filling in daily log sheets, incident reports, and maintenance of ski ramps Nordstroms Santa Barbara, CA US 9/2004 - 12/2004 Salary: 8.50 USD Per Hour Hours per week: 40 Hostess As a hostess I worked the cash register for the cafe; took food orders; served food to customers; closed cafe and closed out registers. I provided excellent customer service. Mountain High Ski Resort Wrightwood, CA US 11/2003 - 5/2004 Salary: 7.25 USD Per Hour Hours per week: 55 Lead Ski Lift Operator As lead lift operator I was responsible for the safety of my crew (up to 7) and the safety of all guests loading and unloading on the ski lifts, filling in daily log sheets, incident reports, and maintenance of ski ramps to OSHA compliance. I scheduled breaks and lunches for my crew and worked extensively with our guests both at the ticket gates and on the ski lifts. Seasons: 1992/93, 1994/95, 1999/00, 2003/04

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Adair Office Furniture San Bernardino, CA US

5/2000 - 9/2003 Salary: 10.00 USD Per Hour Hours per week: 45

Sales Executive Duties included custom ordering office furniture for clients, helping them with size, color & space planning, order entry using standard & custom model codes, order verification with vendors, writing purchase requisitions, answering phones, filing, and managing the showroom on weekends (management located in a corporate office) (Contact Supervisor: Yes, Supervisor's Name: Kieth Dobb, Supervisor's Phone: 909383-1888) Mountain High Ski Resort Wrightwood, CA US 11/1999 - 4/2000 Salary: 6.75 USD Per Hour Hours per week: 55 Lead Ski Lift Operator As lead lift operator I was responsible for the safety of my crew (up to 7) and the safety of all guests loading and unloading on the ski lifts, filling in daily log sheets, incident reports, and maintenance of ski ramps. (Contact Supervisor: Yes, Supervisor's Name: Brent Townsley, Supervisor's Phone: 760-316-7859) Robinsons May Santa Barbara, CA US 5/1999 - 9/1999 Salary: 9.50 USD Per Hour Hours per week: 40

Sales Associate As a sales associate I assisted customers in the clothing department with questions regarding merchandise and with sales; operation of a cash register; closing out of cash register and keeping sales area neat and tidy.

EDUCATION

San Diego Mesa College San Diego, CA US Certification - 7/2011 11 Semester Hours Major: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) GPA: 3.6 out of 4.0 Relevant Coursework, Licensures and Certifications: GISG 270- Work Experience (2 units) GISG 110: Introduction to Mapping & GIS. This course covers the origins and fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS uses spatial information and software to map, analyze, and model real world problems (3 units). GISG 111: Geographic Information Systems and Cartography (3 units): Description: This course is designed for students who possess a basic background in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Course focuses on cartographic principles of map design, production, and evaluation through the application of hands-on activities using ArcGIS software. Topics covered include data acquisition methods used in map production (Global Positioning Systems/GPS, scanning, and georeferencing of data); spatial analysis techniques (using geoprocessing); & GIS project planning techniques. Cartographic tools and enhancements such as map layout, symbology, & labeling are emphasized. Students will apply project management skills to a class project. In progress, finish May 2010 ANTH 107: Introduction to Archaeology (3 units): Description: Emphasis is placed on the techniques of archaeological data collection and analysis, cultural innovations, reconstruction and interpretation of the past and Cultural Resource Management (CRM) work. ANTH: 205 Introduction to Medical Anthropology (3 units): This course presents the cultural forces, among other social motivations, that are powerful influences on health and wellness-related behavior. University of Bristol Bristol, Avon UK Master's Degree - 1/2008 180 UK units Major: Maritime Archaeology & History Minor: Anthropology GPA: 3.0 out of 4.0 Relevant Coursework, Licensures and Certifications: I have completed a Master's of Art's in Maritime Archaeology & History- courses

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included: · Maritime Ethnography · Course in California Maritime History · Archaeological Site Search & Survey Methods · Two & Three Dimensional Surveying Techniques · Underwater Archaeological Site Excavation Techniques · Recording During Excavation Practices & Theory · NAS courses I & II certificates · Use of ArchView software- ArcGIS, ArcPad 7 · Cultural Heritage & Cultural Resource Management · Research, Analysis & Use of SHPO, Section 106, CEQA & NAGPRA · Research & Analysis of UNESCO & ICMOS Cal State San Bernardino San Bernardino, CA US Master's Degree - 6/2006 36 Quarter Hours Major: Public Administration/Social Sciences Minor: History GPA: 3.7 out of 4.0 Relevant Coursework, Licensures and Certifications: I have completed graduate level courses in Social Sciences, History, Economics, Public Administration & Geography with emphasis in GIS and remote sensing. Santa Barbara City College Santa Barbara, CA US Vocational - 6/2005 24 Semester Hours Major: Marine Diving Technologies Minor: Ocean Sciences GPA: 4.0 out of 4.0 Relevant Coursework, Licensures and Certifications: · Fundamentals & Practices of Diving · Commercial Diving Equipment · Ocean Structures · Advanced ROV Data Acquisition · Undersea Vehicle Operations · Marine First Aid & CPR California State University San Bernardino, CA US Bachelor's Degree - 6/2003 over 200 Semester Hours Major: Business Admin concentration Finance Minor: Economics GPA: 3.0 out of 4.0 Relevant Coursework, Licensures and Certifications: Course work in International Finance, Business Law, Financial Markets/Institutions, Operations Management and Marketing, & Economics Victor Valley College Victorville, CA US Associate Degree - 5/1996 78 Semester Hours Major: Business Administration Minor: Finance GPA: 3.0 out of 4.0 Relevant Coursework, Licensures and Certifications: Oceanography, Macro & Micro Economics, Accounting I & II, & Critical Thinking (English Lit).

JOB RELATED TRAINING

Recent Archaeological Field Experience: •Servered as a crew chief and crew member on multiple archaeological site monitoring surveys in Death Valley, CA. Recorded site datums and boundaries using a Trimble GeoXH or a Garmin handheld GPS. Entered site information into the Archaeological Systems Management Information System (ASMIS); Update California DPR Site Records and completed final project technical reports for SHPO. Lead a postfire survey and completed a XXX Technical Report and letter sumerizing finds to SHPO. •L.A. State Historic Park Southern Pacific Railyard Excavation: Working with a crew of 2-6 archaeologist excavating and recording the foundations of a historical site/structure. May 2009-June 2009. •West Halton Archaeological Field school: Volunteer: training in archaeological

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excavation methods and finds processing. April 2009. •Leo Carrillo State Park ADA Trail: CRM Phase I. Conducted surface survey & testing along proposed trail site. Dry screened STP levels and collected any material culture. Recorded findings and level conditions on standard DPR STP/Auger form. California 2009 •Antelope Valley Indian Museum Stabilization Project: Listed on the National Register of Historic Places. As Lead Cultural Specialist for this project I was responsible for monitoring all ground disturbance and all work on the historic fabric of the Museum. I documented all work conducted with photographs sketches and monitoring logs. I worked closely with the State Historian II to preserve the historic fabric during this project and also with the State biologist to preserve the native vegetation. During ground disturbance I monitored for any cultural materials that could be of prehistoric or historic era; collected any of these objects, processed/cleaned, cataloged and asigned accession number to collection. •Crystal Cove State Park El Moro Campground Conversion: Lead archaeological monitor on conversion project for a public campground/public use area. Project work was conducted in known Native American prehistoric habitation site. Responsible for collection of any artifacts, recording artifacts, features and other data with a Trimble GeoXH handheld Global Positioning Unit and ArcPad 7; use of ArcGIS to create site location map; photography and identifying artifacts and features; taking daily monitoring notes and reporting concerns to DPR project manager. California, 2008 • Border Field Data Reconnaissance Project: Emergency reconnaissance Survey and cultural material collection. Data recordation with Trimble GeoXT & XH hand held global positioning unit and ArcPad 7; Completion of ASCAR for site; completed updated site record using DPR 523 form; Creation of map from data recovered using ArcGIS. California 2008. ·Dor Project, Survey, recordation and evcavation of a 7th and an 8th century A.D. Arab boat wrecks using traditional underwater archaeological methods to measure & record boats hull to create a 3-D model using WEB software. I was also trained in underwater digtal photography and videography for site recording. Principal Investigator Yaacov Kahanov, The Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies University of Haifa. Israel, 2007 ·Carnatic Project (Dissertation), Assessment survey- measuring, archival research and video recordation of an 1860’s steam-powered single screw shipwreck located in the Red Sea. Project coordinator myself (Janelle Harrison) Egypt, 2007. ·Sursay (Sursiegh) Project, Survey, recordation and site investigation of a late 18th, early 19th century wooden vessels. Principal Investigator Peter Pritchard NAS Scotland/HSE contractor. Scotland, 2007 ·River Hooe Hulk Recording, Survey and recordation of two 19th century boats abandoned on the foreshore/intertidal Zone of Hooe River. Principal Investigator Martin Read, University of Plymouth/conservator. England, 2007. ·Cattewatter Project, Assisted in Geophysical survey of the Catterwater shipwreck using sidescan sonar & magnetometer. This is the first wreck projected under the Protection of Wreck Act 1973 (UK). Principal investigator and licensee Martin Read. England. 2007 ·Mount’s Bay Project, Assisted in Geophysical survey of Mount’s Bay, Penzance, using sidescan sonar and a Magnetometer to find possible targets for archaeological investigation. Principal Investigator Kevin Cambridge, Cornwall and Isles of Silly Maritime Archaeological Society. England. 2007

AFFILIATIONS

Society for Historical Archaeology Insitute of Field Archaeologists Institute for Nautical Archaeology Society for California Archaeology Register of Professional Archaeologist Nautical Archaeological Society Yaacov Kahanov Phone Number: Email Address:

Member Member Member Member RPA ID#16409 Archaeological diver- NAS certificate level The Leon Recanati Institute Director for Maritime Studies 972-4-8240600 yak@research.haifa.ac.il

REFERENCES

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Reference Type: Don Barthelmess Phone Number: Email Address: Reference Type: Ms. Kimberly Monk Phone Number: Email Address: Reference Type: Rick Craig Phone Number: Email Address: Reference Type:

Professional Santa Barbara City College 805-965-0581 ext.2427 barthelmess@sbcc.edu Professional University of Bristol +44 (0) 117 954 6060 k.monk@bris.ac.uk Professional Cal State University San Bernardino 909-537-7142 craig@csusb.edu Professional Professor

Teaching Fellow

Director, Recreational Sports

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

*35-40 wpm Keyboarding/typing by touch *10-key by touch *Intermediate skills in Microsoft Word, Excel, Power Point, Access *Windows 7 *Adobe Photoshop & Pdf maker software *PhotoModeler software *ArcGIS 9.3 & 10; ArcPad 7 & 8; Pathfinder *Terrasync *Internet *Advanced skills withGPS hand held unit experience- Trimble GeoXT and GeoXH & GeoXM; Delorme Earthmate PN-60 with Spot and Garmin's. *Remote Sensing Equipment (Side Scan Sonar & Magnetometer) *Aerial Photography Interpretation *EDM (Electronic Distance Measuring Device), Total Station *ROV operation * NPS NAGPRA Training, Oct. 10 2008 * Department of Interior "Crucial Conversations" Training Jan. 11-13 2011 * ESRI's "How to Be More Productive with ArcGIS 10" Seminar Oct. 12 2010.

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