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Properties Acetal (POM) Copoly Acetal (POM) Homopoly

Specific Gravity (g/cm³) 1.37 to 1.43 1.33 to 4.84

Melt Mass Flow Rate (g/10 min) 1.5 to 27 --

Flexural Modulus (psi) 272000 to 428000 359000 to 458000


(ratio of stress to strain)

Flexural Modulus (MPa) 1880 to 2950 2480 to 3160


(ratio of stress to strain)

Tensile Strength (psi) 6160 to 9460 7620 to 10700

Tensile Strength (MPa) 42.5 to 65.2 52.5 to 73.5

Tensile Elongation (%) 1.0 to 200 3.0 to 71

Rockwell Hardness 80 to 117 93 to 120

Notched Izod Impact (ft·lb/in) 0.738 to 1.70 0.694 to 2.39

Notched Izod Impact (J/m) 39.4 to 90.5 37.0 to 128

DTUL at 66 psi (0.45 MPa) (°F)


(deflection 309 to 323 320 to 342
temperature under
load - HDT)
DTUL at 66 psi (0.45 MPa) (°C)
(deflection 154 to 162 160 to 172
temperature under
load - HDT)

DTUL at 264 psi (1.8 MPa) (°F)


(deflection 210 to 234 196 to 277
temperature under
load - HDT)
DTUL at 264 psi (1.8 MPa) (°C)
(deflection 98.9 to 112 91.0 to 136
temperature under
load - HDT)
CLTE, Flow (in/in/°F)
Coefficients of Linear Thermal 5.6E-6 to 0.14 0.000055 to 0.000067
Expansion

CLTE, Flow (cm/cm/°C)


Coefficients of Linear Thermal 0.000010 to 0.25 0.000100 to 0.00012
Expansion

Mold Shrinkage, Flow (in/in) or (mm/mm) 0.018 to 0.023 0.019 to 0.020

Melt Mass Flow Rate (g/10 min) 1.5 to 27 --

Drying Temperature (°F) 174 to 250 174 to 186

Drying Temperature (°C) 78.9 to 121 78.9 to 85.3

Drying Time (hr) 2.0 to 4.5 1.9 to 3.5

Suggested Max Moisture (%) 0.15 to 0.20 0.2

Suggested Max Regrind (%) 20 to 25 20 to 25

Injection Pressure (psi) 7550 to 15700 12000 to 15600

Injection Pressure (MPa) 52.0 to 108 82.7 to 108

Rear Temperature (°F) 336 to 401 372 to 391

Rear Temperature (°C) 169 to 205 189 to 199

Middle Temperature (°F) 372 to 401 371 to 388

Middle Temperature (°C) 189 to 205 188 to 198

Front Temperature (°F) 369 to 402 371 to 401

Front Temperature (°C) 187 to 206 188 to 205


Nozzle Temperature (°F) 369 to 405 400 to 405

Nozzle Temperature (°C) 187 to 207 205 to 207

Processing (Melt) Temp (°F) 373 to 412 390 to 420

Processing (Melt) Temp (°C) 189 to 211 199 to 216

Mold Temperature (°F) 120 to 204 117 to 201

Mold Temperature (°C) 48.9 to 95.8 47.2 to 93.9


Acrylic (PMMA) Acrylic (SMMA) Acrylic, Unspecified PMMA+PVC

1.15 to 1.19 1.04 to 1.09 1.11 to 1.19 1.34 to 1.35

0.30 to 4.6 0.40 to 9.1 -- 34

162000 to 500000 285000 to 493000 210000 to 500000 293000 to 372000

1120 to 3450 1960 to 3400 1450 to 3450 2020 to 2560

5310 to 11800 4000 to 9290 3800 to 10200 5740 to 6160

36.6 to 81.1 27.6 to 64.0 26.2 to 70.3 39.6 to 42.5

0.0 to 7.3 2.0 to 59 2.7 to 250 55 to 170

44 to 102 61 to 86 74 to 123 87 to 111

0.200 to 1.16 0.340 to 3.00 0.397 to 0.455 0.600 to 18.0

10.7 to 61.9 18.1 to 160 21.2 to 24.3 32.0 to 961

176 to 218 188 167 to 203 162 to 178

80.0 to 103 86.7 75.0 to 95.0 72.2 to 81.1

170 to 219 187 to 201 153 to 221 151 to 174

76.5 to 104 86.2 to 94.1 67.2 to 105 65.9 to 79.1


0.000025 to 0.000061 -- 0.000034 to 0.000059 0

0.000045 to 0.00011 -- 0.000062 to 0.00011 0

0.0035 to 0.0060 0.0039 to 0.0040 0.0040 to 0.0059 0.0030 to 0.0050

0.30 to 4.6 0.40 to 9.1 -- 34

171 to 185 149 to 180 200 130 to 145

77.0 to 85.0 65.0 to 82.2 93.3 54.4 to 62.8

2.5 to 5.0 2.0 to 2.1 4 4

0.097 to 0.30 -- -- --

25 -- -- --

10500 to 16000 15000 12500 --

72.4 to 110 103 86.2 --

378 to 491 384 to 391 -- --

192 to 255 195 to 199 -- --

427 to 476 395 to 420 -- 350

220 to 247 201 to 216 -- 177

438 to 474 404 to 441 -- 350

226 to 246 207 to 227 -- 177


429 to 476 380 to 440 -- --

220 to 247 193 to 227 -- --

435 to 475 429 to 441 393 395 to 400

224 to 246 221 to 227 200 202 to 204

140 to 171 104 to 116 200 115

59.9 to 77.1 40.2 to 46.5 93.3 46.1


PC PC Alloy PC+Acrylic PC+PBT

1.20E-6 to 30.0 1.14 to 1.22 1.15 1.18 to 1.24

3.0 to 27 1.3 to 36 1.5 to 15 6.2 to 26

276000 to 386000 281000 to 362000 280000 to 361000 210000 to 390000

1900 to 2660 1940 to 2490 1930 to 2490 1450 to 2690

7610 to 10200 7150 to 9040 6000 to 9100 5480 to 8850

52.5 to 70.0 49.3 to 62.3 41.4 to 62.7 37.7 to 61.0

0.0 to 120 1.7 to 94 3.7 to 11 1.5 to 150

70 to 121 117 to 121 44 to 46 89 to 119

0.00 to 18.0 1.45 to 15.0 3.27 to 30.0 0.618 to 16.5

0.00 to 961 77.3 to 801 175 to 1600 33.0 to 880

269 to 290 254 to 280 215 to 253 213 to 260

132 to 143 123 to 138 102 to 123 101 to 127

243 to 285 177 to 265 209 to 216 137 to 225

117 to 140 80.6 to 129 98.2 to 102 58.1 to 107


0.000029 to 0.000049 0.000035 to 0.000039 0 1.7E-6 to 1.0

0.000052 to 0.000087 0.000063 to 0.000070 0 3.0E-6 to 1.9

0.00060 to 0.16 0.0060 to 0.0061 0.0059 to 0.0071 0.0047 to 0.010

3.0 to 27 1.3 to 36 1.5 to 15 6.2 to 26

216 to 263 224 to 248 180 to 182 201 to 232

102 to 128 107 to 120 82.2 to 83.2 93.8 to 111

2.8 to 4.3 3.5 to 6.0 3.5 to 4.5 2.0 to 5.1

0.019 to 0.020 0.0100 to 0.020 -- 0.020 to 0.022

20 20 -- 5 to 25

1300 to 20400 12500 to 15000 9000 to 10100 9430 to 15000

8.96 to 140 86.2 to 103 62.1 to 69.3 65.0 to 103

485 to 576 481 to 508 418 to 421 463 to 493

252 to 302 249 to 264 215 to 216 239 to 256

517 to 593 482 to 520 464 to 465 483 to 502

269 to 312 250 to 271 240 to 241 251 to 261

539 to 611 491 to 536 485 to 486 499 to 512

282 to 321 255 to 280 252 260 to 267


532 to 606 544 to 545 484 to 485 484 to 506

278 to 319 284 to 285 251 to 252 251 to 263

540 to 586 499 to 522 440 to 487 494 to 517

282 to 308 259 to 272 227 to 253 257 to 270

175 to 215 138 to 172 120 to 180 157 to 221

79.7 to 102 59.0 to 77.5 48.9 to 82.2 69.3 to 105


PC+PET PC+Polyester PC+PPC PC+TPU

1.19 to 1.22 1.19 to 1.20 1.2 1.20 to 1.22

8.0 to 35 3.0 to 22 5.6 to 30 9.2 to 21

266000 to 353000 231000 to 336000 307000 to 334000 3900 to 151000

1830 to 2440 1600 to 2310 2120 to 2300 26.9 to 1040

6420 to 8170 6460 to 9020 8680 to 10200 1640 to 6050

44.2 to 56.3 44.5 to 62.2 59.8 to 70.0 11.3 to 41.7

3.0 to 54 2.0 to 150 6.0 to 86 120 to 180

115 to 121 114 to 118 85 to 122 --

0.937 to 18.1 0.0937 to 21.0 2.25 to 11.2 1.00 to 18.0

50.0 to 966 5.00 to 1120 120 to 600 53.4 to 961

238 to 278 172 to 257 298 to 300 207 to 229

115 to 137 77.9 to 125 148 to 149 97.3 to 109

189 to 251 165 to 236 257 to 288 138 to 167

87.0 to 122 73.8 to 113 125 to 142 59.0 to 75.3


0.000024 to 0.000047 0.000032 to 0.000064 0.000033 to 0.86 0.000050 to 0.000089

0.000043 to 0.000084 0.000058 to 0.00011 0.000060 to 1.5 0.000090 to 0.00016

0.0049 to 0.0091 0.0050 to 0.0076 0.01 0.0078 to 0.012

8.0 to 35 3.0 to 22 5.6 to 30 9.2 to 21

207 to 244 159 to 192 248 to 250 200 to 220

97.0 to 118 70.8 to 88.9 120 to 121 93.3 to 105

3.0 to 8.7 4.0 to 4.1 3.0 to 3.5 0.033 to 2.0

0.019 to 0.020 0.02 0.02 0.03

20 -- -- 20

14900 to 15100 15000 -- 9500 to 10500

103 to 104 103 -- 65.5 to 72.4

477 to 506 469 to 485 545 to 570 375 to 440

247 to 264 243 to 252 285 to 299 191 to 227

486 to 514 479 to 545 563 to 590 380 to 450

252 to 268 248 to 285 295 to 310 193 to 232

488 to 522 488 to 501 581 to 610 385 to 450

253 to 272 253 to 260 305 to 321 196 to 232


491 to 515 488 to 501 563 to 600 393 to 463

255 to 268 253 to 260 295 to 316 200 to 239

513 to 520 488 to 516 581 to 610 393 to 465

267 to 271 253 to 269 305 to 321 200 to 241

175 to 177 123 to 125 210 to 230 84.9 to 95.0

79.2 to 80.4 50.6 to 51.8 98.9 to 110 29.4 to 35.0


PPC Nylon 11 Nylon 12 Nylon 12 Elast

1.2 1.03 to 1.04 0.978 to 1.23 1.01 to 1.02

2.0 to 3.0 -- -- 7.0 to 20

294000 to 341000 41800 to 200000 16000 to 334000 17600 to 47400

2030 to 2350 288 to 1380 110 to 2310 121 to 327

9280 to 11300 5740 to 10000 2610 to 9090 1160 to 7040

64.0 to 78.0 39.6 to 69.0 18.0 to 62.7 8.00 to 48.6

6.0 to 120 5.0 to 58 0.40 to 210 17 to 400

85 to 127 78 to 108 79 to 115 --

1.57 to 12.0 0.300 to 7.65 0.206 to 10.1 1.78 to 1.85

84.0 to 641 16.0 to 408 11.0 to 540 94.9 to 98.5

329 290 to 305 175 to 380 124 to 240

165 144 to 152 79.2 to 193 51.0 to 116

270 to 302 112 to 130 104 to 138 113 to 114

132 to 150 44.7 to 54.6 40.0 to 58.8 45.0 to 45.3


0.000033 to 0.000051 0.000047 to 0.000071 4.2E-6 to 0.00013 0.000050 to 0.00013

0.000060 to 0.000092 0.000085 to 0.00013 7.5E-6 to 0.00023 0.000090 to 0.00023

0.0075 to 0.0090 0.012 to 0.015 0.0047 to 0.019 0.0040 to 0.0085

2.0 to 3.0 -- -- 7.0 to 20

250 to 266 175 to 176 175 to 212 179 to 230

121 to 130 79.4 to 80.0 79.4 to 100 81.5 to 110

3.5 3.9 to 12 3.0 to 10 3.5 to 4.1

0.02 0.1 0.020 to 0.50 0.030 to 0.10

-- 20 20 --

-- 12400 to 12500 12400 to 12700 --

-- 85.3 to 86.2 85.7 to 87.5 --

590 to 640 390 to 480 425 to 465 356 to 410

310 to 338 199 to 249 218 to 241 180 to 210

608 to 660 410 to 480 426 to 475 374 to 428

320 to 349 210 to 249 219 to 246 190 to 220

626 to 680 430 to 480 425 to 484 383 to 437

330 to 360 221 to 249 218 to 251 195 to 225


626 to 670 430 442 to 477 383 to 428

330 to 354 221 228 to 247 195 to 220

649 to 680 493 452 to 527 390 to 455

343 to 360 256 233 to 275 199 to 235

210 to 235 125 100 to 188 68.0 to 87.8

98.9 to 113 51.6 to 51.7 38.0 to 86.5 20.0 to 31.0


Nylon 46 Nylon 6 Nylon 6 Alloy Nylon 6 Elast

1.17 to 1.19 0.920 to 1.17 1.03 to 1.14 1.01 to 1.18

-- -- -- 6.0 to 7.0

50800 to 490000 290 to 453000 13000 to 430000 10000 to 508000

350 to 3380 2.00 to 3130 89.6 to 2960 69.0 to 3500

5550 to 14600 2980 to 13300 3140 to 12400 870 to 12600

38.3 to 101 20.6 to 91.7 21.6 to 85.5 6.00 to 86.6

0.56 to 53 -1.0 to 74 4.0 to 64 20 to 270

90 to 100 101 to 123 -- 74 to 120

0.750 to 1.59 0.300 to 11.2 1.00 to 1.38 5.60 to 10.4

40.0 to 85.1 16.0 to 596 53.4 to 73.4 299 to 555

429 to 556 295 to 420 140 to 374 102 to 374

220 to 291 146 to 216 60.0 to 190 39.0 to 190

318 to 380 119 to 178 122 to 167 95.0 to 212

159 to 193 48.3 to 81.4 50.0 to 75.0 35.0 to 100


0.000038 to 0.000050 5.6E-6 to 0.00011 0.000052 to 0.000094 0.000088 to 0.000090

0.000068 to 0.000090 0.000010 to 0.00020 0.000093 to 0.00017 0

0.0033 to 0.083 0.000100 to 0.044 0.0080 to 0.012 0.0030 to 0.022

-- -- -- 6.0 to 7.0

193 to 219 173 to 180 160 176

89.6 to 104 78.5 to 82.3 71.1 80

4.0 to 12 1.9 to 5.1 5 8

0.050 to 0.053 0.095 to 0.20 -- 0.1

20 19 to 26 -- --

9430 to 12700 1000 to 16400 -- 5080 to 9430

65.0 to 87.5 6.89 to 113 -- 35.0 to 65.0

572 to 573 436 to 506 430 --

300 to 301 224 to 264 221 --

585 to 591 442 to 490 445 --

307 to 310 228 to 254 229 --

590 to 596 443 to 513 465 --

310 to 313 228 to 267 241 --


554 to 608 423 to 514 485 --

290 to 320 217 to 268 252 --

590 to 595 360 to 597 480 419 to 595

310 to 313 182 to 314 249 215 to 313

212 to 238 138 to 177 95 122 to 194

99.8 to 114 58.7 to 80.3 35 50.0 to 90.0


Nylon 6/3T Nylon 6/6T Nylon 6+ABS Nylon 610

1.12 1.16 1.06 to 1.08 1.07 to 1.17

-- -- 6.0 to 7.0 --

-- 421000 145000 to 315000 180000 to 315000

-- 2900 1000 to 2170 1240 to 2170

13000 to 13100 13100 to 14500 4330 to 6620 5780 to 9020

89.8 to 90.0 90.0 to 100.0 29.9 to 45.6 39.9 to 62.2

7.4 to 51 8.0 to 12 3.2 to 100 3.3 to 300

-- -- 90 to 105 90 to 116

-- -- 0.182 to 15.0 0.700 to 3.81

-- -- 9.70 to 801 37.4 to 203

282 to 285 -- 190 to 387 318 to 356

139 to 140 -- 87.8 to 197 159 to 180

246 to 249 212 145 to 305 134 to 156

119 to 120 100 62.5 to 152 56.9 to 68.7


0 0 0.000055 to 0.000056 0.000044 to 0.000067

0.000050 to 0.000051 0 0.000100 to 0.00010 0.000079 to 0.00012

0.0045 to 0.0046 0.01 0.0079 to 0.010 0.0030 to 0.020

-- -- 6.0 to 7.0 --

-- -- 176 to 178 175 to 180

-- -- 79.9 to 81.3 79.4 to 82.2

-- -- 3.0 to 3.5 2.0 to 4.0

-- -- 0.2 0.020 to 0.20

-- -- -- --

-- -- 900 1250 to 14000

-- -- 6.21 8.62 to 96.5

-- -- 490 to 491 420 to 451

-- -- 254 to 255 216 to 233

-- -- 508 to 509 430 to 471

-- -- 264 to 265 221 to 244

-- -- 473 to 527 440 to 490

-- -- 245 to 275 227 to 254


-- -- 473 480 to 490

-- -- 245 249 to 255

-- 617 446 to 505 480 to 550

-- 325 230 to 263 249 to 288

-- 176 131 to 158 125 to 190

-- 80 55.0 to 70.0 51.7 to 87.8


Nylon 612 Nylon 66 Nylon 66 Alloy Nylon 66/6 Nylon 6T

1.01 to 1.35 0.390 to 4.11 1.13 to 1.14 1.10 to 1.14 --

-- 10 -- -- --

43500 to 409000 85300 to 510000 399000 to 451000 98300 to 458000 --

300 to 2820 588 to 3520 2750 to 3110 678 to 3150 --

1310 to 28500 5000 to 14000 11000 to 12900 3340 to 12600 --

9.00 to 196 34.5 to 96.5 75.5 to 88.7 23.0 to 86.8 --

2.5 to 62 0.70 to 56 19 to 50 3.0 to 52 --

113 to 115 78 to 123 -- 112 to 120 --

0.393 to 1.53 0.0843 to 1.32 0.892 to 1.11 0.483 to 2.03 --

21.0 to 81.6 4.50 to 70.3 47.6 to 59.4 25.8 to 109 --

117 to 331 348 to 465 320 296 to 449 --

47.2 to 166 176 to 241 160 146 to 231 --

104 to 207 137 to 217 149 to 176 117 to 196 --

40.0 to 97.1 58.4 to 103 65.0 to 80.0 47.2 to 91.1 --


0.000027 to 0.00010 0.000025 to 0.000076 0 0.000038 to 0.000053 --

0.000049 to 0.00018 0.000046 to 0.00014 0 0.000068 to 0.000096 --

0.0010 to 0.060 0.00015 to 0.075 0.015 to 0.017 0.0099 to 0.016 --

-- 10 -- -- --

170 to 180 165 to 196 -- 176 to 177 --

76.7 to 82.2 73.8 to 91.3 -- 80.0 to 80.4 --

2.9 to 4.1 2.8 to 5.3 -- 2.8 to 3.0 --

0.020 to 0.25 0.15 to 0.20 -- 0.099 to 0.20 --

25 20 to 25 -- 20 --

14000 to 14300 12100 to 15000 -- 1160 to 7380 --

96.3 to 98.7 83.7 to 104 -- 8.00 to 50.9 --

440 to 550 496 to 543 -- 471 to 519 --

227 to 288 258 to 284 -- 244 to 270 --

445 to 525 515 to 556 -- 470 to 1110 --

229 to 274 268 to 291 -- 243 to 600 --

440 to 515 499 to 569 -- 490 to 529 --

227 to 268 259 to 299 -- 254 to 276 --


450 to 555 498 to 557 -- 490 to 545 --

232 to 291 259 to 292 -- 254 to 285 --

470 to 513 515 to 565 -- 503 to 537 --

243 to 267 268 to 296 -- 262 to 281 --

157 to 176 147 to 191 -- 157 to 176 --

69.4 to 79.8 63.8 to 88.1 -- 69.4 to 80.0 --


Nylon 9T Nylon Copolymer Nylon, Unspecified Nylon+PP

1.14 1.10 to 1.21 0.990 to 1.20 0.957 to 1.05

-- -- 0.52 to 6.5 1.0 to 7.5

435000 294000 to 1.16E+6 43500 to 510000 126000 to 295000

3000 2030 to 8000 300 to 3520 869 to 2030

13100 2900 to 23200 2430 to 16600 3190 to 7400

90 20.0 to 160 16.7 to 115 22.0 to 51.0

15 2.1 to 69 2.5 to 200 4.0 to 95

118 -- 119 to 120 --

0.38 0.993 to 2.70 0.627 to 1.62 2.00 to 15.0

20 53.0 to 144 33.5 to 86.4 107 to 801

-- 122 to 410 238 to 362 140 to 284

-- 50.0 to 210 115 to 183 60.0 to 140

275 118 to 392 124 to 388 131 to 135

135 48.0 to 200 51.3 to 198 54.9 to 57.0


-- 0.000011 to 0.000056 0.000012 to 0.000071 0

-- 0.000020 to 0.00010 0.000022 to 0.00013 0

0.01 0.00040 to 0.0052 0.0013 to 0.022 0.013 to 0.021

-- -- 0.52 to 6.5 1.0 to 7.5

-- 160 to 176 174 to 180 167 to 194

-- 71.1 to 80.0 78.7 to 82.5 75.0 to 90.0

-- 5.0 to 18 3.0 to 9.1 2.9 to 3.0

-- 0.1 0.020 to 0.20 --

-- -- -- --

-- -- 6530 to 14200 --

-- -- 45.0 to 98.1 --

-- 410 to 500 534 to 539 380 to 391

-- 210 to 260 279 to 282 193 to 200

-- 430 to 500 506 to 558 400 to 410

-- 221 to 260 263 to 292 204 to 210

-- 440 to 500 508 to 573 430 to 440

-- 227 to 260 264 to 301 221 to 227


-- 445 to 500 500 to 536 450 to 460

-- 229 to 260 260 to 280 232 to 238

-- 435 to 518 507 to 620 446 to 474

-- 224 to 270 264 to 327 230 to 245

-- 45.0 to 230 100 to 300 100 to 168

-- 7.22 to 110 37.8 to 149 37.8 to 75.8


Nylon+PPE Nylon+TPE PAMXD6 PPA PBT

1.08 to 1.10 1.07 to 1.13 -- 1.10 to 1.16 1.30 to 1.34

4.0 to 27 3 -- 20 to 310 20 to 26

277000 to 345000 63500 to 68100 -- 219000 to 536000 202000 to 390000

1910 to 2380 438 to 469 -- 1510 to 3700 1400 to 2690

6350 to 9950 7500 to 8420 -- 6680 to 12500 4900 to 9240

43.8 to 68.6 51.7 to 58.1 -- 46.0 to 86.3 33.8 to 63.7

7.0 to 100 300 to 500 -- 1.5 to 31 0.70 to 52

110 -- -- 110 to 128 86 to 120

0.749 to 4.98 1.60 to 16.1 -- 0.300 to 18.2 0.187 to 1.26

40.0 to 266 85.4 to 859 -- 16.0 to 972 10.00 to 67.5

273 to 385 -- -- 307 to 454 226 to 358

134 to 196 -- -- 153 to 234 108 to 181

239 to 390 -- -- 218 to 284 112 to 161

115 to 199 -- -- 103 to 140 44.5 to 71.5


0.000044 to 0.000051 -- 0 0.000026 to 0.000053 5.0E-8 to 0.00019

0.000079 to 0.000091 -- 0 0.000046 to 0.000095 9.0E-8 to 0.00035

0.0098 to 0.014 0.0080 to 0.012 -- 0.013 to 0.020 0.0010 to 0.48

4.0 to 27 3 -- 20 to 310 20 to 26

203 to 222 160 -- 175 to 275 236 to 269

95.0 to 106 71.1 -- 79.4 to 135 113 to 132

3.0 to 3.5 5 -- 4.0 to 6.1 3.0 to 5.1

0 -- -- 0.045 to 0.15 0.020 to 0.043

20 -- -- -- 19 to 26

-- -- -- 14000 to 15000 10700 to 12600

-- -- -- 96.5 to 103 74.0 to 86.8

535 430 -- 579 to 618 445 to 476

279 221 -- 304 to 325 229 to 246

540 445 -- 518 to 635 446 to 492

282 229 -- 270 to 335 230 to 256

545 465 -- 612 to 615 464 to 496

285 241 -- 322 to 324 240 to 258


550 485 -- 518 to 653 463 to 491

288 252 -- 270 to 345 239 to 255

491 to 554 480 -- 592 to 631 462 to 501

255 to 290 249 -- 311 to 333 239 to 260

149 to 177 95 -- 172 to 320 137 to 182

65.0 to 80.6 35 -- 78.0 to 160 58.4 to 83.3


PBT Alloy PBT+ASA PBT+PET PCT PET

1.07 to 1.35 -- 1.64 to 1.79 1.2 1.32 to 1.41

-- -- 5.0 to 43 12 --

227000 to 472000 -- 501000 to 1.77E+6 326000 to 3.39E+6 226000 to 476000

1570 to 3260 -- 3450 to 12200 2250 to 23400 1560 to 3280

4970 to 7160 -- 0.00 to 17000 8700 to 92800 3340 to 36300

34.3 to 49.4 -- 0.00 to 117 60.0 to 640 23.0 to 250

2.8 to 31 -- 0.0 to 5.0 5.8 to 140 2.5 to 210

85 -- 80 to 120 -- 88 to 120

1.47 to 15.0 -- 0.393 to 1.91 13.4 0.262 to 1.51

78.5 to 801 -- 21.0 to 102 713 14.0 to 80.4

212 to 225 -- 396 to 425 -- 147 to 415

100 to 107 -- 202 to 219 -- 63.9 to 213

158 to 212 -- 177 to 428 223 136 to 446

70.0 to 100 -- 80.5 to 220 106 57.8 to 230


0.000038 to 0.000039 -- 9.4E-6 to 0.0010 0.000050 to 0.000058 9.4E-6 to 0.000086

0.000068 to 0.000070 -- 0.000017 to 0.0018 0.000090 to 0.00010 0.000017 to 0.00015

0.0055 to 0.0057 -- 0.0038 to 0.012 0.01 0.0029 to 0.020

-- -- 5.0 to 43 12 --

203 to 212 -- 250 to 284 163 248 to 356

95.0 to 100 -- 121 to 140 72.5 120 to 180

3.5 -- 3.0 to 5.0 4 5

-- -- 0.020 to 0.040 0.02 0.0030 to 0.20

-- -- -- -- --

11400 -- -- -- 14500

78.4 -- -- -- 100

401 -- 480 480 474 to 493

205 -- 249 249 246 to 256

446 -- 480 to 490 505 484 to 511

230 -- 249 to 254 263 251 to 266

464 -- 490 to 500 515 495 to 527

240 -- 254 to 260 268 257 to 275


464 -- 505 to 510 515 485 to 500

240 -- 263 to 266 268 252 to 260

464 -- 509 to 515 515 493 to 545

240 -- 265 to 268 268 256 to 285

158 -- 175 to 176 125 59.0 to 145

70 -- 79.2 to 80.0 51.7 15.0 to 62.8


PETG Polyester Alloy Polyester, TP PTT ABS

1.25 to 1.27 1.72 1.18 to 1.41 1.29 to 1.43


0.600 to
26.6

4.0 to 35 -- -- --
0.20 to
30

240000
300000 to 315000 1.16E+06 225000 to 377000 397000 to 400000 to
451000

2070 to 2170 8000 1550 to 2600 2740 to 2760


1650 to
3110

3750 to 7360 7250 3190 to 9110 6380 to 8900


5.50 to
16400

25.9 to 50.7 50 22.0 to 62.8 44.0 to 61.4


0.0379 to
113

4.0 to 79 -- 2.0 to 130 9.8 to 10 0.0 to 56

106 to 117 -- 103 to 115 -- 93 to 115

0.0700 to 26.8 -- 0.400 to 9.40 0.500 to 0.607


0.462 to
7.53

3.74 to 1430 -- 21.4 to 502 26.7 to 32.4


24.7 to
402

153 to 158 -- 155 to 168 --


176 to
222

67.0 to 70.1 -- 68.5 to 75.6 --


79.8 to
105

140 to 147 -- 140 to 155 140 to 151


165 to
217

59.9 to 64.0 -- 60.0 to 68.5 60.0 to 66.0


73.9 to
103
0.000038 to 0.000051 -- 3.9E-6 to 0.00070 --
1.0E-5 to
0.011

0.000069 to 0.000092 -- 7.0E-6 to 0.0013 --


0.000018
to 0.020

0.0035 to 0.0051 0.0055 to 0.0075 0.0030 to 0.0063 0.011 to 0.025


0.000055
to 0.014

4.0 to 35 -- -- --
0.20 to
30

149 to 161 -- 153 to 315 260


174 to
190

65.0 to 71.5 -- 67.2 to 157 127


79.0 to
88.0

4.9 to 9.0 -- 3.0 to 6.0 5 2.0 to 3.6

0.05 0.1 -- --
0.0100 to
0.15

-- -- -- -- 5 to 20

12500 to 14100 -- -- 12500


11700 to
15400

86.0 to 97.5 -- -- 86.0 to 86.2


80.9 to
106

410 to 450 -- 352 448 to 485


338 to
478

210 to 232 -- 178 231 to 252


170 to
248

472 to 473 -- 343 448 to 485


398 to
466

245 -- 173 231 to 252


203 to
241

450 to 473 -- 334 448 to 485


379 to
491

232 to 245 -- 168 231 to 252


193 to
255
473 -- 334 --
371 to
501

245 -- 168 --
188 to
260

497 to 500 -- 488 to 546 475


414 to
475

258 to 260 -- 253 to 286 246


212 to
246

80.0 to 104 -- 71.6 to 126 220


121 to
168

26.7 to 40.1 -- 22.0 to 52.0 104


49.2 to
75.4
ABS+Nylo
ABS+PBT ABS+PC ABS+PVC Epoxy Vinyl Ester
n

1.04 to 1.07 to 0.898 to 1.17 to 1.01 to 2.00 1.02 to 1.24


1.07 1.38 28.9 1.34

0.20 to 2.0 to
2.5 to 36 7.0 to 51 -- --
30 150

214000 279000 279000


98600 to
to to to 9.96 to 1.80E+6 480000 to 520000
326000
394000 410000 300000
680 to 1480 to 1920 to 1920 to 0.0686 to 12400 3310 to 3590
2250 2710 2830 2060

4210 to 4530 to 3050 to 4490 to 0.900 to 10100 9070 to 13300


7440 7110 14000 6400
29.0 to 31.2 to 21.0 to 30.9 to 0.00621 to 69.8 62.6 to 91.7
51.3 49.0 96.7 44.1

3.0 to 3.3 to 2.0 to


35 to 40 0.40 to 7.9 2.8 to 8.0
210 100 100

90 to 105 to 109 to
64 to 110 109 to 118 --
110 117 120

1.00 to 0.562 to 0.468 to 0.600 to 0.00646 to 1.01 --


16.2 10.3 13.5 15.0
53.4 to 30.0 to 25.0 to 32.0 to 0.345 to 53.7 --
865 550 722 801

171 to 171 to 192 to 153 to 119 to 470 245


215 419 268 190

77.4 to 77.0 to 88.7 to 67.2 to 48.1 to 243 118


102 215 131 87.8

136 to 162 to 176 to 154 to 75.0 to 480 203 to 302


196 216 250 175

57.5 to 72.5 to 79.8 to 67.8 to 23.9 to 249 95.0 to 150


91.3 102 121 79.4
0.000017
0.000055 4.4E-6 to
to 0 3.2E-6 to 0.000065 0.000017 to 0.000065
to 0.011 8400
0.000057

0.000030
0.000099 8.0E-6 to
to 0 5.8E-6 to 0.00012 0.000031 to 0.00012
to 0.020 15000
0.00010

0.00030 0.0054 0.0 to 0.0055 to 0.00010 to 0.0051 0.083 to 0.085


to 0.022 to 0.013 0.016 0.0060

0.20 to 2.0 to
2.5 to 36 7.0 to 51 -- --
30 150

158 to 185 to 173 to


160 -- --
186 221 232
70.0 to 85.0 to 78.5 to
71.1 -- --
85.8 105 111

3.0 to 3.0 to 3.0 to


1 -- --
4.0 4.0 4.1

0.050 to 0.020 to
-- -- -- --
0.35 0.043

5 to 20 -- 5 to 25 25 -- --

7250 to 12300 to 1150 to


1250 4170 to 4250 --
9000 15200 15200
50.0 to 85.0 to 7.93 to
8.62 28.7 to 29.3 --
62.1 105 105

462 to 392 to 419 to


363 -- --
500 491 518
239 to 200 to 215 to
184 -- --
260 255 270

463 to 430 to 443 to


373 -- --
514 491 526
240 to 221 to 228 to
189 -- --
268 255 275

464 to 460 to 461 to


378 -- --
509 491 539
240 to 238 to 239 to
192 -- --
265 255 282
490 to 446 to 479 to
375 -- --
491 509 552
254 to 230 to 248 to
191 -- --
255 265 289

481 to 459 to 478 to


410 303 --
509 483 551
249 to 237 to 248 to
210 150 to 151 --
265 250 288

139 to 105 to 138 to


90 -- 330
176 185 178
59.3 to 40.6 to 58.9 to
32.2 -- 166
80.0 85.0 81.1
CPE ECTFE EPE EVA HDPE

1.16 1.67 to 1.68 0.910 to 0.962 0.926 to 0.960 0.932 to 0.971

-- -- 0.85 to 1.2 0.15 to 21 0.020 to 9.0

-- 239000 to 245000 -- 276 to 14700 87000 to 218000

-- 1650 to 1690 -- 1.90 to 101 600 to 1500

1400 to 3250 4270 to 7890 1030 to 8410 174 to 4640 12.0 to 33900

9.65 to 22.4 29.5 to 54.4 7.10 to 58.0 1.20 to 32.0 0.0827 to 234

290 to 800 4.0 to 260 540 to 730 8.0 to 910 1.0 to 1000

-- 90 to 94 -- 38 to 40 50 to 65

3.67 2.03 to 3.88 -- -- 0.281 to 7.77

196 108 to 207 -- -- 15.0 to 415

-- 192 to 194 -- 98.6 to 113 148 to 184

-- 88.8 to 90.1 -- 37.0 to 45.0 64.6 to 84.3

163 149 to 170 -- 73.4 to 95.0 102 to 159

72.5 64.8 to 76.9 -- 23.0 to 35.0 39.1 to 70.6


-- 0.000056 to 0.000057 -- 0 0.000051 to 0.00012

-- 0 -- 0 0.000093 to 0.00022

-- 0.023 to 0.025 -- 0.012 to 0.022 0.0077 to 0.030

-- -- 0.85 to 1.2 0.15 to 21 0.020 to 9.0

-- -- -- 140 to 141 174 to 176

-- -- -- 60.0 to 60.6 78.8 to 79.8

-- -- -- 7.9 to 8.0 2.0 to 3.0

-- -- -- -- 0.050 to 0.30

-- 15 -- -- 10 to 100

-- 1200 to 1500 -- 1310 to 10000 12400 to 20000

-- 8.27 to 10.3 -- 9.00 to 68.9 85.4 to 138

-- 399 to 450 -- 250 to 254 383 to 452

-- 204 to 232 -- 121 to 123 195 to 234

-- 441 to 470 -- 300 to 302 417 to 473

-- 227 to 243 -- 149 to 150 214 to 245

-- 469 to 500 -- 350 to 351 371 to 477

-- 243 to 260 -- 177 189 to 247


-- 469 to 490 -- 350 to 352 390 to 479

-- 243 to 254 -- 177 to 178 199 to 248

-- 517 to 520 428 to 520 208 to 446 356 to 478

-- 269 to 271 220 to 271 97.5 to 230 180 to 248

-- 89.6 to 250 -- 68.0 to 356 50.0 to 115

-- 32.0 to 121 -- 20.0 to 180 10.0 to 45.8


HDPE Copolymer HDPE, HMW HDPE, MMW HMWPE

0.945 to 0.957 0.943 to 0.960 0.946 to 0.962 0.96

0.050 to 1.0 0.027 to 11 0.028 to 2.8 --

100000 to 200000 119000 to 222000 115000 to 189000 145000 to 235000

690 to 1380 819 to 1530 793 to 1300 1000 to 1620

1800 to 5190 3070 to 5390 2600 to 8040 3980 to 4060

12.4 to 35.8 21.2 to 37.2 17.9 to 55.4 27.4 to 28.0

7.0 to 810 6.6 to 800 10 to 870 10 to 69

-- 49 41 to 52 51 to 55

0.480 to 4.12 7.21 to 10.3 16.9 to 19.7 3.03 to 3.63

25.6 to 220 385 to 548 900 to 1050 162 to 194

140 to 165 156 to 173 158 176

59.7 to 74.0 68.9 to 78.1 70.0 to 70.1 79.9 to 80.0

100 171 to 172 166 111

38 77.0 to 77.8 74.4 44


0.000070 to 0.000071 0.000066 to 0.00010 0.000066 to 0.000100 0.000070 to 0.00035

0 0.00012 to 0.00018 0.00012 to 0.00018 0.00013 to 0.00062

0.03 0.025 to 0.030 -- 0.02

0.050 to 1.0 0.027 to 11 0.028 to 2.8 --

-- -- -- --

-- -- -- --

-- -- -- --

-- -- -- --

30 to 40 25 -- --

14200 19600 to 20000 -- 14200

98 135 to 138 -- 98.1

448 to 450 385 -- 410

231 to 232 196 -- 210

467 to 470 420 -- 473

242 to 243 216 -- 245

472 to 475 440 -- 518

245 to 246 227 -- 270


472 to 475 430 -- 518

245 to 246 221 -- 270

401 to 438 425 -- --

205 to 225 218 -- --

54.5 to 99.5 50 -- 89.6

12.5 to 37.5 10 -- 32
LDPE LDPE+LLDPE LLDPE LMDPE MDPE

0.891 to 0.953 0.918 to 0.925 0.915 to 0.946 0.933 to 0.940 0.929 to 0.953

0.12 to 58 0.30 to 35 0.20 to 4.1 0.60 to 8.0 0.040 to 6.4

13300 to 52400 -- 16000 to 123000 70200 to 118000 82400 to 120000

91.8 to 361 -- 110 to 846 484 to 812 568 to 831

300 to 5010 2170 to 4560 470 to 6720 2010 to 3630 1880 to 4760

2.07 to 34.5 15.0 to 31.4 3.24 to 46.4 13.8 to 25.1 13.0 to 32.8

3.0 to 710 530 to 960 1.0 to 900 11 to 1000 4.0 to 900

40 to 93 -- -- -- --

7.82 to 8.63 -- 0.900 to 34.4 0.937 to 4.29 0.281 to 34.1

417 to 460 -- 48.0 to 1840 50.0 to 229 15.0 to 1820

99.8 to 203 -- 112 to 148 126 to 163 116 to 148

37.7 to 95.0 -- 44.4 to 64.4 52.0 to 72.8 46.8 to 64.5

104 to 110 -- 93.2 to 167 104 99.1 to 108

40.2 to 43.2 -- 34.0 to 75.0 40.0 to 40.1 37.3 to 42.0


0.000100 to 0.00013 -- 0.000047 to 0.00011 0 0.000056 to 0.00016

0.00018 to 0.00023 -- 0.000084 to 0.00020 0 0.00010 to 0.00028

0.015 to 0.030 -- 0.015 to 0.020 -- --

0.12 to 58 0.30 to 35 0.20 to 4.1 0.60 to 8.0 0.040 to 6.4

175 to 180 -- 110 to 194 -- --

79.3 to 82.2 -- 43.3 to 90.0 -- --

2.0 to 3.1 -- 1.5 to 3.0 -- --

-- -- 0.05 -- --

100 -- -- -- --

925 to 15000 -- 900 to 10200 -- --

6.37 to 103 -- 6.21 to 70.0 -- --

324 to 402 -- 349 to 351 365 to 392 329

162 to 205 -- 176 to 177 185 to 200 165

349 to 401 -- 373 to 375 365 to 392 329

176 to 205 -- 190 to 191 185 to 200 165

349 to 401 -- 364 to 400 365 to 392 329

176 to 205 -- 185 to 204 185 to 200 165


350 to 426 -- 400 to 403 -- --

177 to 219 -- 204 to 206 -- --

327 to 432 -- 356 to 464 462 to 491 401 to 446

164 to 222 -- 180 to 240 239 to 255 205 to 230

59.0 to 110 -- 63.5 to 95.0 77 --

15.0 to 43.5 -- 17.5 to 35.0 25 --


mPE PE Copolymer PE, Unspecified UHMWPE ULDPE

-- 0.929 to 0.966 0.899 to 0.965 0.918 to 0.958 0.904 to 0.912

0.93 to 3.6 0.080 to 6.1 0.10 to 5.3 0.10 to 0.69 0.95 to 4.1

-- 2610 to 190000 11600 to 223000 64000 to 152000 --

-- 18.0 to 1310 80.0 to 1540 441 to 1050 --

830 to 7250 933 to 3830 1150 to 4100 2470 to 5920 522 to 6680

5.72 to 50.0 6.43 to 26.4 7.91 to 28.3 17.0 to 40.8 3.60 to 46.1

460 to 740 6.0 to 30 0.70 to 770 10 to 360 490 to 760

-- -- 113 50 to 66 --

-- -- 0.500 to 10.7 14.9 to 15.6 --

-- -- 26.7 to 571 797 to 835 --

-- -- 73.0 to 158 149 to 204 --

-- -- 22.8 to 70.0 65.0 to 95.6 --

-- -- 73.0 to 121 108 to 119 --

-- -- 22.8 to 49.2 42.0 to 48.2 --


-- 0.00010 to 0.00011 0.000068 to 0.000096 0.000082 to 0.00020 --

-- 0.00018 to 0.00020 0.00012 to 0.00017 0.00015 to 0.00036 --

-- 0.012 to 0.016 0.020 to 0.030 0.0060 to 0.030 --

0.93 to 3.6 0.080 to 6.1 0.10 to 5.3 0.10 to 0.69 0.95 to 4.1

-- -- 180 -- --

-- -- 82.1 to 82.2 -- --

-- -- 4 -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- 440 555 --

-- -- 227 291 --

-- -- 440 550 --

-- -- 227 288 --

-- -- 440 540 --

-- -- 227 282 --
-- -- -- 560 --

-- -- -- 293 --

-- -- 448 to 450 545 --

-- -- 231 to 232 285 --

-- -- 113 to 114 113 --

-- -- 44.7 to 45.4 44.7 --


VLDPE XLPE PAI PI, TP COC

0.884 to 0.914 0.912 to 0.945 1.34 to 1.59 1.31 to 1.37 1.02

0.090 to 3.1 0.32 to 2.2 -- 0.0 to 12 10 to 36

4300 to 22000 1400 to 105000 599000 to 757000 393000 to 1.31E+6 348000 to 464000

29.6 to 152 9.65 to 724 4130 to 5220 2710 to 9000 2400 to 3200

500 to 7550 2150 to 3190 9990 to 27800 9820 to 22600 6660 to 9140

3.45 to 52.1 14.8 to 22.0 68.9 to 192 67.7 to 156 45.9 to 63.0

490 to 930 190 to 510 0.80 to 15 1.5 to 19 1.1 to 3.6

-- -- 69 to 120 95 to 129 --

-- -- 0.500 to 4.30 0.00 to 1.43 0.468 to 0.478

-- -- 26.7 to 230 0.00 to 76.1 25.0 to 25.5

-- 151 -- 482 to 506 167 to 304

-- 66 -- 250 to 263 75.0 to 151

-- -- 532 to 534 434 to 493 140 to 275

-- -- 278 to 279 224 to 256 60.0 to 135


-- -- 0.000014 to 0.000020 0.0 to 0.000029 --

-- -- 0.000025 to 0.000036 0.0 to 0.000052 --

0.01 -- 0.0014 to 0.0073 0.0089 to 0.011 0.01

0.090 to 3.1 0.32 to 2.2 -- 0.0 to 12 10 to 36

-- -- 350 347 to 348 --

-- -- 177 175 --

-- -- 3 5.0 to 5.1 --

-- -- 0.05 0.02 --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- 23800 to 24000 11600

-- -- -- 164 to 165 80

356 -- 580 698 to 725 401 to 509

180 -- 304 370 to 385 205 to 265

356 -- -- 721 to 748 419 to 536

180 -- -- 383 to 398 215 to 280

356 -- -- 738 to 761 437 to 554

180 -- -- 392 to 405 225 to 290


-- -- 700 730 to 761 455 to 554

-- -- 371 388 to 405 235 to 290

416 to 450 -- -- 739 to 766 428 to 563

213 to 232 -- -- 393 to 408 220 to 295

77 -- 405 325 to 326 131 to 284

25 -- 207 163 to 164 55.0 to 140


PAO Polyolefin, Unspecified PP Alloy PP Copoly

0.858 to 0.871 0.854 to 1.14 0.897 to 0.899 0.835 to 0.970

0.40 to 18 0.040 to 20 4.1 to 5.6 0.20 to 36

-- 2030 to 315000 52700 to 80000 124000 to 240000

-- 14.0 to 2170 364 to 552 857 to 1650

49.3 to 339 290 to 21900 24700 to 34700 1750 to 4380

0.340 to 2.33 2.00 to 151 170 to 239 12.1 to 30.2

400 2.0 to 800 63 to 140 1.7 to 23

-- 20 to 120 66 64 to 106

-- 0.131 to 15.3 1.19 to 9.74 0.184 to 9.74

-- 7.00 to 818 63.7 to 520 9.80 to 520

-- 133 to 233 167 to 284 156 to 251

-- 56.3 to 111 75.0 to 140 69.2 to 122

-- 113 to 256 158 to 316 108 to 202

-- 45.1 to 124 70.0 to 158 42.4 to 94.6


-- 0.000026 to 0.00011 -- -0.0012 to 0.00021

-- 0.000048 to 0.00020 -- -0.0022 to 0.00039

-- 0.0042 to 0.015 0.036 to 0.071 0.012 to 0.019

0.40 to 18 0.040 to 20 4.1 to 5.6 0.20 to 36

-- 164 to 167 -- 165 to 196

-- 73.5 to 74.8 -- 73.7 to 91.0

-- 1.4 to 1.5 -- 1.0 to 3.0

-- 0.05 -- 0.050 to 0.20

-- 20 -- 19 to 100

-- 770 to 1110 -- 800 to 12500

-- 5.31 to 7.63 -- 5.52 to 86.3

-- 395 to 427 -- 372 to 431

-- 202 to 219 -- 189 to 222

-- 400 to 437 -- 405 to 442

-- 204 to 225 -- 207 to 228

-- 400 to 447 -- 374 to 451

-- 204 to 231 -- 190 to 233


-- 410 to 441 -- 410 to 460

-- 210 to 227 -- 210 to 238

-- 208 to 433 -- 409 to 476

-- 97.5 to 223 -- 209 to 247

-- 85.0 to 105 -- 66.1 to 129

-- 29.4 to 40.7 -- 19.0 to 53.8


PP Homopoly PP Impact Copoly PP Random Copoly PP, High Crystal

0.899 to 0.948 0.898 to 0.910 0.890 to 0.919 0.900 to 0.914

0.27 to 49 0.20 to 38 0.20 to 36 0.80 to 37

160000 to 319000 4350 to 467000 101000 to 203000 183000 to 314000

1100 to 2200 30.0 to 3220 699 to 1400 1260 to 2160

4240 to 5660 2660 to 4210 2390 to 4790 2510 to 6120

29.3 to 39.0 18.4 to 29.0 16.5 to 33.0 17.3 to 42.2

1.0 to 26 2.0 to 24 5.0 to 27 3.6 to 25

90 to 111 64 to 101 79 to 101 85 to 115

0.100 to 0.898 0.0468 to 37.5 0.187 to 1.85 0.300 to 1.64

5.34 to 47.9 2.50 to 2000 10.00 to 98.8 16.0 to 87.6

180 to 261 164 to 242 148 to 213 210 to 277

82.0 to 127 73.6 to 117 64.3 to 101 98.8 to 136

123 to 233 114 to 138 117 to 194 125 to 133

50.6 to 112 45.5 to 58.6 47.4 to 90.0 51.6 to 56.2


0.000016 to 0.00061 0.000033 to 0.000072 0.000054 to 0.000083 --

0.000029 to 0.0011 0.000060 to 0.00013 0.000097 to 0.00015 --

0.012 to 0.018 0.013 to 0.017 0.013 to 0.018 0.013 to 0.016

0.27 to 49 0.20 to 38 0.20 to 36 0.80 to 37

167 to 185 166 to 212 -- 194

75.0 to 85.1 74.5 to 100 -- 90

1.0 to 3.0 1.0 to 4.0 -- 2

0.2 0.05 -- --

20 to 30 -- -- --

950 to 15000 640 to 24900 1000 to 11400 8530 to 25700

6.55 to 103 4.41 to 172 6.89 to 78.5 58.8 to 178

349 to 488 341 to 430 350 to 430 354 to 374

176 to 253 172 to 221 177 to 221 179 to 190

383 to 488 373 to 460 400 to 450 382 to 429

195 to 253 189 to 238 204 to 232 194 to 220

383 to 491 412 to 498 417 to 470 410 to 464

195 to 255 211 to 259 214 to 243 210 to 240


370 to 475 401 to 474 410 to 473 392 to 455

188 to 246 205 to 246 210 to 245 200 to 235

413 to 480 325 to 483 399 to 482 423 to 464

211 to 249 163 to 250 204 to 250 217 to 240

35.0 to 140 90.0 to 120 74.8 to 105 99.5 to 144

1.67 to 60.0 32.2 to 48.9 23.8 to 40.4 37.5 to 62.2


PS (EPS) PS (GPPS)
PP, HMS PP, Unspecified PP+EPDM
Polystyrene Polystyrene

0.895 to 0.912 0.790 to 1.13 0.935 to 0.986 0.0155 to 0.514 1.03 to 1.05

0.070 to 3.1 0.10 to 24 -- -- 0.20 to 20

127000 to 279000 95100 to 314000 -- -- 312000 to 508000

879 to 1930 656 to 2160 -- -- 2150 to 3500

3780 to 5800 1400 to 5350 435 to 3480 -- 2710 to 8100

26.0 to 40.0 9.67 to 36.9 3.00 to 24.0 -- 18.7 to 55.9

6.0 to 18 0.57 to 560 390 to 1200 -- 1.0 to 21

80 to 94 80 to 106 -- -- 58 to 122

0.500 to 13.2 0.127 to 2.17 -- -- 0.0900 to 0.526

26.7 to 704 6.78 to 116 -- -- 4.81 to 28.1

186 to 232 158 to 280 -- -- 165 to 212

85.5 to 111 70.0 to 138 -- -- 74.0 to 100

124 to 230 110 to 151 -- -- 159 to 208

51.0 to 110 43.2 to 66.1 -- -- 70.5 to 98.0


-- 0.000017 to 0.000089 -- 0 0.000039 to 0.000050

-- 0.000030 to 0.00016 -- 0 0.000070 to 0.000090

0.01 0.000060 to 0.041 -- -- 0.0036 to 0.0060

0.070 to 3.1 0.10 to 24 -- -- 0.20 to 20

-- 158 to 186 176 -- 140 to 181

-- 70.0 to 85.5 80.0 to 80.1 -- 60.0 to 82.5

-- 1.8 to 3.1 3 -- 1.5 to 3.1

-- 0.017 to 0.20 -- -- 0.02

-- 20 -- -- 20 to 30

-- 6920 to 13000 -- -- 4350 to 22500

-- 47.7 to 90.0 -- -- 30.0 to 155

-- 104 to 478 390 to 734 -- 320 to 456

-- 40.0 to 248 199 to 390 -- 160 to 236

-- 104 to 478 390 to 734 -- 381 to 455

-- 40.0 to 248 199 to 390 -- 194 to 235

-- 104 to 478 390 to 734 -- 402 to 456

-- 40.0 to 248 199 to 390 -- 206 to 235


-- 365 to 475 400 to 752 -- 417 to 457

-- 185 to 246 204 to 400 -- 214 to 236

220 to 240 373 to 448 400 to 409 -- 417 to 457

104 to 116 190 to 231 204 to 209 -- 214 to 236

-- 84.2 to 152 103 to 106 -- 86.0 to 140

-- 29.0 to 66.5 39.3 to 40.9 -- 30.0 to 60.2


PS (HIPS) PS (IRPS) PS (MIPS) PS (Specialty)
Polystyrene Polystyrene Polystyrene Polystyrene

1.03 to 1.06 1.06 to 1.18 1.04 1.02 to 1.16

0.50 to 14 7.6 to 10 2.0 to 14 5.7 to 10

182000 to 363000 240000 to 338000 308000 to 403000 218000 to 366000

1250 to 2500 1650 to 2330 2120 to 2780 1500 to 2530

2180 to 5080 1720 to 4300 2860 to 5910 2030 to 8210

15.0 to 35.0 11.8 to 29.6 19.7 to 40.8 14.0 to 56.6

0.80 to 67 1.0 to 41 1.2 to 50 2.0 to 41

40 to 113 55 to 75 45 to 119 55 to 56

0.367 to 7.71 1.38 to 2.42 0.799 to 1.61 0.281 to 3.55

19.6 to 411 73.4 to 129 42.7 to 86.1 15.0 to 190

167 to 208 160 to 198 185 to 226 192 to 194

75.0 to 97.8 71.0 to 92.0 85.0 to 108 88.9 to 90.0

157 to 194 156 to 191 164 to 197 160 to 189

69.2 to 90.1 68.9 to 88.3 73.5 to 91.5 71.0 to 87.0


5.8E-8 to 0.00010 0.000042 to 0.000047 0.000028 to 0.00013 --

1.0E-7 to 0.00019 0.000075 to 0.000085 0.000050 to 0.00024 --

0.0044 to 0.0060 0.0040 to 0.0055 0.0039 to 0.0061 0.0045 to 0.0061

0.50 to 14 7.6 to 10 2.0 to 14 5.7 to 10

140 to 181 158 140 to 167 158 to 167

60.0 to 82.9 69.8 to 70.0 60.0 to 75.0 70.0 to 75.2

1.5 to 2.0 2 1.5 1.5 to 2.0

0.1 -- -- --

20 to 30 25 -- --

4100 to 22500 11000 15200 12500

28.3 to 155 75.8 105 86.2

336 to 456 380 356 to 392 338 to 435

169 to 235 193 180 to 200 170 to 224

374 to 454 420 383 to 410 383 to 384

190 to 235 216 195 to 210 195 to 196

392 to 450 440 401 to 437 406 to 410

200 to 232 227 205 to 225 208 to 210


418 to 445 440 392 to 428 392 to 393

214 to 229 227 200 to 220 200

425 to 457 419 to 482 419 to 451 426 to 428

218 to 236 215 to 250 215 to 233 219 to 220

94.5 to 142 122 to 140 95.0 to 140 113 to 122

34.7 to 61.1 50.0 to 60.0 35.0 to 60.0 45.0 to 50.2


PS Alloy PS+PE PS+SPS SPS PAS
Polystyrene Polystyrene Polystyrene Polystyrene Polysulfone

1.03 to 1.27 0.0199 to 1.02 1.03 to 1.15 1.01 to 1.44 1.37

2 4.0 to 5.0 -- -- --

220000 to 500000 145000 to 210000 290000 to 406000 363000 to 1.23E+6 398000 to 400000

1520 to 3450 1000 to 1450 2000 to 2800 2500 to 8500 2740 to 2760

2470 to 11600 38.0 to 3190 4350 to 7250 5080 to 16700 8500 to 13000

17.0 to 80.0 0.262 to 22.0 30.0 to 50.0 35.0 to 115 58.6 to 89.6

2.0 to 50 3.0 to 100 15 to 45 1.9 to 20 6.5 to 10

-- -- 50 60 to 75 120

0.506 to 4.00 -- -- -- 1.20 to 1.60

27.0 to 214 -- -- -- 64.1 to 85.4

170 to 205 -- 199 to 239 230 to 511 405

76.7 to 96.0 -- 93.0 to 115 110 to 266 207

155 to 175 154 176 to 212 203 to 455 400

68.3 to 79.4 68 80.0 to 100 95.0 to 235 204


0 -- 0 0.000014 to 0.000051 0

0 -- 0 0.000025 to 0.000092 0

0.0030 to 0.010 0 0.0050 to 0.0070 0.0030 to 0.020 0.0060 to 0.010

2 4.0 to 5.0 -- -- --

180 -- 158 to 176 176 300

82.2 -- 70.0 to 80.0 80 149

2 -- 3.0 to 4.0 3.0 to 3.5 6

-- -- -- -- 0.04

-- -- -- -- 20

12500 -- -- -- 17400 to 17500

86.0 to 86.4 -- -- -- 120 to 121

430 -- 464 to 500 518 699 to 700

221 -- 240 to 260 270 371

430 -- 482 to 518 536 700

221 -- 250 to 270 280 371

430 -- 500 to 518 554 700

221 -- 260 to 270 290 371


-- -- 500 to 518 554 --

-- -- 260 to 270 290 --

445 -- 518 to 572 572 to 590 --

229 -- 270 to 300 300 to 310 --

125 to 126 -- 122 to 149 158 to 307 299 to 300

51.8 to 52.0 -- 50.0 to 65.0 70.0 to 153 148 to 149


PES PPSU PSU PUR, Unspecified
Polysulfone Polysulfone Polysulfone Polyurethane (PUR)

1.36 to 1.37 1.28 to 1.37 1.23 to 1.24 0.907 to 1.45

12 to 30 11 to 30 3.8 to 17 3.0 to 20

325000 to 452000 333000 to 405000 368000 to 407000 5500 to 390000

2240 to 3120 2300 to 2790 2540 to 2810 37.9 to 2690

8020 to 13100 10100 to 11000 7090 to 11800 11.0 to 9010

55.3 to 90.2 69.6 to 75.9 48.9 to 81.2 0.0758 to 62.1

3.5 to 50 6.9 to 90 3.7 to 77 2.0 to 54

120 80 to 120 119 to 120 111

0.500 to 1.75 12.7 to 13.0 0.800 to 1.72 0.01000 to 1.61

26.7 to 93.4 678 to 694 42.7 to 91.8 0.534 to 85.9

405 to 418 417 351 to 358 120 to 221

207 to 214 214 177 to 181 48.9 to 105

382 to 401 360 to 406 338 to 349 129 to 197

194 to 205 182 to 208 170 to 176 53.7 to 91.9


0.000026 to 0.000033 0.000030 to 0.000032 0.000030 to 0.000031 0.000055 to 0.00010

0.000047 to 0.000059 0.000055 to 0.000057 0.000054 to 0.000056

0.000100 to 0.00018

0.0059 to 0.014 0.0050 to 0.0071 0.0058 to 0.010 0.00010 to 0.013

12 to 30 11 to 30 3.8 to 17 3.0 to 20

274 to 351 300 to 301 274 to 300 150 to 225

134 to 177 149 to 150 134 to 149


65.6 to 107

2.5 to 6.0 2.5 to 4.1 3.0 to 4.0 3.0 to 5.0

0.020 to 0.050 -- 0.020 to 0.10 0.02

20 -- 20 --

1160 to 17600 15000 1160 to 17500 12500

8.00 to 121 103 8.00 to 121


86.2

599 to 700 685 597 to 632 --

315 to 371 363 314 to 334


--

653 to 700 695 614 to 632 338

345 to 371 368 324 to 334


170

653 to 700 705 630 to 638 --

345 to 371 374 332 to 336


--
653 to 680 695 620 to 653 392

345 to 360 368 327 to 345


200

670 to 690 706 to 710 664 to 691 68.0 to 459

354 to 366 375 to 377 351 to 366


20.0 to 237

274 to 313 274 to 303 250 to 303 86.0 to 215

134 to 156 135 to 150 121 to 150


30.0 to 101
PUR- PUR- PUR- PUR-
PUR-Ester/TDI
Capro/MDI Est/eth,MDI Est/eth,TDI PUR-Ester Ester/MDI
Polyurethane
Polyurethane Polyurethane Polyurethane Polyurethane (PUR) Polyurethane
(PUR)
(PUR) (PUR) (PUR) (PUR)

1.13 1.04 to 1.21 1.15 to 1.23 1.22 to 1.23 1.20 to 1.25 1.16 to 1.27

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- 366000 to 446000 -- --

-- -- -- 2520 to 3080 -- --

3600 to 7200 250 to 3400 2470 to 8600 5630 to 13600 1790 to 7640 5200 to 9000

24.8 to 49.6 1.72 to 23.4 17.0 to 59.3 38.8 to 93.6 12.3 to 52.6 35.9 to 62.1

310 to 530 75 to 630 220 to 890 6.8 to 650 390 to 700 280 to 710

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- 0.795 to 1.84 -- --

-- -- -- 42.4 to 98.2 -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- 127 to 191 -- --

-- -- -- 52.8 to 88.2 -- --
-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- 0.0019 to 0.0051 0.010 to 0.016 0.01 0.010 to 0.013 0.011 to 0.016

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --
-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- -- --

-- -- 228 140 212 to 257 220 to 235

-- -- 109 60 100 to 125 104 to 113


PUR- PUR-
PUR-Ether
Eth,aliphat Ether/MDI PUR-Ether/TDI PUR-MDI
Polyurethane
Polyurethane Polyurethane Polyurethane (PUR) Polyurethane (PUR)
(PUR)
(PUR) (PUR)

1.02 to 1.07 1.11 to 1.23 0.998 to 1.13 1.03 to 1.21 0.239 to 1.22

-- -- -- -- --

100000 -- -- 81000 to 116000 15000 to 309000

689 -- -- 558 to 800 103 to 2130

3000 to 6750 569 to 6700 142 to 7600 2000 to 9000 560 to 7500

20.7 to 46.5 3.92 to 46.2 0.979 to 52.4 13.8 to 62.1 3.86 to 51.7

180 to 850 500 to 750 190 to 580 180 to 570 7.0 to 21

-- -- -- -- --

14 -- -- 1.10 to 20.0 0.9

747 -- -- 58.7 to 1070 48

-- -- -- 365 158 to 221

-- -- -- 185 70.0 to 105

-- -- -- 135 --

-- -- -- 57.2 --
-- -- -- 0.000050 to 0.00010 0.000040 to 0.000056

-- -- -- 0.000090 to 0.00018 0.000072 to 0.00010

0.013 to 0.020 0.01 0.0010 to 0.020 0.012 to 0.020 0.0040 to 0.0080

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --
-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- --

-- -- -- -- 92.5 to 110

-- -- -- -- 33.6 to 43.3

-- -- 122 to 248 142 to 228 160 to 161

-- -- 50.0 to 120 61.1 to 109 70.8 to 71.6


PUR-TDI
Polyurethane CPVC PVC Alloy PVC Elastomer
(PUR)

1.01 to 1.21 1.46 to 1.52 1.15 to 1.29 1.08 to 1.31

-- 5.0 to 21 28 3.6 to 30

-- 306000 to 420000 273000 to 352000 190000

-- 2110 to 2890 1880 to 2420 1310

924 to 3580 6430 to 8140 1220 to 6410 230 to 3050

6.37 to 24.7 44.4 to 56.2 8.38 to 44.2 1.59 to 21.0

130 to 710 3.0 to 6.2 15 to 420 300 to 500

-- 112 to 118 110 --

-- 1.49 to 5.60 0.630 to 14.1 19

-- 79.3 to 299 33.6 to 752 1010

-- 221 to 230 181 to 201 135

-- 105 to 110 82.8 to 93.9 57.2

-- 184 to 230 161 to 190 --

84.4 to 110 71.7 to 87.8 --


-- 0.000032 to 0.000040 0.000036 to 0.000050 --

0.000058 to 0.000073 0.000064 to 0.000090 --

--

0.00050 to 0.014 0.0059 to 0.0060 0.0035 to 0.0050 0.017 to 0.018

-- 5.0 to 21 28 3.6 to 30

-- -- 155 178

-- 68.3 81.1
--

-- -- 2 2.5

-- -- -- --

-- -- -- 20

-- -- -- 12400

-- -- 85.5
--

-- -- 290 311 to 375

-- 143 155 to 191


--

-- -- 300 335 to 375

-- 149 168 to 191


--

-- -- 310 335 to 375

-- 154 168 to 191


--
-- -- 330 347

-- 166 175
--

95.0 to 111 398 to 399 399 to 405 300 to 380

203 to 204 204 to 207 149 to 193


35.0 to 43.9

-- -- -- 75.0 to 109

-- -- 23.9 to 42.5
--
PVC Homopolymer PVC, Flexible PVC, Rigid PVC, Semi-Rigid

0.360 to 1.40 1.14 to 1.45 0.767 to 1.47 1.29 to 1.58

-- 0.42 to 130 1.4 to 41 19 to 87

-- 42000 to 450000 320000 to 460000 55000 to 278000

-- 290 to 3100 2210 to 3170 379 to 1920

-- 110 to 4930 5450 to 7880 2170 to 4540

-- 0.758 to 34.0 37.6 to 54.3 15.0 to 31.3

-- 240 to 450 2.6 to 66 190 to 300

-- 115 89 to 116 --

-- 2.00 to 37.1 0.300 to 20.0 0.500 to 1.50

-- 107 to 1980 16.0 to 1070 26.7 to 80.1

-- 117 to 149 147 to 174 106 to 111

-- 47.0 to 65.0 64.0 to 79.1 41.1 to 43.9

-- 153 to 182 137 to 168 97.0 to 97.1

-- 67.0 to 83.2 58.1 to 75.4 36.1 to 36.2


-- 0 0.000029 to 0.000041 0.000040 to 0.000042

-- 0 0.000052 to 0.000074 0.000073 to 0.000075

-- 0.0095 to 0.021 0.0035 to 0.0036 0.01

-- 0.42 to 130 1.4 to 41 19 to 87

-- -- 150 --

-- -- 65.6 --

-- -- 3 --

-- -- -- --

-- -- 50 --

-- -- 16000 --

-- -- 110 --

-- 280 to 290 324 to 325 --

-- 138 to 143 162 to 163 --

-- 300 to 310 359 to 360 --

-- 149 to 154 182 --

-- 310 to 320 369 to 370 --

-- 154 to 160 187 to 188 --


-- 320 to 340 365 --

-- 160 to 171 185 --

-- 329 to 392 367 to 403 370 to 381

-- 165 to 200 186 to 206 188 to 194

-- 75.0 to 85.0 89.6 to 90.0 --

-- 23.9 to 29.4 32.0 to 32.2 --


PVC, Unspecified PVC+NBR PVC+PUR PVDC

0.530 to 1.85 1.18 to 1.33 1.16 to 1.26 --

6.2 to 42 0.46 to 42 -- --

280000 to 425000 -- -- --

1930 to 2930 -- -- --

220 to 23800 422 to 2580 1430 to 2740 1740 to 14500

1.52 to 164 2.91 to 17.8 9.83 to 18.9 12.0 to 99.8

210 to 450 350 to 470 390 to 600 42 to 470

106 to 116 -- -- --

0.401 to 22.2 -- -- --

21.4 to 1180 -- -- --

201 to 220 -- -- --

94.1 to 105 -- -- --

143 to 206 -- -- --

61.4 to 96.7 -- -- --
0.000038 to 0.000048 -- -- --

0.000068 to 0.000087 -- -- --

0.0035 to 0.0041 -- -- --

6.2 to 42 0.46 to 42 -- --

-- -- -- --

-- -- -- --

-- -- -- --

-- -- -- --

30 -- -- --

-- -- -- --

-- -- -- --

328 to 338 290 -- --

165 to 170 143 -- --

337 to 338 300 -- --

170 149 -- --

338 to 347 310 -- --

170 to 175 154 -- --


356 310 -- --

180 154 -- --

319 to 370 388 to 390 315 to 350 --

159 to 188 198 to 199 157 to 177 --

104 -- -- --

40 -- -- --
Major Plastic Properties

Polyamide (PA - Nylon)


Properties General Nylon PA 6
Capron 8202

Zytel (Dupont)
Grade (Manufacturers) Ultramid (BASF)
Miramid (BASF)

Morphology
Causes of Molded-Part Variation -material- Warpage due to material use, 27 pages.pdf
Semi crystalline Semi crystalline

Linear Mold Shrinkage


0.005–0.015
inches/inch or mm/mm
Causes of Molded-Part Variation -material- Warpage due to material use, 27 pages.pdf

% Shrinkage
Causes of Molded-Part Variation -material- Warpage due to material use, 27 pages.pdf
0.5-1.5

Applications

Typical Butt Weld Tensile


Strength Retention
Values in % (source LNP)
72 pages,2003NMW_Design_with_Plastics.pdf
Page 34 of 72

Density (g/cm3) 1.13

Water Absorbtion (mg)

Elongation % 150% at break

Maximum Operating
Temperature

Thermal Expansion in/in./- 4.5 in/in/°F x 10-5


Fx105 (8.1 mm/mm/°C x 10-5)

Hardness

Moulding Temperature 530 °F

Maximum Temperature 210°F - 99°C

Minimum Temperature 94°F -70°C


Max usage temperature

Max Continous usage


temperature

Melting Point
612 pages, Book, Handbook of Plastics Technologies110.pdf, page 34 of 612
420°F - 216°C 230°C–280°C

Tensile Strength 5,800 psi

Wear Resistance High High

HDT
(Heat Deflection
65°C in 1.82 MPA = 264
Temperature - DTUL)
PSI
Note : 1.82 MPA = 264
PSI)

Glass Transition
167°F (75°C)
Temerature (GTT)

Brittle Temperature

Hardness

Annealing Temperature

Special Applications

Fatigue Properties

dimensional
stability
Creep

Stiffness

Water resistance

Effect of Moisture

Moisture / water More More than PA66


Absobtion 0.6% - 1.2% 0.6% - 1.2%

Mold Shrinkage High High

Toughness

Ductility

Chemical Resistance

Vapor permeability

Machinaibility Excellent

Cost high high

Thermal Stability

0 30 29

41 11 12
22
D:\Engineering\Engineering 1\plastic design\Injection moulding\101_plastic_injection_molding_enginee

Polyamide (PA - Nylon) Nylon 66 Nylon 66


PA 66 10% reinforcement 30% reinforcement

Semi crystalline Semi crystalline Semi crystalline

0.008–0.015

0.8-1.5

91 89 60

1.14
g/cm3

40 / 76

60% at break
260°C–290°C

High High High

82.2°C, 180°F in 264


485°F 490°F
PSI,

167°F (75°C)

-112°F, -80°C
Less than PA6
0.6% - 1.2%

High

Excellent

high high high

26 37 37

15 4 4
c_injection_molding_engineering_manufacturing-2, 3 pages.pdf

PA With 30% Glass Poly Propylene (PP)


Poly Acteal (POM)
Fiber Unfilled

Delrin Homo (Dupont)


Celcon copoly (Ticona)

Semi crystalline Semi crystalline Semi crystalline

0.003–0.005 0.020–0.025 0.010–0.025

0.3-0.5 2-2.5 1.0–2.5

86

1.42 0.905 g/cm3

13 10-60% at break

200°

3.8 X I0-5
5.8 in/in/°F x 10-5 (mm/mnrK)
(10.4 mm/mm/°C x 10-5) 5 in/in/°F x 10-5
(9 mm/mm/°C x 10-5)

76 ShoreD

180°F 80°C 275°F 135°C

-40°F -40°C 32°F 0°C


100 - 110°C

190°C–215°C (Homo)
175°C–220°C (Co) 160-175°C / 320-347°F
General - 320°F 160°C

8,800 psi

136°C in 264 PSI, 70°C

(atactic) −20°C
(isotactic) 100°C

0°F, -18°C

72 Shore D

100°C

Gear,
Food Processing
to resist wear & tear

Good

Good
Better than Nylon

Better than Nylon

Better than Nylon

Less Effect than Nylon

Very very less in all


Copoly 0.2%
plastics
Homo 0.25%
<0.1%

generally
less than PE

Good

Excellent

39 21 19

2 20 22
Poly Propylene (PP)
40% talc filled PP 40% CaCO2 filled PP
20% Glass fiber

Semi crystalline Semi crystalline Semi crystalline

0.008–0.015 0.007–0.014

0.8–1.5 0.7–1.4

47
20-347°F

Food Processing Food Processing Food Processing


38 38 39

3 3 2
Styrene-Acrylonitrile Styrene-Acrylonitrile
Poly Propylene (PP)
Copolymers (SAN) Copolymers (SAN)
40% Glass fiber
No Reinforcement 30% Glass fiber

Semi crystalline Amorphous Amorphous

0.002-0.006

34 80 40
200°C–270°C

100-105°C

Food Processing
39 36 40

2 5 1
Poly Carbonate (PC) Poly Carbonate (PC) Poly Carbonate (PC)
Unfilled 10% Glass fiber 30% Glass fiber

Lexan (GE)

Amorphous Amorphous Amorphous

0.005–0.007 0.002–0.005 0.001–0.002

0.5–0.7 0.2–0.5 0.1–0.2

CD's

99 86 62

1.19

110% at break

290°

3.75
3.9 in/in/°F x 10-5
(7 mm/mm/°C x 10-5)

135°C (service)

-100 °C (service)
115 - 125°C

125°C

280°C–320°C

Low Low Low

129°C in 1.82 MPA =


264 PSI

302°F (150°C)

-215°F, -137°C
0.1 - 0.3%

23 37 36

18 4 5
Poly Sulphone Poly Sulphone
(PSU) (PSU) Poly Urathane (PU) ABS
No Reinforcement 30% Glass fiber

Udel (Solvay)

Amorphous Amorphous Amorphous Amorphous

0.01 0.010-0.020 0.003–0.008

0.3–0.8

Polysulfone is used in a pplications requiring good high-temperature resist ance s uch as rollers or wheels, exterior body parts, drive belts,
coffee carafes, piping, sterilizing equipment, and microwave oven cookware.377 The good and hydraulic sealsPolyurethanes can be used in film applications such as textile laminates
hydrolytic stability of polysulfone is important in these applications. Polysulfone is also for clothing and protec tive coatings for hospital beds. They are also us ed in tubing
used in electrical applications for connectors, switches, and circuit boards and in reverse and hose in both unreinforced and reinforced forms because of their low-temperature
o smo sis applications as a membra ne suppo rt properties and toughness.

100 62

1.24 1.12-1.24 1.05

50 3.2

325° 200°

5 in/in/°F x 10-5
3.1 (9 mm/mm/°C x 10-
5
)

150-180 °C 108°C (Service)

-50 °C (working) -60°C


350°C–380°C

barrel temp. 310 to 151°C 220°C–260°C


400°C, mold temp
100 to 170°C

70 Mpa 5000 psi 4,300 psi

174°C in 1.82 MPA 88°C, 193°F in 1.82


= 264 PSI MPA = 264 PSI

185°C 219°F (104°C)

-60°F, -51°C

Foam Products
0.23% 0.27%

medium

26 40 32 28

15 1 9 13
LDPE HDPE Polystyrene (PS) PPE

Semi crystalline Semi crystalline Amorphous Amorphous

0.007-0.009 0.015 - 0.040 0.004–0.007 0.004–0.008

1.5-4.0 0.4–0.7 0.4–0.8

0.910 to 0.925 0.926 to 0.940 1.05


g/cm3 g/cm3 g/cm3

600 900

160° 180°

9.2 8.5

440°F 440°F 500°F

176°F 80°C 248°F 120°C 93°C

58°F -50°C -148°F -100°C


60 - 75°C 70 - 80°C 60 - 70°C

180°C–280°C 205°C–280°C 190°C

2600-10200 psi

43°C in 1.82 MPA = 74°C in 1.82 MPA = 93°C in 1.82 MPA =


264 PSI 264 PSI 264 PSI

75-80°C also cited 219°F (104°C)

-85 to -35°C -100 to -70°C 200°F, 93°C

Excellent X-ray
resistance
<0.1% <0.1%
<0.1%
Very Low Very Low

High High

High High

Excellent Excellent

Low Low

Excellent Fair

medium medium low

21 20 25 39

20 21 16 2
PPS PPS PPS
PMMA
No Reinforcement 10% Glass fiber 40% Glass fiber

Semi crystalline Semi crystalline Semi crystalline Amorphous

0.002-0.008

0.2-0.8

83 38 20

1.19

5% at break

6.3 10~5 mm/mm-K


3.8 in/in/°F x 10-5
(6.8 mm/mm/°C x
10-5)
210°C–270°C

92°C in 1.82 MPA =


264 PSI

250°F, 121°C
0.02% 0.20%

Excellent

medium

39 40 40 30

2 1 1 11
PBT + 40% Glass
PBT Polyamide-imide
Fiber Teflon (PTFE)
(Polyester) (PAI)
(Polyester)

Torlon (Solvay)

Semi crystalline Semi crystalline Semi crystalline Both

0.02 < 0.007 0.033-0.053

3.3 - 5.3 %

hydr aulic bus hings a nd seals, mechanic al


parts for electronics, and engine components, laminating resin for spacecraft, a decorative finish for kitchen equipment, and as
wire enamel

1.3 1.6 2.16

150% at break

6 in/in/°F x 10-5
(10.8 mm/mm/°C x1.89 (10~5 mm/mm-K)
9.9(IO"5 mm/mm-K)
10-5)

Mold 230°C
Melt 355°C
300 °F (149 °C)
Up to 500 °
(Service)
70°C -250°C to +250°C

220°C–260°C

54°C in 1.82 MPA = 232°C in 1.82 MPA


280°C
264 PSI = 264 PSI

266°F (130°C) 270°C-285°C

Should be done

Machining
0.08% <0.01 %

Good

Excellent

Medium Medium

32 36 30 35

9 5 11 6
Polyimide (PI) PVC PET PEEK

Kapton (Dupont)

Both Amorphous Semi crystalline Semi crystalline

The first application of polyimides was for wire enamel.262 Applications for polyimides
include bearings for appliances and aircraft, seals, and gaskets. Film versions are used
in flexible wiring and electric motor insulation. Printed circuit boards are also fabricated
with polyimides

1.42 1.42 1.32

Up to 500 °C (Service) 158°F 70°C

-10 °C (Service) -13°F -25°C


176°F 80°C 334°C

75-90 Mpa 6,500 psi

160°C

482°F (250°C) 176°F (80°C) 143°C

replacements for
metal and
glass
0.50%

Medium

Excellent -
exceptional

32 34 41 36

9 7 0 5
PEEK 30% GF

Semi crystalline

1.5
334°C

315°C

143°C
0.10%

36

5
Extreme Poly Propylene (PP) Nylon (PA) Teflon (PTFE)

Moisture Absorption Low High --

Machinability -- -- High

Glass Transition Temp. -- -- --

Coefficient of Friciton -- Low

Abrasion Resistance -- -- --

Chemical Resistance -- -- High


Polystyrene (PS) PVC Polyetherimide (PEI) Polyethersulfone (PES)

-- -- -- --

-- -- -- --

Low Low High High

-- -- -- --

-- -- -- --

-- -- -- --
UHMWPE

--

--

--
Low
(Next to PTFE)
High

--
Amorphous (PC, PS, PVC…)
Amorphous vs. Semicryastalline Thermoplastics
72 pages,2003NMW_Design_with_Plastics.pdf
page 11 of 72

• Low mold shrinkage


• Limited chemical resistance
• Light transmission (many)
• High coefficient of friction
• Toughness or brittle ?
• Stiff or flexible ?
• Other properties ?

Semi-crystalline (PE, PP…)


• Higher mold shrinkage
• Good chemical resistance
• Opaque or translucent
• Low coefficient of friction
• Toughness (most) ?
• Stiff or flexible ?
• Other properties ?

Relationships between Polymer Properties and Morphology

Property Crystalline
Light transmission Less High
Solvent resistance High Low
Lubricity High Lo
Dimensional stability High Low
Mold shrinkage High Low
Resistance to dynamic fatigue High Low
Facility to form high strength fibers High None
Thermal expansion coefficient High Low
Melting temperature Sharp Absent
Dependence of properties on temperature High Low

Engineering Thermoplastics, Overview, 22 pages.pdf


Page 4/22
Property Crystalline Crystalline Amorphous Liquid Crystalline
Specific Gravity Higher Lower Higher
Tensile Strength Higher Lower Highest
Tensile Modulus Higher Lower Highest
Ductility, Elongation Lower Higher Lowest
Resistance to Creep Higher Lower High
Max. Usage Temp. Higher Lower High
Shrinkage and Warpage Higher Lower Lowest
Flow Higher Lower Highest
Chemical Resistance Lower Higher Highest

Plastics-Design, 84 pages.pdf
14/84

Molten amorphous polymer - Shrinkage due to thermal contraction only


Molten semi-crystalline polymer (amorphous in the melt state) - Shrinkage due to thermal contraction
Amorphous vs. Semicryastalline Thermoplastics
72 pages,2003NMW_Design_with_Plastics.pdf
page 38 of 72

Ultimate strength measures the highest stress value during the tensile test.

Higher mold temperature


Increases
Crystallinity (crystalline resins)
Shrinkage (all resins)
Heat distortion temperature (crystalline resins)

Decreases
Molded in stresses
(all resins)
Impact strength
(crystalline resins)

Homopolymer polypropylene is stronger and stiffer than copolymer.


Copolymer polypropylene is a bit softer, but it is tougher and more durable than
homopolymer polypropylene. Copolymer polypropylene tends to have better
stress crack resistance and low temperature toughness than homopolymer.

The copolymers have generally similar properties, but the homopolymer


may have slightly better mechanical properties, and higher melting point, but
poorer thermal stability and poorer alkali resistance.
Ultraviolet light may cause degradation in Plastics, which can be reduced by the addition
of carbon black.
Nylon has a very sharp melting point and low melt viscosity, which is advantageous in injection moldi
and blow
molding.

Polyamide-imides can be used from cryogenic temperatures to nearly 260°C.


PAI should be annealed after molding at gradually increased temperatures

The most common method of processing HDPE is blow molding

Polyimides are used in high-performance applications as replacements for metal and


glass.
One weakness of polypropylene is its low-temperature brittleness
behavior, with the polymer becoming brittle near 0°C

molecular weight distribution (MWD)

Polyurethanes are available as both thermosets and thermoplastics.

In SAN The polymers generally contain


between 20 to 30 percent acrylonitrile.333 The acrylonitrile content of the polymer influences
the final properties with tensile strength, elongation, and heat distortion temperature
increasing as the amount of acrylonitrile in the copolymer increases.
Toughness - ability to withstand both plastic and elastic deformation
Stiffness - resistance of a material to elastic deformation or deflection
Hardness - the ability of material to resist scratching, abrasion, indentation & penetration
• Polyethylene Terepthalate Glycol (PETG)
• Cellulose Acetate Butyrate (CAB)

Amorphous Engineering Thermoplastics


• Polycarbonate (PC)
• Polyphenylene Oxide (Modified PPO)
• Polyphenylene Ether (Modified PPE)
• Thermoplastic Urethane (TPU)

Amorphous High Performance Thermoplastics


• Polysulfone (PSU)
• Polyetherimide (PEI)
• Polyethersulfone (PES)
• Polyarylsulfone (PAS)

Semi-Crystalline Commodity Thermoplastics


• Polyethylene (PE)
– High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
– Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
• Polypropylene (PP)
• Polymethylpentene (PMP)

Semi-Crystalline Engineering Thermoplastics


• Polyamide (PA - Nylon)
• Acetal (POM)
• Polyethylene Terepthalate (PET)
• Polybutylene Terepthalate (PBT)
• Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE)

Semi-Crystalline High Performance Thermoplastics


• Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)
• Polytetra Fluoroethylene (PTFE)
• Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE)

Thermosets :
• Phenol Formaldehyde,
• Urea Formaldehyde,
• Melamine Formaldehyde,
• Unsaturated Polyester Resin
• Poly Bismaleimides etc.,
Some important terms
Tg - Glass transition temperature
Tm - sharp melting transition
TC – Crystallization temperature
cryogenic temperatures to nearly 260°C.
MD - Machine direction - Drawing in the longitudinal machine direction (MD)
TD - Transverse direction - Drawing in the transverse direction (TD)
MWD - molecular weight distribution
IUPAC – International union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
LCP – Liquid Crystal Polymer
RTI – Relative Temperature Index
RTM – Resin Transfer Moulding
RIM – Reaction Injection Moulding
RRIM – Rainforced Reaction Injection Moulding
DTUL – Deflection Temperature Under Load
HDT – Heat Distortion Temperature
CLTE – Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion
BMC – Bulk Molding Compound
SMC – Sheet Molding Compound
LPMC – Low Pressure Molding Compound

Plastic Memory

Each time a plastic is reheated it will attempt to return to its original flat shape unless it has been ove
plastic memory
PI
PMMA
PMP
POM
PP
PPE
PPMI
PPO
PPS
PPSU
PPT
PS
PSF
PSO
PTFE
PTMT
PU
PVAc
PVAl
PVB
PVC
PVCA
PVDC
PVDF
PVF
PVF2
PVFM
PVK
PVOH
PVT
SAN
SHIPS
Plastic name A / S Brand Name Company / Make / Manufacturer
Polyetherimides (PEI) A Ultem General Electric
Polytrimethylene Terephthalate (PTT) -- Corterra Shell Chemicals
Polyamide (PA) S Zytel Dupont
Polyacetal (POM) S Delrin Dupont
Polycarbonate (PC) A Lexan General Electric
PBT Crastin Dupont
PET Rynite Dupont

Polyimides have excellent physical properties and are used in applications where parts are exposed to

Polyimide is used for Aircraft Engine Cooling Tube

Polyamide-imide polymers find application in hydraulic bushings and seals, mechanical parts for elect
polymer in solution has application as a laminating resin for spacecraft, a decorative finish for kitchen

PC can replace ferrous or glass products


PC alone is widely used as vacuum cleaner housings, household appliance housings, and power tools.
impact strength, heat resistance, durability, and high-quality finish justify its expense.
PC is also used in safety helmets, riot shields, aircraft canopies, traffic light lens housings, and automo
The headlight lens is made from polycarbonate. PC gives excellent transparency with impact resistanc
headlight. Polycarbonate plastic is used because of its tensile strength and the ability to be manufactu
styling of a vehicle. Although it's a very hard plastic, it's also very porous so during manufacturing a p
to the headlight lens. This silicone hard coat is supposed to protect the headlight lens from intense su
humidity and acid rain, etc.
The Speedosystem Bearing block material Zinc die casting is replaced by SAN 20% GF
Nylon 6,6 is used as an engineering resin in a variety of molding applications such as gears, bearings,
its good abrasion resistance and self-lubricating tendencies.
The PPS also provided better corrosion resistance against aggressive fuels than the previously used d
PET, Polycarbonate is used for blow mould the water bottle.
LCPs are typically selected for connectors because of their high thermal performance, ease of mold fil
dimensional stability
Ask the Expert.mht

PolyAcetal (POM) is used for tank units where the material is going to immersed in petrol, For this app

Polyester Resin is used for nylon


Polystyrene is used for manufacture CD Case.
LDPE is used for manufacture Carrier bag.
Corterra (Polytrimethylene Terephthalate – PTT, Brand name of cell chemicals)
is used in the textile and carpet industries, which take advantage of its stain resistance, wearability a
elastic recovery, color fastness, and soft hand

Polyetherimide is used in a variety of applications. Electrical applications include printed circuit substr
automotive industry, PEI is used for under-the-hood temperature sensors and lamp sockets. PEI sheet
aircraft cargo vent. The dimensional stability of this polymer allows its use for large flat parts such in

Polyurethanes find application in many areas. They can be used as impact modifiers for other plastics
wheels, exterior body parts, drive belts, and hydraulic seals.Polyurethanes can be used in film applica
clothing and protective coatings for hospital beds. They are also used in tubing and hose in both unre
because of their low-temperature properties and toughness. Their abrasion resistance allows them to
athletic shoe soles and ski boots. Polyurethanes are also used as coatings for wire and cable.

PU is used for Shoe soles.


Plastics are Visco-elastic materials (With respect to Strain rate)
Plastics are Brittle-Ductile materials (With respect to Temperature)
The simplest polyolefin is polyethylene (PE).
By volume, plastics production exceeds steel production.
Phenolic plastics and epoxy resins are thermosets
Weld Lines
The hairline grooves on the surface of a molded part where flow fronts join during filling, called weld l
cosmetic flaws and reduced mechanical performance (see figure 2-8). Because few polymer chains cr
fronts butt, the tensile and impact strength in the weld-line area is reduced. The resulting notches on
concentrators, further reducing impact strength.
Additionally, if the flow fronts are covered with a film from additives or a layer of impurities, they may
bind properly, which again can reduce impact and tensile strength. Weld-line strength in thermoplasti
varies with specific resin and processing parameters, such as flow-front temperature, distance from th
packing. For instance, Makrolon polycarbonate resins usually have exceptional weld-line tensile streng
strength without weld lines. Other resins can suffer
over 50% loss of tensile strength at the weld line.

86 pages, Bayer, engineering polymers, material selection, thermo plastics & plouterthanes, a design
1995,pdf, page 19
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf, Page 57

CELCON NATURAL 98.36


DELRIN (NATURAL) 83.40
NORYL 20% GF, (GFN2) 234.73
NORYL BLACK N110-701 234.73
NYLON 66, 33% GF NATURAL 159.36
NYLON 6, 30% GF BLACK 108.37
NYLON 6, 30% GF NATURAL 119.46
NYLON 6, COLOUR BLACK 98.84
NYLON 6 NATURAL 108.14
PC AMBER 245.35
PC BLACK 224.10
PC BLACK NOVAREX 423.79
PC BLUE 277.22
PC CLEAR LEXAN - 143 R 181.61
PC CLEAR NOVAREX IMPORTED 423.79
PC CLEAR PANLITE IMPORTED 195.04
PC GREEN 245.65
PC MILKY WHITE IMPORTED 397.57
PC MILKY WHITE 923R 277.22
PC RED IMPORTED 423.79
PC RED 245.35
PC SHEET 0.5 MM PER SQ. METER IMPORTED 237.08
PC SHEET 0.5 MM PER SQ. METER INDEGENIOUS 297.10
PC SHEET 1.0 MM PER SQ. METER IMPORTED 474.17
PC SHEET 1.5 MM PER SQ. METER IMPORTED 678.00
PBT 30% GF NATURAL 147.75
PBT 40% GF NATURAL IMPORTED 492.15
PBT NATURAL; DURANEX PB5 7400W IMPORTED 334.93
PBT NATURAL GR DURANEX 2002 IMPORTED 262.40
POLYACETAL CELCON BLACK – GRINDING 133.80
POLYACETAL DURACON NATURAL GR M90 106.06
POLAMIDE FILM, 125 MICRONS, IMPORTED 11321.83
POLYCARBONATE CLEAR CALIBRE 303-15 181.61
POM
“warm to the touch” feel

988 pages, Book, plastics materials & processes, a concise encyclopedia Plastics Materials and Proces

612 pages, Book, Handbook of Plastics Technologies110.pdf, page no. 1.17


The Remainder of the energy generated from the frictional heat generated by the mechanical motion
called `Viscous dissipation’.

Anisotropic shrinkage of fiber-reinforced polymers can be attributed to the fact that the fibers become
during injection molding. The shrinkage anisotropy, defined as the difference between the shrinkage p
flow.

Thermal expansion of a Lexan® 121, an unfilled polycarbonate, showing equivalent expansion in both
(Courtesy of GE Plastics.)

The glass transition temperature, Tg, is the temperature where the polymer chains have enough ener
neighboring chains. At temperatures well above Tg, the polymer has sufficient mobility to flow under

Unlike the homopolymer, copolymers can be processed by many methods, including extrusion, blow m

Acrylic fibers have good abrasion resistance, flex life, and toughness, and high strength. They have go
moisture.

Polyamide-imides can be used from cryogenic temperatures to nearly 260°C. They have the temperat
better mechanical properties, including good stiffness and creep resistance.

PAI polymers are inherently flame retardant, with little smoke produced when they are burned. The po
but at high temperatures it can be affected by strong acids, bases, and steam. PAI has a heat deflecti
good wear and friction properties. Polyamide-imides also have good radiation resistance and are more
different humidity conditions. The polymer has one of the highest glass transition temperatures, in th

Adding carbon black leads to UV resistance

Carbon Fillers are added to increase the thermal conductivity of thermoplastics

PC can replace ferrous or glass products


Polyethylene (PE) is the highest-volume polymer in the world.

Polyimides will burn, but they have self-extinguishing properties.


What is the plastic material you will be used at 90°C and subjected to continuous creep (Continuous T
automotive

He told `Delrin’.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

What is the difference between PA6 & Nylon6 ? Sr. Person in design – IFB automotive

PA6 - A particular Plastic Material Name


Nylon6 - Brand name of the Plastic material

I made an example of Polycarbonate (PC) with Lexan

Addition Polymerization
Involves a simple addition of monomer molecules to each other without the loss of any atoms from th

Condensation Polymerization
Involves a reaction between bifunctional reactants in which a small molecule is eliminated during eac
reaction

introduction EBB 220, 42 pages.ppt, page 11 & 12

Homopolymer
Polymer consisting of multiples of the same repeating units as Polyethylene
Example : Delrin [homopolymer of Poly Acetal (POM)]

Copolymer
Resulted products from two different monomers (e,g A and B) polymerized together
Example : Celcon, Duracon, Lucel [Copolymer of Poly Acetal (POM)], ABS

Terpolymers
Polymers obtained from three different monomers (e.g. A, B and C)
Example : ACS

introduction EBB 220, 42 pages.ppt, page 14


Monomer
The basic chemical unit of polymer, is called a monomer (beads in necklace)
Eg. Vinyl chloride, ethylene glycol, lactic acid, amino acids, glucose etc.,

Molecule with minimum functionality of two that reacts to form the structural units of the polymer.

Oligomer
These are compounds having a few (unlike “many” in case of Polymers) monomers joined together by
repeating units).
Eg. Oligonucleotides, peptides etc.,

Short chain synthesized from reaction of several monomers.


Eg. Dimmer, trimer, tetramer

Macromolecules
Refers to very large molecules. Since polymers are generally composed of thousands of monomers, e
Thus polymers are also termed as macromolecules

Sometimes polymers are called "macromolecules" - "macro" means "large" à polymers must be very l

Polymer
Macromolecule generated through sequential reaction of a small number of elementary units.

Introduction to Polymers chemcical - chapter1, 49 pages.pdf, page 5, 6


introduction EBB 220, 42 pages.ppt, page 8

Polystyrene - Good for vacuum forming

Even though ABS plastics are used largely for mechanical purposes, they also have good electrical pro
a wide range of frequencies. These properties are little affected by temperature and atmospheric hum
range of temperatures. The final properties will be influenced to some extent by the conditions under
the final product; for example, molding at a high temperature improves the gloss and heat resistance
impact resistance and strength are obtained by molding at low temperature.

PTFE (Teflon) is added as a internal lubrication material in Delrin


CFRP - carbon fibre reinforced plastics
GFRP - Glass fibre reinforced plastics
TFPP - Talc filled polypropelene

Delrin, the world’s first acetal resin, is a highly versatile engineering plastic with metal-like properties

Reference : dupont delrin acetal resin 230323c, 65 pages.pdf, Page 5

DFMEA OUTPUTS
RPN: Risk Assessment Number
Identification of Critical and Significant Characteristics
The type of nylon (nylon 6, nylon 10, etc.) is indicative of the number of carbon atoms
in the repeat unit. Many different types of nylons can be prepared, depending on the starting
monomers used. The type of nylon is determined by the number of carbon atoms in the
monomers used in the polymerization. The number of carbon atoms between the amide
linkages also controls the properties of the polymer. When only one monomer is used (lactam
or amino acid), the nylon is identified with only one number (nylon 6, nylon 12).
When two monomers are used in the preparation, the nylon will be identified using two
numbers (nylon 6,6, nylon 6,12).91 This is shown in Fig. 2.9. The first number refers to the
number of carbon atoms in the diamine used (a) and the second number refers to the number
of carbon atoms in the diacid monomer (b + 2), due to the two carbons in the carbonyl
group.92
The amide groups are polar groups and significantly affect the polymer properties. The
presence of these groups allows for hydrogen bonding between chains, improving the interchain
attraction. This gives nylon polymers good mechanical properties. The polar nature
of nylons also improves the bondability of the materials, while the flexible aliphatic
carbon groups give nylons low melt viscosity for easy processing.93 This structure also
gives polymers that are tough above their glass transition temperature.94

612 pages, Book, Handbook of Plastics Technologies110.pdf


Page 65 of 612

Glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics


(FRTPs) help to simplify these problems. For instance, 40 percent glass fiberreinforced
nylon outperforms its unreinforced version by exhibiting 2-1 2 times
greater tensile and Izod impact strengths, 4 times greater flexural modulus and only
1/5 of the tensile creep.

Glass Transition Temperature (Tg)


Polymers come in many forms, including plastics, rubber, and fibers. Plastics are stiffer
than rubber yet have reduced low-temperature properties. Generally, a plastic differs from
a rubbery material due to the location of its glass transition temperature (Tg). A plastic has
a Tg above room temperature, while a rubber has a Tg below room temperature. Tg is most
clearly defined by evaluating the classic relationship of elastic modulus to temperature for
polymers as presented in Fig. 1.5.

612 pages, Book, Handbook of Plastics Technologies110.pdf


page 12 of 612
exceeds the binding energy between neighboring molecules and growth of organized solid crystal beg
takes certain amount of time since molecules must move from their current location to energetically p
temperature falls, molecular motion slows further down and, if cooling rate is fast enough, molecules
substance enters into dynamic arrest and a disordered, glassy solid (or supercooled liquid) forms. In f
an arrest did not happen at still lower temperatues a thermodynamically paradoxical situation would a
would have to be denser and of a lower enthalpy than the crystalline phase. Such arrest apparently ta
which is called the glass transition temperature, Tg.

A full discussion of Tg requires an understanding of mechanical loss mechanisms (vibrational and reso
common in a given material) functional groups and molecular arrangements. Factors such as heat tre
arrangement, vacancies, induced strain and other factors affecting the condition of a material may ha
subtle to the dramatic. Tg is dependent on the viscoelastic materials properties, and so varies with ra
putty is a good example of this: pull slowly and it flows; hit it with a hammer and it shatters.

In contrast to the melting points of crystalline materials the glass transition temperature is therefore s
scale of the imposed change. To some extent time and temperature are interchangeable quantities w
expressed in the time-temperature superposition prrinciple. An alternative way to discuss the same is
temperature is only truly a point on the temperature scale if the change is imposed at one particular f
modulate the temperature in a DSC experiment has made determining Tg considerably more precise.
frequency) dependent as the glass is formed, the glass transition is not considered a true thermodyna
field. They reserve this epithet rather for a transition that is sharp and history-independent.

In polymers, Tg is often expressed as the temperature at which the Gibbs free energy is such that the
cooperative movement of 50 or so elements of the polymer is exceeded. This allows molecular chains
force is applied. From this definition, we can see that the introduction of relatively stiff chemical group
interfere with the flowing process and hence increase Tg. With thermoplastics, the stiffness of the ma
is shown in the figure below. It can be seen that when the glass temperature has been reached, the s
till the material melts. This region is called the rubber plateau.

Image:Rubberplateau.jpg
Tg can be significantly decreased by addition of plasticizers into the polymer matrix. Smaller molecule
between the polymer chains, increasing the spacing and free volume, and allowing them to move pas
temperatures. The "new-car smell" is due to the initial outgassing of volatile small-molecule plasticize
Acetal is the most important of all plastics. It offers long term dimensional stability and excellent lubri
office equipment, irrigation equipment, autos, appliances, clocks and meters.

PBT produces extremely smooth surfaces in molding and is often used in housing.

Nylon offers toughness and wears well against other plastics. They are often used in worm gears and

PPS offers high stiffness, dimensional stability and extended fatigue life.

LPC works well in small, precision gears under light loads, such as watch gears.

Plastic gear materials


Plastics – A General Review - Plastics, 66 pages.doc
35/99
The Advantages of Delrin®
• Most frequently used polymer for gears
• Superior dimensional stability and low water absorption
• Superior strength, modulus, flexural fatigue endurance, and high surface hardness
• Lower coefficient of friction against steel
• Available in a variety of lubricated compositions for improved friction and wear performance

The Advantages of Zytel®


• Performs at higher service temperatures
• Resin of choice for worm gears
• Used as a dissimilar material against Delrin® to reduce gear wear and noise
• Lower surface hardness and modulus which reduces mesh noise against steel
• Better resistance to mild acids and bases
• Provides more forgiving, tougher gear teeth

The most commonly used compositions of Delrin® and Zytel® for gears are provided in

Delrin Vs. nylon Comparision Chart


Dupont - Engineering Polymers for High Performance Gears - Gear_Brochure_11_06, 26 pages.pdf
7/26

HDT is also called DTUL (deflection temperature under load)


Engineering Thermoplastics, Overview, 22 pages.pdf
Page 11/22

Brittleness is the opposite of toughness. As a rule,


reinforced thermoplastics show higher stiffness and
lower impact properties,or more brittleness than
unfilled plastics.
Honeywell Plastics Design Solutions Guide plastic, 92 pages.pdf
82/92

Glass Transition Temperature


At the glass transition temperature, Tg, a material undergoes a significant change in properties. Gene
temperature, the material has a stiff, glassy, brittle response to loads, while above the Tg, it has a mo
Plastics-Design, 84 pages.pdf
31/84

>Tg Plastic = ductile, rubbery


< Tg Plastic = Stiff, glossy, brittle
< Stiff, glossy, brittle to > ductile, rubbery
Vicat Softening Point
This is the temperature at which a small, circular, heated, lightly loaded probe penetrates a specific d
specimen. Figure 4.01 shows a typical test apparatus. This test is useful for crystalline materials, but i
amorphous thermoplastics, which tend to creep during the test. This test indicates the ability of
a thermoplastic to withstand a short-term contact with a heated surface.
Plastics-Design, 84 pages.pdf
31/84

Nonuniform mold shrinkage behavior is an undesirable phenomenon in injection molding since it can
• Distortions of the finished part (warpage)
• Difficulties in hitting the target dimensions
• Higher internal stress levels

Shrinkage and Warpage, 8 pages


5/8

Plastic is Brittle Ductile with respect to Temperature material i.e., if temperature is less means than it
means than it will be Brittle,
Amorphous vs. Semicryastalline Thermoplastics
72 pages,2003NMW_Design_with_Plastics.pdf
page 11 of 72
Relationships between Polymer Properties and Morphology
Engineering Thermoplastics, Overview, 22 pages.pdf
4/22

Engineering Thermoplastics, Overview, 22 pages.pdf


Page 4/22

Table 2. Relationships between Polymer Properties and Morphology


Property Crystalline Amorphous
Light transmission High None to low
Solvent resistance High Low
Lubricity High Low
Dimensional stability High Low
Mold shrinkage High Low
Resistance to dynamic fatigue High Low
Facility to form high strength fibers High None
Thermal expansion coefficient High Low
Melting temperature Sharp Absent
Dependence of properties on temperature High Low

Crystalline Polymers vs. Amorphous Polymers


Plastic & Thermoplastic Elastomer Materials 05_Plastic-Thermoplastic, 7 pages.pdf
4/7
Crystalline Polymers vs. Amorphous Polymers
Plastics-Design, 84 pages.pdf
14/84

Designer Check List


Hanser The Complete Part Design 20060608_26681914-85_3-446-40309-4_Leseprobe01, 12 pages.pd
6/12

Design checklist
Ticona, DesignChecklistres72dpi, 1 pages.pdf
Goodfellow Polymer properties, Tab303a, 24 pages.pdf
Plastics various charts - Electric, chemical, mechincal, physical & thermal properties,
Thermoplastics Vs. various chemical compoounds resistance chart
Plastic & Thermoplastic Elastomer Materials 05_Plastic-Thermoplastic, 7 pages
6/7
Chemical resistance of various materials by chemical classes
Plastics-Design, 84 pages.pdf
41/84
Chemical Resistance of Engineering Thermoplastics
Engineering Thermoplastics, Overview, 22 pages.pdf
19/22
Approximate,* in Dollars per Cubic Inch of Plastics - price - cost - rupee
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
page 16 of 117
Price cosr rupees Chart for Various Plastics:
Plastics – A General Review - Plastics, 66 pages.doc
41/99
Approximate,* in Dollars per Cubic Inch of Plastics - cost, price
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
8.16 - 16/117
engineering thermoplastics high performance thermoplastics price cost ruppes chart
Engineering Thermoplastics, Overview, 22 pages.pdf
Page 16/22
Material properties list
Price Ruppe cost
Plastic Materials Guide - pm_guide, 6 pages.pdf
Commonly used Polymers in Injection Molding - properties - with cost rupee price
Injection Molding Basics mfg-injection-molding, 50 pages.pdf
4/50
Injection Molding Costs.ppt
Parameters of the Molding Process-m142_c12-param, 31 pages.ppt
31/31
Cost, Price, rupee chart
plastic raw materials.xls
SOLID PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS - definitions
Good for Theoritical definitions - all plastics
612 pages, Book, Handbook of Plastics Technologies110.pdf
page 12 of 612

86 pages, Bayer, engineering polymers, material selection, thermo plastics & plouterthanes, a des.pd
lot of definitions
UNDERSTANDING ENGINEERING PLASTICS 6/86
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF PLASTICS 13/86

Various definitions
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
8.21 - 21/117
Physical Properties and Terminology - definitions
Honeywell Plastics Design Solutions Guide plastic, 92 pages.pdf
82/92
Definitions
ides-Getting the Most Out of Your Data - By Michael Sepesepe, 29 pages.pdf
all pages
definitions
Mechanical Property of Plastics, 7 pages.doc
Properties & Definitions
Plastics-Design, 84 pages.pdf
15/84
Definitions Melting point & Glass transiiton temp. gdt
Week 1 Visco-elasticity, 71 pages.ppt
9/71
Glass Transition temperature (Definition inside flextural modulus definition 10/29)
ides-Getting the Most Out of Your Data - By Michael Sepesepe, 29 pages.pdf
all pages
various fasteners to join plastics
72 pages,2003NMW_Design_with_Plastics.pdf
page 60 of 72
Mechanical fasteners
136 pages, General Design Principles for DuPont Engineering Polymers H76838
page 70 of 136
Guidelines for self-tapping fasteners:
Honeywell Plastics Design Solutions Guide plastic, 92 pages.pdf
48/92
Bolt assembly, stress problems and solutions
Plastics-Design, 84 pages.pdf
76/84
Structural Design Formulae
Structural Design Formulae-L12565_4, 24 pages.pdf
13/24

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF self tapping screw FASTENERS


Honeywell, Smart Structure and Integrated System, Reinforced Nylon and Aluminum Self-Tapping Scr
2/21

Effect of Glass fiber filler in Poly carbonate


ides-Getting the Most Out of Your Data - By Michael Sepesepe, 29 pages.pdf
all pages
Detail of rectangular edge gates & another gates
LNP_Injection_Molding.pdf
11 of 36

Various gate
51 pages, A Troubleshooting Forum & Workshop on Injection Molded Parts-Presentation_ITP 09.pdf
page 10 of 51

Schematic of different gating systems


51 pages, A Troubleshooting Forum & Workshop on Injection Molded Parts-Presentation_ITP 09.pdf
page 10 of 51
Types of gate :
Sprue, Pin, Edge, Ring, Diaphram, Fan, Film & tab

612 pages, Book, Handbook of Plastics Technologies110.pdf, page no. 32

Three-plate runner system guidelines.- gate design


170 pages, Part and Mold Design Guide,.pdf
139/170
Plastic gear materials
Plastics – A General Review - Plastics, 66 pages.doc
35/99
Delrin Vs. nylon Gear Comparision Chart
Dupont - Engineering Polymers for High Performance Gears - Gear_Brochure_11_06, 26 pages.pdf
7/26
For detailed diagram of injection moulding machine
lecture 16 plastics 3.pdf
page 1 of 5
For detailed diagram of injection moulding machine
LNP_Injection_Molding.pdf
8 & 9 of 36
Equipment factor chart
LNP_Injection_Molding.pdf
20 of 36
Multi-shot injection molding213Compatible
72 pages,2003NMW_Design_with_Plastics.pdf
page 17 of 72
Co-injection Molded Parts
72 pages,2003NMW_Design_with_Plastics.pdf
page 18 of 72
Gas Assist Injection Molding
72 pages,2003NMW_Design_with_Plastics.pdf
page 19 of 72
“Metal” Injection Molding (MIM)
72 pages,2003NMW_Design_with_Plastics.pdf
page 20 of 72
Part Cooling calculations
72 pages,2003NMW_Design_with_Plastics.pdf
page 36 of 72
Sidewall openings molded without any special mold action
72 pages,2003NMW_Design_with_Plastics.pdf
page 50 of 72
Approximate Clamp forces for injection shot capabilities
170 pages, Troble shooting in plastic injection molding machines-njit-etd1993-013, book.pdf
page 50 of 170
Liquid injection moulding
170 pages, Troble shooting in plastic injection molding machines-njit-etd1993-013, book.pdf
page 74 of 170

Aspects of gas-injection moulding


Gas-Injection Moulding with DuPont engineering polymers - GasInj_e, 8 pages
page 8 of 8
Rotational molding
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
page 103 of 117
Typical processing conditions for glass reinforced compounds
LNP_Injection_Molding.pdf
page 4 of 36
polyamide-imide TORLON_Molding_Guide, 16 pages.pdf
Traingle
page 2 of 16
Injection Molding Guidelines for Unfilled Materials
612 pages, Book, Handbook of Plastics Technologies110
page 33 of 612
Bonding for Thermoplastic Combinations in Multicomponent Injection Molding
612 pages, Book, Handbook of Plastics Technologies110
page 39 of 612
Coinjection moulding – sandwhich moulding Page no. 36
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf, page 33

Suggested Drying Conditions for Generic Thermoplastic Resins


Harper Ch. A., Petrie E. M. - Plastics Materials and Processes. A Concise Encyclopedia(2003)(974), han
page 175 of 988

HOT-RUNNER SYSTEMS
170 pages, Part and Mold Design Guide,.pdf
148/170
Hot runners
Product and mould design - completed product__mold_design, 19 pages.pdf
11/19
Hot runner technology
ATI Hot Runner Technology Today-Systems, Developments, Trends, hot_runner, 12 pages.pdf
Hot runner systems
Realize the potential, feel the difference, Injection moulding guide, im, 33 pages.pdf
17/33
injection-molding-processing-guide.pdf
page 6 of 14
LNP_Injection_Molding.pdf
page 4 of 36
mde_injection_molding_troubleshooting_guide.pdf
2 of 11

51 pages, A Troubleshooting Forum & Workshop on Injection Molded Parts-Presentation_ITP 09.pdf


page 12 of 51 super

Various molding defects


72 pages,2003NMW_Design_with_Plastics.pdf
page 28 of 72
Processing steps via a fishbone diagram.
complete injection molding process, 27 pages.pdf
page 18 of 27
Dupont Hytrel thermoplastic polyester elastomer Injection Molding Guide H81091, 37 pages.pdf
page 26 of 37

Troubleshooting Tips for Injection Blow Molding.pdf


Equistar - Troubleshooting Tips for Injection Blow Molding - Troubleshooting Injection Blow, 3 pa.pdf

NYLON RESINS - CORRECTING MOLDING PROBLEMS - A TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE


firestone - nylon resins correcting molding problems a trouble shooting guide-Injection Molding, .pdf

firestone - nylon resins correcting molding problems a trouble shooting guide-Injection Molding, .pdf
page 5 of 12

LNP_Injection_Molding.pdf
Injection molding trouble shooting guide for LNP* engineering compounds
page 4 of 36
Torlon Polyamide imide Trouble shooting guide
polyamide-imide TORLON_Molding_Guide, 16 pages.pdf
page 10 of 16
L12565_2.pdf
page 2 of 4
Injection moulding truble shooting
Shrinkage and Warpage, 8 pages
Udel Polysupone Injection moulding truble shooting - Indication Chart
Solvay-polysulpone-Udel_Design_Guide, 80 pages.pdf
65/80
Injection moulding troubl shooting - Indication Chart
BASF-Injection Molding-Trouble Shooting Guidelines-injmoldtroubleshooting, 1 pages.pdf
GE Injection moulding mini guide - Shwon with photo
GE Injection moulding mini guide 8654, 43 pages.pdf
injection moulding Troubleshooting - with photo
GE plastics injection moulding mini guide - injection process design aids, 41 pages.pdf
23/41
injection moulding Troubleshooting with photo
Huntsman-Processing Parameters-Injection molding-Injection_Molding110705, 10 pages.pdf
8/10
injection moulding Troubleshooting - Indication Chart
injection moulding trouble shooting chart- molding troubleshooting, 1 pages.pdf
injection moulding Troubleshooting - Indication Chart
Injection_Troubleshooting_Guide, 1 pages.pdf
injection moulding Troubleshooting
mde_injection_molding_troubleshooting_guide, 11 pages.pdf
2/11

Injection Moulding Trouble Shooting Guide


Performance Plastics Injection Moulding Trouble Shooting Guide - trouble_shooting_guide, 3 pages.pd

Injection Molding Troubleshooting


Realize the potential, feel the difference, Injection moulding guide, im, 33 pages.pdf
29/33
Injection Molding Troubleshooting - Indication Chart
RTP Company Trouble-Shooting Guide - trouble, 1 pages.pdf
1/1
Injection Molding Troubleshooting - Indication Chart
Injection Molding Troubleshooting Guide - inject1, 1 pages

Advanced composites Material Processing Guidelines and Troubleshooting Guide ACP Material Process
12/17

`Troubleshooting' search by windows F3


D:\Engineering\Engineering 1\plastic design\www.ides.com\experts\ides-experts plastic processing-bo
This is for free lance reading and exploring from free time

injection moulding Troubleshooting


Inj molding, 12 pages.doc
7/12

Trouble shooting of injection moulding-korea engg. plastics-kh-m-04-0, 7 pages

injection moulding Troubleshooting


injection moulding trouble shooting guide for Eastar polymers - PPD407, 29 pages.pdf

Cannot be copied, to be converted to ms wordand to be done., To be incorporated


For Drafts, Ribs, bosses & gussets diagram
LNP_Injection_Molding.pdf
page 6 of 36
Rib Design
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
page 55 of 117
Boss Design
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
page 60 of 117
Part Design for Insert Molding
136 pages, General Design Principles for DuPont Engineering Polymers H76838
page 18 of 136
Delrin Gear Design
136 pages, General Design Principles for DuPont Engineering Polymers H76838
page 51 of 136
Self tapping Screw & Plastic part Boss
38 pages, engg plastics, Joining Guide.pdf
Page no. 9 of 38, Refer Figure 5
Rib Design Guideline
170 pages, Part and Mold Design Guide,.pdf
25/170
Boss Design Guideline
170 pages, Part and Mold Design Guide,.pdf
26/170
Stuctural design, beam bending formulas
170 pages, Part and Mold Design Guide,.pdf
62/170

Designing for Uniform Walls


Designing for Ribbed Walls
Designing without Stress Concentration
Gate Location
Designing for Assembly
Designing with Clearance on Threads

Dupont plastic part design list H81079, 6 pages.pdf


All pages

Various srructural formulas


Honeywell Plastics Design Solutions Guide plastic, 92 pages.pdf
20/92

insert guide lines, 9 pages.doc

Section properties for some common cross-sections


Plastics-Design, 84 pages.pdf
45/84
Design of bosses
Plastics-Design, 84 pages.pdf
63/84
Boss Design
plastics part design and mouldability -pdc1, 23 pages.pdf
20/23
Rib, Gusset, Boss design
Product and mould design - completed product__mold_design, 19 pages.pdf
4/19
Boss design (For self tapping screws & ultrasonic welding)
Solvay-polysulpone-Udel_Design_Guide, 80 pages.pdf
76/80
GE plastics - injection moulding design guideline - completed GE GUIDELINE, 15 pages.pdf
Guidelines for Machining Engineering Plastics.pdf
Guidelines for Machining Engineering Plastics, 2 pages.pdf
Plastic Numbering (bottle)
Plastics - History, Types & Processing an_Insight_Into_Plastics, 7 pages,pdf
4/7
Scientists who discovered the plastic materials with years:
List of Acronyms for plastics:
Plastics – A General Review - Plastics, 66 pages.doc
3/66
Properties chart
MechanicalPropertiesofPlastics.pdf
all pages / 4 pages
Higher mold temperature chart
LNP_Injection_Molding.pdf
17 of 36
Polypropelene properties
170 pages, Troble shooting in plastic injection molding machines-njit-etd1993-013, book.pdf
page 135 of 170
Typical properties of PC Lexan 141R
234 pages, shrinkage and ejection forces in injection moulded products AJPONTES_thesis.pdf
page 100 of 234

Coefficients of Linear Thermal Expansion (CLTE) for Common Materials


86 pages, Bayer, engineering polymers, material selection, thermo plastics & plouterthanes, a des.PD
PAGE 42 OF 86

Property Vs. Recommended Materials


117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
page 14 of 117
Celcon™Acetal M90 Copolymer—Typical Properties
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
page 20 of 117
THERMOPLASTIC PROPERTIES
plastics_properties_2.pdf
Nylon grades properties comparison chart
nylon (PA)\NYLON PLASTIC.mht
Comparative Properties of Thermoplastics
612 pages, Book, Handbook of Plastics Technologies110
page 15 of 612
Thermoforming Process Temperatures for Selected Materials
612 pages, Book, Handbook of Plastics Technologies110.pdf
page 47 of 612
Properties of Reinforced Nylon 6,6
612 pages, Book, Handbook of Plastics Technologies110.pdf
page 338 of 612
WATER ABSORPTION chart
water-absorption-plastics.pdf

Brittle Temperature chart of plastics


Harper Ch. A., Petrie E. M. - Plastics Materials and Processes. A Concise Encyclopedia(2003)(974), han
page 96 of 988

Mechanical Engineers' Handbook (www.eBookByte.com) Ch-08.pdf


super properties of various materials

Important Properties of Plastics and Listing of Plastics Suppliers


Harper Ch. A., Petrie E. M. - Plastics Materials and Processes. A Concise Encyclopedia(2003)(974), han
page 645 of 988

Delrin Data sheet


Acetal products quadrant bearingAndWear2, 2 pages.pdf
Plastics propeties comparision chart
Curbell - Product and comparision chart - Curbell_Plastics_Properties_Chart, 2 pages.pdf
Plastics Available for Processes chart
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
8.41 - 41/117
Coefficients of Table 3-8 Linear Thermal Expansion (CLTE) for Common Materials
170 pages, Part and Mold Design Guide,.pdf
79/170
Producers and Trade Names of Engineering Thermoplastics
Engineering Thermoplastics, Overview, 22 pages.pdf
Page 6/22

Property Comparison for Selected Plastics


Hanser The Complete Part Design 20060608_26681914-85_3-446-40309-4_Leseprobe01, 12 pages.pd
5/12

Thermal Conductivities of Solids, Liquids and Gases with Temperature


Honeywell Plastics Design Solutions Guide plastic, 92 pages.pdf
60/92
plastic - Material properties - 330-333, 4 pages.pdf
all pages
plastic & elastomers identification chart - New ID chart, 1 pages
Properties of PEEK
Engineering Thermoplastics, Overview, 22 pages.pdf
21/22
Approximate drilling speed and feed rate for 1/4 – 3/8 in. hole in various thermoplastics
Plastics-Design, 84 pages.pdf
81/84
Typical Properties* of Udel Polysulfone (U.S. Units)
Solvay-polysulpone-Udel_Design_Guide, 80 pages
11/80
Material properties list
Rutland plastics - Material Properties and Applications - materials summary table, 2 pages
PROPERTIES OF PLASTIC MATERIALS
properties & choice of plastic material - Material_Specs, 3 pages.pdf
Material Properties and Applications
Rutland plastics - Material Properties and Applications - materials summary table, 2 pages.pdf
thermoplastic selection guide
thermoplastic selection guide 2106, 2 pages.pdf
Torlon PAI Material properties
Torlon_Design_Guide, 53 pages.pdf
9/53
Material name Abbreviation Trade names Description Applications
Inj Molding (detailed), 25 pages.doc
12/25
Injection Molding Parameters-Melt Temperature
Parameters of the Molding Process-m142_c12-param, 31 pages.ppt
6/31
Plastic properties
Typical Property Data to Compare Types of Plastics, pages.mht
Snap fits
136 pages, General Design Principles for DuPont Engineering Polymers H76838
page 76 of 136
Snap fit design
170 pages, Part and Mold Design Guide,.pdf
84/170

Snap fit design


Hanser Designing with Plastics 20060105_261515524-85_3-446-22590-0_Leseprobe_2, 15 pages.pdf
4/15

Snap fit design


Honeywell Plastics Design Solutions Guide plastic, 92 pages.pdf
20/92
Snap fit design
Plastics-Design, 84 pages.pdf
66/84
Test Type Vs. Standard
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
8.27 - 27/117
Properties, Units and Standard Methods of Measurement of Engineering Thermoplastics
Engineering Thermoplastics, Overview, 22 pages.pdf
Page 10/22
ISO and ASTM Test Methods
Honeywell Plastics Design Solutions Guide plastic, 92 pages.pdf
88/92
Approximate Part Size Ranges for the Principal Processes
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
page 42 of 117
Suggested Wall Thicknesses for Thermoplastic Molding Materials
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
page 97 of 117
Approximate Part Size Ranges for the Principal Processes
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
8.42 - 42/117

Typical Nominal Thickness for Various Thermoplastics


Design Considerations For Injection Molded Parts, Designing_In_Plastics_Part_1_02_339res72dpi, 6 .pd
2/6

Typical Nominal Thickness for Various Classes of Thermoplastics


Plastics-Design, 84 pages.pdf
58/84
Tolerance Guide for Plastic Profile Extrusions
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
page 93 of 117
Tolerance Guidelines
Plastics APSI-Ext-design-tolerance-guidelines, 2 pages.pdf
Process Vs. Part diemnsion vs. Tolearnce chart
Injection Molding Basics mfg-injection-molding, 50 pages.pdf
34/50
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
Traingle diagram 8.13 - 13/117
traingle chart
How to choose plastic, 11 plastic.ppt
8 of 11
Triangle chart
Plastic & Thermoplastic Elastomer Materials 05_Plastic-Thermoplastic, 7 pages.pdf
3/7
Traingle chart
quadrant engineering plastic products, 13395_FACTSHEET_EPP_engl, 4 pages, triangle chart.pdf
2/4
Traingle chart
NylonApplicationsCPE, 49 pages, triangle.pdf
1/49
Triangle chart
Solvay-polysulpone-Udel_Design_Guide, 80 pages.pdf
2/80
Triangle chart
Classification of Plastics triangle, techinfop3, 1 pages
1/1
Traingle chart
thermoplastics_selection_guide, 1 pages, triangle.pdf
A guide to tool surface enhancements commonly used in the plastics processing industry
LNP_Injection_Molding.pdf
9 of 36
Polyethylene Shrinkage Changes from Part and Process Changes
Causes of Molded-Part Variation -material- Warpage due to material use, 27 pages.pdf
page 6 of 27
The Effect of a Variety of Pigments on the Linear Shrinkage of PBT
Causes of Molded-Part Variation -material- Warpage due to material use, 27 pages.pdf
page 12 of 27
Plastics Available for Processes
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
page 41 of 117
Blow modeling design
117 pages, design_of_plastic_products, triangle, book.pdf
page 81 of 117
Weld profile
136 pages, General Design Principles for DuPont Engineering Polymers H76838
page 92 of 136
Formula for thermally induced stress
38 pages, engg plastics, Joining Guide.pdf,
page 13 of 38

Slots in inclined walls without side core


72 pages,2003NMW_Design_with_Plastics.pdf, Page 50
Also refer : 136 pages, General Design Principles for DuPont Engineering Polymers H76838.pdf, Page
170 pages, Part and Mold Design Guide.pdf, Page 35

Guidelines on Part Design for Plastic Processing Methods


Harper Ch. A., Petrie E. M. - Plastics Materials and Processes. A Concise Encyclopedia(2003)(974).pdf
page 23 of 988

Properties of Glass Fibers


Harper Ch. A., Petrie E. M. - Plastics Materials and Processes. A Concise Encyclopedia(2003)(974), han
page 261 of 988
Hot Plate Temperatures to Weld Plastics and Plastic Films
Harper Ch. A., Petrie E. M. - Plastics Materials and Processes. A Concise Encyclopedia(2003)(974), han
page 280 of 988

Film Selection Chart


988 pages, Book, plastics materials & processes, a concise encyclopedia Plastics Materials and Pr.pdf
page 15 of 988

A good file for polymer chemistry study


polymer basics, allison calhoun, 0392sampbk1, 6 pages
WWW Sites Containing Data Sheets of Engineering Thermoplastics
Engineering Thermoplastics, Overview, 22 pages.pdf
Page 15/22
Why Plastics Fail
WhyPlasticsFail, 2 pages.pdf

Troubleshooting Tips for Injection Blow Molding


Equistar - Troubleshooting Tips for Injection Blow Molding - Troubleshooting Injection Blow, 3 pa.pdf
2/3

Advantages of Engineering Plastics versus Metals


NylonApplicationsCPE, 49 pages, triangle.pdf
3/49
ExxonMobil™ Polypropylene Resins (Unfilled)
Typical Processing Conditions
Know Your Material, machine & Mold
Amorphous vs.
Semicryastalline

Amorphous vs.
Semicryastalline

Amorphous vs.
Semicryastalline

Amorphous vs.
Semicryastalline

Amorphous vs.
Semicryastalline

check list

check list

Chemical

Chemical

Chemical

Chemical
Cost

Cost

Cost

Cost

Cost

Cost

Cost

Cost

Definitions

Definitions

Definitions

Definitions

Definitions

Definitions
Definitions

Definitions

Definitions

Fastener

Fastener

Fastener

Fastener

Fastener

Fastener

Filler

Gate Design

Gate Design

Gate Design
Gate Design

Gate Design

Gear Design

Gear Design

GIM

GIM

GIM

GIM

GIM

GIM

GIM

GIM

GIM

GIM
GIM

GIM

GIM

GIM

GIM

GIM

GIM

GIM

GIM

Hot Runner

Hot Runner

Hot Runner

Hot Runner

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting
Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting
Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting
Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting
Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting
Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting
Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

Injection Moulding
Trouble Shooting

mech design

mech design
mech design

mech design

mech design

mech design

mech design

mech design

mech design

mech design

mech design

mech design

mech design

mech design

mech design
mech design

mech design

mech design

mech design

Numbering

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart
Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart
Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Cost

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Properties Chart

Snap Fit

Snap Fit

Snap Fit

Snap Fit

Snap Fit

Test Standards
Test Standards

Test Standards

Thickness

Thickness

Thickness

Thickness

Thickness

tolearnce

tolearnce

tolearnce

Triangle Digram

Triangle Digram

Triangle Digram

Triangle Digram

Triangle Digram
Triangle Digram

Triangle Digram

Triangle Digram
Properties Chart

GIM
Defect

Brittleness

Brittleness

Brittleness
PART BRITTLENESS

Brittleness

Brittle parts
Brittleness

Warped parts

Warping

WARPED PARTS

Warpage /
Disportion
PART WARPAGE
Warpage or part
deformation

Warpage/
part distortion
Warpage, part
distortion

Warpage
Warpage

Flashing

Flashing
Flash

Flashing

Flashing

Flashing/Burr
Flashing

PART FLASHES

Flashing

PART FLASHING
Flash

Flashing

Burn marks

Burns

Burn marks
Burn Marks

BURN MARKS

Burn marks

Burn marks

Burn marks
Burning, charring
or black specks

Weak weld-lines

Weak weld-lines
Weak weld-lines

weld-lines

POOR WELDS/WELD
LINES

Poor Weld Line


Strength
Weld lines (Knit
lines)

POOR KNIT LINES

Sticking in mold

Sticking in mold
PARTS STICKING IN
MOLD

Parts sticking in
mold

Sticking in mold
Sticking in sprue
bushing

Sprue Sticking

SPRUE STICKING

Surface
imperfections
(frosty surface or
white marks)

Glass fibre streaks


PART SURFACE
IMPERFECTIONS

Surface
Imperfections
(Glass on surface,
mineral bloom)

Sinks or voids
Sink marks

Voids

VOIDS OR SINKS
Voids occur inside
the
part. Sinks pull
away
from the mold wall.

Sinks and Voids


Sinks or voids

Sink marks

Internal voids
Sink Mark

SINK MARKS
Voids (Bubbles)

Bubbles

BUBBLES
Part surface bulges
above a bubble

Voids
VOIDS/BUBBLES

LAMINATION AT THE
GATE

Dimensional
inconsistency

Shot-to-shot
dimensional change

Dimensions Out of
Specification
DIMENSIONAL
VARIATIONS

Dimensional
inconsistency

Dimensional
inconsistency
Dimensional
variations

Shorts

PART SHORTS
No burn marks
Short Shuts & poor
surface finish

Short shot, record


groove effect

Short shots

Short Shots
Short Shots

Short Shot
Short Shots

PART SHORTS
and has burn marks

Progressively
shorter shots

Inconsistent Shot
SHORT SHOTS

Short shots—at the


start of injection
molding operation—
injection ram is
bottoming
Short shots—at the
start of the injection
molding operation—
injection ram is not
bottoming

Short shots—after
a period of
successful
injection
molding operations
Short shots—
occur periodically
during injection
molding operations

Black Specks

Black specks
Blisters, bubbles

Blisters/Bubbles

Blister
Blister

Burns in gate area

Burns at the end of


fill

Cracking/Crazing
CRAZING/CRACKING

Crazing

Delaminating

Delamination

Delaminating
Discoloration

Discoloration/
Burning

NON-UNIFORM
COLOR

Non-Uniform Color
MATERIAL
DISCOLORATION

Poor color
dispersion
Excessive Cycle
Time

Flow lines

FLOW LINES/MARKS

FLOW MARKS
Back fills
Shadowing
Folds

Flow marks

Nozzle Drooling
NOZZLE DROOL

Splay (Silver
Streaking)

Splay

Silver streak
SPLAY/SILVER
STREAKING

Surface Defects
(Streaks)

SURFACE DEFECTS
Silver streaking or
splay
marks

SURFACE DEFECTS
Uneven shine
Beach marks

Brown streak &


Black spots

Burnt streaks
(brown)
Streaks

Moisture streaks

Jetting
a „snake-like or
spiral-shaped“
pattern on the
surface of a molede
part.
Jetting

Jetting

Jetting

Shrinkage
Excessive
shrinkage

Sink Marks

Sinks, shrink
marks, voids,
bubbles
Sinks

Bubbles & Voids

Voids or Sinks

Sink Marks
Ejector marks

EJECTOR PIN MARKS

Ejection difficulties
Embedded
contaminates

Contamination

Scratches
Degradation

Polymer
degradation
Surface defects
on the molded
article

NOZZLE FREEZE OFF

Cavity not
filling
Post blowing

In-Mold Shrinkage

Blisters, bubbles
Blister

Blush / flow marks

Flow marks

Blush / flow marks


Gate blush

Gate Blush

Burn marks / diesel


effect

Diesel effect

Delamination
Dimensions of part

Discolouration

Flash

Flash
Flashing

Flash

Jetting

JETTING

Pitting
Record grooves

Sticking in cavity

PART STICKS IN
”A” HALF or
STATIONARY SIDE
OF THE TOOL

PART STICKS
DURING EJECTION
Sticking on core

Sticking of sprue

Short shot

Short shots
Sink marks

Silver streaks

Color Streaks

Colour Streaks
Splay / streaks

Splay Marks

Streaking
Splay

Gate splay

Stringing

Stringiness
Tiger Striping

Voids

Voids

Weld lines / knit


lines

Weld line
Weld Line

Weld Lines

Weld line

Unmelted Particles

Screw Slip

Screw Stall
Cold slug

Tails & Hooks


especially near
raised
engraving etc.

Dark spots

Cloudy / milky
transparent parts

Unusually low
maximum service
temperature

Off-Color Part or
Odor
BURNT SMELL
Parts have a yellow
cast

Gloss Differences

Gate smear

Wrinkle near gate

Pits
Cause

---

Wet material
Overheating

Molded-in-stresses
Poor part design
Weld-lines

--
A. Low melt temperature
B. Polymer degradation due to overheating.
C. Excessive moisture in resin
D. Contamination or excessive
E. Excessive regrind.
F. Slow injection rate
G. Improper location of gate
H. Gate size too small

1. Moisture in material
2. Excessive melt temperature
3. Melt temperature to low
4. Contamination
5. Excessive amounts of regrind
6. Improper gate size/location

Wet material
--

Part temperature differential


Excessive shrinkage
Orientation of material
Poor part design
Ejection problem

Cooling is too short, material is too hot, lack of cooling around the tool, incorrect
water temperatures (the parts bow inwards towards the hot side of the tool)

Anisotropic shrinkage.

High molded-in stress.

---
A. Low melt temperature
B. Parts ejected too hot
C. Varying wall thickness
D. Non-uniform filling
E. Improperly designed knockout system
F. Poor pressure distribution
G. Overpacking
H. Lost contact with cavity surface.
A. Molded-in stresses are too high
due to:
1.
Excessive packing of the cavity
2. Cavities being filled too slowly
3. Melt temperature being too
low or non-homogenous
B. Part is being ejected while still
too hot
C. Ejector mechanism is improperly
designed
D. Part is improperly designed
(non-uniform walls)
E. Gates are improperly located
and/or designed
F. Undercuts, ribs, bosses, threads,
etc., are improperly designed
G. Mold cooling is inadequate
(Capacity of the cooling system
is too low, cooling circuits in the
mold halves are not balanced,
heat transfer is poor)
H. Moveable mold components
(cores) have shifted or become
misaligned
I. Runner system is inadequate

--
part
wrong part design
part too heavy
machine
insufficient cooling time
too high injection pressure
mould
wrong gate location:different shrinkage in different flow directions
too big undercuts
inadequate ejector pins
cavity too hot
material
orientation of fillers
wrong material choice

1. Part ejected while too hot


2. Shrinkage differential due to non-uniform shrinkage
3. Melt temperature too low
4. Shrinkage differential due to non-uniform wall thickness
5. Insufficient pack and hold times or pressures
6. Ejection system poorly designed
7. Differential mold cooling
--

Inadequate clamp tonnage


High Injection Pressure
Misaligned platen
Excessive vent depth

--
---

--

1. Excessive melt/mold temperature


2. Excessive packing of material
3. Injection pressure to high
4. Projected area to large for available tonnage
5. Uneven or poor parting line and mating surface
6. Mold clamping pressure not properly adjusted
7. Non- uniform cavity pressure due to unbalanced filling

---
Inadequate clamp tonnage
High Injection Pressure
Misaligned platen
Excessive vent depth

Too much injection pressure.


Too much material.
Material viscosity too low.
Tool too loose.
Not enough clamp capacity.

--

A. Excessive pressure.
B. Temperature excessively high.
C. Overpacking.
D. Injection force greater than available clamping forces.
E. Clamping pressure too low.
F. Mold deficiencies.
G. Insufficient venting.
H. Foreign matter left in mold.
I. Improper mating of mold surfaces
Boost time too long
Clamp pressure too low
Mold damaged or misaligned
Wet material

A. Injection pressure is too high


B. Too much material is being
C. Material is too hot
D. Clamp end of press is out of adjustment
E. Flash or foreign material is acting as a high spot on
mating surfaces of the mold
F. Mold surfaces, cores and/or cavity inserts are out of register.
G. Mold or platens are warped
H. Clearance in vents, knockouts, etc., is too great
I. Venting is insufficient or blocked thereby forcing material from the cavity area
J. Injection pressure is unevenly
K. Projected cavity area is too large
for the available clamping clamping pressure.
Pressure

Air trapped in cavity


Barrel or nozzle overheating
Shear heat
Contamination

Hang-up in molding machine

Dieseling in the mold

--
Tool lacks venting, injection speed is too high

A. High melt temperature


B. Injection rate too rapid
C. Entrapped air in mold.
D. High moisture content in resin

Air trapped in cavity


Barrel or nozzle overheating
Shear heat
Contamination

Hang-up in molding machine

--

Vents clogged
Insufficient venting
Fill rate too fast
A. Material is too hot
B. Molten resin is exposed to air in
the machine due to starving the
feed section or entraining air in
the screw feed
C. Vents are inadequate or blocked
D. Material is entering the cavities
too rapidly
E.
Material is hanging up in the
heating cylinder and/or nozzle
(generally indicated by specks or
streaks in the molded item)
F. Regrind is of questionable quality
G. Previous polymer or purge
material has not been completely
removed

Insufficient venting
Injection speed or mold temperature too low
Incorrect gate location

Insufficient venting
Injection speed or mold temperature too low
Incorrect gate location
1. Melt temperature too low
2. Mold temperature too low
3. Insufficient pressure at weld line
4. Air trapped in mold
5. Injection rate to slow
6. Flow distance from gate to weld line area excessive

--

A. Low melt temperature.


B. Cold mold
C. Insufficient pressure
D. Entrapped Air
E. Excessive lubricant/mold release
F. Excessive distance from gate to weld lines

---
--

Poor venting.

Too cool a melt.

Over packing

Mold design

Over packing

Mold design
A. Overpacking.
B. Parts too hot.
C. Low nozzle temperature.
D. Insufficient knockout
E. Insufficient mold release
F. Inadequate sprue puller
G. Improper mold surface finish
H. Inadequate draft or cavities/sprue
I. Cavity misalignment/core shifting.
J. Cavity pressure non-uniform 1. Redesign runner-gate system for (multi-cavity
mold)
K. Surface imperfections and undercuts in mold.

1. Over packing material in mold


2. Insufficient draft on cavities/sprue
3. Part to hot for ejection
4. Undercuts to big to allow part release
5. Molded part sticking to stationary half of mold
6. Knockout

--
--

1. Nozzle orifice is larger then sprue orifice


2. Insufficient taper on sprue bushing
3. Imperfections on inside of sprue
4. Over packing material in sprue
5. Nozzle temperature to low to provide clean break

A. Improperly fitted sprue nozzle interface.


B. Sprue bushing taper insufficient
C. Pitted surfaces
D. Inadequate pull back
E. Overpacking in sprue.
F. Sprue diameter excessive
G. Low nozzle temperature

Injection speed too low


Cold melt/cold mold
Wet material

--
A. Low melt temperature.
B. Cold mold
C. Slow injection rate.
D. Insufficient material in mold
E. Water or condensation on mold
F. Excess lubrication on mold surface
G. Moisture in resin
H. Mold surface defects.

1. Melt temperature to low


2. Mold temperature to low
3. Insufficient packing of the part
4. Insufficient material in mold
5. Injection rate to slow
6. Water on mold surface
7. Excessive build up of lubricant on mold
8. Moisture in material
9. Inadequate venting

Holding pressure or time too low


Insufficient feed
Gate freezing off or located improperly
---

---

Material shrinkage & insufficient supply of molten material.

Not enough pack pressure during material solidification.

1. Improper part design


2. Insufficient pack and hold times
3. Insufficient volume of material
4. Gate freezes off prior to properly packing out part
--

--

Wet material
Gate too small
Runner too small
Runner too long
Injection rate too slow
Hold time too short
Hold pressure too low
Resin melt or mold too cold
Insufficient venting
Jetting
--

A. Insufficient pressure on parts.


B. Insufficient material packed into cavity.
C. High melt temperature.
D. Premature freezing of gate.
E. Parts ejected too hot.
F. Heavy sections adjacent
--

---

Gas entrapment

---
A. Excessive moisture in resin
B. High melt temperature.
C. High internal shrinkage due to insufficient material in cavity.

A. Low melt temperature.


B. Cold mold
C. Slow injection rate
D. Low holding pressure.
E. Small gate size.

Shot to Shot variation


Melt temperature variation
Inadequate packing

---

Loss of control of shrinkage


A. Inconsistent molding conditions.
B. Machine control malfunctions or
inadequate controls, resulting in
temperature variations.
C. Resin feed non-uniform
D. Non-Uniform cavity pressure due to
unbalanced runner.
E. Poor part design.
F. Material variations.

--

1. Non-uniform feeding of material


2. Insufficient packing of part
3. Regrind levels inconsistent
4. Melt pressure variations
5. Unbalanced runner system
A.
Non-uniform feed due to:
1.
Variation in machine operation
2.
Variation in the material
B.
Cylinder temperatures are
cycling too broadly
C. Cycles are inconsistent
D. Machine capacity is too small
E.
Mold temperatures inadequately
controlled
• Check location of coring.

Inadequate shot size.


Vents blocked.

Not enough material.

Blockage in flow atthe feed-throat.

Not enough injection pressure.

Material too high in viscosity.


--

--

---

1. Melt temperature to low


2. Mold temperature to low
3. Insufficient material volume
4. Air entrapment causing resistance to fill
5. Restricted flow of material to cavity
---

--
--

Gas trapping/ poor


venting.

Residence time too long


Barrel temperature too high
Shot size too small

--
A. low melt temperature.
B. Cold mold.
C. Insufficient pressure on material in cavity pressure.
D. Inadequate feeding of material
E. Entrapped air/resistance to fill
F. Flow to cavity restricted
G. Unbalanced flow (in multicavity mold)
H. Poor part design.

1) Shortage of material
2) Machine capacity is too small
3) Polymer melt is slipping past the screw (ram)
A. Injection time is too short
B. Injection pressure is too low
C. Cylinder temperature is too low
D. Heater bands on the nozzle or cylinder are inoperative
E. Nozzle, sprue or gates are blocked or frozen
F. Excessive resistance to flow in
the sprue bushing, runners, vents consistent with machine shot capacity
and/or gates
G. Material viscosity is too high
(melt index is too low)

A. Check Items D and E in Section II


B. Loss of injection pressure
C. Venting is inadequate (usually accompanied by burned orcharred spots on
molded part)
D. Shortage of material
E. Interrupted feed
F. Polymer is sticking in the feed throat
A. Cylinder temperature controller is cycling too broadly
B. Cycles are inconsistent

1. Contamination in material
2. Heater Band malfunction
3. Contamination from previous run

4. Degraded Polymer

machine
· down time too long
· barrel switched off
over a long period
of time
· poor purging of barrel
· dirty plasticizing unit
· inadequate nozzle

mould
· dead edges in gate/
runner system
material
· granule impurities
· degradation by other resins
· pick-up of degraded
material from cylinder wall
during cooling
machine
· injection pressure too low
· inadequate functioning of back flow valve
· suck-back too long
· plasticizing too fast
· air trap in the hopper feed
· improper feed

mould
· volatiles and trapped gas
· mould temperature too low
· thin to thick transition
material
· melt overheating

1. Moisture in material

2. Air Entrapment

3. Degraded polymer

Tool or material is too hot, often caused by a lack of cooling around the tool or a
faulty heater
--

1. Burrs or sharp corners at the gate


2. Gate size to small
3. Color concentrate shear sensitive

1. Plugged vents
2. Over clamping
3. Inadequate vents
4. Melt temperature to high
5. Injection rate to fast

1. Contamination
2. Part removal
3. Packing excessive material into the mold
4. Non-uniform or too cold of a mold temperature
5. Chemical contamination
A. Excessive packing resulting in highly
stressed area at gate.
B. Low mold temperature
C. Mold cooling non-uniform
D. Improperly designed knockout system
E. Excessive undercut
F. Draft angles inadequate

--

1. Melt temperature to low


2. Material contamination
3. Incompatible color concentrate
4. Injection rate to low
5. Air entrapment in mold
6. Mold temperature to low

Contamination of the material e.g. PP mixed with ABS, very dangerous if the part
is being used for a safety critical application as the material has very little
strength when delaminated as the materials cannot bond

--
1. Material Overheating
2. Material oxidized by drying at to high temperature
3. Contamination by foreign material

---

Poor dispersion.

Contamination.

Poor concentrate mixing or


dispersion
A. Overheating in cylinder.
B. Material hanging up in cylinder
C. Oxidation/ degradation due to excessive drying temperature.
D. Contamination
E. Flow over sharp projections

A. Because of poor mixing . . .


1. In a ram machine
2. In a screw machine
B. Because of the pigment . . .
1.
Particles are too coarse
2. Feed is non-uniform
3. Pigment is difficult to disperse
C. Because of the concentrate . . .
1. Letdown ratio is too great
2. Base polymer is not compatible
with Hytrel
3. Pigment concentration is
too high
1. Poor mold cooling
2. Clamp speeds slow
3. Melt and mold temperatures to high
4. Screw recovery time excessive

1. Melt temperature to low


2. Mold Temperature to low
3. Gate size to small
4. Non- uniform wall thickness

A. Low melt temperature.


B. Low mold temperature.
C. Injection rate too rapid.
D. Jetting due to improper gate size

Filling from thin to thick sections.


Surface irregularity.
Uneven filling of section.

---

1. Nozzle temperature to hot


2. Moisture in material
A. Nozzle temperature too high
B. High melt temperature
C. Excessive moisture in resin
D. Nozzle orifice too large
E. Excessive cycle time.
F. Lack of lubrication
G. Improper type nozzle

1. Excessive moisture in material


2. Melt temperature to high
3. Excessive shear heat
4. Air entrapment
5. Condensation or excessive lubricant on mold surface
6. Moisture condensing in feed section of barrel

---

---
A. Excessive moisture in resin
B. High melt temperature.
C. Condensation on mold surface
D. Excessive mold release agent on mold surface.
E. Moisture condensing on unmelted resin in feed sections.
F. Melt fracture

Moisture in part.
Possible mold sweating.

Contaminated material.

High shear in the material.

High molecular
weight compound in
highly polished
mold.

---

--
--

--

--
--

Poor tool design, gate position or runner. Injection speed set too high.

---

--
A. Gates not frozen off
B. Effective injection pressure in
the cavities is too low
1. Gates are too small or
improperly designed
2. Runner system is improperly
designed (diameters and
layout are incorrect)
3. Melt temperature is too low
4. Flow rate of material is too low
5. Nozzle orifice is too small
C. Injection pressure is too low
D. Mold temperature is too high
E. Not enough material in the cavity
F. Dwell time is too short
G. Molding conditions not optimized

Holding time/pressure too low, cooling time too low, with sprueless hot runners
this can also be caused by the gate temperature being set too high

A. With the exception of Item B-4, the causes shown for Section VIII generally
apply
B. Moisture content of the polymer is too high
---

--

Inadequate amount of material.

--
--

Parts soft during ejection.

A. Excessive flashing
B. Material too highly packed in the cavity (mainly with large gates)
C. Pieces deform during ejection
(part is too soft)
D. Parts stick to the mold due to
highly polished surfaces
E. Mold conditions:
1. Mold surfaces are scratched and marred
2. Draft or taper on cavity walls cores or sprues is not great enough
3. Undercuts are improperly designed
4. Sprue bushing and nozzle orifice are misaligned
Particles on the tool surface, contaminated material or foreign debris in the
barrel, or too much shear heat burning the material prior to injection

--

--
A. Material is overheated
B. Thermocouple is burned out
C. Temperature controller is
malfunctioning
D. Regrind is of questionable quality
E.
Improper shutdown procedures
were used (over weekends or
periods of interrupted production)
F. Moisture content of the polymer
is too high
G.
Polymer residing in the barrel
too long
H.
Stagnation of material in the
cylinder, nozzle, or nozzle valve

Excess water in the granules, excessive temperatures in barrel


Moisture is condensing on
cold pellets when they are
moved into a warm, humid
processing area
c.
Moisture absorbed in the
polymer
D. Delamination due to:
1. Contamination of the material
2. Material being too cold
E. Pigment poorly dispersed
F. Cloudy or hazy surfaces—low
gloss
1. Injection pressure is too low
2. Injection speed is too low
3. Effective injection pressure in
the cavities is too low
4. There is moisture on the mold
and/or pellet surfaces
G. Flow lines (ripple pattern)
1. Gate design and/or location
is not correct
2. Material is too cold
3. Injection speed is too slow
4. Mold is too cold
5. Flow rate of the material is
too low
6. Polymer melt is jetting into
the cavity
7. Polymer melt is non-uniform
H. Weak weld lines due to:
1. Material being too cold at the

A. Nozzle temperature to high.


B. Pressure too low.
C. Low mold temperature
D. Nozzle orifice to small.

Injection time too short


Gate too small
Insufficient venting
Shot size too small
Injection speed too slow
Wet material
Cycle too short

An increase in :
Injection pressure
Injection rate
Holding pressure
Holding-pressure time
Melt temperature
Mold temperature
Clamping pressure
Wall thickness
Melt flow rate
Ejection temperature
Cooling time
Gate minimum dimension
Number of gates
Amount of filler
Kind of filler
Mold-open time (operator break)
Room temperature
Humidity
Air movement

machine
injection pressure too low
inadequate functioning of back flow valve
suck-back too long
plasticizing too fast
air trap in the hopper feed
improper feed
mould
volatiles and trapped gas
mould temperature too low
thin to thick transition
material
melt overheating
--

machine
injection speed too slow or too fast
injection pressure too low
hold pressure too long
mould
inadequate mould cooling
mould too hot around gate
mould too cold
gate too small
wrong gate location
gate land length too long
wrong hot runner system
material
melt temperature too low

Injection speeds too slow (the plastic has cooled down too much during injection,
injection speeds must be set as fast as you can get away with at all times)

machine
· injection speed too
slow or too fast
· injection pressure
too low
· hold pressure
too long

mould
· inadequate mould cooling
· mould too hot around gate
· mould too cold
· gate too small
· wrong gate location
· gate land length too long
· wrong hot runner system
material
· melt temperature too low
Cold material

Melt fracture

---

machine
problems with back flow valve
injection speed too fast
back pressure too high
mould
inadequate venting : entrapped air
frictional burning
check sprue diameter
material
melt too hot or too cold:may create shear

--

machine
injection speed too high
mould
mould too cold
sharp corners in gate area
shear heat caused at sharp corners
material
melt too hot
poorly melted
incompatible colour dyes
cross contamination with other polymers
too much use of recycled material
machine
injection pressure too low
injection hold pressure time too short
overall cycle too short
back flow valve cracked
excessive cylinder clearance
heater bands burned out
mould
too hot
gates too small (related to inadequate pressures)
gating in the wrong place
mould too small

machine
contamination
mould
check sprue diameter
pin-point too small
poor venting
material
melt too hot or too low:may create shear
long residence time
instability of polymer/pigments

machine
clamping pressure too low
injection pressure too high
injection speed too fast
mould
inadequate mould supports
clamping force too low
damaged mould surface: parting line
excessive projected area
material
melt too hot
viscosity too low

Tool damage, too much injection speed/material injected, clamping force too low.
Can also be caused by dirt and contaminants around tooling surfaces
Too much material.
Clamp pressure low.
Injection pressure too high.
Injection speed too fast.

--

machine
injection speed too fast
mould
mould too cold
gates too small
gate land length wrong
wrong gate location
material
melt too cold

High viscosity flow.

machine
wrong or worn out screw, giving hang-ups
melt temperature too low
injection pressure too low
mould
shear in gating
sharp corners
material
inhomogeneous material
contamination
machine
injection speed too low
injection pressure too low
mould
mould too cold
different texture of mould halves: polished vs coarse grain
material
melt too cold

machine
injection pressure too high
injection speed too high
holding time too long
too much material feed
mould
cavity too hot – release is better from hot mould (20°C below HDT)
mould too cold
poor mould finish
material
melt too hot

Insufficient extraction force.

Insufficient ejection force.


machine
injection pressure too high
mould
core too hot
core bending
creation of vacuum — especially on thin-walled parts

machine
injection pressure too high
too much material feed
nozzle frozen
nozzle diameter too large for sprue bush
inadequate draft angle
drool from nozzle
mould
too hot
ineffective sprue pullers

Lack of material, injection speed or pressure too low

machine
improper feed
injection pressure too low
injection speed too low
injection time too short
faulty back flow valve ring
mould
poor mould venting
mould too cold
material
melt temperature too low
viscosity too high
machine
injection pressure too low
injection pressure time too short
short of shot capacity
mould
mould temperature too high: too high shrinkage
gate too small: leads to early cooling/freezing at the gate, holding pressure
cannot help anymore to compensate
for the shrinkage
land length too long
wrong dimensions rib vs wall
material
melt too hot

Moisture in the material, usually when hygroscopic resins are dried improperly

---

Masterbatch isn't mixing properly, or the material has run out and it's starting to
come through as natural only
machine
degraded material
hot spot in cylinder
material hang-up area at nozzle tips or adaptors
injection pressure too low or too high
injection speed too low or too high
back pressure too low
mould
frictional burning at gate, in machine nozzle or hot runner
trapped volatiles
material
melt too hot
contamination in resin
excessive moisture
Noryl resin: degradation of material due to too long pre-drying at high
temperatures

Caused by the material (plastic) being damped prior to injection

machine
damaged back flow valve ring
mould
areas of hang-up
hot spots
material
contamination caused by stock or machine
if steady pattern: machine
if erratic pattern: material pigmentation /
instability of material
---

machine
injection too fast
mould
mould too cold
gate too small
material
melt too cold

machine
back pressure too high
nozzle temperature too high
mould
wrong sprue
material
insufficient melt strength

Nozzle temperature too high. Gate hasn't frozen off


---

machine
injection pressure too low
injection pressure time too short
injection speed too high
back pressure too low
mould
mould temperature too low
incorrect material flow
part wall too thick
material
melt too hot
wrong material grade: some Lexan resin types more sensitive

Lack of holding pressure (holding pressure is used to pack out the part during the
holding time). Also mold may be out of registration (when the two halves don't
center properly and part walls are not the same thickness).

part
wrong part design
machine
injection speed too slow
injection pressure too low
injection time forward too short
mould
mould too cold
insufficient venting
inaccurate functioning of back flow valve
distance from gate excessive
material
melt too cold

Mold/material temperatures set too low (the material is cold when they meet, so
they don't bond)
---

--

--

--

--

--
--

--

--

--

--

Contamination.

Material degradation.
Degraded material.

---

---

---

---
Remedy

Parts being too brittle can sometimes be seen, but is quite uncommon
with PP/TPO Compounds.
1. Concentrate: Be sure that the concentrate is being added at the
appropriate rate. Too much concentrate can cause the parts to be
very brittle.
2. Melt Temperature: A melt temperature that is very high can degrade
the material to a point where it will become brittle. Be sure that
your melt temperature is within the specified range for your selected
material.

• Review drying procedure


• Reduce barrel/nozzle temperature
• Increase barrel/nozzle temperature
• Eliminate sharp corners
• Increase injection pressure
• Increase melt temperature

1. Pre-dry material.
2. Lower melt temperature and/
or residence time.
3. Raise mould temperature.
4. Reduce amount of regrind
A1. Raise melt temperature.
B1. Lower melt temperature.2. Cylinder residence time excessive,
use smaller capacity machine.
C. 1. Utilize hopper/dryers.
2. Dry material prior to handling.
3. Eliminate moisture pick-up by
improving material handling
procedures.
4. Reduce lag-time between production
and use of regrind material.
D.1. Resin inspection for contamination.
pigment. 2. Review handling and use of regrind
material.
3. Reduce pigment loading.
4. Keep hopper and other possible
exposure points covered.
5. Thoroughly purge injection cylinder.
6. Clean hopper thoroughly when
switching materials.
E.1. Reduce amount of regrind. (Do not
exceed 25-30% regrind as a general
rule).
F.1. Increase inject/first stage pressure.
2. Increase boost time.
G.1. Relocate gate. Keep gate away
from potential stress area.
H.1. Enlarge gate size.

1) Check moisture level of material and dry if needed


2a) Lower melt temperature
2b) Lower nozzle temperature
2c) Decrease back pressure
3d) Check for long residence times in the barrel and lower temperatures if needed
3) Increase melt temperature
4a) Inspect resin for contamination (replace if contaminated)
4b) Purge machine thoroughly
5) Reduce regrind % (general rule- 25-30%)
6a) Increase gate size to obtain optimum filling
6b) Relocate gate away from potential stress areas

Dry the resin


1) Molded in stressed
• Reduce holding pressure
• Reduce injection speed
• Increase cooling time
• Reduce melt temperature (Semicrystalline thermoplastics)
• Increase melt temperature (Amorphous thermoplastics)
• Reduce mold temperature (Semicrystalline thermoplastics)
• Increase mold temperature (Amorphous thermoplastics)
2) Insufficient draft allowance
3) Improper Ejection

• Check mold cooling system


• Increase part packing
• Change gate location
• Add ribs or part thickness to improve stiffness
• Check for uniform wall thickness
• Increase cooling time
• Reduce mold temperature
• Increase ejector pin area

Descriptions
Distorted part

Relocate the gate so flow occurs in only one direction.


Increase the process temperature.
Reduce the pack pressure.
Increase the mold temperature

Balance Mold temperature


Increase Hold pressure time
Increase Gate size
Locate gate in thickest area
Check shot volume
Avoid bottlenecks in melt flow
Reduce wall thickness
Maintain uniform wall thickness
A.1Raise melt temperature.
B. 1. Lower melt temperature.
2. Lower mold temperature.
3. Increase mold cooling time.
C. 1. Provide additional cooling to
thickness sections.
2. Increase mold cooling time.
3. Operate stationary and moving mold
halves at different temperatures.
4. Redesign part for more uniform
cross-section.
5. Use metal with high conductivity
for the mold sections requiring
greater heat dissipation.
D.1. Increase injection rate.
2. Raise packing pressure.
3. Redesign to provide balanced gates
and runners.
E.1. Redesign for balanced ejection forces
F.1. Gate into heavy section.
G. 1. Lower packing pressure.
H. 1. Increase injection rate.
2. Increase first stage injection pressure
3. Provide adequate venting.
A• Reduce injection pressure.
• Increase venting. Operate without a
shot pad (with the ram bottoming).
If shrinkage is a concern, note sug-
gestions in Section VIII, Item E.
• Increase temperatures of the cylinder
and/or ram speed (boost pressure).
• Increase temperatures of the cylinder
and/or screw speed.
B• Reduce temperature of the mold.
• Increase time of the overall cycle.
• Reduce temperatures of the cylinder.
• Consideruse of shrink or cooling fixtures.
C• Redesign. Use knock-out pins with
larger area or use stripper plates.
D• Redesign. Use walls with a more
uniform thickness or gradual changes
in thickness.
E• Redesign or relocate the gates. Gate
into thickest sections toward longest
flow path.
F• Redesign. Undercuts should be
radiused and no more than 0.8 mm
(0.03 in) deep. Use ribs and bosses of
minimum thickness.
G• Increase capacity of cooling.
• Modify coring to give adequate cooling.
Locate coring closer to to the cavity surface
H• Realign.
I• Redesign.

1. Raise tool temperature,


uniform?
2. Increase gate and runner size.
3. Increase fill speed.
4. Increase injection pressure and
packing time/pressure.
5. Check flow path and relocate
gate position and/or amend part
design.
1. equalize temperature of both mould halves
2. observe mould for uniform part ejection
3. check handling of parts after ejection from mould
4. check part weight: take care with Valox resin
5. increase injection hold time
6. increase cooling time
7. increase or reduce injection pressure
8. increase mould close time
9. increase or reduce mould temperature
10. set differential mould temperatures to counteract warpage due to part geometry
11. use shrink fixtures and jigs for uniform cooling of the part
12. check gate locations and total number of gates to reduce orientation
13. additional gates may be required to overcome overpacking or underpacking on
large parts
14. increase gate dimensions
15. change gate location if glass-filled, notice fibre orientation
16. redesign part to equalize wall variation in moulded part – heavy and thin walls in
same part create differential
shrinkage stresses

1a) Decrease melt temperature


b) Decrease mold temperature
c) Increase cooling time
d) Cool part in warm water after ejection
e) Use secondary fixture to hold part dimensions
2a) Increase injection rate
b) Increase pack pressure
c) Balance runners and gates
d) Increase runner and gate size
e) Increase/decrease injection time
3 Increase melt temperature to provide better pack out of part
4a) Increase cooling time
b) Redesign part with uniform wall thickness
5 Add pack and hold time or pressure
6 Redesign ejection system for balanced ejection force
7 Balance mold temperature
Machine (Optimization of processing parameters)
• Increase the holding pressure or extend holding
pressure time.
• Increase cooling time
• Increase mold temperature
• Increase melt temperature
• Increase back pressure
• Increase amount of cushion

Mold
• Gates or runners too small
• Improper gate location
• Uneven mold temperatures
• Mold design such as a variation of wall
thickness, non-uniform ejection, undercut
(insufficient drafts and incorrectly
positioned), unusal geometry and position of
the cooling channels.
Material
• The melt is inhomogeneous or
thermally damaged
• Granules not correctly melted

• Use a larger machine


• Reduce injection pressure
• Align platen
• Review mold venting

1. Lower material temperature by lowering barrel temperature.


2. Decrease injection pressure.
3. Decrease overall cycle.
4. Decrease plunger forward time.
5. Check mould closure (possible
obstruction on parting line surface).
6. Improve mould venting.
7. Check press platens for parallelism.
8. Move mould to larger (clamp) Press.
Flash is a common problem with injection molding and can often be
remedied very easily.
1. Parting Line: Ensure that the parting line on the injection mold is
properly maintained and is free of any debris.
2. Shot size: Too large of a shot size or too much pack can often flash
around the gate.
3. Clamp Pressure: Insufficient clamp tonnage or pressure can result in
poor shutoff, which will cause the part to flash. The available
tonnage should be sufficient to mold the desired part.
4. Melt Temperature: If melt temperature is too high it can cause the
material to become very watery which could cause the part to flash
more easily

1. Reduce the injection pressure


2. Reduce the injection speed
3. Reduce the melt temperature
4. Increase the size of gate
5. Ensure mold closes and seals satisfactory
6. Ensure machine has sufficient mold lock

1) Reduce melt and mold temperatures


2) Decrease packing pressure
3a) Decrease injection pressure
3b) Decrease boost time
3c) Decrease injection rate
3d) Increase transfer position
4) Switch to larger tonnage machine
5a) Remove mold and carefully inspect and repair parting lines
5b) Repair cavities and cores that do not have a positive shut-off
6a) Increase clamping pressure
6b) Check parting line for obstruction
6c) Check press platens for parallelism
7a) Balance/increase runner and gate sizes to obtain uniform filling
7b) Properly balance cavity layout for maintaining uniform cavity pressure

Decrease Melt temperature


Decrease Injection pressure
Decrease Cycle time
Decrease Clamp pressure
Decrease Screw forward time
Improve molding venting
Check for damage at parting line
Check for worn mold mechanism
• Use a larger machine
• Reduce injection pressure
• Align platen
• Review mold venting

Reduce injection pressure and time.


Decrease shot size.
Reduce injection speed.
Reduce process temperature.
Machine or dress the parting line.
Use a higher viscosity compound. Increase clamp tonnage.
Reduce thickness of the vents. Move to a larger machine.

Machine (Optimization of processing parameters)


• Increase clamping force
• Reduce pressure in the cavity by:
- Reducing the holding pressure
- Reducing the holding pressure time
Mold
• Reduce melt or mold temperature
• Optimizing the injection speed
• Check for mold wear in the area of the flash

A1. Lower injection pressure.


2. Reduce boost time.
3. Reduce injection forward time.
B.1. Lower melt temperature.
2. Lower mold temperature.
C.1. Lower packing pressure.
2. Reduce shot size.
D.1. User larger tonnage machine.
2. Reduce number of cavities.
E.1. Increase clamping pressure.
F.1. Progressively increase gate size from
sprue to obtain uniform filling.
2. Balance cavity layout for maintenance
of uniform pressure in cavity.
G.1. Increase cavity venting.
H.1. Inspect and clean mold thoroughly.
I. 1. Insure mold properly installed.
2. Inspect and repair parting lines.
3. Inspect and repair cavities and cores
not having positive seal and surface
mating.
Shorten boost time
Increase clamp pressure
Resurface or realign mold
Dry the resin

A• Reduce injection pressure.


B• Reduce shot size or run without a pad.
injected into the mold Note Section VII, Item A.
C• Reduce pressure to pack out.
• Reduce temperature of the melt.
D• Reset the toggles and/or increase
clamp pressure.
E• Inspect land areas, etc., of the mold carefully and clean where necessary.
F• Remove mold, overhaul and correct the
cavity inserts are out of register
G• Check and overhaul if necessary.
H• Check clearance and adjust as necessary.
• Clearance should not be more than 0.038 mm (0.0015 in).
I• Inspect the vents and clean if necessary.
• Increase width of the vents. Vents should not be more than 0.038 mm (0.0015 in)
in depth.
J• Cavity and runner layout should be
distributed in the mold balanced.
K• Shift to a press with greater available
for the available clamping clamping pressure.
pressure
• Reduce the number of cavities.

• Improve mold venting


• Check heater controls
• Reduce injection speed
• Purge barrel
• Clean hopper dryer
• Remove and clean screw

Clean vents.

1. Decrease plunger speed.


2. Decrease injection pressure.
3. Improve venting in mould cavity.
4. Change gate location to alter flow pattern.
Descriptions
Black or brown burnt areas on the part located at furthest points from gate

A1. Reduce melt temperature


B.1. Reduce first stage pressure.
2. Reduce boost time.
C.1. Vent mold cavity at final fill point.
2. Lower injection speed (first stage
pressure and/or boost time)
3. Gate relocation,
D.1. Use hopper/dryers.
2. Dry resin prior to molding.
3. Eliminate moisture pick-up by
Improving material handling
procedures.
4. Reduce lag-time between production
and use of regrind material.

• Improve mold venting


• Check heater controls
• Reduce injection speed
• Purge barrel
• Clean hopper dryer
• Remove and clean screw

Machine (Optimization of processing parameters)


• Reduce injection speed
• Reduce clamping force to achieve better venting
Mold
• Check vents and clean if necessary
• In the case of entrapped air due to flow front meeting,
change gate position (first, perform a simulated filling)
• Attach additional venting, for example through ejector

Clean vents
Deepen vents
Dry the resin or slow injection speed
A• Reduce temperatures of the cylinder.
• Shorten time of cycle
B• Keep a reserve of resin in the hopper to
avoid starving the feed section.
• Reduce screw speed on the screw
injection molding machines to obtain
melt in the feed section of the screw
before significant compression.
C• Inspect and clean vents.
• Vent at point where polymer is burning.
D• Sufficient venting normally corrects this
problem. If this doesn’t solve the prob-
lem, try reducing the injection ram speed.
(See suggestions Section II, Item B.)
E• Clean the nozzle and cylinder with purge
compound or disassemble. Polymer flow
path should be streamlined with no dead
spots for polymer hang-up.
F• Segregate and check the regrind critically
for contamination, excessive moisture or
degraded polymer. Try virgin material.
G• Purge with Hytrel until the machine is
free of other polymers or remove the
screw and nozzle and clean thoroughly

• Improve cavity venting


• Increase injection rate and tool temperature
• Relocate gate or add overflow tab

• Improve cavity venting


• Increase injection rate and tool temperature
• Relocate gate or add overflow tab
�Increase melt temperature
� Increase mold temperature
a) Increase first stage injection pressure
b) Increase boost time
c) Increase pack pressure
d) Increase pack time
e) Increase injection rate/speed
a) Increase vents at weld area
b) Decrease injection speed to allow air removal
c) Decrease clamp pressure to minimum pressure
a) Increase injection speed
b) Increase boost time
c) Increase first stage injection pressure
a) Relocate gate or use multiple gating
b) Utilize overflow tab in mold to increase strength in weld line area

1. Increase injection pressure.


2. Increase packing time/pressure.
3. Raise mould temperature.
4. Raise material temperature.
5. Vent the cavity in the weld
area.
6. Provide an overflow well
adjacent to the weld area.
7. Change gate location to alter
flow pattern.

A.1. Raise melt temperature.


B.1. Increase mold temperature.
C.1. Raise first stage pressure.
2. Increase boost time.
3. Increase injection forward time.
4. Raise holding pressure.
D.1. Provide adequate vents.
2. Reduce injection rate
E.1. Clean mold surface thoroughly plugging vents.
F. 1. Relocate gates. 2. Use multiple balanced gates.

Weld line strength is the direct relation to how the two material fronts
come together and melt together to become one.
ACP (2004, 2005) All Rights Reserved Advanced Composites TS Group
1. Melt Temperature: If the two melt fronts are not at a high enough
temperature it could cause the weld line to be weak.
2. Pressure Drop: Insufficient pressure applied to the two melt fronts
can sometimes cause the weld line to be poorly welded together.
3. Venting: Poor venting in the area near the weld line can cause the
material fronts to encounter a restriction, which could cause a poor
weld.
• Increase melt temperature
• Increase holding pressure
• Increase injection speed
• Increase back pressure
Mold
• Move weld line by changing the position of the gate
• Insert cascade hot runner
• Push-pull technique
• SCORIM
• Use the simulation program
Material
• Improper flow rate

Cascade Injection Technology


• Hot runner system (valve
controlled)
• Distinct control of melt front
prevents weldline generation
• Application for high flow length
/ thickness ratios, i.e. car
bumpers

Push–Pull Technique
• Pulses melt front by two-component injection molding
• Deformation of formerly “butt” weld
• Increased mechanical strength

SCORIM Technology
• Pulses melt front by twopiston
head
• Deformation of formerly
“butt” weld

Place vents at last place to fill and at converging flow fronts


Increase size of the vents.

Increase the melt and/or mold temperature.


Increase injection speed.

• Reduce injection pressure


• Reduce injection speed
• Check for undercuts
• Inspect ejector system
• Increase draft in tool

• Reduce injection pressure


• Reduce injection speed
• Check for undercuts
• Inspect ejector system
• Increase draft in tool
A.1. Lower first stage injection pressure.
2. Reduce boost time.
3. Reduce shot size.
4. Reduce injection forward time.
5. Lower holding pressure.
B.1. Increase mold cooling time.
2. Lower melt temperature.
3. Lower mold temperature,
C.1. Raise nozzle temperature.
D.1. Redesign for balanced ejection forces
E.1. Apply mold release agent to cavity.
2. Add external mold release agent or
change to lubricated resin.
F.1. Redesign sprue puller.
G. 1. Draw polish to proper finish.
H. 1. Polish and provide maximum allowable draft.
I.1. Realign cores and cavities.
J.1. Redesign runner-gate system for
(multi-cavity mold) balanced filling of cavaties.
K.1. Repair and polish.

1a) Decrease first stage injection pressure


b) Decrease boost time
c) Decrease injection forward time
d) Decrease packing pressure
e) Increase transfer position
2) Redesign to allow maximum allowable draft
3a) Increase cooling time
b) Decrease melt temperature
c) Decrease mold temperature
4) Redesign or reduce undercut
5a) Redesign sprue puller
b) Increase nozzle temperature
6) Redesign for balanced ejection force

1. Decrease injection pressure.


2. Decrease plunger forward time,
packing time/pressure.
3. Increase mould closed time.
4. Lower mould temperature.
5. Decrease barrel and nozzle
temperature.
6. Check mould for undercuts
and/or insufficient draft.
7. Use external lubricants.
1. Decrease injection pressure.
2. Decrease plunger forward time,
packing time/pressure.
3. Increase mould closed time.
4. Increase mould temperature at
sprue bushing.
5. Raise nozzle temperature.
6. Check sizes and alignments of
holes in nozzle and sprue bushing
(hole in sprue bushing must
be larger).
7. Provide more effective sprue
puller.

1 Use nozzle that has an orifice at least .010” smaller then the sprue orifice
2 Increase taper on sprue bushing (Minimum of 1.5° over the length of the sprue)
3 Eliminate imperfections and polish surface in direction of draw
4a) Reduce pack and hold time
b) Decrease injection forward time
c) Utilize machine sprue break
5a) Increase nozzle temperature
b) Use reverse taper nozzle

A. 1. Sprue bushing orifice should be larger than the nozzle.


B. 1. Increase taper.
C. 1. Eliminate pits and draw polish surface.
D. 1. Increase undercut and redesign puller.
E. 1. Lower holding pressure
2. Reduce injection forward time.
3. Reduce shot size.
F. 1. Redesign sprue with smaller diameter.
G. 1. Increase nozzle temperature to provide clean break.

• Increase injection speed


• Increase barrel temps/mold temperature
• Review drying procedures

1. Increase injection time


2. Increase mould wall temperature
3. Increase melt temperature
4. Optimise hold pressure time
5. Increase hold pressure
A. 1. Raise melt temperature.
B. 1. Raise mold temperature.
C. 1. Raise first stage injection pressure.
2. Increase boost time.
3. Increase injection speed.
D.1. Increase shot size/maintain constant
cushion.
2. Raise second stage injection
pressure.
E.1. Examine and repair any water leaks.
2. Raise mold temperature.
F.1. Wipe mold thoroughly with solvent.
2. Reduce use of mold release agent.
G.1. Use hopper/dryers.
2. Dry material prior to molding.
3. Eliminate moisture pick-up by
improving material handling
procedures.
H.1. Examine and remove any defects.
Draw polish surface.

1) Increase melt temperature


2) Increase mold temperature
3) Increase pack pressure
4a) Increase shot size and maintain constant cushion
b) Decrease injection transfer position
5a) Increase first stage pressure
b) Increase boost time
c) Increase injection speed
6a) Increase mold temperature
b) Look for water leaks and repair if needed
7a) Clean mold surface
b) Use mold release sparingly
8a) Review material handling procedures
b) Dry material prior to molding
9) Increase number of vents

• Increase hold pressure or time


• Increase shot size
• Check gate dimension and location
Increase Hold pressure
Increase Hold time
Increase Gate, sprue
Increase and runner size
…………………...
Decrease Melt temperature
(if it is too high)
Decrease Mold temperature
Decrease Cushion
Gate location (near thick wall)

Increase Hold pressure


Increase Hold time
Decrease Injection fill rate
Decrease Melt temperature
Repair leaking back flow valve,
if pad can not be maintained
Locate gate in the thickest area
Increase Size of gates
Maintain Location of gates
Eliminate restrictions in runner or nozzle

Decrease wall thickness.


Increase the pack pressure and time.
Increase the gate size.
Relocate the gate to the thickest section.
Increase the runner size

1) Core out thick wall sections


2) Ensure pack and hold time is sufficient for gate freeze by performing a gate
freeze analysis
3a) Increase shot size to maintain a constant cushion
b) Inspect non-return valve for wear
4a) Increase size of gates and runners
b) Increase size of the nozzle and sprue
1. Increase injection pressure.
2. Increase packing time/pressure.
3. Use maximum ram speed.
4. Raise mould temperature
(voids).
5. Lower mould temperature
(sinks).
6. Decrease cushion.
7. Increase size of sprue and/
or runners and/or gates.
8. Relocate gates nearer thick
sections.

1. Increase injection pressure


2. Optimise holding pressure time
3. Reduce screw speed
4. Reduce nozzle and metering zone temperatures
5. Increase feed zone temperature
6. Adjust back pressure
7. Increase mould temperature
8. Enlarge gates and runners

Dry the resin


Open the gate
Open runner
Relocate gate
Increase rate
Lengthen hold time
Increase hold pressure
Raise temperature
Deepen or add vents
Redesign gate
Machine (Optimization of processing parameters)
• Check metering stroke and increase if necessary
• Extend holding pressure time
• Increase holding pressure
• Increase cushion
• Reduce melt or mold temperature (sink mark near the sprue)
• Increase melt or mold temperature (sink mark away from the sprue)
• Increase cooling time
• Optimize injection speed
Mold
• Increase gate for better holding pressure transmission
• Avoid material accumulations
• Optimize wall thickness and/or rib ratio
• If the flow distances are too long, the melt may freeze prematurely,
the flow resistance is too high
• Use non-return valve and/or shut-off nozzle
• Check screw for wear
• Use blowing agents
• Sandwich injection molding

A1. Raise first stage injection pressure


2. Raise holding pressure.
B.1. Increase shot/size maintain constant
into cavity. cushion.
2. Increase boost time.
3. Increase injection forward time.
C.1. Lower melt temperature
D.1. Increase injection rate.
2. Raise melt temperature.
3. Increase gate size.
E.1. Lower melt temperature.
2. Lower mold temperature.
3. Increase mold cooling time.
4. Provide improved mold cooling.
F.1. Redesign part with more uniform wall
thickness.
2. Improve/increase mold cooling at
thick sections.
3. Move gate to heavy section.
4. Include design over sink mark to hide
it from view (when elimination through
part redesign cannot be achieved).
Machine (Optimization of processing parameters)
• Increase holding pressure
• Extent holding pressure time
• Set larger melt cushion
• Increase metering stroke
• Reduce difference between the melt and mold temperature
• Increase back pressure
• Increase mold temperature

Mold
• Improper venting
• Section thickness too great
• Improper runners or gates

Material
• Excessive moisture

Often time’s bubbles can be seen in a plastic part, the following are some
reasons for this occurring.
1. Venting: Insufficient venting could cause the buildup of gas, which
could result in a bubble.
2. Melt Temperature: Too high of a melt temperature could cause the
material to degrade slightly which would cause bubbles.
3. Mold Temperature: A high mold temperature either through the
whole mold or locally could cause bubbles, this needs to be
monitored closely.

Relocate the gate or modify the flow path.


Add a pin in the area to eliminate the gas trap.

Voids are very similar to bubbles, but less noticeable.


1. Venting: Proper venting around the parting line and on ejector pins
and lifters can reduce the amount of gas that is in the mold, this will
help eliminate voids.
2. Melt Temperature: A high melt temperature can cause some material
degradation, which could cause some voids to appear.
3. Packing: Insufficient packing can sometimes cause voids to occur.
This happens because the frozen layer of material stays against the
tool while the part sinks from the inside out.
A. 1. Utilize hopper/dryer.
2. Dry material prior to molding.
3. Eliminate moisture pick-up by
improving material handling
procedure.
4. Reduce lag-time between production
and use of regrind material.
B.1. Lower melt temperature.
2. Decrease overall cycle time.
C.1. Raise holding temperature
2. Increase injection forward time.
3. Increase gate size.
4. Minimize thick sections in part
design

A1. Raise melt temperature.


B.1. Raise mold temperature.
C.1. Raise first stage pressure.
2. Increase boost time.
D.1. Raise holding pressure.
E.1. Increase gate size.

• Maintain adequate cushion


• Check for worn check ring
• Check heater bands/controllers
• Increase hold time
• Enlarge gate to prevent premature freeze-off

Increase Hold pressure


Increase Hold time
Increase Gate size
Increase Cylinder temp.
Increase Back pressure
Screw rpm
Maintain Uniform cushion & Uniform cycle
Check leaking back flow valve
Use larger machine or screw

Check hold pressures.


Check melt and mold temperatures.
Check that cushion was maintained.
A1. Duplicate previous molding conditions
B1. Check and recalibrate control instrumentation.
2. Replace inadequate controllers.
C1. Adjust temperature profile to yield
optimum feeding.
2. Adjust shot size for uniform, minimum
cushion.
D. 1. Provide maximum holding pressure.
2. Increase injection rate.
3. Progressively increase gate sizes
from sprue to provide uniform filling.
E.1. Redesign part.
F.1. Improve virgin/regrind blending.
2. Reduce regrind to virgin ratio.
3. Clean hopper thoroughly when
switching materials

1. Set uniform cycle times.


2. Maintain uniform feed and
cushion from cycle to cycle.
3. Fill mould as rapidly as
possible.
4. Check machine hydraulic and
electrical systems for erratic
performance.
5. Increase gate size.
6. Balance cavities for uniform
flow.
7. Reduce number of cavities.

1a) Adjust temperature for optimum filling


b) Increase shot size to maintain proper cushion
c) Replace check valve if cushion cannot be maintained
2) Increase injection forward time and pressure to ensure gate freeze off
3a) Review regrind blending procedures
b) Decrease level of regrind
4) Increase fill pressure to maintain the selected velocity of most runs
5a) Increase holding pressure to maximum
b) Increase injection rate
c) Balance runner and gate sizes to provide balanced filling
A• Check operation of the feed mechanism.
• Check pellet size for variations. Check
feed throat for obstructions or sticking
polymer.
B• See suggestions in Section IV, Item A.
C• See suggestions in Section IV, Item B.
D• See suggestions in Section I, Item B.
For consistency of dimensions when
molding polymers of Hytrel, it is sug-
gested that the shot size not exceed
75% of the machine’s plasticizing
capacity.
E• Check coolant for temperature variations.
Install temperature controller if needed

Material blockage at throat - lower feed zone temperature.


Clean vents

Increase shot size, if possible. If not, move to a larger machine.

Reduce rpm and back pressure.


Decrease the barrel temperature in the rear.

Increase injection pressure.

Increase injection rate.


Increase process temperature.
Use a lower viscosity compound.
Increase gate and runner size.
1. Increase feed.
2. Increase injection pressure.
3. Use maximum ram speed.
4. Decrease cushion.
5. Raise material temperature by
raising barrel temperature.
6. Raise mould temperature.
7. Increase overall cycle.
8. Check shot size vs. rated
machine shot capacity; if shot
size exceeds 75% of rated
(styrene) shot capacity, move
to larger machine.
9. Increase size of sprue and/or
runners and/or gates.

1. Adjust feed to minimum consistent cushion


2. Increase injection pressure
3. Increase injection speed
4. Increase back pressure
5. Increase barrel temperatures
6. Increase mould temperature, particularly for very
thin large area parts
7. Check non-return valve
8. Improve venting
9. Enlarge gates, sprue diameters and runners.

Check feed to barrel and feed from nozzle


Check that flow path ratio is not excessive
Increase Melt temperature
Increase Mold temperature
Increase Injection fill rate
Increase Injection fill pressure
Increase Wall thickness
Increase Balance gate, runner
Increase Spru, runners and/or gate size
Enlarge vent or change vent location

1) Raise melt temperature


2) Raise mold temperature
3a) Increase shot size to maintain a constant cushion
b) Inspect non-return valve for wear
4a) Provide adequate venting
b) Increase number and size of vents
5a) Increase gate size
b) Increase runner size
c) Use larger orifice nozzle
When troubleshooting short shots it is important to look at your shot size,
cushion, decompression, nozzle tip and injection speed and pressure. A
short shot can be as simple as not having a large enough shot size to as
complex as having a blown manifold. It is a problem that should be
evaluated with caution. A few things to check are
1. Shot size: Make sure that your part is roughly 90-95% full before
transferring and that you have an adequate cushion to fill and pack
the rest of the part. You should first determine how full the part is at
transfer by using no pressure for pack and hold. Then use roughly
75% of pressure at transfer to start packing and pack until gate
freeze occurs.
2. Non-return valve: Ensure that your non-return valve is working
properly by watching the screw during injection. If the screw rotates
during injection, the valve may be letting material leak past the
valve. Increasing decompression may allow the valve to seat better
and allow a better shut off condition, but could cause splay or other
cosmetic issues.
3. Injection Rate: If the injection rate is too slow it is very possible that
the gate will freeze before the part is full. Be sure that the gate is
not freezing before proper part packing by monitoring the machine
and ensuring that transfer is achieved.
4. Gate design/location: If the gate(s) are in a poor location or the
improper size it will sometimes not allow the part to fill properly.
You will often see ribs and/or bosses that are not completely full if
this is a problem.
ACP (2004, 2005) All Rights Reserved Advanced Composites TS Group
5. Venting: An improperly vented tool will sometimes prohibit the part
from being filled properly and completely.
6. Nozzle seat: Another possible reason for short shots is improper
nozzle seat. Ensure that the nozzle tip orifice is slightly smaller and
of the same radius (slightly smaller) as the sprue bushing on the
mold. This will reduce the possibility of a “cap” on the front of the
barrel.
1. Increase shot size to provide an adequate cushion
2. Increase the injection pressure
3. Increase the injection time
4. Increase the mold temperature
5. Increase the barrel temperature
6. Increase the back pressure
7. Increase the cycle time
8. Ensure the polymer is dry
9. Ensure the screw tip and check ring are functioning
10. Shot weight is not too high for the machine to process
11. Assess nozzle diameter, gates and runners. Is there a restriction?
12. Ensure adequate venting of cavity
Machine (Optimization of processing parameters)
1) If there is too little melt in the cylinder
• Increase metering stroke
• Avoid bridging at the hopper
Machine (Optimization of processing parameters)
2) If the material is highly viscous, the flow resistances are too high
• Increase melt temperature
• Increase mold temperature
• Increase injection pressure and speed
• Increase back pressure
Mold
• Increase wall thickness, move gate or provide several gate
• Change gate location
• Larger sprue, runners or gates
• Check venting
Material
• Improper flow rate (melt flow rate is too low)

Improve venting and/or relocate to burned area.

Purge and reduce cycle


Reduce barrel temperature
Use a smaller capacity press or add dummy cavity to increase shot size

1. Examine the machine capacity against shot weight ensuring there is a cushion
2. Stabilize the cycle time reducing delays with insert loading by automation
3. Check there is no screw slip
4. Check the nozzle hole for damage or blockage
5. Examine the check ring to ensure its working properly
A. 1. Raise melt temperature.
B. 1. Raise mold temperature.
C. 1. Raise first stage injection
D. 1. Increase shot size (maintain constant cushion)
E. 1. Vent properly
2. Increase number/size of vents.
F. 1. Increase size of nozzle-sprue runner gate system.
G. 1. Increase gate size.
2. Redesign runner system for balanced flow.
H. 1. Redesign part.

1• Check the injection stroke and increase


as necessary.
• Increase hold time or rpm.
• Be sure the feed hopper has sufficient
material and that the shut-off gate is
open.
• Check the feed system for blockage
and bridging.
• See that the air and power supply to
the weigh feeder (if used) are turned
on.

2• If none of the above provides sufficient


feed, it will be necessary to:
(a) place the mold in a larger shot
capacity press; or
(b) block off some of the mold
cavities.

3• Use a non-return screw tip.


• Check the non-return tip and barrel for
excessive wear or a jammed ring
valve.
• Reduce temperature of the polymer
melt.
A• Increase time of injection.
B• If ram is completely stopped before
the end of the injection cycle, increase
injection pressure. Operate at
maximum injection speed (higher
boost pressure).
• Provide sufficient venting for each
mold cavity.
C• If the machine is at maximum injection
pressure, raise the cylinder temperatures.
• Check actual temperature of the melt
with a needle pyrometer.
D.• Check all heater bands for proper operation with a pyrometer or clampon
ammeter.
E.• Check orifices of the nozzle, sprue and
gates for foreign or unplasticized
material.
F• Enlarge these flow paths as necessary and sufficient melt velocity to preclude
premature freezing.
G.• Increase temperature of the melt.
• Use resin with a lower viscosity, if
possible. (See bulletin, “Rheology and
Handling.”)

A• See suggested solutions for Section II,Items D and E.


B• Check hydraulic system for defective pumps or valves.
• Check for low oil level.
• Check for overheated oil supply, possibly due to loss of coolant or plugged heat
exchanger.
C• Check for blockage of vents.
D• See suggested solutions for Section I, Item A.
E• Clear bridging in the feed throat.
F• Increase cooling of the feed throat.
• Reduce temperature of the rear zone.
A• Consult technical service representatives for the temperature controllers used
on the injection molding machines.
• Increase overall cycle time.
B• Check all timers with a stopwatch for
consistent timer control.
• Check time ram is in motion. (Inconsistent
time indicates melt is non-uniform.)
• If on semi-automatic cycle, check for
variations in operator-controlled portion
of the cycle.
• Check hydraulic system for sticking solenoid
valves.
• Check if the ring shut-off valve on the
non-return screw tip is worn or clogged.

1 Replace with new material


2 Check for over run/over heating
3a) Clean screw and barrel
3b) Check for hang up areas in screw and check valve areas
4a) Lower melt temperature
4b) Lower back pressure
4c) Lower screw RPM

1. purge with an appropriate material


in general: Kapronet
for Lexan PC: ground acrylic or regrind Lexan resin
for Ultem resin: regrind Ultem resin or glass-filled Lexan
resin – don’t drop temp. settings while purging;
(for details on purging, see pages 19 to 24)
2. check for impurities: use uncontaminated material,
do proper housekeeping
3. check and adjust melt temperature
4. check for dead edges: nozzle, back flow valve,
gates/runners
5. check for screw wear
1. control holding / injection pressure
2. increase back pressure
3. increase mould temperature
4. check back flow valve
5. allow for adequate venting
6. enlarge gate
7. shorten land length

1) Check moisture levels of material and dry if needed

2a) Check vents and clean if needed


2b) Reduce clamp pressure to minimum amount needed
2c) Increase back pressure

3a) Lower melt temperature


3b) Lower back pressure
3c) Lower Screw RPM

Descriptions
Raised or layered zone on surface of the part
Machine (Optimization of processing parameters)
1) Check whether the blistering is due to thermal composition
• Reduce melt temperature
• Reduce injection speed
• Reduce screw rotation speed
2) If air is drawn into the plasticising unit
• Increase back pressure
• Reduce and/or decelerate decompression (screw retraction)

Mold
• If the blistering is caused by entrapped air, better mold venting
should be provided, for example in the weld line area or at the end of
the flow part.
• Change gate location

Material
• Use of regrind that is too coarse
• Use of highly volatile materials
• Excessive moisture in material

1a) Polish gate area to eliminate rough areas and sharp edges
1b) Decrease gate land length
2) Gate size should be 50-80% of the nominal wall thickness
3) Remove color concentrate and run natural to verify

1) Clean vents
2) Reduce clamp pressure to minimum needed
3) Add vents
4) Reduce melt temperature
5) Decrease injection rate

1a) Change to different lot of material


1b) Eliminate regrind as contamination source
1c) Remove colorant
2a) Redesign knockout system for balanced ejection force
2b) Rework mold and provide adequate draft angles and eliminate excessive
undercuts
3a) Decrease pack pressure
3b) Decrease shot size
3c) Increase transfer point to lower peak injection pressure
3d) Decrease injection time
4a) Increase mold temperature
4b) Supply uniform cooling to cavity
5a) Do not over use mold release
5b) Clean mold
A.1. Lower packing pressure.
2. Reduce shot size.
B.1. Increase mold temperature.
C.1. Redesign mold cooling system for
uniform cavity cooling.
D. 1. Redesign knockout system to provide
balanced ejection forces.
E. 1. Rework mold.
F. 1. Rework mold.

1) Molded in stressed
• Reduce holding pressure
• Reduce injection speed
• Increase cooling time
• Reduce melt temperature (Semi-crystalline
thermoplastics)
• Increase melt temperature (Amorphous
thermoplastics)
• Reduce mold temperature (Semi-crystalline
thermoplastics)
• Increase mold temperature (Amorphous
thermoplastics)

1 Raise melt temperature


2 Check material feed system for contamination
2 Try different lot/box of material
3 Try virgin only run to verify and change color to a compatible concentrate if
needed
4 Increase injection rate
5 Increase venting
6 Increase mold temperature

Descriptions
Thin mica like layers formed in part wall

1. Eliminate contamination
2. Check compatibility of dye / masterbatch
3. Check moisture content
4. Check melt homogeneity and plasticising
performance
5. Reduce injection speed
6. Reduce melt temperature
7. Increase mould temperature
1a) Decrease melt temperature
b) Decrease screw RPM
c) Decrease back pressure
d) Decrease residence time
e) Check barrel and nozzle heater bands and thermocouples
2) Set drying temperature at manufactures recommended settings
3a) Review material handling procedures
b) Purge injection cylinder

Check residence unit; cylinder, nozzle


Use smaller injection machine
Increasre Back pressure → vent air

Increase back pressure and/or screw rpm.


Change the color concentrate carrier to a material with a
lower melt temperature.

Check for clean regrind

Check barrel temperatures.


Check back pressure and screw rpm,
increase if necessary
A.1. Lower melt temperature.
2. Reduce overall cycle.
3. Reduce screw speed.
4. Lower back pressure.
5. Use smaller capacity machine
to reduce cylinder residence time.
B.1. Purge cylinder thoroughly.
or nozzle. 2. Reduce injection rate.
3. Check cylinder for cracks.
4. Remove nozzle and clean.
5. Remove valve and check for ring
wear.
C.1. Reduce drying temperatures.
excessive drying temperature. Recommended range is 170-180degF
77-82degC for hot air dryers. If drying
under vacuum, temperature of 200F/93C may be used.
D. 1. Improve handling of virgin and
regrind.
2. Purge cylinder thoroughly.
3. Keep hopper covered.
4. Clean hopper thoroughly when
switching materials.
E. 1. Check for nicks in nozzle.
2. Check for sharp projections or
defects in mold.

A• Use a dispersion nozzle or premix


before molding. Change to a screw
machine for better mixing.
• Increase the head or back pressure
and/or screw rpm. Use a high shear or
mixing screw or mixing nozzle.
B• Grind the pigment or obtain as a powder.
• Use a color feeder. Preblend pigment
and polymer.
• Use predispersed pigment concentrate.
C• Use a lower ratio, letdowns greater than
25 to 1 are difficult by injection molding.
• Check with the concentrate supplier or
DuPont.UseHytrelas thebase polymer.
• Use a concentrate with a lower level of
pigment at a lower letdown ratio, for
example, 15 to 1 rather than 25 to 1.
1a) Increase mold cooling in hot spots of parts
b) Ensure fast turbulent flow of water through cooling channels
2a) Adjust clamp speed for minimum mold open time
b) Low pressure close time excessive, adjust clamp positions and pressures
3) Decrease melt and mold temperatures to minimum temperatures needed for
proper fill
4a) Check machine throat and hopper for blockage
b) Check for worn screw and barrel

1) Increase melt temperature


2) Increase melt temperature
3) Increase gate size
4) Redesign part for more uniform wall thickness to provide for optimum filling

A1. Raise melt temperature.


B1. Raise mold temperature.
C1. Lower first stage pressure.
2. Reduce boost tome.
D.1. Increase gate size.
2. Lower injection rate.
3. Raise melt temperature.

Reposition the gate to a thick section.


Radius dimples.
Relocate gate to balance the flow or reduce the runner diameter.

Increase Injection fill speed


Increase Injection pressure
Increase Mold temperature
Increase Melt temperature
Gate size
………………..
Maintain Gate location

1a) Decrease nozzle temperature


b) Decrease melt temperature
c) Reduce back pressure
d) Increase screw decompression
2a) Review material handling procedures to eliminate moisture pick up
b) Dry material according to manufactures recommendations
A1. Lower nozzle temperature
B1. Lower cylinder temperatures.
2. Decrease screw speed (screw machine)
3. Lower back pressure (screw machine)
C. 1. Utilize hopper/dryer
2. Dry material prior to molding
3. Eliminate moisture pick-up by improving material handling
procedure.
D. 1. Use nozzle with smaller orifices.
E. 1. Decrease overall cycle time.
F. 1. Use lubricated resin.
G.1. Use positive-seal nozzle
2. Use reverse taper nozzle.

1a) Review material handling procedures to eliminate moisture pick up


b) Dry material according to manufactures recommendations
2a) Decrease barrel temperatures
b) Decrease nozzle temperatures
3a) Reduce screw RPM
b) Increase gate and runner size
c) Decrease injection rate
d) Check nozzle for obstruction
4a) Reduce screw decompression
b) Improve mold venting
5a) Increase mold temperature
b) Clean mold surface
c) Minimize use of mold release
6a) Decrease throat cooling
b) Increase rear zone temperature

Decrease Melt temperature


Decrease Injection fill rate
Remove contamination
Check residence unit
Dry pellets for 3~4 hrs at 80~90 C
Cylinder temperature
Clean residence unit
A. 1. Utilize hopper/dryers
2. Dry material prior to molding.
3. Eliminate moisture pick-up by improving materials handling procedures.
B. 1. Lower melt temperatures.
C. 2. Raise mold temperature.
D.1. Wipe mold surface thoroughly on mold surface with solvent.
2. Use external mold release sparingly
E. 1. Reduce throat cooling. 2. Raise rear zone temperature.
F.1. Increase gate size,
2. Localized gate heating.

Dry material.
Check for contamination.
Raise mold temperature.

Check for moisture (condensation) or dry the material.


Check regrind for contaminants or moisture. Dry if required
Reduce injection speed.
Increase the process temperature.
Increase the gate size.

Change to a lower molecular weight compound.


Texture mold cavity surface (EDM, sandblast, etc.)

Eliminate contamination and clean cylinder


Residence time in cylinder
Check cooling system in rear cylinder

1. Increase back pressure


2. Decrease screw speed
3. Increase cylinder temperature
4. Use machine with larger barrel shot size
dissolved and distributed:
• Increase screw speed and back pressure
• Increase injection speed
• If necessary, use smaller gate
• Use smaller pigment
2) Color streaks due to thermal damage
• Reduce melt temperature
• Reduce screw speed
• Reduce back pressure
• Reduce hot runner temperature
• Reduce injection speed
• Use larger sprue or gate cross-section
3) Color streaks due to contamination
• Clean cylinder – nozzle, hopper and mold
• Check raw material
• Check conveyor system and mixing equipment

Silver streaks
• Dry the material adequately before processing
• Degas melt via the cylinder
• Increase mold temperature
• Increase back pressure to achieve better
venting of the melt
• Increase screw speed
• Reduce feed zone temperature of injection unit
(bridging of the granules, entrapped air)
• Shorten screw retraction
• Check mold for venting
•Check raw material

Burnt streaks
Machine (Optimization of processing parameters)
• Reduce injection speed
1. Sufficiently pre-dry material, check manufacturers
guidelines
2. Check packaging
3. Check storage of material
4. If possible, feed directly from the dryer in a closed
system
5. Increase back pressure

Machine (Optimization of processing parameters)


• Reduce injection speed
• Increase melt temperature
• Increase mold temperature
Mold
• Optimize gate location on the mold
• Enlarge (or round off) gate to avoid a high flow speed
1. Reduce injection speed or injection profile (slow –
fast)
2. Increase melt temperature
3. Impinge gate onto mould wall/surface
4. Smooth transition gate to moulded part
5. Increase gate diameter
6. Relocate gate

Descriptions
Deformed part by turbulent flow of material

Decrease Injection fill speed


Increase Mold temperature
Increase Gate size

Machine (Optimization of processing parameters)


If a uniform shrinkage outside the tolerance range is present:
• Increase the holding pressure or extend holding pressure time.
• Increase cooling time
• Decrease mold temperature
• Decrease melt temperature
• Decrease shot weight
• Gates or runners too small
• Improper gate location
Mold
• The melt is inhomogeneous or thermally
damaged
• Granules not correctly melted
A• Increase time injection ram is forward.
B1• Increase size of gates and/or shorten
length of lands.
2• Increase size of runners to decrease
resistance to polymer flow. Runners
should be sized so they maintain a
relatively constant shear rate for the
required volume of flow. Gates should
be sized for proper freeze-off.
3• Check actual temperature of the melt
with a needle pyrometer. If necessary,
increase temperatures of the cylinder.
4• Use polymer with a higher melt index,
if possible. (See bulletin, “Rheology and
Handling.”)
5• Use nozzle with a larger orifice.
C• Increase pressure of injection slowly
until borderline flash conditions are
reached. Note suggestions in
Section VII, Item A.
D• Reduce temperature of the mold.
E• Increase size of shot to obtain a very
slight pad. Note suggestions in
Section VII, Item A.
F• Increase time injection ram is forward.

Descriptions
Localized depression (In thicker zones)

A• See suggested solutions for Section VIII.


• Resins with a low flow rate may assist
in minimizing voids in heavy sections of
easy to fill parts. Also, the use of slow
speeds for the injection ram might help
in the control of sinks and voids.
B• Dry the polymer. For suggested drying
procedures see bulletin, “Rheology and
Handling.”
Sinks can be eliminated or decreased with some simple practices. It is
first important to understand if it is a sink or if it is a pull.
1. Proper mold packing: Be sure to do a part weight study to determine
when the gate freezes and to ensure that you are packing the most
amount of material possible into the mold. This will hopefully pack
out the sinks that are seen.
2. Proper gate size: It is very important to have the proper gate size
and location. It can be impossible to pack out a sink if the gate is
too far away or too small. Following our gating guidelines and
speaking with or technical representatives can help you out with
these problems.
3. Rib/Wall ratio: The rib/ boss thickness should not be more than 40%
of the thickness of the nominal wall.
4. Rib/Boss texture: It is common for ribs to have a poor texture on
them, which will cause them to stick in the mold. Sticking ribs in a
mold will often give the appearance of a sink, but is in fact a “pull”.

1. Ensure the TPU is dry


2. Check the screw is feeding regularly
3. Increase the back pressure
4. Reduce the melt temperature
5. Reduce the screw speed to lessen the shearing effect on the TPU
6. Reduce the injection speed
7. Increase cavity venting
8. Ensure mold has not over heated

Make sure there is a cushion


maintained.
Increase shot size.
Increase pack and hold pressures.
Increase hold time.

1. Increase the injection holding time


2. Increase the injection speed
3. Increase the injection pressure (note: sometimes a reduced injection
pressure will rectify the situation as it may reduce the injection speed as well)
4. Vent cavity in the area of the sink marks
• Check ejector position and length, correct if
necessary
• Use larger ejectors
• Increase the number of ejectors
• Extend cooling time
If ejector marks is raised:
• Reduce holding pressure and holding
pressure time
• Use longer ejector

Increase mold close time.


Reduce mold temperature.
Reduce process temperature.
Texture mold surface for better release.
Increase size of pins.
Increase draft on part.
Reduce wall section.
Use a compound with mold release.
Use a harder compound.

A• See suggested solutions for Section V.


B• Reduce injection pressure and/or hold
• Reduce size of the shot pad.
• Reduce time that injection ram is
forward.
C• Increase time of the overall cycle.
• Reduce temperature of the mold.
• Increase diameter and number of
knockout pins.
• Use rubber type sprue puller or sucker
pins with more undercut.
• Incorporate air ejection in conjunction
with mechanical methods.
• Sand blast or vapor-hone mold core
and core pins in the direction of ejection.
D• Check suggestions in Section VI, Item C.
• Use internal or external mold release.
• Use matte finish on the mold cavity
E. Mold conditions:
• Overhaul and polish the mold surfaces.
and marred
• A minimum of 1° (0.017 rad) taper on long cores or cavities is required.
• Undercuts should not have sharp angles but should be tapered to ease ejection.
• Align nozzle and sprue bushing.
Descriptions
Foreign particle (burnt material or other) embedded in the part

• Check whether the melt or the granules are already


contaminated
• Clean plasticizing unit and hopper
• Clean mold and check for deposits
• Check screw for wear or abrasion and chang if
necessary
• Check wheter the contamination originates from
the environment, reduce dust in the environment.
• Improper regrind usage
• Poor housekeeping

• Check the mold for damage


• Check the mold for undercuts
• Check that mold has sufficient drafts
• Check the splits (splits must not scratch the molded part
A• Reduce temperatures of the cylinder.
• Shorten time of cycle.
B• Check all thermocouples for proper
operation.
C• Check for sticking relays.
• Check for sluggish or stuck meter move-
ments in all controllers.
• Calibrate controllers.
• Check for controllers which may be
connected to the wrong heaters.
D• Segregate and check regrind critically for
contamination, excessive moisture or
degraded polymer. Measure the melt
index of each polymer feed component.
(See bulletin, “Rheology and Handling.”)
Try virgin material.
E• Purge machine thoroughly until degrad-
ed (low viscosity) polymer has been
discharged. Rule-of-thumb is that poly-
mer hold-up is four times the maximum
shot capacity of the machine
F• Dry the regrind and polymer. For sugges-
tions on drying, see bulletin,
“Rheology and Handling.”
G• Change to a smaller capacity machine.
Shot should be between 25% and 75%
of the machine capacity. If a smaller
capacity machine is not available, use a
temperature profile with the front zone
and nozzle at the desired melt tempera
ture and all other temperatures as low as
operable.
H)Inspect the cylinder. Eliminate dead spots (streamline) as necessary.

Descriptions
polymer breakdown from hydrolysis, oxidation etc
C• Inspect rework material thoroughly.
• Use care in handling materials and
caution in keeping foreign materials
clear of hopper and work area.
• Reduce temperature of rear cylinder.
• Increase back pressure.
• Use a dryer to remove condensed
moisture. Store pellets in the processing
area for a minimum of 4 hr prior to use.
• Dry the resin. Use a hopper dryer.
D• Check the material for foreign matter.
• Increase temperatures of the cylinder.
E• See suggestions in Section XIV, Item A.
• Increase pressure of injection. See
suggestions in Section VII, Items
A-1 and A-2.
F• Increase speed of injection.
See Section X, Item D.
• See suggestions in Section VIII, Item B.
• Dry the resin. See suggestions in
Section XIII, Items B and C.
G• Redesign and/or relocate gate.
• Raise temperatures of the cylinder
and/or mold.
• Increase speed of injection.
• Increase temperature of mold.
• Use polymer with a higher melt index,
if possible. (See bulletin, “Rheology
and Handling.”)
• Decrease speed of injection. Correct
design and/or location of gate.
• Regrind or additives are not well dis-
persed in the virgin polymer

A.1. Decrease nozzle temperature.


B.1. Increase injection pressure.
C.1. Raise mold temperature.
D. 1. Use nozzle with larger orifice.

Lengthen boost time


Open gate
Deepen vents
Increase shot
Increase injection speed
Dry the resin
Lengthen mold-closed time

Effect on shrinkage :
Decreases (usually)
May be either (minor effect)
Decreases
Decreases until gate freeze
May be either
Increases
Usually none; may decrease
May be either; usually increases
Decreases
Increases
Decreases
Decreases
Decreases
Decreases
May be either
May be either
Increases
Increases
May be either; usually decreases

1. control holding / injection pressure


2. increase back pressure
3. increase mould temperature
4. check back flow valve
5. allow for adequate venting
6. enlarge gate
7. shorten land length
1. Slow down or reduce decompression
2. Check granule feed
3. Increase back pressure and adjust screw speed
4. Reduce metering stroke

1. adapt injection speed


2. add a large cold slug area
3. add cold wells at the end of runner systems
4. control nozzle heat better: if necessary add beryllium copper tip (not
recommended for FR resins)
5. shorten or eliminate standard sprue bushing:use a hot sprue bushing
6. clean flow must exist from the cylinder, adaptor, nozzle and tip: avoid and
eliminate any dead pockets or
sections

Descriptions
Directionally "off tone" wavy lines or patterns

1. adapt injection speed


2. add a large cold slug area
3. add cold wells at the end of runner systems
4. control nozzle heat better: if necessary add beryllium
copper tip (not recommended for FR resins)
5. shorten or eliminate standard sprue bushing:
use a hot sprue bushing
6. clean flow must exist from the cylinder, adaptor, nozzle and
tip: avoid and eliminate any dead pockets or sections
• Add cold slug well in runner
• Increase melt temperature
• Reduce injection speed
• Increase gate size
• Add radius to gate

Gate blush is very common in injection molding, more often then not, it
is seen with the use of sub-gates or cashew gates.
1. Packing: An over pack of the part can cause a blush to be seen
around the gate area. If the selected pressure/time is needed to fill
the part out, a larger gate may be needed.
2. Flow rate: A high flow rate can sometimes result in a gate blush,
slowing the injection rate down or making the gate larger can help
eliminate this problem.

1. check venting channels for dirt


2. decrease injection speed
3. decrease injection pressure
4. use programmed injection
5. check for heater malfunctioning
6. reduce screw r.p.m.
7. decrease nozzle temperature
8. reduce melt temperature
9. improve mould cavity venting
add vents to ejector pins
add vents to parting line of part
10. enlarge gate to reduce frictional burning
11. alter position and/or increase gate size

1. Check vents are clear of dirt / debris


2. Reduce clamping force of the machine
3. Reduce injection speed
4. Ensure vents are deep enough
5. Avoid entrapped air by changing flow profile

1. increase melt temperature


2. increase mould temperature
3. decrease injection speed
4. eliminate contamination
5. check percentage regrind
6. dry material
7. purge equipment
8. change material
9. radius all sharp corners at gate
1. increase injection pressure
2. increase cooling time
3. increase mould temperature
4. maintain uniform cycle time operation
5. check machine for erratic operation
6. check the percentage regrind to virgin material
7. increase gate size
8. reduce gate land length
9. relocate gate if glass-filled compounds
10. balance runner and/or gate system
11. reduce number of cavities to balanced system

1. purge heating cylinder


2. lower material temperature by
reducing cylinder temperature
decreasing screw speed
reducing back pressure
3. lower nozzle temperature
4. check residence time
5. check machinery purging
6. shorten overall cycle
7. check hopper and feed zone for contaminantst
8. check for proper cooling of ram and feed zone
9. provide additional vents in mould
10. move mould to smaller shot size press to reduce residence time

1. reduce injection speed


2. reduce injection pressure and/or booster time
3. increase clamping force
4. check mould for proper mould support and/or parallelism
5. reduce melt temperature
6. reduce mould temperature
7. check excessive vent depths
8. change to higher clamping machine

Descriptions
Excess material in thin layer exceeding normal part geometry
Check shot size.
Check for dirt on the mold parting line of low hydraulic pressure.
Check injection pressure and speed.

1. Increase clamp force


2. Optimise change-over point
3. Reduce holding pressure
4. Reduce melt temperature
5. Reduce mould temperature
6. Stiffen mould

1. decrease injection speed


2. check nozzle heating
3. increase mould temperature
4. increase melt temperature
5. increase gate size
6. avoid gating at thick section
7. modify gate location or angle: directly into wall or pin
8. use tab gate or submarine plus pin

Increase process temperature.


Increase injection speed.
Decrease gate size.
Change type of gate.
Relocate gate to impinge.

1. get shear down


2. lower back pressure
3. decrease injection speed
4. change temperature profile
5. check regrind percentage
6. check shot size vs part
7. check hot-runner: torpedoes
1. increase injection speed
2. increase injection pressure
3. increase melt temperature
4. increase mould temperature
5. check mould textures

1. check cycle time: cooling


2. decrease injection pressure
3. decrease injection hold time
4. decrease injection speed
5. decrease booster time
6. reduce and adjust feed for constant cushion
7. check for poor mould finish or corrosion on mould surface
8. increase mould opening time
9. decrease material temperature by lowering cylinder
10. lower mould temperature
11. adjust the cavity temperature to a 20°C differential between mould valves
12. check mould for undercuts and/or insufficient draft and taper
13. use proper mould release

Sandblast “A” side of tool.


Polish “B” side.
Run “A” side cooler.
Put keepers in “B” half of tool.
Increase draft on part in “A” half of tool.

Increase mold closed time.


Reduce mold temperature.
Reduce process temperature.
Reduce pack and hold pressure.
Sandblast “B” side.
Increase size of ejector pins.
Increase number of ejector pins.
Increase draft on part.
Provide air assist.
1. check cycle time: cooling
2. decrease injection pressure
3. decrease injection hold time
4. decrease booster time
5. adjust feed for constant cushion
6. decrease mould-closed time
7. increase core temperature
8. decrease cylinder and nozzle temperature
9. check mould for undercuts and/or insufficient draft
10. check mould for bending: rule of thumb is 1:5 for core diameter to core length

1. decrease injection pressure


2. decrease injection hold time
3. decrease booster time
4. increase die-closed time
5. decrease mould temperature at sprue bushing
6. leave nozzle against mould: no pull back
7. raise nozzle temperature
8. check incorrect seat between nozzle and sprue: sizes and alignment of holes in
nozzle and sprue bushing
9. sprue bushing hole must be larger: reduce nozzle diameter for sprue bushing
being used
10. check polishing of sprue
11. check proper design of sprue puller pin
12. check cone of sprue: usually 1:20, for difficult jobs 1:15
13. provide more effective sprue puller:
increase sprue puller by increasing taper of sprue puller
polish worn or rough sprue bushing

Descriptions
Non-Fill / Short mold Partial part

1. increase dosage
2. increase injection pressure
3. increase booster time forward
4. increase material temperature by increasing cylinder temperatures
5. increase mould temperature, if glass-filled
6. check material flow length vs wall section thickness
7. increase nozzle diameter
8. check restrictions of nozzle, runners and actual gating
9. increase gate size of sprue and runner system
1. increase injection speed to maximum range
2. sometimes lower injection speed: crystalline materials
3. increase injection hold time
4. increase injection pressure
5. reduce melt temperature
6. reduce mould temperature
7. check for hot spots: separate water channels in cooling system / add heat pipes
such as thermal pins or
beryllium copper slugs for spot cooling
8. enlarge and/or add vents to mould parting line
9. increase size of sprue and/or runner
10. increase gate size and reduce gate land length
11. relocate gate next to heavy or thicker areas
12. core out heavy wall sections where possible
13. incorporate textured surfaces

Descriptions
Circular pattern around gate caused by hot gas

Color streaks are often a problem when the material has not been
blended at the proper ratio or when the screw is not of a proper design.
1. Material blending: It is critical that the proper material/concentrate
ratio be used. Any deviation from this ratio could cause problems
with color streaks and/or improper color.
2. Material mixing: Proper screw design is critical when molding a
PP/TPO compound. We recommend a distributive mixing screw with
a high shear spiral mixing head on the tip of the screw. Slowing the
screw down to where it gets to its full shot position about 2 seconds
before the cure time has ended is a good practice to follow. We also
ask that you consult with a technical representative before
purchasing a screw to ensure you are purchasing the correct design.
3. Shear Rate: Color can sometimes separate from the material while
flowing through the gate or high shear areas. Slowing the fill down
or reducing the restriction can reduce the shear rate and therefore
reduce color streaking.

Descriptions
Localized change of colour
1. check pre-drying: dry material before use
2. check moisture content after pre-drying
3. check effectiveness of drying equipment: temperature and time
4. lower nozzle temperature
5. lower material temperature by:
lowering cylinder temperature
decreasing screw speed
lowering back pressure
6. decrease injection speed
7. raise mould temperature
8. shorten or eliminate screw decompression
9. shorten overall cycle
10. increase back pressure; in case of drooling,reduce back pressure
11. check for drooling
12. check for contamination(e.g. water or oil leaking into mould cavity)
13. barrel purging (hang-ups)
14. allow for adequate venting
15. open gates
16. move mould to smaller shot-size press

Descriptions
Splash mark / Silver Streaks Circular pattern around gate caused by hot gas

1. check for material contamination by other resins


2. check barrel purging
3. check for cracked or worn back flow valve ring
4. check for worn feed screw
5. check for excessive clearance on screw/barrel dimensions
6. check for overheated cylinder heater bands
7. check for overheated nozzle heater bands
For the sake of argument splay will be included with silver streaking.
They both appear to be the same defect, but some people differentiate
between moisture splay and shear splay, calling shear splay silver
streaking.
1. Proper drying: If the material you are using has talc in it, we
recommend that you dry that material according the process sheet.
Be cautious of over drying the material as this may cause some of the
additives to be cooked out of the material. Polypropylene does not
absorb moisture but the talc will, it is important to drive off that
moisture.
2. Venting: Be sure to have the tool properly vented in all possible
locations. Venting ejector pins and lifters is also suggested.
ACP (2004, 2005) All Rights Reserved Advanced Composites TS Group
3. Excess shear: Too high shear can often cause silver streaking or splay.
Controlling and reducing the flow rate through the area where the
splay is seen can eliminate this.
4. Gas trapping: If two or more material flow fronts are converging on
each other it can sometimes cause a gas trap that is eventually moved
from the area and is smeared out across the part. Try to eliminate
the gas trap by changing the material flow in that area.

1. decrease injection speed


2. increase mould temperature
3. increase melt temperature
4. increase gate size
5. change gate location

1. use suck back: only for crystalline materials


2. lower back pressure
3. lower or increase nozzle temperature
4. use different temperature profile
5. do not use sprue breaks

Descriptions
String like remain from previous shot transfer in new shot
The occurrence of tiger stripes comes when the material sees to high of a
shear rate going through the gate and when the material has to travel a
long distance.
1. Reduce Shear Rate: Opening up the gate(s) or reducing the injection
rate can reduce or eliminate the appearance of tiger stripes.
2. Heat up the grained side of the tool: This will help the material flow
more easily through the tool.
3. Increase Melt Temp: This will help the material flow a little easier
through the gate and possibly help with the appearance of tiger
stripes.

1. decrease injection speed to medium range


2. increase holding time
3. reduce melt temperature
4. increase mould temperature
5. check gate size: too small results in freezing at gate with voids and sinks in other
areas of the part
6. increase gate size and reduce gate land length
7. increase nozzle size and/or runner system
8. redesign part to obtain equal wall sections

Descriptions
Empty space within part (Air pocket)

1. increase injection pressure


2. increase injection hold time
3. increase injection speed
4. raise melt temperature by increasing cylinder temperatures
5. raise mould temperature
6. check for proper venting of the part
7. vent the cavity in the weld area
8. provide an overflow well next to the weld area
9. change gate location to alter flow pattern
10. increase gate and/or main runner system
11. reduce gate land length
12. spot heat particular area with thermal pins or cartridge heaters
13. use textured surfaces

Descriptions
Knit Line / Meld Line Discolored line where two flow fronts meet
Increase Injection pressure
Increase Holding pressure/time
Increase Melt temperature (not excess)
Increase Mold temperature
Adjust injection fill rate
(around 1sec/mm of wall thickness)
Enlarge vents and Vent the cavity
in the weld line
Change vent or gate location

1. Increase the injection pressure


2. Increase the injection speed
3. Increase the temperature of the melt
4. Increase the mold temperature
5. Ensure the TPU is completely dry
6. Ensure the check ring is functioning

1. Increase mould temperature


2. Increase injection speed
3. Increase melt temperature
4. Increase hold on pressure
5. Check venting
6. Relocate gate to change flow pattern

1. Increase the cycle time to allow the polymer to melt


2. Increase the barrel temperature
3. Increase the back pressure
4. Preheat the granules

1. Ensure the hopper and feed throat are free from obstructions
2. Reduce melt temperature
3. Reduce screw charging speed
4. Ensure water cooling to hopper feed throat

1. Increase the melt temperature


2. Check for cold areas of barrel
3. Reduce the screw back pressure
1. Increase nozzle temperature
2. Reduce injection speed
3. Create cold slug well in the mould opposite sprue
bush

1. Reduce injection speed


2. Increase injection pressure
3. Increase mould temperature
4. Avoid sharp transitions, reduce engraving depth
5. Relocate gate

1. Check granule for impurities


2. Clean plasticising unit
3. Reduce barrel temperature
4. Reduce screw speed
5. Reduce back pressure
6. Check hot runner temperature
7. Reduce regrind dose

1. Check for cross contamination with other polymers


in every area of operation.

1. Increase melt temperature


2. Increase injection speed
3. Optimise injection hold position and time
4. Reduce injection pressure
5. Increase mould temperature
6. Maintain equal mould temperatures on both halves
of mould tool
7. Anneal parts at as high a temperature as possible

Check for contamination.

Reduce the level of regrind.


Reduce the rear zone temperature.
Reduce the residence time.
Add delay to screw recovery.
Purge machine and observe whether problem reoccurs.
Reduce process temperature. (Particularly in rear of machine).
Reduce regrind level.
Reduce residence time.
Purge machine after shutdown.
Move to a smaller machine.
Reduce hot runner system temperatures.
Minimize dead spots in hot runner manifold.

When a difference in gloss is seen, it is important to make a careful


evaluation of the situation, use the following to help determine what the
problem is.
1. Temperature and Pressure: If two melt fronts are coming together
and the temperature is too low or the pressure is too low it will not
allow the area to be packed out properly, causing a higher gloss in
that area.
ACP (2004, 2005) All Rights Reserved Advanced Composites TS Group
2. Venting: Be sure to check all vents around parting lines, on ejector
pins, and on lifters. Improper venting can cause gas to come to the
surface of the part and will give it a higher gloss.
3. Flow distance: If the material has traveled a long distance it will
sometimes not be packed out properly far from the gate. This can be
helped with a larger gate or changing the gate location to help pack
that area out better.

Decrease Injection filling rate


Flare gate
Increase Gate size
Maintain Gate location

Control proper hold pressure time


Wrinkle near gate Increase gate size

Increase Injection fill rate


Increase Injection fill pressure
Increase Hold pressure
Increase Hold time
Increase Mold temperature
Increase Cylinder temperature
Gate size
…………………..
Enlarge vents
File name

Advanced composites Material


Processing Guidelines and
Troubleshooting Guide ACP Material
Process
12/17

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page 12 of 51 super

NYLON RESINS - CORRECTING


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SHOOTING GUIDE
firestone - nylon resins correcting
molding problems a trouble shooting
guide-Injection Molding, .pdf
Torlon Polyamide imide Trouble
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polyamide-imide
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guide for LNP* engineering
compounds
page 4 of 36

51 pages, A Troubleshooting Forum


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page 12 of 51 super

Torlon Polyamide imide Trouble


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TORLON_Molding_Guide, 16
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& Workshop on Injection Molded
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page 10 of 16
51 pages, A Troubleshooting Forum
& Workshop on Injection Molded
Parts-Presentation_ITP 09.pdf
page 12 of 51 super

NYLON RESINS - CORRECTING


MOLDING PROBLEMS - A TROUBLE
SHOOTING GUIDE
firestone - nylon resins correcting
molding problems a trouble shooting
guide-Injection Molding, .pdf
51 pages, A Troubleshooting Forum
& Workshop on Injection Molded
Parts-Presentation_ITP 09.pdf
page 12 of 51 super

Advanced composites Material


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Advanced composites Material


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NYLON RESINS - CORRECTING
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SHOOTING GUIDE
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molding problems a trouble shooting
guide-Injection Molding, .pdf

NYLON RESINS - CORRECTING


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SHOOTING GUIDE
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Molding Guide H81091, 37 pages.pdf
page 26 of 37
Dupont Hytrel thermoplastic
polyester elastomer Injection
Molding Guide H81091, 37 pages.pdf
page 26 of 37

Dupont Hytrel thermoplastic


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Molding Guide H81091, 37 pages.pdf
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injection moulding Troubleshooting


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& Workshop on Injection Molded
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TORLON_Molding_Guide, 16
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GE Injection moulding mini guide
8654, 43 pages.pdf
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Guide
Performance Plastics Injection
Moulding Trouble Shooting Guide -
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GE Injection moulding mini guide
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Shwon with photo
GE Injection moulding mini guide
8654, 43 pages.pdf
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Shwon with photo
GE Injection moulding mini guide
8654, 43 pages.pdf

GE Injection moulding mini guide -


Shwon with photo
GE Injection moulding mini guide
8654, 43 pages.pdf

GE Injection moulding mini guide -


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GE Injection moulding mini guide
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GE Injection moulding mini guide -


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GE Injection moulding mini guide
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Shwon with photo
GE Injection moulding mini guide
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GE Injection moulding mini guide -


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GE Injection moulding mini guide
8654, 43 pages.pdf

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Shwon with photo
GE Injection moulding mini guide
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7/12

GE Injection moulding mini guide -


Shwon with photo
GE Injection moulding mini guide
8654, 43 pages.pdf
GE Injection moulding mini guide -
Shwon with photo
GE Injection moulding mini guide
8654, 43 pages.pdf

injection moulding Troubleshooting


Inj molding, 12 pages.doc
7/12

Advanced composites Material


Processing Guidelines and
Troubleshooting Guide ACP Material
Process
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injection moulding Troubleshooting


Inj molding, 12 pages.doc
7/12
GE Injection moulding mini guide -
Shwon with photo
GE Injection moulding mini guide
8654, 43 pages.pdf

injection moulding Troubleshooting


Inj molding, 12 pages.doc
7/12

GE Injection moulding mini guide -


Shwon with photo
GE Injection moulding mini guide
8654, 43 pages.pdf
Advanced composites Material
Processing Guidelines and
Troubleshooting Guide ACP Material
Process
12/17

GE Injection moulding mini guide -


Shwon with photo
GE Injection moulding mini guide
8654, 43 pages.pdf

GE Injection moulding mini guide -


Shwon with photo
GE Injection moulding mini guide
8654, 43 pages.pdf

injection moulding Troubleshooting


Inj molding, 12 pages.doc
7/12
Advanced composites Material
Processing Guidelines and
Troubleshooting Guide ACP Material
Process
12/17

GE Injection moulding mini guide -


Shwon with photo
GE Injection moulding mini guide
8654, 43 pages.pdf

injection moulding Troubleshooting


Inj molding, 12 pages.doc
7/12

GE Injection moulding mini guide -


Shwon with photo
GE Injection moulding mini guide
8654, 43 pages.pdf

injection moulding Troubleshooting


Inj molding, 12 pages.doc
7/12
Trouble shooting of injection
moulding-korea engg. plastics-kh-m-
04-0, 7 pages

injection moulding Troubleshooting


with photo
Huntsman-Processing Parameters-
Injection molding-
Injection_Molding110705, 10
pages.pdf
8/10

Injection Moulding Trouble Shooting


Guide
Performance Plastics Injection
Moulding Trouble Shooting Guide -
trouble_shooting_guide, 3 pages.pdf

injection moulding Troubleshooting


with photo
Huntsman-Processing Parameters-
Injection molding-
Injection_Molding110705, 10
pages.pdf
8/10

injection moulding Troubleshooting


with photo
Huntsman-Processing Parameters-
Injection molding-
Injection_Molding110705, 10
pages.pdf
8/10

injection moulding Troubleshooting


with photo
Huntsman-Processing Parameters-
Injection molding-
Injection_Molding110705, 10
pages.pdf
8/10
Injection Moulding Trouble Shooting
Guide
Performance Plastics Injection
Moulding Trouble Shooting Guide -
trouble_shooting_guide, 3 pages.pdf

Injection Moulding Trouble Shooting


Guide
Performance Plastics Injection
Moulding Trouble Shooting Guide -
trouble_shooting_guide, 3 pages.pdf

Injection Moulding Trouble Shooting


Guide
Performance Plastics Injection
Moulding Trouble Shooting Guide -
trouble_shooting_guide, 3 pages.pdf

Injection Moulding Trouble Shooting


Guide
Performance Plastics Injection
Moulding Trouble Shooting Guide -
trouble_shooting_guide, 3 pages.pdf

Injection Moulding Trouble Shooting


Guide
Performance Plastics Injection
Moulding Trouble Shooting Guide -
trouble_shooting_guide, 3 pages.pdf

Injection Molding Troubleshooting


Realize the potential, feel the
difference, Injection moulding guide,
im, 33 pages.pdf
29/33
Injection Molding Troubleshooting
Realize the potential, feel the
difference, Injection moulding guide,
im, 33 pages.pdf
29/33

Advanced composites Material


Processing Guidelines and
Troubleshooting Guide ACP Material
Process
12/17

Trouble shooting of injection


moulding-korea engg. plastics-kh-m-
04-0, 7 pages

Trouble shooting of injection


moulding-korea engg. plastics-kh-m-
04-0, 7 pages

Trouble shooting of injection


moulding-korea engg. plastics-kh-m-
04-0, 7 pages
Seen PDF files

Folder

D:\Engineering\Engineering 1\plastic design\Injection moulding\

D:\Engineering\Engineering 1\plastic design\design, Pure

D:\Engineering\Engineering 1\plastic design\Injection moulding


File seen upto

Gas-Injection Moulding with DuPont engineering polymers - GasInj_e, 8 pages.pdf

174 pages, Bayer, material science, engineering polymers, part & mold design, adesign guide Part
gn guide Part