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ONAN TORO POWER PLUS P216, 18, 20, 24 ENGINES - HORIZONTAL

Table of Contents – Page 1 of 2


SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
GENERAL
PROTECT AGAINST MOVING PARTS
BATTERIES
FUEL SYSTEM
EXHAUST SYSTEM
EXHAUST GAS IS DEADLY!
COOLING SYSTEM
KEEP THE UNIT AND SURROUNDING AREA CLEAN

CAUTION

GENERAL INFORMATION
INTRODUCTION
ENGINE MODEL REFERENCE

SPECIFICATIONS

DIMENSIONS AND CLEARANCES


P216, P218, P220
P216,P218,P220
P224
P224

ASSEMBLY TORQUES

SPECIAL TOOLS

ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING

OIL SYSTEM
CRANKCASE OIL
OIL FILTER CHANGE
CRANKCASE BREATHER
CRANKCASE BREATHER SERVICE
P216, P218, P220
P224
PRESSURE LUBRICATION
OIL PUMP
OIL BYPASS VALVE

FUEL SYSTEM
CARBURETOR
CARBURETOR SPEED SETTINGS
CARBURETOR OVERHAUL
REMOVAL
DISASSEMBLY
CLEANING AND REPAIR
REASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION
PULSATING-DIAPHRAGM FUEL PUMP
FUEL PUMP TEST PROCEDURE
PURPOSE
CARBURETOR (BEGINNING SPEC G)
CARBURETOR HIGH-ALTITUDE JET (OPTIONAL)
AIR CLEANER
GOVERNOR SENSITIVITY
ONAN TORO POWER PLUS P216, 18, 20, 24 ENGINES - HORIZONTAL
Table of Contents – Page 2 of 2
IGNITION AND BATTERY CHARGING
IGNITION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
IGNITION TIMING
CONTINUITY TEST
IGNITION COIL
SPARK PLUGS
BATTERY INSPECTION
BATTERY JUMP STARTING
FLYWHEEL ALTERNATOR
ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST
TYPICAL WIRING DIAGRAM

STARTING SYSYTEM
ELECTRIC STARTER
SERVICE
STARTER REMOVAL
STARTER DISASSEMBLY
STARTER ASSEMBLY
INSPECTION AND TESTING
STARTER MOUNTING

ENGINE DISASSEMBLY
DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY
SUGGESTED DISASSEMBLY ORDER
SUGGESTED ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE
OPERATION
TESTING COMPRESSION
TAPPET ADJUSTMENT
VALVE SYSTEM
INSPECTION
TAPPETS
VALVE FACE AND SEAT GRINDING
FLYWHEEL
GEAR COVER
GOVERNOR CUP
TIMING GEARS
PISTONS AND CONNECTING RODS
CYLINDER BLOCK
CLEANING
INSPECTION
REBORING THE CYLINDER
HONING CYLINDERS (USING PRECISION HONES)
DEGLAZING CYLINDER BORES
CRANKSHAFT
BEARINGS
CRANKSHAFT ENDPLAY
CHECKING CONNECTING ROD BEARING CLEARANCE WITH PLASTIGAUGE
OIL SEALS
PISTON ASSEMBLY
INSTALLATION OF PISTON IN CYLINDER
CYLINDER HEADS
P216, P218, P220 INSTALLATION
224 INSTALLATION
Service Manual

1709

P216,18,20,24
TORO Power Plus
Tractors&RidingMowers
Engine
Safety Precautions
It is recommended that you read your engine manual and Fuel System
become thoroughly acquainted with your equipment before DO NOT fill fuel tanks while engineis running.
you start the engine.
DO NOT smoke or use an open flame in the vicinity
of the
This symbol if used warns of imme- engine or fuel tank. Internal combustion engine fuels are
diatehazardswhich will result in highly flammable.
severe personal injury or death.
Fuel lines must beof steel piping, adequately secured,
andfreefromleaks.Pipingattheengineshouldbe
Thissymbolreferstoahazardor approvedflexibleline., Do notusecopperpipingfor
unsafe practice which can result In flexible lines as copper will work harden and become
severe personal injury or death. brittle enoughto break.

This symbol refers to a hazard or Be sure all fuel supplies have a positive shutoff valve.
unsafe practice which can result in
personal injury or product or property damage. Exhaust System
Exhaust productsof any internal combustion engine are
Fuels,electricalequipmentbatteries,exhaustgasesand toxic and can cause injury,
or death if inhaled. All engine
movingpartspresentpotentialhazardsthat can result in applications,especiallythosewithinaconfinedarea,
serious, personal injury. Take care
in following these recom- should be equipped with an exhaust system to discharge
mended procedures. All local. state and federal codes should gases to theoutside atmosphere.
consulted
be and
complied
with.
Do not use exhaust gasesto heat a compartment
This engine is not designed or In- Make'surethatyourexhaustsystem is free of leaks.
tended foruse in any type of aircraft. Ensure that exhaust manifolds are secure and arenot
Use of this enginein aircraft can result
in engine failure warped bybolts unevenly torqued.
and causes serious personal injury or death.
Exhaust G a sis Deadly!
General Exhaust gases contain carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas
Provide appropriate fire extinguishers and install them
in that can cause unconsciousness and death.
It is an odorless
convenient locations. Use an extinguisher rated
ABC by and colorless gas formed during combustion
of hydrocarbon
NFPA. fuels.Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are:

Make sure that all fasteners


on the engine are secure and Dizziness Vomiting
accurately torqued. Keep guards in position over fans, Headache Muscular Twitching
driving belts, etc. Weakness and Sleepiness Throbbing in Temples
If you experience any
of these symptoms. get out into fresh air
If it is necessary
to make adjustments while the engine is immediately, shut down the unit and do not use until it has
running, use extreme caution whento hot closeexhausts, been inspected.
moving parts. etc.
The best protection against carbon monoxide inhalation is
proper installation and regular, frequent inspectionsof the
Protect Against Moving Parts complete exhaust system. If you notice a change
in the sound
Do not wear loose clothing
in the vicinity of moving parts. or appearance of exhaustsystem,shutthe unit down
such as PTO shafts, flywheels, blowers, couplings, fans, immediately and haveit inspected and repaired at once by a
belts, etc. competent mechanic.

Keep your hands away from moving parts. Cooling System


Coolants under pressure have a higher boiling point than
water.,DONOTopenaradiatorpressurecapwhen
Batteries coolant temperature is above 212ºF (100ºC) or while
Before starting workon the engine. disconnect running.
batteries is engine
to prevent inadvertent starting
of the engine.
Keep the Unit and Surrounding Area Clean
DO NOT SMOKE whileservicingbatteries.Leadacid Make sure that oily rags are not leftnear the engine,
on or
batteries giveoff a highly explosive hydrogen gas which
can be ignited by flame, electrical arcing
or by smoking. Remove all unnecessarygreaseand oil fromthe unit ~-
Accumulated grease and oil can cause overheating and
Verify battery polarity before connecting battery cables. subsequent engine damage and present a potential fire
Connect negative cable last. hazard.
E-6
Table of Contents
TITLE PAGE
General Information ................................................... .1-1
Specifications........................................................ .2-1
Dimensions and Clearances ............................................. .3-1
Assembly Torques and Special Tools .................................... .4-1
Engine Troubleshooting ............................................... .5-1
Oil System ........................................................... .6-1
Fuel System ........................................................... .7-1
Ignitionand Battery Charging ........................................... .8-1
Engine Wiring Diagram................................................ .8-7
......................................................
Starting System. .9-1
EnglneDisassembly... ............................................... 10-1

EXHAUST GASIS DEADLY!

Exhaust gasesfrom all fuels (Including diesel, gasoline, liquid propane, natural
gas) contain carbonmonoxide, an odorless andcolorless gas. Carbon monoxide
is poisonous and can cause unconsciousnessdeath. and Symptoms ofcarbon
monoxide poisoningcan include:

Dizziness Throbbing in Temples


Nausea Muscular Twitching
Headache vomiting
Weakness and Sleepiness Inability to Think Coherently

IF YOU OR ANYONE ELSE EXPERIENCE, ANY OF THESE SYMPTOMS, GET OUT


INTOTHEFRESHAIRlMMEDlATELY. If symptoms persist, seek medical
attention. Shut down
the unit and do not operateuntil it has been inspected and
repaired.

Protection against carbon monoxide inhalation includes proper installation,


ventilationand regular, frequent visual and
audible inspections of the complete
exhaust system.
General Information
Use only Genuine Tom Plower Plusreplacement parts to
ensure qualityand the bestpossible repair and overhaul
results. When ordering parts, always use the complete
This manual deals with specific mechanical and elec- model and spec number as well as the serial number
tricalinformationneededbyenginemechanicsfor shown on the nameplate.
or overhauling the
troubleshooting, servicing, repairing,
engine.
Usethe separate PARTS MANUAL for parts identification ENGINE MODEL REFERENCE
and for establishing their proper location on assemblies.
The PARTS MANUAL contains detailed exploded viewsIdentifyyourmodelbyreferringtothemodeland
of each assembly and the individual piece numbers
part specification (spec letter) as shown on the unit name-
and their proper names for ordering replacement parts. plate. Always use these numbers and the engine serial
number when making reference to your engine.
The illustrations and procedures presented in each
section apply to the engines listed on the cover. The How to interpretMODEL and SPEC NO.
flywheel-blower end of the engine is the front endso
right and left sides are determined by viewing the engine
from the front. The No. 1 cylinder is on the left, No. 2
cylinder is on the right.

If a major repair
or an overhaul
is necessary, a competent
-mechanic should either do the job or supervise and
check thework of the mechanic assigned to the job to 3 6 7
ensurethat all dimensions,clearancesandtorque
values are within the specified tolerances.

Use the table of contents for a quick referenceto the


separate engine system sections. 1. Factory codeforgeneralidentificationofbasic
engine series.
Thetroubleshootingguide is provided as aquick 2. Number of cylinders.
reference forlocating and correcting engine trouble.
3. BHPrating.
The wiring diagram shows how the electrical compo- 4. Fuel required(G= gasoline).
nents are interconnected. 5. Engine duty cycle.
Thedisassembly section contains major overhaul 6. Factory code for designated optional equipment, if
proceduresforstepbystepremoval,disassembly, any.
inspection, repair, and assembly of the engine 7. Specification ( s p e c letter)whichadvanceswith
components. factory production modifications.

See the Operator's Manualfor fuel and oil recommendations and


the Periodic Maintenance Schedule.

INCORRECT SERVICE OR REPLACEMENT OF PARTS CAN RESULT IN


SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE. SERVICE
PERSONNEL MUST BE QUALIFIED TO PERFORM ELECTRICALAND/OR
MECHANICAL SERVICE.

1-1
Specifications
in parentheses
This manual containsSI metric equivalents that follow immediately
after theU.S. customary units of measure.

2- 1
Dimensions and Clearances
P216. P218. P220
All clearances given at room temperature . .
70°Fof(21°C) All dimensionsin inches (approximate millimeter dimensions
in parentheses) unless otherwise specified .
DESCRIPTION

CYLINDER BLOCK
Cylinder Bore Honed Diameter ............................ (82.52)
3.2490 (82.55)
3.2500
Maximum Allowable
Taper ................................................. 0.005 (0.1 3)
Out-of-Round ......................................... 0.003 (0.08)
Main Bearing Inside Diameter (Without bearing) ............. 2.1870 (55.55) 2.1 880 (55.58)
Main Bearing Inside Diameter (Installed service bearing) ..... 2.001 5 (50.84) 2.0040 (50.90)
Camshaft Bearing Bore (Installed service bearing) ........... 1.3757 (34.94) 1.3787 (35.02)
CRANKSHAFT
Main Bearing Journal Diameter ............................ 1.9992 (50.78) 2.0000 (50.80)
Main Bearing Clearance .................................. 0.0024 (0.061) 0.0042 (0.107)
Connecting Rod Journal Diameter ......................... 1.6252 (41.28) 1.6260 (4130)
Crankshaft End Play ...................................... 0.0060 (0.1 52) 0.01 20 (0.305)
CONNECTING ROD
Large Bore Diameter(Rod bolts properly torqued) ........... 1.6280 (41.35) 1.6285
(41 36)
Connecting Rod Side Clearance ........................... 0.0020 (0.051) 0.0160 (0.406)
Piston Pin BushingBore (Finished bore) .................... 0.6879 (1 7.47) 0.6882 (1 7.48)
Bearing to Crankshaft Clearance ........................... 0.0020 (0.051) 0.0033 (0.084)
CAMSHAFT
Bearing Journal Diameter ................................. 1.3740 (34.90) 1.3745 (34.91)
Bearing Clearance ....................................... 0.001 5 (0.038) 0.0030 (0.076)
End Play ................................................ 0.01 10 (0.279) 0.0480 (1.219)
Lobe Height
P216. P218 Intake ...................................... 1.1370 (28.88)
P216. P218 Exhaust .................................... 1.1 570 (29.39)
P220 Intake............................................ 1.1670 (29.64)
P220 Exhaust .......................................... 1.1570 (29.39)

PISTON
Clearance in Cylinder
Measure 90° to pin1.187 inch below top of piston ......... 0.0033 (0.084) 0.0053 (0.135)
Piston Pin Bore........................................... 7.47)
0.6877
(1 0.6882 (1 7.48)
Ring Groove Width
Top Compression Ring ................................. 0.0800 (2.032) 0.081 0 (2.057)
Middle Compression Ring ............................... 0.0800 (2.032) 0.081 0 (2.057)
Bottom Oil Control Ring ................................. 0.1 880 (4.775) 0.1 890 (4.800)

3-1
P216. P218. P220
MINIMUM MAXIMUM
Inches (mm) Inches (mm)
PISTON PIN
Clearance in Piston ...................................... 0.00004 (0.001) 0.00064 (0.016)
Clearance in Connecting Rod .............................. 0.0002 (0.005) 0.0007 (0.01 8)
Diameter ................................................ 0.6875 (1 7.46) 0.6877 (1 7.47)
PISTON RINGS
Clearance
Top Groove ........................................... 0.0030 (0.076) 0.0080 (0.203)
Ring End Gapin Cylinder ................................. 0.0100 (0.254) 0.0200 (0.508)
INTAKE VALVE
Stem Diameter ........................................... 0.2795 (7.099 02800
Clearance (Stemto Guide) ................................ 0.0010 0.0025
(0.025)
Valve Face Angle ........................................ 44º

INTAKE VALVE SEAT


Seat Bore Diameterin Block ............................... 1.4395 (36.56) 1.4405 (36.59)
Seat Outside Diameter ..................................... 1.4700 (37.34) 1.4710 (37.36)
Valve Seat Width ......................................... 0.0310 (0.787) 0.0470 (1.194)
Valve seat Angle ......................................... 45º

EXHAUSTVALVE
Stem Diameter ........................................... 0.2780 (7.061) 02785
Clearance (Stemto Guide) ................................ 0.0020 (0.051) 0.0035
Valve Face Angle ........................................ 44º
EXHAUSTVALVE SEAT
Seat Bore Diameterin Block ............................... 1.1890 (30.20) 1.1900 (30.23)
Seat Outside Diameter .................................... 1.1 920 (30.28) 1.1930 (30.30)
Valve SeatWidth ......................................... 0.0310 (0.787) 0.0470 (1.194)
Valve Seat Angle ......................................... 45º

VALVE GUIDE
Intake Inside Diameter .................................... 0.2810 (7.1 37) 0.2820
Exhaust Inside Diameter .................................. 0.2805 (7.1 25) 0.2815

TAPPET
Body Diameter ........................................... 0.7475 (18.99) 0.7480 (1 9.00)
Bore Diameter ............................................ 0.7500 (19.05) 0.7515 (1 9.09)
Clearance in Bore........................................ 0.0020 (0.051) 0.0040 (0.1 02)

VALVE SPRINGS INTAKE AND EXHAUST


Valve Spring Free Length (Approx.) ........................ 1 600 (4.64
Valve Spring Length
Valve Open ............................................ 1.055 (26.80)
Valve Closed .......................................... 1.346 (34.19)
Spring Load (Valve Open Length) .......................... 55 Ib (25 kg)
Spring Load (Valve Closed Length) ......................... 25 Ib (11 kg)
GEAR BACKLASH
Timing
Gear ............................................. 0.0010 (0.025) 27)
0.0050
(0.1
Oil Pump
Gear ........................................... 0.0010
(0.025)
0.0080
(0.203)

3-2
.
...
...
...
...
...
...
. . . .
P224
DESCRIPTION MINIMUM
Inches (mm) Inches

CYLINDER BLOCK
Cylinder Bore Honed Diameter ............................ 3.5625 (90.49) 3.5635 (90.51)
Maximum Allowable
Taper ............... ................................. 0.003 (0.08)
Out-of-Round .......................................... 0.003 (0.08)
Main Bearing Inside Diameter (Without bearing) ............. 2.1 870 (55.55) 2.1 880 (55.58)
Main Bearing Inside Diameter (Installed) .................... 2.0015 (50.84 2.0040 (50.90)
Camshaft Bearing Bore (Bearing Installed) .................. 1.3757 (34.94) 1.3787 (35.02)

CRANKSHAFT
Main Bearing Journal Diameter ............................ 1.9992 (50.78) 2.0000 (50.80)
..................................
Main Bearing Clearance
Connecting Rod Journal Diameter
Crankshaft End Play
.........................
......................................
0.0024
1.6252
0.0060
(0.061)
(41.28)
(0.1 52)
0.0042
1.6260
0.0120
.
(0.1 07)
(41 30)
(0.305)

CONNECTING ROD
Large Bore Diameter (Without bearing installed and rod bolts
properly torqued)........................................ 1.7505 (44.46) 1.7510 (44.48)
Connecting Rod Side Clearance ........................... 0.0020 (0.051) 0.0160 (0.406)
Piston Pin BushingBore (Without bushing) .................. 0.81 15 (20.61) 0.81 25 (20.64)
Piston Pin BushingBore (Finished bore) .................... 0.7504 (1 9.06) 0.7508 (1 9.07)
Bearing to Crankshaft Clearance ........................... 0.0020 (0.051) 0.0033 (0.084)
CAMSHAFT
Bearing Journal Diameter ................................. 1.3740 (34.90) 1.3745 (34.91)
Bearing Clearance ....................................... 0.0015 (0.038) 0.0030 (0.076)
End Play ................................................ 0.01 10 (0.279) 0.0480 (1
Lobe Height
Intake.................................................. 1.1670 (29.64)
Exhaust ................................................ 1.1 570 (29.39)

PISTON
Clearance in Cylinder
Measure 90°to pin 1.187 inch below top of piston ......... 0.0070 (0.1 78) 0.0090 (0.229)
Piston Pin Bore .......................................... 0.7502 (1 9.06) 0.7506 (1 9.07)
Ring GrooveWidth
Top Compression Ring ................................. 0.0800 (2.032) 0.0810 (2.057)
Middle Compression Ring ............................... 0.0800 (2.032) 0.0810 (2.057)
Bottom Oil Control Ring ................................. 0.1880 (4.775) 0.1 890 (4.801)

PISTON PIN
Clearance in Piston ....................................... 0.00004 (0.001) 0.00064 (0.01 6)
Clearance in Connecting Rod ............................. 0.0002 (0.005) 0.0008 (0.020)
Diameter ................................................ 0.7500 (1 9.05) 0.7502 (1 9.06)

PISTON RINGS
Clearance
Top Groove ........................................... 0.0020 (0.051) 0.0080 (0.203)
Ring End Gap in Cylinder ................................. 0.0100 (0.254) 0.0200 (0.508)
P224
DESCRIPTlON
INTAKE VALVE
Stem Diameter ........................................... (8.700)
0.3425 0.3430 2) (8.71
Clearance (Stem to Guide) ................................ 0.0010 0.0025
(0.025) (0.064)
Valve Face Angle ........................................ 44º

INTAKE VALVESEAT
Seat Cylinder Head Bore Diameter .......................... (39.74)
1.5645 1.5655 (39.76)
Seat Outside Diameter ..................................... (39.85)
1.5690 .57001 (39.88)
Valve Seat Width......................................... 0.0310 (1.194)
0.0470
(0.787)
Valve Seat Angle......................................... 45º

EXHAUST VALVE
Stem Diameter ........................................... 0.3410 (8.687)
0.3420
(8.661)
Clearance (Stemto Guide) ................................ 0.0025 (0.064) 0.0040 02) (0.1
Value Face Angle ......................................... 44º
EXHAUST VALVESEAT
Seat Cylinder Head Bore Diameter ......................... 1.2510 (31.78) 1.2520 (31.8 0 )
Seat Outside Diameter .................................... 1.2550 (31.88) 1.2560 (31.90)
Valve Seat Width......................................... 0.0310 (0.787) 0.0470 (1.194)
Valve Seat Angle......................................... 45º
VALVE GUDE
Intake Inside Diameter.................................... 0.3440 (8.738) 0.3460 (8.788)
Exhaust Inside Diameter ................................... 0.3440 (8.738) 0.3460 (8.788)
TAPPET
Body Diameter ........................................... '0.7475 (18.99) 0.7480 (19.00)
Bore Diameter ........................................... 0.7500 (19.05) 0.7515 (19.09)
Clearance in Bore........................................ 0.0020 (0.051) 0.0040 (0.102)
VALVE SPRINGSINTAKE AND EXHAUST
Valve Spring Free Length (Approx.) ........................ (42.21) 1.662
Valve Spring Length
.Valve Open ............................................ 1.125 (28.58)
Valve Closed .......................................... 1.375 (34.93)
..........................
.

Spring Load (Valve Open Length) 71 Ib. (32 kg)


Spring Load (Valve Closed Length) .......................... 38 Ib. (17 kg)
GEAR BACKLASH
Timing Gear ............................................. 0.0010 (0.025) 0.0050 (0.1 27)
Oil Pump Gear ........................................... 0.0010 (0.025) 0.0080 (0.203)

3-4
Assembly Torques
Thetorquevaluesgiven in Table 1 havebeendeter-Tighten all studs,nuts,andcapscrewsasrequiredto
minedforspecificapplications.Standardtorquevalueskeepthemfromworkingloose.Refer to the PARTS
must not be used where those listed in Table 1 apply. MANUAL for the location of washers and capscrews.
The engine assembly torques given here will assure
proper tightness without danger of stripping threads.
All
threads mustbe clean and lubricated with new engine
oil before torquing.

TABLE 1.
16,
TORQUE P220 P218, P216,
IFICATION
DESCRIPTION
SPECIFICATION
DESCRIPTION
Nm Ft.-Lb. Ft.-Lb. Nm
Gearcase
Cover ................ 8-10 11-14 Intake
Manifold
Rear
Bearing
Plate
Screws ..... 25-27
34-37 Mounting
Screws.. .......... 6-10
8-1
4
Starter
Mounting Bolts ......... 19-2125-28 Exhaust
Manifold
Connecting R o d Bolts. ......... 12-1416-19 Mounting
Screws.. .......... 12-15
9-1
1
Flywheel
Capscrews ........... 50-55 67-75 Other 1/4" Cylinder
Block
Oil Base ...................... 18-23
24-31 Stud Nuts..
and ............. 10-12
7-9
Oil Pump ..................... 7-9
10-12 Other 5/16" Cylinder
Block
Valve
Cover. ................... 1-31-2 Nuts
and
Stud ............... 11-14
8-10
Head
Cylinder Bolts
Other
(Cold) 3/8" Block
Cylinder
Asbestos
Gasket ............ 22-24
16-1
8 Stud
and
Nuts ............... 18-23
24-31
Graphoil
Gasket ............. 14-119-22
6

P224 P224 TORQUE


SPECIFICATION
DESCRIPTION
SPECIFICATION
DESCRIPTION
Nm Ft.-Lb. Ft.-Lb. Nm
Gearcase
Cover ............... 8-10 11-14 Intake
Manifold
Rear
Bearing
Plate
Screws ..... 25-27
34-37 Mounting
Screws.. .......... 20-23
27-31
Starter
Mounting Bolts ......... 19-21
25-28 Exhaust
Manifold
Connecting Rod Bolts.. ........ 27-29
37-39 MountingScrews.. .......... 12-1
9-1
1 5
FlywheelCapscrews ........... 50-55 67-75 Other 1/4" Cylinder
Block
Oil Base ...................... 18-23
24-31 Stud
Nuts..
and .............. 10-12
7-9
Oil Pump ..................... 7-9
10-12 Other 5/16" Cylinder
Block
Valve
Cover.. ................. 15-1 4-8 Stud
and
Nuts. .............. 8-10
11-14
Other
(Cold)
Nuts
Head
Cylinder 3/8” Block
Cylinder
(w/Compression Washers) .... 19 14 StudNuts
and ............... 18-23
24-31
(w/o Compression Washers) .. 17 23

Special Tools
The following special tools are available from
Onan.Forfurtherinformation see TOOLCATALOG
900-0019.

Valve Seat Driver


Valve Guide Driver
Oil Seal Guide and Driver
Combination Bearing Remover (Main and Cam)
Combination Bearing Driver (Main and Cam)
Flywheel Puller
Engine Troubleshooting

ASOLINE ENGINE

FUEL SYSTEM

INTERNAL ENGINE

LUBRICATION SYSTEM

THROTTLE AND GOVERNOR

M-1686
Oil System

CRANKCASE OIL Crankcasepressure can blow out hot


Refer to Periodic Maintenance Schedule (located in the oil and causeserious burns. Do NOT
Operator's Manual) foroil change interval.If operating check d l while the engine is Operating.
in extremelydusty, high ambient, or low ambient
conditions, changeoil more often. Oil level should be toFULL
the mark ofthe dipstick. Start
engine and run for a short time to check for
oil leaks
Hot crankcase oil can cause burnsif around the drain plug.
His spilled or splashedskin.
on Keep
fingers and hands clear when removing the dl drain TORO POWER PLUS Engine
plug and wear protective clothing.

Do not overfill crankcase. Excessoil


causeshigheroperatingtempera-
turesandmaycausefoaming.

Run engine until thoroughly warm before draining oil.


Stop the engine, place a pan under drain
the outlet and
remove the oil drain plug. After the oil is completely
drained, clean and replace the drain Fillplug.
crankcase
with correct amount of oil. Refer to SPEClFlCATlONS for
crankcase capacity. Use oils meeting the API classi-
fication SF, SF/CC,or SF/CD.Refer to chart to determine
of to use. Straight weight
the proper viscosity grade oil
oilsarerecommendedforseveredutyuseandat
temperatures above 32ºF (0ºC) for minimum oil
consumption.

ALWAYS REPLACE
OR OIL
LEAKAGE MAY OCCUR I COOLING FINS

FULL - NOT OVERFILL


-
ADD REFER TO AMOUNT ON DIPSTICK

C-1000

FIGURE 1. CRANKCASE OIL FILL FIGURE 2. OIL FILTER


OIL FILTER CHANGE
Refer to Periodic Maintenenace Schedule (located in
the Operator’s Manual) for oil filter change interval. If
operating in extremelydusty,highambient, or low
ambient conditions, changeoil filter more often.
Spin off oil filter element and discard it. Thoroughly
clean filter mounting surfaceand make sure new gasket
is inserted in the element. Applythin
a filmof clean oil to
the gasket. Spin element down by until hand gasket just
touches mounting pad and then turn down an additional
11/2-3/4 turn. Donot overtighten.
With oil in crankcase, start engine and check for leaks
around filter element.Retighten only as muchas
necessary to eliminate leaks; do not overtighten.

CRANKCASE BREATHER
The crankcase breather prevents pressurebuilding
from
up in the crankcase.It also preventsoil contamination
by removing moisture or gasoline vapors and other
harmful blow-by materials from the crankcase. These
vapors are routed to the carburetor where they are
mixed with incoming air and burned in the combustion
chamber. A sticky breather valve can causeoil leaks,
high oil consumption, rough idle, reduced engine power, BREATHER
and a rapid formation of sludge and varnish within the
engine.

Crankcase Breather Service


If the crankcase becomes pressurized as evidenced by
or excessive oil inthe air cleaner
oil leaks at the seals
housing, use thefollowing procedureto service.
Most parts cleaning solvents are FIGURE 3A. CRANKCASE BREATHER - P216, P218, P220
flammable and could cause serious
personal injury if used improperly.Follow the manu-
facturer’srecommendations when cleaning parts.
P216, P218, P220
Remove the breather tube from the valve cover (Fig-
ure 3A). Remove capscrew, flatwashers, valve cover,
pack, spring, washer, reed valve, and breather baffle.
Discard gasketandclean all parts in part cleaning
solvent HOSE
CLAMP
Over tightening the valve cover can
cause an air leak and allow dirt to CLAMP
enter the engine. Be careful not to distort the valve
cover when tightening.
The reed valve must be flat with no sign of a crease.
Assemble using a new gasket. Do not overtighten valve PACK
cover capscrew.
P224
Remove the breather hose from cap and valve assembly.
Remove cap and valve assembly and in wash
a suitable
solvent. Replace cap and valve if balls do not move
freely. Puli pack out and wash in solvent.To allow free
operation of the valve, screens must be positioned as
shown in Figure 38. FIGURE 3B. CRANKCASE BREATHER P224 -

6-2
PRESSURE LUBRICATION Check oil pump thoroughly for worn parts. Oil pump to
All engines use an oil pump to provide a constant flow of prime it before reinstalling. Except for gasketspick-
and
oil to the engine parts. The oil supply collectsin the oil up cup, component parts of the pump are not available
base whereit is picked upby theoil pump pick-up cup. individually. Install a new pump assembly ifany parts,
worn,. to control
A by-pass valve is used oil pressure. Drain oil are
before removingoil base and always use newa gasket
when replacing theoil base. Oil By-Pass Valve
The by-pass valve (located to the right and behind gear
Oil Pump cover) controlsoil pressure by allowing excessoil to
The oil pump (Figure 4) is mounted behind the gear flow directly back tothe crankcase. The valve limitsoil
cover and is driven by the crankshaft gear. Inlet pipe and pressure toa maximum of about psi 20 (138 kPa) on the
screen assembly are attached directly to the pump P216, P218, and P220, and about 30 psi (207 kPa) on
body. A discharge passage in pump cover registers with the P224 at normal operating temperature.
a drilled passage in the crankcase. Parallel passages
distribute oil to the front and rear main bearing and the The valveis non-adjustable and normally does not need
oil bypass valve. maintenance.Determine if valveis operating correctly
by inspecting plunger action as follows:

1. Remove thecap screw located behind gear cover


and under governor
arm.

2. Remove spring and plunger with a magnetic tool.

3. Determine proper valve operation by checking the


OIL PUMP PICK-UP CUP springandplungeraccording to thefollowing
measurements:

Plunger Diameter .......... 0.3105 to 0.3125 in.


(7.89 to 7.94 mm)

Spring
Free Length ..............1.00 inch (25.4 mm)
.;.
L o a d ..... .... .2.6 ± 0.2 Ibs (11.6 ± 0.9 N)
whencompressedto 0.5 inch (12.7mm)

OIL PUMP ASSEMBLY 4. Check the valve seat and clean away any accumu-
lation,of metal particles whichcould cause erratic
valve, action. Verify that the valve seat is not
CRANKCASE TURNED damaged.
ON LEFT SIDE

5. Clean plunger and spring


in parts cleaning solvent
and install.

FIGURE 4. OIL PUMP ASSEMBLY

Circumferential groovesin the main bearings supply oil


to connecting rod bearings through drilled passages
from each main journal.A drilled passage connects the
front main bearing oil supply to the front camshaft
bearing; rear cam bearing is splash lubricated.

Normal oil pressure should be 8 psi (55 kPa) or higher at


1500rpmwhentheengine is atnormaloperating
temperature. If pressure at 1500 rpm drops below this
value, inspect oil system for faulty components.
Fuel System
CARBURETOR
Note: See pages 7-4-1, 74-2 for Spec G Engines. Carburetor speed Settings
All carburetors have a fixed main jet An optional fixed 1. Start the engine andallowi t to warm up thoroughly
main jet is available for altitude compensation above (at least10 minutes).
5,000 feet.
Some equipment manufacturers may require higher
Thecarburetor idlemixture wassetformaximum throttle stop speed and governor low speed rpm
efficiency at the factory and should normally not be settings. Referto equipment manufacturer's Oper-
disturbed. If adjustments seem necessary,first be sure ator's Manual for the correct rpm settings. When
the ignition system is working properly and governor rpm settings are not specified by the equipment
sensitivity is properly adjusted. manu-factum, use the rpm settings listedinSteps 2
and 3.
The carburetorhasa limited adjustment range between
stops of±1/8turn. The screw should only be adjusted 2. Move the engine speed control to the slow position.
within these limits;in to lean the mixture, out to richen. speed stop on the governor
Bend or turn the low so
the throttle stop screw on the carburetor controls
screw
forcingthemixtureadjustment engine speed. Adjust the throttle stop screw for
tight will damage the needle and 1000 rpm idle (Figures 1 and 2).
seat. Turn in only until light tension can be felt
3. Adjust the governor low speed stop for 1 1 0 0 rpm
If replacingidlemixturescrew,turn in until lightly idle.
seated, then turn screw back out 1-1 /4 turns for the
P216, and P220 carburetors, and1 -1 /2 turns for
P218, 4. Move the enginespeed control to the fast position.
the P224carburetor. Replace limiter cap with the plastic Bend the highspeed stop on the governor so the
stop approximately centered. engine runs at the equipment manufacturer's
recommended speed.

LOW SPEED

ADJUSTMENT SCREW

I
+
I

FIGURE 2. CARBURETORADJUSTMENTS

CARBURETOR OVERHAUL
Note: See pages 7-4-1, 7-4-2 for Spec G Engines.

Carburetionproblemsthatarenotcorrectedbymixture
adjustments are usually a result of gummed-up fuel FIGURE 3. CARBURETOR ASSEMBLY
passages orworn internalparts.Themosteffective
solution is a carburetor overhaul.
In general, overhauling a carburetor consists of disas-
sembly, athorough cleaning, and replacementwon of
parts. Carburetor overhaul kits are available.
General instructions for overhauling a carburetor are 3. Remove the four intake manifold cap screws
lift and
given below. Carefully note the position all parts
of while complete manifold assembly from engine.
removingto assure correct placement when reassemb-
ling.Readthrough all the instructionsbefore beginning 4. Remove carburetorfromintakemanifold.
for a better understanding of the procedures involved.
Carburetor components are shown in Figure 3.

Ignition of fuel can cause serious


personal injury or death by tire or Disassembly
explosion Do notanyflame, cigarette, or other
igniternear the fuel system. 1. Remove main jet and idle adjustment needle.

2. Remove attaching screws and separate upper and


Removal lower carburetor sections.

1. Removecleaner
air assembly. 3. Carefully
note
position of float
assembly
parts,
then
pull out retaining pin and float assembly.
2. Disconnect governor and throttle linkage, choke
and
control, fuel carburetor.
line from 4.
valve.
needle
Remove

7-2
NEEDLE BEND
TANG HERE
TO BEND FLOAT ARM

\ HERE TO

FUEL

Cleaning and Repair Reassembly and Installation


1. Soak all metal components not replaced in car- 1. Install needle valve, main jet, and float assembly.
buretor cleaner. Do not soak non-metal floats or Make sure float pivot
pin is properly placed and float
other non-metal parts. Follow the cleaning manu- moves freely without binding.
facturer's recommendations.
2. Turn carburetor on its side and measure float level
2. Clean all carbon from the carburetor bore, especially (Figure 4). Adjust float level only if necessary.
where the throttle and choke plates Be careful
seat. Measure float drop (the distance from the top of
not to plug the idle or main fuel ports. carburetorbodytotop offloat).Adjustonly if
necessary.
3. Dry outall passages with low pressure air
(35 PSI).
Avoid using wire or other objectsfor cleaning which
3. Position gasket on lower carburetor section and
may increase the size ofcritical passages. install upper carburetor section.

4. Checktheconditionoftheadjustmentneedle; 4. Install idle adjustment screw, throttle stop screw,


replace if damaged. Replace floatif loaded with fuel and fixed main jet plug.
or damaged.
5. Mount carburetor on intake manifold and install
5. Check the choke and throttle shafts for excessive assembly on engine.
play in their bore. This condition may necessitate
replacement of the carburetor. 6. Connectgovernorandthrottlelinkage,choke
control, and fuel line. Mount air cleaner assembly.
6. Replace old components with new parts.
7. Adjust carburetor and governor according
direc-
to
tions given in this section.
PULSATING-DIAPHRAGM FUEL PUMP can andcause
Spilled fuel ignite
seriouspersonal injuryor death.
Pulsating-diaphragm fuel pumps, or pulse pumps, rely Thoroughly clean-up any spilled fuel.
on changesin crankcase vacuum to create a pulsating
movementofthepumpdiaphragm. As the engine's 7. Remove fuel outletline from fuel pump.
pistons moveoutward, a vacuum is created.This
vacuum is transmitted to the pump diaphragm causing it
to pull back and suck fuel As the engine's
into the pump. 8. Connect a pressure gauge to fuel pump outlet using
pistons move inward, crankcase vacuum is reduced a pieceof fuel hose with clamps.
and the diaphragm return spring pushes the pump
diaphragmforward, forcingfuelthroughthepump
outlet. 9. Start engineandallowto idle foratleastfive
seconds. While holding pressure gauge level with
pump outlet record pressure gauge reading.

10. Move throttle control


to high idle position and allow
engine to run for at least five seconds. While holdin
pressuregaugelevelwithpumpoutletrecord
pressure gauge reading.

Fuel Pump Test Procedure


11. Shut engine off and remove pressure gauge hose
Before testing make certain the fuel pump vacuum and from fuel pump outlet Connect fuel outlet to fuel
line
free of leaks.
fuel line connections are tight and pump.

1. Operate engine at an for idlefive minutes to ensure Replace the fuel pump if test readings are not within the
that carburetor is full of fuel. values specified in TABLE 1.

TABLE 1
2. Shut engineoff and remove fuelinlet linefrom fuel PULSE PUMP TEST SPECIFICATIONS
pump.
ENGINE PUMP INLET PUMPOUTLET
3. Connect a vacuum gauge to fuel pump inlet using SPEED
VACUUM a PRESSURE
piece of fuel hose with clamps. (Minimum) (Minimum)
Low Idle 2.6 inches 1.7 psi
mercury
of
4. Start engineandallowto idle for at leastfive Idle
High 2.6 inches 1.7 psi
seconds. Record vacuum gauge reading. of mercury
-- -
-
A

5. Move throttle control to high idle position. Wait at


least five seconds and record vacuumgauge
reading.

6. Shut engine off and remove vacuum gauge hose


from fuel pump inlet. Connect fuel inlet line to fuel
pump-

7-4
Supplement to492-4006,492-4007
Date:1-95
P216/P218/P220/P224/P220V Service Manual

PURPOSE

This supplement transmits the revisions to the Service Manual necessary for covering
the Spec G engines listed above. Note that the nameplate on a Spec
G engine will
have the statement: “This engine meets1995-1998 California emissions regulations for
ULGE engines.”

To satisfy California emissions regulations, Spec G engines have internal engine


modifications and precision-manufactured carburetors with tamper-resistant fuel mixture
jets. It should therefore be noted that, other than installing the optional high-altitude jet
(Figure 4a), fuel mixture adjustments should not be attempted. Nor should. the
carburetor be overhauled. Instead, a malfunctioning carburetor (seeEngine
Troubleshooting)should be replaced.

California users should note that unauthorized modifications or replacement of


fuel, exhaust, air intake, or speed control system components that affect engine
emissions are prohibited by California regulationsand that the optional high-
altitude mainjet is not intended for use in California. Modification, removal or
replacement of the generator set labelis also prohibited.

7-4-1
CARBURETOR (BEGINNING SPEC G)
Carburetor Replacement
Other than replacing the carburetor main fuel jet
(fixed-type) with the optional high-altitude jet (Fig-
ure &), fuel mixture adjustments should not be at-
tempted. Nor should the carburetor be overhauled.
Instead, a malfunctioning carburetor shouldbe re-
placed. Before replacinga carburetor,however,
make certain 1) that all other necessary engine and
generator adjustments and repairs have beenper-
formed and 2) that the carburetor is actually mal-
(see
functioning Engine Troubleshooting). LEVER STOP SCREW
To remove the carburetor, remove the air cleaner,
disconnect the fuelline and choke and throttle link-
ages and unbolt the carburetor from theman- intake
ifold. When mounting the carburetor alwaysuse a
new gasket. Readjust the choke and throttle cables
and engine speed as instructed in the engine or
equipment Operator's Manual.

Carburetor High-AltitudeJet (Optional)


If the engineis operated at an altitude above 5,000
feet (1,524 metres), it is recommended that the car-
buretor main fuel jetbe replaced withthe optional PLUG
high-altitude jet (which has a slightly smaller ori- PUMP IDLE
OVER MIXTURE NEEDLE
fice).
To avoid slippingand gouging the CHOKE
main fuel jet, use a screwdrlver with 5/16
a inch
(8 mm) wide blade.

REMOVE CAP FOR MAIN FUEL JET


ACCESS TO MAINJET (shown enlarged)

FIGURE 4a. CARBURETOR


AIR CLEANER
AIR ELEMENT

PLATE .

FIGURE 5. AIR CLEANER ASSEMBLY

AIR CLEANER GOVERNOR SENSITIVITY

If air cleanerbecomes too dirty, These engines are adapted for use where a wide ran
engine will not receive sufficientair of speed settingsis desired. Engine speedis controlled
to run properly. Symptoms: Loss of power, flooding, at any given point between minimum and maximum by
hard starting and overheating. simply shifting the throttle lever on the control panel
until the desired speedis reached.
Engine is equipped with a paper element.
If the engineis
equipped with an element wrapper,it must be removed, A reliable instrument for checking engine speed is
cleaned, and oiled every 25 hours of operation; more requiredforaccurategovernoradjustment.Engine
often under extremely dusty conditions. speed can be checked with a tachometer.

1. To cleanelementwrapper,wash in waterand Check the governor arm, linkage, throttle shaft, and
detergent(Figure 5). Removeexcesswaterby lever for binding condition or excessive slack and wea
asponge, and allow to dry thoroughly. at connecting points. A binding condition at any point
squeezing like
Distributeonetablespoon ofSAE 30 engine oil will cause the governor to act slowly and regulation will
evenly around the precleaner. Knead into precleaner be poor. Excessive looseness may cause a hunting
and wring out excess oil. condition and regulation could be erratic. Work armthe
back and forth several times by hand while the is engin
2. Depending on conditions in which the engine is idling to check for above conditions.
operating, the inner paperelementshouldbe
replaced wheneverit becomes excessively dirty or
oily.

Never run engine withair cleaner


engine
removed. enter
Dirt will
and wear out rings causing excessive blow-by.
THROTTLE STOP
SCREW

GOVERNOR CONTROL
LINKAGE

GOVERNOR

SPRING

SIDE PULLGOVERNOR FRONT PULLGOVERNOR

FIGURE 6. VARIABLE SPEED GOVERNOR ADJUSTMENTS

If the governor is hunting or not operating properly, On sidepull governors the governor spring is set by the
adjust asfollows (Figure 6): factory in the third hole of the governor arm (third hole
from pivot). On front pull governors the governor spring
1. Disconnect linkage(A) from one of holes(C). is set by the factory in the second holeof the governor
armadapter(secondholefrompivot). To increase
2. Push linkage(A) and governor arm(B) as far back sensitivity, move spring loop into a hole closer to the
toward carburetor as they will go. pivot. To decrease sensitivity, move spring loop into a
hole farther away from the pivot. After sensitivity has
3. Holding linkage and governor arm toward direction been set, recheck the low speed rpm setting. Adjust if
of carburetor, insert endof linkage into whichever necessary.
hole (C) in governor arm lines up the closest. If
between two holes, insertin next holeout.
Ignition and Battery Charging
IGNITION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Failure to ground spark tester
away from spark plug hole may
result in ignition
of cyiinder gasesandmay cause
Thisengine is equippedwithanelectronicbattery severe personal injury.
ignition system. Both spark plugs fire simultaneously,
thustheneedforadistributor is eliminated.The
electronic ignition module is located on the enginegear 2. Pull spark plug wires off spark plugs and remove
cover behind the flywheel. The module receives a timingspark plugs. Connect an approved spark tester to
signal from magnets within the triggerring which rotates each of the spark plug wires and ground them away
with the engine crankshaft (Figure 1). If the electronic from sparkplug hole. Turn key on and crank engine
ignition is suspectedofmalfunctioning,proceedas over for 5 seconds while watching for spark. If a
follows: spark occurs regularly, the problem is not in the
3.
ignition system. If no spark occurs, go to step

Never put jumper lead to the coil


negative terminal.
Thiswill cause
failure of the electronic ignition module.

3. Connect a jumper lead directly from the positive


batteryterminaltothepositive (+) coil terminal
(smaller diameter of the two threaded posts). Crank
engineoverwhilewatchingforspark. If spark
occurs, the problem is in the lowoil pressure cut out
switch (if equipped) or related wiring, the lubricatin
system (low oil pressure), or in the other circuitry
bringing voltage to the coil.If no spark occurs, go to
step 4.

IGNITION
4. Refer to IGNITION COIL sectiontotest coil for
MODULE proper resistance. If coil checks out good, go to
ES-1670 step 5.

5. Connect positive side of voltmeter to negative (-)


FIGURE 1. IGNITION MODULE AND TRIGGERRING coil terminal (larger diameter of the two threaded
posts)andnegativeside of voltmetertoengine
ground. Turn key on and rotate flywheel slowly by
handwhileobservingvoltmeter.Voltageshould
1. Check all electrical connections to be sure they are switch between battery voltage and, 1-1.5 for each
clean and tight. If all connections are good and revolution.Ifvoltagedoesnotswitchproperly,
wiring is intact, go to step2. replace ignition module.

The electronicignitionwill Neverput B+ leadtothecoil


deliver full voltage to the spark negative terminal.Thiswill cause
plugs even when rotated by hand.Care should be failure of the electronic ignition module.
taken to avoid anelectrical shock.

6. Install spark plugs and wires.If ignition module is


Failuretoremovesparkplugs being replaced, be sure to connect red lead from
before turning engine over may new ignition module to positive(+) terminal of coil,
resultinenginestarting,whichmaycausesevere black lead from module to negative (-) terminal of
personal injury. coil.

8- 1
IGNITION TIMING 4. Rotate the flywheel slowly by hand in the clockwise
direction until the voltmeter reading switches from
approximately 1 volt to battery voltage. At this point,
The ignition timing is preset at the factory and is not one of the chaff screen screws should lie between
adjustable. For troubleshooting purposes,it is possible the two reference marks on the blower housing. To
to make an approximate check of the ignition timing recheck timing, the flywheel must be rotated another
usingreferencemarksontheblowerhousingand completerevolution in theclockwisedirection.
flywheel (Figure 2). This check can be performed by a Movingtheflywheelbackandforthacrossthe
continuity test. reference timing mark will not activate the electronic
ignition control.

5. Install spark plugs and wires.

,
IGNITION COIL

To testprimaryandsecondarywindingswithinthe
ignition coil first make sure the ignition power
is off and
coil is at room temperature of 70°F (21 "C).

1. Use a Simpson 260VOM or equivalent.


BLOWER
TIMING
2. Place a black lead on negative
(-) coil terminal and
red lead to positive (+) coil terminal.Primary
resistance should read between 2.90-3.60 ohms.

3. Changeresistancesettingonohmmeter.Place
ohmmeter leads inside of spark plug cable holes
(Figure 3). Secondaryresistanceshouldread
between 14,500-19,800 ohms.

4. If eitheroftheaboveresistancesarenotwithin
M-1675 specification,
replace
coil.
FIGURE 2. IGNITIONTIMING MARKS

Continuity Test

1. Pull spark plug wires off spark plugs and remove


spark plugs.

Failure to removesparkplugs
before turning engine over may
result in engine starting, which may cause severe
personal injury.

2. Turn ignition on.

3. Connect a voltmeter between the negative(-) coil


terminal (larger diameter of the two threaded posts)
and a good engine ground.

Theelectronicignitionwill
ddeliver full voltage to the spark
plugs even when rotatedby hand. Care should be
taken to avoid an electrical shock. FIGURE 3. COILTEST
SPARK PLUGS Keep the battery terminals clean and tight. Push the
cable terminal down flush with or slightly below the top
6). After making connections,
of the battery post (Figure
Check or replace spark plugs as recommended in the coat the terminals with light
a application of petroleum
Periodic Maintenance Schedule(located in Operator's jelly orgrease to retard corrosion.
Manual). Replace spark plugs that show signs of fouling
or electrode erosion. Poor contact at the battery cable connectionsis often a
source of trouble. Make sure battery cables in good
are
condition and that contacting surfaces are clean and
tightly connected. Do not reverse battery leads. Use
recommended battery tools when disconnecting leads
to avoid mechanical battery damage.

FIGURE 4. SPARK
PLUG
GAP BATTERY POST

BATTERY INSPECTION

Ignition of explosivebattery gases


can cause severe personal injury.
not smoke while servicing batteries.
FIGURE 6. BATTERYCABLECONNECTION
Checkbattery cells with ahydrometer (Figure 5).
Specific gravity reading should be between
1.260 and
1.290 at 77°F (25°C).

If one or more
cells are low on water, add distilled water
and recharge. Keep the battery case clean and dry. An
accumulation of moisture or dirt will accelerate dis- BATTERYJUMPSTARTING
charge and battery failure.

Occasionally, it may be necessary to jump start (charge)


a weak battery using a charged booster battery. If jump
starting is necessary, the following procedure
is recom-
mended to prevent starter damage, battery damage, an
SPECIFIC personal injuries.
GRAVITY READING
SHOULD BE
1.260 at (25°C) 1. Disconnect engine load.

2. Use a battery of the same voltage (1 2V) as


is used
with your engine.

3. Attach one end of the positive booster cable (red)


thepositive (+) terminal of theboosterbattery.
Attach the other end of the positive cable to the
positive (+) terminal of your engine battery.

FIGURE 5. SPECIFICGRAVITYTEST
Do not allow the posltive and Never jump start a frozen bat-
negativecable ends to touch tery. To do so can cause the
each other because itwill short the battery causing battery to explode. Never expose the battery to an
hazardous arcing, which can cause severe per- open flame or an electrlcalspark because a battery
sonal injury. creates highly explosive
hydrogen gas.
4. Attach one end of the negative booster cable (black) 6. Turn ignition switch to ON to start engine.
to negative (-) terminal of booster battery. Attach
otherendofnegativecable to asolidchassis
on ground ALTERNATOR
FLYWHEEL
5.

Weak ignition spark or a discharged battery indicates


trouble in the charging system.Beforetestingthe
engine's chargingsystem, always check the battery for
serviceability.

STATOR

MOUNTED BEHIND
BLOWER WHEEL

TOSTARTERORBATTERY

CAUTION:
REGULATOR MUST BE GROUNDED
THROUGH MOUNTING BOLTS

VOLTAGE REGULATOR CONNECTIONS

ES-1333-1 EO-1532

FIGURE 7. FLYWHEELALTERNATOR SYSTEM


Keep these points in mind when testing or servicing the ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST
flywheel alternator:
Use a volt-ohmmeter, such as the Simpson
270, when
testing the charging system.
1. Be sure engine is being run long enough and fast
enough to recharge battery after each start. Charging
system tests requirefulla charged battery. Alternator 1. Check battery voltage with unit not running. If not
output is reduced in direct proportion to engine
rpm. 1) charge battery before
within specifications (Table
Also, power required for accessories reduces power proceeding to step 2.
available to recharge battery.

2. With the engine running, check the battery terminal


2. The regulator-rectifier has built in protection against voltage(regulatoroutput)usingaDCvoltmeter.
open circuits orshort circuits onthealternator Voltage output should be within the values speci
output (B+) terminal. Either condition will cause the in Table 1.Ifvoltage is greaterthanspecified,
regulator-rectifier to shut off and appear if it is not
as replace regulator-rectifier assembly. If voltage is
functioning. Priortochecking the regulator-rectifier, less than specified, proceed to step 3.
check all wiring between the regulator-rectifierB+
terminalandthebatterypositive (+) terminalto
assure it is free of open circuits, resistances or short 3. Examine all wires for loose, corroded, broken con-
circuits. Also, if the batteryis extremely discharged nections, short circuits, etc. Check fuses. Repair as
it mayhaveinsufficientpowerto“turnon”the needed to assure complete circuits from regulator-
regulator-rectifier. rectifier B+ terminal to battery positive(+) terminal
and from battery negative(-) terminal to regulator-
rectifier case. If battery voltage remains low with
3. Be sure regulator-rectifier plug (connector) is in- engine running, proceed to step 4.
serted properly. Plug must bottom in receptacle; this
eliminates any resistance due to a poor connection.
Keep clean and tight. 4. Disconnect plug from regulator-rectifier and test
the AC voltage at the plug with engine running. If AC
voltage reads more or less than specified in Table 1,
4. Make sure alternator stator leads are not shorted proceed to step5. If AC voltage is as specified but
together. DC voltage is low, replace regulator-rectifier.

5. Besureregulator-rectifierhasagoodground 5. Use theRx1scale on the ohmmeter for detecting an


connection. Mating surface for mounting must be openorground in thestator(unitnotrunning).
clean and fasteners tightened properly. Disconnect plug from the regulator-rectifier. Con-
nectoneohmmetertestleadtoastatorwire,
connecttheothertestleadtoground.Reading
6. Never reverse the battery leads. should show an open (no continuity).If it doesn’ t,
stator must be replaced. If reading shows no con-
tinuity connect one ohmmeter lead to each wire
When the engineis running between1800 to 2600 rpm, coming from the stator. Refer to Table 1 for resist-
observe the panel ammeter (if not already equipped, ance specifications.If resistance is not as specified,
connect a test ammeter). If no charging is evident, replace stator. If stator resistance readings are as
proceed with theAlternator Output Test. specified and windings are not shorted or open,
AC voltage maybe due toloss of magnetism. If so,
blower wheel assembly must be replaced.
TABLE 1. TESTING 20 AND 35 AMPERE SYSTEMS

STATOR
RESISTANCE
PROCEDURE Refer to Alternator
Output Test

0.06 to 0.10 Ohms

0.10 to 0.19 Ohms

13.6 to 14.7
VDC
Approximately
24
VAC 0.06 to 0.10 Ohms
TYPICAL WIRING DIAGRAM

STARTER
*AMMETER
(OPTIONAL)
ACCESSORIES

START

OIL PRESSURE
SWITCH N C

LOW PRESSURE WARNING


LIGHT OR HORN

WITH OIL PRESSURE SWITCH FOR LIGHT

& y e -

*FUSE

STARTER
*AMMETER

These typical wiring diagrams show the basic wiring necessary


for operation of the engine. Your engine may
differ in circuitry and features depending on how the equipment manufacturer chose to configure the final
product.
Starting System
ELECTRIC
STARTER 1. Remove both
battery
cables
from
battery.
Discon-
nect ground cable first.
Normally the starter will require little or no service other
thanpossiblebrushreplacementHowever, if through 2. Disconnectbatterycableand electrical leadwires
accident
or
misuse,
the
starter
requiresservice
or
from
starter.
overhaul,thefollowing will providetheinformation
necessary to perform this service. 3. Remove starter motor.

Starter Disassembly
Service
Whenstartingengine,notestartermotoraction.The 1. Remove “M” terminal nut andwire lead from
piniongearshouldmesh quickly with flywheel ring gearsolenoid(Figure 1).
andspinengine.Onceenginestartsandsolenoid
opens,thestartershoulddisengageandstop. Ifstarter 2. Removethe two solenoidmountingscrewsand
cranksengine slow,
or
not
at
all,
check
start circuit remove solenoid.
components. Failure to crankis normally causedby low
batterycharge,defectivebatterycables,corrodedor 3. Scribeamarkacrossframeandrearbrackettoaid
poorconnections,orlowtemperatures. If afterchecking in assembly.Removethe two throughbolts.
these variables, starter continues to crank slowly, starter
removed
must
berepaired.
and 4. Remove
bracket
rear
frame
and
assembly.

5. Carefullyremovearmatureand lever fromfront


Starter Removal bracket. Note direction of lever and retainer.

Accidentalstarting of the enginecan 6. Removethe two brushmountingscrews,and re-


personal
severe
cause injury or rear themove bracket
death. Disconnectthe battery cables when repairs are
made to the
engine,
controls, or housings. 7. Remove brush
holder
assembly
from
the
frame
by
pulling the brushesout

SOLENOID THROUGH

FRONT
BRACKET RETAINER ARMATURE

SCREW

FIGURE 1. STARTERMOTOR
8. Push stopper toward pinion and remove snap
ring
(Figure 2).

9. Removestopper and overrunning clutch from


armature shaft.
CLUTCH

\
STOPPER

ST
a=- SNAP RING I

4. Lubrication:When starter motor is assembled apply


FIGURE 2. REMOVINGOVERRUNlNG CLUTCH grease to each of the following points (Recom-
mended grade: Multitemp PSNo. 2):

Armature shaft spline


or worn parts.
10 Inspect starter for damaged Both bushings (Both endsof armature)
Stopper on armature shaft
11. Repair or replace all damaged or worn parts as Pinion gear
needed. Sliding portionof lever

5. Fit overrunning clutch into lever, and install with


Starter Assembly armature in the frontbracket
1. Installsealinnosehousing.Installoverrunning
clutch on the armature
shaft. 6. Installleverretainerandspacer.Positionframe
assembly over armature on the front bracket.

2. Slide stopper on the armature shaft. Position snap 7. Install brush holder assembly. Position brushes in
ring in groove in armature shaft. brush holder. Make certain positive lead wires are
not grounded.

3. Pull stopperall the way over snapring (Figure 3). It 8. Installwashers,asrequired,ontherearendof


may be necessary to tap snap
ring into groove with a armature shaft to obtain an armature shaft thrust
punch while maintaining tension
on stopper. gap of 0.002 to 0.02 inch (0.05 to 0.5 mm).New
washers are requiredif rear bracket is replaced.

Table 1. Starter Assembly Torques

Brush Retaining Screws


Through Bolts

9. Install rear bracket. Secure brush holder to rear


bracket withtwo machine screws.
10. Install and tighten the two through capscrews.

11. Install solenoid plunger


in lever. Secure solenoid to
front bracket with two machine screws. COMMUTATOR BARS

“M” on solenoid.
12. Install wire lead to the terminal

13. Afterassembly,adjust pinionclearance.Pinion


clearance should be 0.02to 0.08 inch (0.5 to 2.0 mm);
if not, check as follows (Figure
4):

A. Connect starter to a battery. Close switch. This


will shift pinion into cranking position.

B. Push pinion back by hand and measure pinion


clearance. If clearance does not fall within the
specified limits, adjust by adding or removing
ES-1001
shims located between solenoid and front
bracket Adding shims decreases clearance;
removing shims increases clearance. Shims are FIGURE 5. TESTINGARMATUREFORGROUNDS
included with replacement solenoid.
TestingArmature for an OpenCircuit: Using an
ohmmeter, check for continuity between the commutator
segments. If there is no continuity (high resistance), the
segments are open and armature must be replaced.

Testing Armaturetor a Short Circuit: Use a growler for


locating shorts 6). Place armature
in the armature (Figure
in growler and hold a thin steel blade (e.g. hacksaw
blade) parallel to the
core and just aboveit while slowly
PINION rotating armature in growler. A shorted armature will
cause the blade to vibrate and be attracted toIf the core.
armature is shorted, replace with a new one.

BATTERY

FIGURE 4. PINIONCLEARANCEADJUSTMENT

Inspection and Testing

Inspect the starter components for mechanical defects


before testing for grounds or shorts.

TestingAmature tor Grounds: Touch armature shaft


or
core and the end of each commutatorwithbar a pair
of
ohmmeter leads (Figure 5). A low ohmmeter reading ES-1002
indicatesagroundedarmature.Replacegrounded
armature. FIGURE 6. TESTINGARMATURE FOR SHORT CIRCUITS
Commutator Inspection:If commutator is dirty or dis- Overrunning Clutch:Inspect pinion and spline teeth for
colored,cleanwithnumber 00 to 000 commutator wear or damage.
paper. Blow grit out of armature after cleaning.

If pinion gear is worn or damaged, inspect flywheel ring


If commutator is scored, rough, or worn, turn
it down in a gear also. Rotate pinion.It should turn free when turned
lathe. in one direction, andlock when turned in the opposite
direction.
Field Coil: Use an ohmmeter to check for continuity
between brushes.If there is no continuity, the field
coil is Do not clean overrunning clutch in
open and must be replaced. With fieldcoil mounted in solvent or liquid cleaning solution.
the frame, check for continuity between coil the and
field Washing the clutch will causethe grease to leak out.
frame. Replace frame assemblyif there is continuity.

Solenoid: Push solenoid plungerin and release it. The


Brushes: Clean around brushes and holders, wipingoff plunger should return to its original position.While
all brush dust and dirt.
If brushes are worn shorter than holdingplunger all thewayin,checkforcontinuity
.4528 inch (11.5 mm) replace them (Figure7). between terminals“M”and “B’. If there is no continuity,
replace the solenoid (Figure
8). After replacing solenoid
check pinion clearance.

WEAR
LIMIT
ES-1345

FIGURE 7. BRUSH WEAR


FIGURE
LIMIT 8. SOLENOID
TERMINALS

Check for shorts between positive side of brush holder Bushings: If either the front or rear bushing show sign
and brush holder base. If there is continuity, replace of wear or damage, replace them. Bushing and rear
holder assembly. Check for free movement of brushes. bracket are replaced as an assembly. Check armature
All brushes should move freelyin the brush holders. shaft thrust gapif rear bracket is replaced.

Remove front bushing by tapping bushing from inside


with a 7/16 inch tap. Do not remove cap from front
bracket.Threadcapscrew,samesizeastap,into
bushing. Using a slide hammer remove bushing from
front bracket. Press new bushing into front bracket. Us
care not to distort inside diameter
of bushing.
Brush Replacement Cut oldpositivebrushfrompigtail Starter Mounting
at the brush.Be careful not to damage field coil. Clean
1/4 to 3/8 inch (6.5 to 9.5 mm) of brush end of pigtail
with sandpaper or emery cloth. (Figure9).
Before installing starter motor. make sure the starter
mounting Surface on the engine base is clean and free
of oil.

To installstarterusethefollowingprocedure.The
starter pinion gear lash does not require adjustment

PIGTAIL 1. Install starter motor and torque mounting capscrews


to that specifiedin ASSEMBLY TORQUES.
I
STILL ATTACHED
TO FIELD COIL inch)
2. Connect battery cable and wires to starter. Connect
battery) cables to battery. Connect groundlast
cable

-SOLDER MUST NOT


EXTEND BEYOND
BRUSHSURFACE
SMALL CHAMFER
REPLACEMENT
BRUSH

Push prepared end ofpigtail lead into holein replace-


ment brush from the small chamfered side. Solder pigtail
lead to replacement brush on the large chamfered side,
using 50/50 tin/lead, rosin core solder and a standard
240/325 Watt soldering iron.Use a file to remove any
excess solder that may extend beyond brush surface.

Pigtail lead must not protrude from


surfaceon the solderedside ofbrush.
To preventstiffeningofpigtailleaddonotuseexcessive
amount of solder and heat.
Engine Disassembly

DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY 1. Useproperbearingdriverto install frontmain


bearing after coatingit with alight film of oil.
Whencompleteenginedisassembly is necessary, first 2. Insertrearmainbearing in rearbearingplate.
remove all complete assemblies. Individual assemblies 3. Insertcrankshaft,rearbearingplate,andcrankshaft
such as fuelpumpandcarburetorcanbedisassembledgear.
and repaired at another time. 4. Install pistons and connecting rods.
5. Installcamshaftandgearassembly;aligncrank
gear mark with cam gear mark.
Suggested Disassembly Order
6. Installvalveassemblies, oil pump, oil base,and
cylinder heads.
1. Drain crankcase.
7. Install all accessories such asoil filter, starter, fuel
2. Disconnect all exhaust and electrical lines. lines and spark plugs.
3. Remove engine fromits mountings and place on a 8. Install gear cover with oil seal, trigger ring, and
suitable bench or work stand. flywheel.
4. Remove all housings, shrouds, blower housings, 9. Check valve clearance.
etc. 10. Install all housings and air cleaner.
5. Remove flywheel, using a puller. 11. Fill crankcase with oil.
6. Remove ignitiontriggerandgearcover,being
careful to protectoil seal from keyway damage.
Operation
7. Remove crank gear, using a gear puller and ring.
8. Remove all accessories such as oil filter, starter, Start engine and check oil pressure. Run for approx-
intake manifold, fuel lines, spark plugs, etc. imately 15 minutes to bring engine tooperating
9. Remove oil base, oil pump and cylinder heads. temperatures. Check foroil leaks, fuel leaks, and exhaust
leaks. Adjust carburetor and governor for speed and
10. Remove valves, springs,lifters, etc. sensitivity.
11. Remove camshaft and gear assembly.
12. Remove connecting rods and pistons.
Testing Compression
13. Remove rear bearing plate, crankshaft, and front
bearing. Thecompressiontester is used to determine the
condition of valves, pistons, piston rings and cylinders.
Keep all parts in their respective orders. Keep valve
assemblies together. Return rod caps to their respective To check compression:
pistons. Analyze the reasons for parts failure. 1. Run the engineuntil thoroughly warm.
2. Stop engine and remove spark plugs.
3. Remove air cleaner and place throttle and choke in
Suggested Assembly Procedure the wide open position.
4. Insert the compression gauge in one spark plug
Engine assembly is normally the reverse of the dis- hole.
assembly procedure, observing proper clearances and
5. Crank the engine and note the reading.
torques. Use a torque wrench to assure proper tightness.
Coatthe internal enginepartswith oil as theyare Refer toSPEClFlCATlONS for compression pressures.
assembled. After the internalengineparts are There may be variations due to equipment, temperatu
assembled, the engine should turn over by hand freely. atmospheric conditions and altitude. These pressures
Use only genuine Onan parts and special tools when are for a warm engine at cranking speed (about 300
reassembling your engine.
rpm).

10-1
Tappet Adjustment VALVE SYSTEM
The engine is equipped with adjustable valve tappets. A properly functioning valve system is essential for good
The valve tappet clearance should be checked and engine performance.All engines utilize an L-head type
adjustedasspecified in the PeriodicMaintenance valve design as shown in Figure 1. Access to the valve
Schedule (located in the Operator’s Manual). Adjust the system can be obtained by removing the cylinder heads
valve clearance only when engine is at ambient temper- and the valve covers on top of the engine.
A valve spring
ature. Proceed as follows: compressor must be used to remove valves from the
1. Remove ignition key to prevent accidental starting. cylinder block.
2. Remove all parts necessary to gain access to valve A valve stem seal is used on the intake valve guides.
tappets. Thissealmustbereplacedeachtimethevalve is
3. Remove spark plugs to ease the task turning
of the removed.
engine over by hand. Place valves, springs, retainers, and tappets in a rackas
they are removed from cylinder block so they can be
4. Place a socket wrench on the flywheel capscrew
identifiedandreinstalled in theiroriginallocations.
and rotate the crankshaftin a clockwise direction
Discard old valve stem seals and replace with new ones
until the left intake valve (viewed from flywheel end)
during assembly.
opens and closes. Continue turning the crankshaft
until the TC mark on the flywheel is lined up with the Use the following procedures to inspect and service the
TC mark on the gear cover. This should place the valve system.
left piston (#1) at the topitsofcompression stroke.
Verify that the left intake and exhaust valves are Inspection
closed and there is no pressure on the valve lifters. Clean carbon from the valves, valve seats, valve guides,
5. The correct feeler gauge for the valve adjustment and cylinder block.
(see S f EClFCATlONS)should pass freely between Valves: Check the valve face for evidence of burning,
valve cap (P216, P218, P220)or valve stem (P224) warpage, out-of-round, and carbon deposits.
and tappet; a 0.002 inch (0.05 mm) thicker gauge Burning and pitting are caused by the valvefailing to
should not (Figure 1). seattightly.This condition is oftencausedbyhard
6. To correct valve clearance, use a7/16 inch open carbon particleson the seat. It may also be due to weak
end wrench to turn the adjusting screw to obtain valve the springs, insufficent tappet clearance, warpage,
correct clearance. The screw is self-locking and and misalignment.
will stay where it isset. A 9/16 inch(14 mm) open
end wrench is required to hold the tappet while
turning the adjusting screw.
7. To adjust valves on the right hand cylinder, turn
engine one complete revolution and againline up
mark on the flywheel and the TC mark on the gear
cover. Then follow adjustment procedure given for
left hand cylinder.
8. Replace all parts removed in Step 2. Tighten all
screws securely. Torque manifold bolts to specified
torque. VALVE CLEARANCE

VALVE VALVE
VALVE STEM CLEARANCE VALVE STEM CLEARANCE

VALVE ADJUSTING

VALVESEAT VALVE VALVE VALVE VALVE SEAT VALVE VALVE VALVE RETAINER
INSERT GUIDE KEEPERS RETAINER GUIDE INSERT KEEPERS

VT-1035

FIGURE
1A.
INTAKE
VALVE
ASSEMBLY - P216,P218,P220FIGURE1B.INTAKEVALVEASSEMBLY - P224

10-2
Warpage occurs chiefly in the upper stem due to its Drivlng out old guides can damage
exposure to intense heat. Out-of-round wear follows thee guide or tappet bores. Be careful
when the seatis pounded bya valve whose headis not not tostrike guide bores with driveror allow guide to
in line with the
stem and guide. If a valve faceis burned strike tappet bores during removal.
or warped, orif the stem is worn, install a new valve.
Valve Guide Installation Run a small polishing rod
Too much clearance in the intake guide admits air and covered with crocus cloth through valve holesguideto
oil into the combustion chamber, upsetting carburetion, clean ,out carbon and other foreign materials. Place a
increasing oil consumption, and making heavy carbon new gasket on the intake valve guide, and coat the
deposits. Carbon reduces heat dissipation. Clean metal edge of each new guide with oil. Place inguide
cylinder
is a goodheatconductorbutcarboninsulatesand block and press in until guide protrudes 11/32 inch
retains heat This increases combustion chamber temper- (8.7 mm) from valve box side of block. A suggested
atures which causes warping and burning. method of installationis shown in Figure 3.

Unburned carbon residue gums valve stems and causes


them to stick in the guide. Deposits of hard carbon with
sharp points projecting become white hot and cause ROD
pre-ignition and pinging.

or burned on an
Refinish valves that are slightly pitted
If valves are badly
accurate valve grinder. pitted or have
a thin margin when refacing, replace them.

VALVE GUIDE

5/16-18 HEX,
(2 REQUIRED)
\
FIGURE 2. VALVE STEM AND VALVE GUIDEINSPECTiON

StemsandGuides: Always check valve stems and


guidesfor wear (Figure2).Use a hole gauge to measure
the valve guide. When clearance with stem exceeds that THREADED
ROD
specified in DIMENSIONS AND CLEARANCESreplace
either valve or guide or both, as may be necessary.
Always regrind seat to makeconcentric with the newly
installed guide.

Worn valve stem guides can be replaced from inside the W-1023
valve chamber (a seal is provided behind the intake
FIGURE 3. VALVE GUIDE INSTALLATION
valve guides only). The smaller diameter of the tapered
valve guides must face toward the valve head. Tappets
are also replaceable from the valve chamber after first Valve Stem Seals (intake only): Do not reuse valve stem
removing the valve assemblies. seals. Each time the valves are removed from cylinder
block, a new seal must be used when valve is reinstalled.
Valve Guide Removal: Before removing valve guides,
use anelectric drill with a wire brush to remove carbon not remove valveafter seal is
and other foreign material from top surface of guides. installed. valve
can be withdrawn
Failure to perform this operation may result in damage only as far as the groove in valve stem. Do not allow
to the guide bores. Drive the guides out with a hammervalve stemseal to come in contact with groove or seal
and valve guide drive. damage will result.

10-3
Valve Spring: Check valve springs for cracks, worn Valve Seat Removal: Remove carbon and combustion
ends, distortion, and tension.If spring ends are worn, depositsfromvalve seat Selectproperpullersize
check valve spring retainer for wear. Check for spring determined by inside diameter of valve seat On some
distortion by placing spring on a flat surface next to a pullers use a new seat as a guide to adjust puller depth
square. Measure height of spring and rotateit against (Figure 4). Puller jawsmust expandinto cylinder block
square edge to measure distortion. If distortion exceeds rests on
at the point where bottom of valve seat insert
0.06 inch (1.5 mm) replace spring. Check spring tension cylinder block. Position puller on valve seat and tighten
at theinstalledheight for both the valve open and closed hex nut Clamp cylinder block to a solid bench. Attach
position using an accurate valve spring tester. Replaceslide hammer to puller. Tightenhex nut between each
any valve spring is that
weak, cracked, worn, or distorted. blow with the slide hammer.
ValveRotators: The P216, P218, and P220 engines use
free-rotating intake and exhaust valves. while in the
open position, the valves must rotate freely.

The P224 engine uses positive type valve rotators on the


exhaust valves. When functioning properly, the valves
are rotated a fraction of a turn each time they open.
While in the open position, the valves must rotate freely.
There is no easy way to determine if a valve. rotatoris
VALVE SEAT
good or bad. Onan recommends that valve rotators be INSERT DRIVER
replaced at each major overhaul or if a build up of (USE PROPER TOOL)
carbon is noted on valve face and valve seat.

Valve Seats: Inspect valve seat inserts. If seats are


loose, cracked or severely pitted, new ones must be
installed. Remove valve seat inserts using a valve seat K THIS SURFACE
BURRS BEFORE
bores in cylinder block
removal tool.If valve seat insert VALVE
INSERTINGSEAT
are damaged or worn so that a press fit cannot be
obtained when installing new standard size valve seat
inserts, the bores must be machined for an oversize
seat
USE NEW VALVE SEAT TO
ADJUST PULLER DEPTH

FIGURE 5. INSERTING NEW VALVE SEAT

Valve Seat Installatlon: After the old seat has been


removed, clean outany carbonor metal burrs from the
seat insert recess. Use a valve seat insert driver and
hammer to install the insert (Figure5). Drive the valve
seat insert n
i so the insert enters the recess evenly.
Make certain that the valve seat insert rests solidly on
the bottom, of the recess all the way around its
circumference.

To assure a tight valve seat fit and eliminate the danger


of seatloosening in the bore, valve seat must be staked.

Insert valve: seat staker into valve seat ,or guide in


PULLER JAWS cylinder
lead
block.
Using
a hammer,staking
strike
the
tool a sharpblow to wedge new valve seat securely in
place. It will be necessary torefinish valve seat inserts
FIGURE 4. VALVE SEAT REMOVAL before
installing
valves.

10-4
TAPPETS Refinish valve facesto a 44° angle on avalve refacing
machine. The firstcut from valve face must be a light
Very little wear takes place on tappet diameters orin grinding. Checkif there is an unevenness of metal being
tappet bores. If the clearance between tappet and bore removed. If only part of valve's face has been touched,
in cylinder block exceeds specifications, replace the check to see if valve is properly seatedin machine orif
valve is warped, worn, or distorted. When cut is even
tappet.
around the whole valve face, keep grinding until com-
Inspect the tappet faces which contact camshaft
lobes plete face is ground clean. Be sure the correct valve
for roughness, scuffing, or concave wear. Replace any face angleis maintained. When valve head is warped, a
worn tappets. If tappets are worn, inspect camshaft for knife edge will be ground (Figure 7) on part orall of the
wear. head due to the large amount of metal that must be
removed to completely reface valve. Heavy valve heads
are required for strength and good heat dissipation.
Knife edges lead to breakage, burning, and pre-ignitio
due to heat localizing on the edge.
VALVE FACE AND SEAT GRINDING
Replace any valve that cannot be entirely refaced whi
Before installingnew valves or previously used valves, keeping a good valve margin (Figure7 ) or is warped,
inspect valve seats for proper valve seating. If used
worn, or damagedin any way. The amountof grinding
valves are reinstalled, the valve stemsbeshouldcleaned necessaryto true a valve indicate whether valve head
and valve faces ground to their specified angles 44°. of worn or warped.
Refinish valve seats to a 45° angle. When refacing
valves and seats, remove all evidence of pitting and
grooving. If end of valve stemis pitted or worn, true
it and
clean it up on the refacer wheel. A very light grind is
usually enough to square stem and remove any pits or WARPED
burrs. The valve guide should be thoroughly cleaned.If VALVE WITH
valve guideis worn, or valveis warped, the necessary EDGE
KNIFE
EDGE
KNIFE
parts must be replaced.

By grinding the valve face and seat at slightly different


angles,afine line of contactonfaceandseat is
obtained, eliminating the need tolap the seating sur-
GOOD MARGIN
faces. The one degree difference in angles is defined as
the interference angle (Figure 6). The seat angle is
greater than that of the valve face. This assures contact T
at the maximum diameter on valve seat seating surface.

FIGURE 7. VALVE HEAD MARGIN

When new valve seats are installed, or previously use


seats reground, refinishingmust be done with a valve
seat grinderusedaccordingtothemanufacturer's
directions.

Valve seats should be ground with a 45 degree stone


and the widthof the seat band should be 1/32 inch to
3/64 inch (0.8 to 1.2 mm) wide. Grind only enoughto
assure proper seating.

Place each valve in its proper location. Check each


valve for a tight seat. Make several marks at regular
intervals across the valve face using machinist's b
Observe if the marksrub off uniformly when the valveis
rotated part of a turn -against the
seat. The valve seat
shouldcontactthevalvefaceevenly at all points. The
FIGURE 6. VALVE
INTERFERENCE
ANGLE line of contactshouldbe atthecenterofthevalveface.

10-5
FLYWHEEL GEAR COVER
Removing the flywheel is a relatively simple process, but After removing the mounting screws, tap the gear cover
thefollowingprocedure must be followedtoavoid gently with asoft faced hammerto loosenit.
damage to the gear case and possible injury to the
operator. When installing the gear cover, make sure pin thein the
gear cover engages the nylon lined (smooth) in thehole
1. Turn the flywheel mounting screw outward about governor cup. Turn the governor so cup
the nylon lined
two turns. Use a small amount
hole is at the three o’clock position.
of grease to assistin holding governor cupin position.
DO not removethe screw com- The smooth side of the governor yoke must ride agains
pletelysinceitactsasarestrainer the governor cup. Turn the governor arm and shaft
when the flysheel snaps loose. If the flywheel is clockwise as far as possible and holdin this position
not held by the screw, the spring action in the until thegearcover is installedflushagainstthe
n
wheel will cause to fly off with greatforce which crankcase. Be careful notto damage the gear cover oil
can cause injury to the operator. s e a l (Figure 9).
2. Install a puler bar on the flywheel (Figure 8).

MOUNTING SCREW

ROTATE GOVERNOR
CUP SO PIN FITS
INTO THE METAL
BUSHING IN THE CUP
FIGURE BLOWER WHEEL PULLEY
I GOVERNOR CUP

GOVERNOR

3. Turn the puller bar b o l t s in, alternately, until the


wheel snapsloose on the shaft.

DO notuse a screwdriver or
similar tool or pry behind the
flywheel against the gear case. The gear case
cover is die-cast material andwill break if undue
pressure is applied in this manner.
IF FEELER
4. Unscrew the puller from the flywheel, remove the ENTER HOLE
BALL HAS
flywheel mounting screw and washer and pull the
flywheel off the shaft. Take care not to drop the
wheel. A bent or broken fin will destroy the balance. FIGURE 9. GEAR COVER ASSEMBLY
THE
DIMENSION S H O W N
O N DRAWING WILL
A S INDICATED

CENTER PIN

SNAP

GOVERNOR CUP BALL GOVERNOR BALL GOVERNOR

FIGURE GOVERNOR CUP DETAILS

GOVERNOR CUP TIMING GEARS

With the gear cover removed, the governor cup can be If replacement of either the crankshaft gear or the
taken off after removing the snap
ring from the camshaft camshaft gear becomes necessary, always install both
center pin. Catch the flyballs while sliding the
cup-off gears new.
(Figure 10).
The camshaft and gear be must
replaced as an assembly.
Replace with a new any partflyball which is grooved or Beforeremovingthecamshaftandgearassembly,
has a flat spot; theball spacer if its arms are worn or remove the cylinder head and valve assemblies.
otherwise damaged; thegear/spacer assembly if loose
on gear hub, and the governor cup if the race surface is To remove the crankshaft gear, first remove the snap
grooved or rough. The governor cup must be a free- ring and retainer washer, then attach the gear pulling
spinning fit on the camshaft center pin, but without any ring using two No. 10-32screws (Figure 11). Tighten
excessive play. the screws alternately until both aretight. Attach a gear
puller to the pullerring and proceed to remove the gear.
When installing the governor cup, tilt the engineso the
gear is up, put the flyballs in place (Figure 10), and Each timing gear is stamped“O” near the edge. The
with
install the cup and snap ring on the center pin. gearteethmustmesh so thatthesemarksexactly
coincide when the gears are installed in the engine.
The camshaft centerpin extends out3/4 inch (19 mm) When installing the camshaft gear and shaft assembly,
from the end of the camshaft. This distance provides an be sure the thrust washer is properly in place behind the
in-and-out travel distance of 7/32inch (5.6 mm) for the camshaftgear.Then install the crankshaft retaining
governor cup, as illustrated. Hold the cup against the washer and lock ring.
flyballs whenmeasuring.Thecamshaftcenterpin
cannot be pulled outward or removed without damage.
If the centerpin extends out too far,cup thewill not hold
the flyballs properly. If the distance less is than 7/32”
(5.6 mm), the engine will race, especially at no load.
Remove the centerpin and press in a new pin.
CRANKSHAFT
4. Turn the crankshaft until the piston is at the bottom
of itsstroke and remove the connecting rod nuts. Lift
the rod bearing cap from therod and push therod
GEAR PULLER and piston assembly out through the top of the
cylinder using hammer
a handle.Do not scratch the
crankpin andcylinderwallwhenremovingthe
piston androd.

5. Mark each piston androd assembly so they canbe


returnedto their respective cylinders after overhaul.
Keep connecting rod bearing caps with their
respectiverods.
6. Remove the piston rings from the piston with a
piston ring spreader (Figure 13). Remove the piston
pin retainer and push the piston
pin out
E MARKS
WHEN
ING TIMING
EARS

FIGURE 11. TIMING GEARREMOVALAND INSTALLATION

PISTONS AND CONNECTING RODS


Observethe following procedure when removing pistons
and connectingrods from the engine.
1. Drain oil.
2. Removethe cylinder head and oil base pan from the
engine.
3. Remove the ridge from the top of each cylinder with
a ridge reamer before attempting piston removal
(Figure 12).

Forcingthepistonfromthe
cylinder before reaming may
cause damage to the piston lands and
break rings.
FIGURE 13. REMOVING PISTON RINGS

7. Remove dirt and deposits from the piston surfaces


with an approved cleaning solvent Clean the piston
ring grooves with a groove cleaner or the end ofa
piston ring filed to a sharp point (Figure14). Care
must be taken not to remove metal from the groove
sides.

pistions. Therematerialswill causepiston damage.

8. Cleanthe connecting rodsin solvent. Blow outall


passages with compressed air.

P224
0.005 inch (0.13 mm)
Engines that have been filled with
oversize pistons at the factory are identified by the le
E after the serial number. Number is stamped on the
FIGURE 12. REMOVINGRIDGE FROM CYLINDER cylinder block and on the unit nameplate.

10-8
FIGURE 15. CHECKING RING SIDE CLEARANCE

have deep nicks, signs of fractures, scored bores,


bores with dimensions which exceed that specified
in DIMENSIONSAND CLEARANCES.

Measuring Pistons:

1. Proper piston tolerances must be maintained


for satisfactory operation.

k Refer to DIMENSIONS AND CLEARANCES to


determine where to measure piston be to sure
FIGURE 14. PISTON GROOVE CLEANING the total clearance follows specifications.

Follow the procedures given below when inspecting


pistons and connectingrods.

Piston Inspection:
1. Inspect the pistonsforfracturesat the ring
lands, skirts andpin bosses. Check for wear at
the ring lands using a new ring and feeler gauge
(Figure 15). Replace the piston when the
side clearance of the top compression ring
reaches that specified in DIMENSIONSAND
CLEARANCES.

2. Replacepistonsshowingsignsofscuffing,
scoring, worn ring lands, fracturesor damage
wear near the
from preignition. Excessive piston
edge of the topring land indicates preignition.

Connecting Rod Inspection:

Replace connecting rod bolts and nuts that have


damaged threads. Replace connecting rods that FIGURE 16. MEASURINGPISTONCLEARANCE

10-9
Measuring PistonRings:
1. Install the piston
ring in the cylinder bore. Invert After removing pistons, crankshaft, cylinder heads, etc.,
the piston and push the ring to the endof ring inspect block for cracks and wear. If block is still ser-
travel, about halfwayinto the bore, which trues viceable,
prepare it for
cleaning
as
follows:
the ring end gap. Check the gap with a feeler
gauge (Figure17). 1. Scrapeall old gasket material from block. Remove
oil by-'pass to allow cleaning solution to contact
2. The practice of filing ring ends to increase the inside of oil passages.
end gapis not recommended.If the ring end gap
does not meet specifications, check cor- for the 2. Remove grease and scale from cylinder block by
r e c t set of rings and the correct boresize. A agitating in a bath of commercial cleaning solution
cylinder bore that is 0.001 inch (0.03mm) under or hot soapy washing solution.
size will reduce the end gap 0.003 inch (0.08
mm). 3. Rinse block in clean hot waterto remove cleaning
solution.

When rebuilding the engine, thoroughly inspect block


for any condition that would itmake
unfit for further
use.
This inspectionmust be made afterall parts have been
removed and block has been thoroughly cleaned and
dried.

1. Make a
thorough check for cracks. Minute cracks
may be detected by coating the suspected area with
a mixture of 25 percent kerosene and 75 percent
light motor oil. Wipe the part dry and immediately
apply a coating of zinc oxide (white lead) dissolved
in wood alcohol. If cracks are present, the white
coating will become discolored at the defective
area. Always replace a cracked cylinder block.

2. Inspect all machined surfaces and threaded holes..


Carefully remove anynicks or burrs from machined
surfaces. Clean out tapped holes and clean up any
damaged threads.

3. Check topof block for flatness with a straight edge


and a feeler gauge.

Cylinder Bore Inspection: Inspect cylinder bores for


scuffing, scratches, wear, and scoring.
If cylinder bores
are scuffed, scratched, worn, or scored, they must be
rebored and honed for the next oversize piston.

FIGURE 17. POSITIONING OF PISTONRING When the appearance of cylinder bores is good and
AND MEASURINGOF END GAP there arenoscuff marks, check cylinder bore foror wear
out of roundness as follows:
CYLINDER BLOCK 1. Check cylinder bore for taper, out of round, and
wear with a cylinder bore gauge, telescopic gauge,
The cylinder block is the main support all
forother basic or inside micrometer. These measurements should
engineparts. Crankshaft and camshaft are supported by be taken at four places: top and bottom of piston r
the block, assuring alignment of the crankshaft and travel, parallel and perpendicular to axis of crank-
cylinder bores. shaft (Figure18).

10-10
2. Record measurements taken at top andbottom of
piston travel as follows:

A Measure and record as “ A the cylinder bore


diameter (parallel to crankshaft) near the top of
cylinder bore.
RING
B. Measureand record as “B’ cylinder bore WEAR
AREA
diameter (parallel to crankshaft) at the bottom of
piston travel.

C. Measureand record as “C” cylinder bore


diameter (perpendicular to crankshaft) near the
top of cylinder bore.
D. Measure and record as “D” cylinder bore
diameter (perpendicular to crankshaft) at the
bottom of piston travel.

E. Reading “A” subtracted from reading “B” and


reading “C” subtracted from reading “D” indi-
cates cylinder taper.

If cylinder taper exceeds that specified in


DIMENSIONS AND CLEARANCES rebore and
hone cylinder to the next oversize.

F. Reading “ A comparedtoreading “C“ and


reading “B” compared to reading “ D indicate
whether or not cylinderis out of round.
if out of
round exceeds that specified in DIMENSIONS
ANDCLEARANCES the cylinders must be
rebored and honed to the next oversize.

Reboring the Cylinder FIGURE 18. METHODS OF MEASURING THE DIAMETER


OF A CYLINDER BORE
Rebore and hone engine whenever cylinder bore is
worn,damaged,outofround, or if cylindertaper After boringtothe correct oversizecylinderbore
exceeds specifications. A worn cylinder bore should be dimensionpistonandringclearanceshouldbe
resized to the smallest standard oversize diameter at appropriate. There is no needto adjustor “fit” pistons
which it will-cleanup. Thefinal finish and bore diameters and rings.
should thenbe obtained by honing. Final bore diameter
shouldequalthestandarddiameteraddedtothe When reboringcylinders,takethefollowingpre-
oversize. cautions:

If boring bar is operated incorrectly, 1. Make sure cutting tool is properly ground before
it will produce a rough cylinder using it.
surface that may not clean up even when honed. Boring
should be done only by qualified service personnel 2. Be sure top of engine block is smooth and deposit
who are careful in their work. free.

10-11
3. Cleanbaseofboringbarbeforebar is setup. DeglazingCylinder Bores
Deposits under boring bar will cause toit tilt and the ifthere are noscuff marks
Deglaze the cylinder bores
cylinder will be distorted after boring. andnowear or out of round beyond specifications
before installing new rings. Deglazing gives a fine finish,
4. Make aninitial rough cut, followed by a finish cut. but doesnotenlarge cylinder diameter,so the original
Then hone cylinder bore to the specified oversize. pistons with new rings may still beused.

The reason for dealazing a cylinder is to provide cavities


Honing Cylinders (Using
Precision Hones) to
hold oil duringpiston
ring break-in.
Refer to hone manufacturer's recommended grit size to
produce specified surface finish of 20 to 40 RMS. Too 1. Wipe cylinder bores with a clean cloth which has
rough of a finish will wear out the rings and too smooth been dipped in clean, light engine oil.
of a-finish can retard piston ring seating.
2. Use a brushtype deglazing tool with coated bristle
1. Position block solidly for either vertical or horizontal tips to produce a crosshatch pattern in the cylinder
honing. Useeither a drill pressor
heavy-duty drill bore.
which operates at approximately 250 to 450 rpm.
3. Use a slow speed drill to drive the deglazing tool.
2. Follow hone manufacturer's instructions for the use Move deglazing tool up and down in cylinder (10 to
of oil or lubricanton stones. Do notuselubricants 12 completestrokes)rapidlyenoughtoobtaina
a with 19).

3. Insert hone in bore and adjust stones to fit snugly to


the narrowest section. When adjusted correctly, the
hone should not shake or chatter in cylinder bore,
but will drag freely up and down when hone is not
running.

Feel out bore for


4. Connect drill to hone and start drill.
high spots, whichcauseanincreaseddragon
stones. Move hone up and down in bore with short
overlappingstrokesabout 40 timesperminute.
Usually bottom of cylinder must be worked out first
because it is smaller. As cylinder takes a uniform
diameter,movehoneupanddown all theway
through cylinderbore.

5. Check diameter of the cylinder regularly during


honing. A dial bore gauge is the easiest method but PRODUCECROSSHATCHSCRATCHES AVOID THIS FINISH
FOR FAST RING SEATING
a telescoping gauge can be used. Check size at six
places in bore: measure twice at top, middle and
FIGURE 19. CROSSHATCHING
bottom at 90-degree angles.

6. Crosshatch formed by the stones should form an Never use gasoline or commer-
included angle of 23degrees.This can be achieved cial cleaners to clean cylinder
(250 to 450 rpm) up and
by moving the rotating hone bores after deglazing or honing. These solvents
down in cylinder bore about40 times per minute. will not remove abrasives from the walls. Abra-
sives not removedfrom engine will rapidly wear
7. Clean cylinder bores thoroughly with soap, water rings, cylinder walls, and bearing surfacesof all
andcleanrags. A cleanwhiteragshouldnot lubricated parts.
become soiled on wall after cleaning is complete.
Do not use a solvent
or gasoline since they washoil 4. Clean cylinder bore thoroughly with soap, water
from the walls but leave the metal particles. and clean rags. Continue cleaning until a clean
white rag shows nodiscoloring when wiped through
8. Dry crankcase and coatit with oil. cylinder 'bore.

10-12
CRANKSHAFT
Clean crankshaft thoroughly and inspect journals for
scoring, chipping, cracking, or signsof overheating. If
crankshaft has overheated, is scored, or excessively
worn, reconditioning or replacement will be required.
Examine bearing journals for cracks if overheating has
occurred.

Measure crankshaft main bearing and connecting rod


to check for
journals at several places on their diameter
roundness and taper.

The only recommended method of reconditioning the FRONT CAMSHAFT BEARING


crankshaft is regrinding, as requiredto accommodate
undersize bearings. Metalizing of bearing journals
is not
recommended.

If regrinding of crankshaft journals is necessary, the


work should be done by a reputable machine shop that
has suitable equipment to handle precision work of this PRESS BEARING
0.50 (12.7 mm)
type. Undersize main bearings and connecting rodsare
available.

Whenever making major repairs on the engine, always


inspect the drilled passages of the crankshaft. Clean
themtoremoveanyforeignmaterialandtoassure
proper lubrication of the connecting rods.

BEARINGS REAR CAMSHAFT BEARING


With camshaft and crankshaft removed, use a micro- FIGURE 20. CAMSHAFT BEARINGS
meter to measure diameter of bearing journals. Use a
dial bore gauge or a telescopic gauge and micrometer
to measureinsidediameterofbearings.Refer to
DIMENSION AND CLEARANCESto determineif clear- New crankshaft main bearings are precision type whic
ances are within specifications. do not require line reaming or line boring after instal-
lation.Useapressorasuitabledriver to remove
Any bearingthatisscored:chipped,pittedorworn bearings. Support casting to avoid distortion and to
beyond the specified limits must be replaced. avoid damaging the bearing bore during removal and
installation.
Removal of the camshaft bearings requires complete
disassembly of the engine. Use a press or a suitable Before installing main bearings, expand bearing by bore
driver to remove bearings. Support casting to avoid placing the casting in an oven heated to 200°F (94°C). If
distortionandtoavoiddamagingthebearingbore practical, cool the precision bearing to shrink it.
during removal and installation.
Before installing the front main bearing, use the tow
Replacementcamshaftbearingsareprecisiontype included with the bearing kit to clean the outside of the
which do not require line reamingor line boring after bearing and bearing bore in the block.
installation. Clean outside of the bearing and bearing
bore in the block. Before installing cam bearings use Breathing vapor from towelette and
Locktite Bearing Mount on outside diameter of bearing. prolonged contact with skin can be
Use a combination bearing driver to install bearings. harmful. Be sure area is well ventilated.
Place the bearing on the crankcase over the bearing Afterallowing three to four minutes for drying, apply
bore with the lubricating hole (front only)in the proper the Locktite from the small tube to the matingofsurface
position. Be sure to start the bearing straight. Pressin the bearing and the bearing bore. Align oil theholes in
thefrontbearingflushwiththeoutsideend ofthe thebearingwiththe oil holesinthebearingbore
bearing bore. Front cam bearingoil hole must line up (Figure 22). The oil passage should be at least half open.
with oiling hole in cylinder block (Figure 20). Press in Installthebearingflushwiththeblock,usingthe
therearcamshaftbearing to thedimensionshown combination driver. Wipe off excess Locktite around the
(Figure 20). Lubricate bearing surfaces with oil after bearing. Allow at least one hour for hardening at room
installing. temperature.

10-13
In the rear bearing plate, install the bearing flush to
1/ 6 4 inch (0.40 mm) below theend of the bore. Be sure
to align the oil holes in the bearing with the oil holes in
the bearing bore (Figure 21). The oil passage must be at
least halfopen. Lubricate bearing after installation.

If head of lockpin isdamaged, use side cutters or Easy


Out tool to remove and install new pin. Oil grooves in
thrust washers must face the crankshaft, and washers
must be flat (not bent). The two on each washer
notches
must fit over thetwo lock pins to prevent riding on the
crankshaft (Figure21).
Lubricate the front main bearing lightly with oil and
insert the crankshaft. With the rear bearing plate gasket
in place and the rear plate bearing lubricated, slide the
thrust washer (grooves toward crankshaft) and plate
over the end of the crankshaft.A light filmof oil on the
thrustwashermay hold it in placewhileinstalling
bearing plate over crankshaft.Lineup notches of thrust
washer with lock pins before tightening end plate or
FIGURE 21. BEARINGS FOR REAR BEARING PLATE lock pinswill be damaged.

Engines shippedfrom the factory have separate thrust


washers and main bearingsfor both front andrear of CRANKSHAFTENDPLAY
engine. Front bearing replacement part
is a one piece
bearing(withattachedthrustwasher)asshown in After the rear bearing end' plate has been tightened,
Figure 22. Do not add an additional thrust washer
to this using the torque recommended in ASSEMBLY TORQUES
front bearing. AND SPECIAL TOOLS, check the crankshaft endplay
(Figure 23). If there is toomuchendplay (see DI-
MENSIONS ANDCLEARANCES for minimum and
maximum endplay), remove the rear bearing end plate
and add a Shim (Figure21) between the thrust washer
FROM MAIN and plate. Reinstall the end plate, making sure the thrus
washer and shim- notches line up with the lock pins.
Torque and recheck endplay of the crankshaft.

FIGURE 23. CRANKSHAFT ENDPLAY


I
CHECKING CONNECTINGROD BEARING
CLEARANCE WITH PLASTIGAUGE

1. Make certain that all parts are marked or identified


so they are installed in their original positions. Using
a clean dry cloth, thoroughly clean all oil from
crankshaft journal and connecting rod. If connecting
rod bearing inserts are being replaced (P224 only),
install them in rod and cap.

2. Place a piece of correct size Plastigauge in the


bearing cap the full width of the journal surface and
about 1/4 inch (6.35mm) off center (Figure24).

3. Rotate the crankshaft about


30degrees from bottom
dead center and reinstall the bearingcap; tighten
rod bolts to the torque specified in ASSEMBLY
TORQUES AND SPECIAL TOOLS. Do not turn the
crankshaft.

will
4. Remove bearing cap. The flattened Plastigauge
be
found
adhering
to
either
the
bearing
cap or FIGURE 24. MEASURING
BEARING
CLEARANCE
crankshaft.
OIL SEALS
5. Compare flattened Plastigauge with the graduations
on Plastigauge envelope to determine clearance.
The bearing plate mustbe removed to replace theoil
The number within the matching graduation on the seal (Figure 25). Drive the oil seal out from the inside.
in millimetersor
envelope indicates total clearance
thousandths
inch.
anof Before
installing seals,fill the space
between lips with
a
multi-purpose grease. Thiswill improve sealing.

When, installing thegear cover oil seal, tap the s e a l


inward until it is .645 inch (16.4 mm) from the front of the
gear cover.

When installing the bearing plate oil s e a l , tap the s e a l


into thebearingplatebore to bottomagainstthe
shoulder in the plate bore. Use a seal expander or place
a piece of heavy paper around the end of the cranksha
when replacing the bearing plate to avoid damaging
seal. Removethe paperas soon as the plateis inplace.

REAR BEARING PLATE

MOUNTING FACE SURFACE SHOULD BE


OF GEAR COVER CLEANED OF ALL OLD
SEALING COMPOUND
BEFORE INSTALLING

OR PRESS
SEAL TO SHOULDER
OF THE PLATE BORE
GEAR COVER SURFACE
SHOULD BE CLEANED OF ALL
GEAR COVER' OLD SEALING COMPOUND
BEFORE INSTALLING SEAL

GEAR COVER OIL SEAL REAR BEARING PLATE


OIL SEAL

FIGURE 25. GEARCOVERAND REAR BEARING PLATE OIL SEALS

10-15
PISTON ASSEMBLY P216, P216, P220
Install one fastener and tighten to 5 ft-lbs (7 Nm).
1. Lubricate all parts with engine oil. Repeat this for the other fastener. Tighten both
fasteners down to the torque specified in ASSEMBLY
2. Position piston on its respective rod and install the TORQUES.
pin.
P224
3. Install the rings on the pistons starting with the oil Install and tighten the nuts evenly in steps, to the
control ring (Figure 26). Use a piston ring spreader torque specified in ASSEMBLY TORQUES.
to prevent twisting or excessive expansion of the
ring. Compression rings have a dot or the word OIL HOLE * OR
“top” on one side of the ring to indicate w,hich side
faces the top of the piston. Unmarked piston rings
can be installed either way. The oil control ring has
an expander; install the expander first and then
close until the expander ends butt. The joint should
be 160 degrees from the gap of that ring.

* OIL HOLE NOT USED, LATER PRODUCTION CT-la7

COMPRESSION RINGS P216, P212, P222 CDNNECTING ROD P224 CONNECTIND ROD

OIL RING

\
EXPANDER

CT-1047

FIGURE 26. PISTONRINGS

INSTALLATION OF PISTON IN CYLINDER

1. Turn the crankshaft to position the number one rod CT-loa


bearing journal at the bottom of its stroke.
FIGURE 27. INSTALLING PISTON AND
CONNECTING ROD
2. Lubricate the number one piston assembly and
inside of the cylinder. Compress the rings with a ring
compressor (Figure 27). 5. Install the remaining piston and rod in the same
manner. Crank the engine over by hand to see that
3. Position the piston and rod assembly in the cylinder all bearings are free.
block. Oil squirt hole of connecting rod must face
camshaft. 6. Install the oil base with a new gasket.

4. Tap the piston down into the bore with the handle 7. Install the cylinder heads. See Cylinder Headsection
end of a hammer until the connecting rod is seated for torques and torquing procedure.
on the journal (Figure 27). Install the bearing cap on
the rod. 6. Replace oil and break in engine.

lo-16
CYLINDER HEADS 3. Use
new
head
gaskets
and
clean
both
heads
the
and the cylinder block thoroughly where the head
Removethe cylinder headsfor
carboncleaning
andgaskets
rest.
gasket change at intervals specified in the Periodic
MaintenanceSchedule (located in theOperator's
Manual).

1. Use a 1/2 inch (13 mm) socket wrench to remove P216, P218, P220 Installation
cylinder headbolts or nuts. Lift headsoff.
1. Place a head gasket on the cylinder block and alig
the holesin the gasket with the holes
in the cylinder
block While holding the gasket against the cylinde
head,carefullyinstallthecylinderheadonthe
(37°C) beforeremoval. At temperatures above engine. Do notattempttoslidethehead bolts
100° F (37° C), the gasket will become gummy a d through the gasket without the cylinder block behind
difficult to remove from the surface of the block it or the gasket may tear.
a d cylinder head.
2. Follow the head torque sequence shown in Figure
2. After removing heads, clean alloutcarbon deposits. 28. Tighten all bolts to 5 ft-lbs (7 Nm), then10 ft-lbs
Be careful not todamage the outer sealing edges (14 Nm), then to the torque specified in ASSEMBLY
where gaskets fit. The heads are made of aluminum TORQUES. Recheck all head bolts forcorrect
and canbe damaged by careless handling. torque.

NO. 1 CYLINDER(LH) NO. 2 CYLINDER (RH)

FIGURE 28. CYLINDER HEAD TORQUESEQUENCE

10-17
P224 Installation

1. Place a head gasket on the cylinder head and alignengine damage.


the stud holes in the gasket with the instud the holes
cylinder head. While holding the gasket against the3. Follow the head torque sequence shown in Fig-
cylinder head, carefully install the cylinder head on ure 30. Tighten all nuts to 5 ft-lbs (7 Nm),then
the engine. Do not attempt to slide the gasket over 10 ft-lbs (14 Nm), then to the torque specified in
the studs without the cylinder head behindit or the ASSEMBLY TORQUES. Recheckall nuts for correct
gasket may tear. torque.

washer, two compression washers, and


2. Install a flat
nut on each of the topsix studs (Figure29 for cor-
rect sequence). When properly installed, only the
outside edges of the compression washers will be in
contact with eachother. Install a flat
washer and nut
on eachof the four bottom studs.

HEAT TREATED
NUTS

COMPRESSION
WASHERS

NO. 1 CYLINDER NO. 2 CYLINDER

6 LONG STUDS/HEAD 4 SHORT STUDS/HEAD FIGURE 30. CYLINDER HEAD TORQUE


SEQUENCE

4. Recheck torque when the engine has run aof total


FIGURE 29. CYLINDER HEAD WITH COMPRESSIONWASHERS 50 hours.

10-18
Product information andspecificationsare
shown herein as of thetime of printing.
I Wheel Horse Products, Inc. reserves the
right to change productspecifications.
designs and standard equipment without
noticeand without incurring obligation.