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1) Although there may be other reasons for using calcium tungstate

screens in industrial radiography, they are most usually used to:
|A. Improve definition and resolution in radiographic images.
|B. Improve contrast in radiographic images.
|C. Decreases exposure time.
|D. Make films respond to multimillion volt radiation.
^A. Resolution deteriorates with an improvement of the photo
electric effect by calcium tungstate.
^B. An increase in the photo electric effect at the film plane
by calcium does not improve contrast.
^C. YOU'RE RIGHT! An increase in the photo electric effect
increases light action at the film plane and reduces
exposure time.
^D. Intensifying screens such as calcium tungstate do not alter
the multimillion volt response.
2) An excellent radiograph is obtained under given conditions of
exposure with the film located at a distance of 36 inches from the
target of the x-ray tube. If the film is now placed only 18 inches
from the target, and all exposure conditions except time are held
constant, the new exposure time will be:
|A. unchanged.
|B. longer by approximately 80 percent.
|C. shorter by approximately 55 percent.
|D. only about 25 percent as long as the original exposure time.
^A. The inverse square law states that at 1/2 the distance
intensity increases by four.
^B. The inverse square law states that at 1/2 the distance
intensity increases by four.
^C. The inverse square law states that at 1/2 the distance
intensity increases by four.
^D. CORRECT! The inverse square law states that at 1/2 the
distance intensity increases by four; thus, exposure time
will be approximately 25%
3) An excellent radiograph is obtained under given exposure
conditions with a tube current of 5 milliamperes and an exposure
time of 12 minutes. If other conditions are not changed, what
exposure time would be required if the x-ray tube current could be
raised to 10 milliamperes?
|A. 24 minutes.
|B. 12 minutes.
|C. 6 minutes.
|D. 3 minutes.
^A. Remember, we have just doubled the possible energy action on
the film.
^B. After doubling the number of X-rays you decrease exposure
time by 50%.
^C. ALRIGHTY! Doubling the mA from 5 to 10 doubles the amount
of X-rays produced and cuts exposure in half.
^D. This is one fourth the original exposure time and mA was
only doubled not quadrupled.
4) In film radiography, penetrameters are usually placed:
|A. between the intensifying screen and the film.
|B. on the source side of the test object.
|C. on the film side of the test object.
|D. between the operator and the radiation source.
^A. Placing the penetrameter after the intensifying screen
serves no useful purpose.
^B. YES SIRREEBOB! The penetrameter should be the first thing
the X-rays penetrate.
^C. X-rays exiting the back side of the specimen are to weak to
provide proper penetrameter resolution.
^D. Placing the penetrameter here does not create an image on
the film.
5) When radiographing to the 2-2T quality level, and ASTM penetrameter
for 1/2 -inch thick 2024 aluminum alloy has a thickness of:
|A. 1/2 inch.
|B. 2 mils.
|C. 5 mils.
|D. 10 mils.
^A. A 2-2T means two percent material thickness.
^B. Is .002 two percent of .500?
^C. Is .005 two percent of .500?
^D. AYE! .010 is two percent of .500.
6) The penetrating ability of an x-ray beam is governed by:
|A. kilovoltage or wavelength.
|B. time.
|C. milliamperage.
|D. source-to-film distance.
^A. RIGHT ON! An increase in the kV produces X-rays with
shorter wavelengths and higher penetrating power.
^B. Exposure time has no effect on the penetrating power of X-
^C. Although increasing the mA does increase the number of
X-rays produced it does not increase their penetration.
^D. This does effect the penetration of X-rays, but not their
initial ability to penetrate a material.
7) Cobalt-60 used in nondestructive testing emits:
|A. alpha particles.
|B. neutrons.
|C. gamma rays.
|D. x-rays.
^A. An alpha particle is a positively charged Helium nucleus
composed of two protons and two neutrons.
^B. Neutrons carry no charge and are ejected during certain
radioactive transformations. Can be used for radiography,
but not with Cobalt-60.
^C. CORRECTO MUNDO! Gamma rays are emitted by the
disintegrating Cobalt-60 atomic nuclei.
^D. X-rays are produced by electron bombardment of a target
8) A densitometer is:
|A. a meter used to measure x-ray intensity.
|B. an instrument for measuring the density of a material.
|C. a meter used to measure the density of a material.
|D. a meter used to measure tube current.
^A. This is a dosimeter or Geiger counter.
^B. YES INDEEDY! A densitometer is the instrument used to
measure for proper film density prior to reading the
^C. A densitometer measures image density not material density.
^D. This is an amp meter or voltage meter.
9) The two most common causes for excessively high-density
radiographs are:
|A. insufficient washing and overdevelopment.
|B. contaminated fixer and insufficient washing.
|C. overexposure and contaminated fixer.
|D. overexposure and overdevelopment.
^A. Overdevelopment yes washing has nothing to do with it.
^B. Neither fixer nor washing has anything to do with high
^C. Contaminated fixer does not result in high-density.
^D. ABSOLUTELY! Both overexposure and overdevelopment can cause
in excessively high-density radiographs which results from
an excessive amount of silver bromide being converted to
black silver.
10) The time required for one-half of the atoms in a particular
sample of radioactive material to disintegrate is called:
|A. the inverse square law.
|B. a curie.
|C. a half-life.
|D. the exposure time.
^A. This is used in source to distance exposure calculations.
^B. This is a measure of emission intensity from a radioisotope.
^C. AFFIRMATIVE! The only logical choice.
^D. Exposure time is a function of film imaging not radioactive
11) What does the term R/hr refer to when speaking of intensity?
|A. Radiation limits for humans.
|B. Roentgens per hour.
|C. X-rays per hour.
|D. Radiation in hydrogen.
^A. R/hr is R per hour not per human.
^B. ROGER! R/hr equals Roentgens per hour. It is used as a
guide for human dosage limits.
^C. This terminology is meaningless. Measuring the number of
individual X-rays is next to impossible anyway.
^D. This terminology is even more meaningless than answer C.
You need to study more!
12) The ability to detect a small discontinuity or flaw is called:
|A. radiographic contrast.
|B. radiographic sensitivity.
|C. radiographic density.
|D. radiographic resolution.
^A. This is an indication of the difference between the least
dense to the most dense areas of a radiograph.
^B. VERY GOOD! Radiographic sensitivity is a measure of the
ability to detect small discontinuities.
^C. This is the measure of the black silver content of an area
of an image on a radiograph.
^D. Close, but resolution deals with the ability to distinguish
both large and small interior details.
13) Movement, geometry, and screen contact are three factors that
affect radiographic:
|A. contrast.
|B. unsharpness.
|C. reticulation.
|D. density.
^A. Contrast is not a function of movement or geometry.
^B. PRECISELY! The penumbra shadowing effects are increased by
poor geometry, movement blurs normal photographs as well as
radiographs, and poor screen contact leads to flogging.
^C. No, try again.
^D. Screen contact maybe, but movement and geometry do not
directly affect film density.
14) The difference between the densities of two areas of a
radiograph is called:
|A. radiographic contrast.
|B. subject contrast.
|C. film contrast.
|D. definition.
^A. EXACTLY! It is the difference between the darkest and
lightest area of a radiograph.
^B. The contrast of the subject or specimen has nothing to do
with the resulting radiograph contrast.
^C. No such terminology; try again.
^D. Definition is an indicator of how well a detail is imaged
does not necessarily depend on radiographic density.
15) Upon completing an x-ray exposure and turning the equipment off:
|A. personnel should wait for a few minutes before entering the
exposure area.
|B. personnel should wear a lead-lined apron before entering the
exposure area.
|C. personnel should enter the exposure area without fear of
radiation exposure.
|D. personnel should take a reading with a survey meter before
entering the exposure area.
^A. Why? Once the power is off no more X-rays are being
produced and they don't linger about.
^B. Why? Once the power is off no more X-rays are being
produced and they don't linger about.
^C. OF COURSE! When the power to an X-ray tube is shut off it
immediately ceases to produce X-rays and their is no further danger.
^D. Why? Once the power is off no more X-rays are being
produced and they don't linger about.
16) The most widely used unit of measurement for measuring the rate
at which the output of a gamma-ray source decays is the:
|A. curie.
|B. roentgen.
|C. half-life.
|D. MeV.
^A. MAIS OUI! As the french would say. Named for Madame Curie
the discoverer of Radium one Curie equals 3.7 x 1010 atomic
disintegrations per second.
^B. A roentgen is a measurement of output for both X-ray and
gamma ray sources.
^C. Half-life is a function of the length of output time not
^D. MeV is a measurement of X-ray output.
17) Exposure to x-rays or gamma rays:
|A. may have a cumulative effect which must be considered when
monitoring for maximum permissible dose.
|B. will be beneficial since they build up an immunity to
radiation poisoning.
|C. will have no effect on human beings.
|D. will have only a short-term effect on human tissues.
^A. YOU'RE RIGHT! X-rays or gamma rays themselves don't
build-up or stay in the body, but their "effects" on the
body build over a period of repeat exposures.
^B. No way! Humans cannot become immune to radiation only tan
as in the case with sunlight.
^C. Its effects range from mild to deadly.
^D. Can have long term effects on human tissues. Sufficient
radiation exposure can produce cancer or tumors which may
not appear for many years.
18) Which dose would be dangerous, if not fatal, if applied to the
entire body in a short period of time?
|A. 1.5 to 15 R
|B. 25 to 70 R
|C. 200 to 800 R
|D. All of the above doses would most likely be fatal.
^A. Not enough to be dangerous.
^B. Could be harmful, but not life threatening.
^C. CORRECT! The exact fatal dosage depends on age and body
^D. No there is only one correct answer.
19) When doing gamma-ray radiography with high-intensity emitters, the
sources are best handled:
|A. directly by personnel equipped with special protective
|B. by remote handling equipment.
|C. directly by personnel with special protective clothing
except when radiographs are being made.
|D. by the same methods used for low-intensity emitters.
^A. Never directly handle a high emission source.
^B. ALRIGHTY! Never directly touch or handle high emission
sources there is no safe practical protective clothing one
can use when handling these sources.
^C. Never directly handle a high emission source.
^D. Low intensity emitters can be handled directly when wear the
proper protective clothing, but this protection is not
enough to handle high-intensity emitters.
20) If a film is placed in a developer solution and allowed to
develop without any agitation:
|A. the radiograph will not show proper contrast.
|B. it will be impossible to fix the radiograph permanently.
|C. there will be a general "fogging" condition over the entire
|D. there will be a tendency for each area of the film to affect
the development of the areas immediately below it.
^A. Maybe not necessarily the case especially in radiographs
with little overall contrast.
^B. It is still possible to fix the radiograph permanently in
this situation.
^C. Fogging is usually caused by scattered radiation not
^D. YES! Without agitation the developer will be depleted in
areas of high film density weakening the development of
imaging lying below it in the vertically oriented film rack.
21) The selection of the proper type of film to be used for the x-ray
examination of a particular part depends on:
|A. the thickness of the part.
|B. the material of the specimen.
|C. the voltage range of the available x-ray machine.
|D. all three of the above factors.
^A. Yes, but what else.
^B. Yes, but what else.
^C. Yes, but what else.
^D. CORRECT! The thickness, material, and voltage intensity are
all factors to be judged when selecting the proper film.
22) When radiographing a part which contains a large crack, the crack
will appear on the radiograph as:
|A. a dark, intermittent or continuous line.
|B. a light, irregular line.
|C. either a dark or light line.
|D. a fogged area on the radiograph.
^A. RIGHT ON! A crack will appear as a dark linear image
because it allows X-rays to pass easily; thus, creating a
more intense photo reaction at the film.
^B. This shows only a slight change in material density.
^C. Not as a light line.
^D. Fogging is primarily due to scattered radiation reaching the
film not from imaging cracks.
23) A cobalt-60 source has a half-life of:
|A. 1.2 years.
|B. 6 months.
|C. 5.3 years.
|D. 75 days.
^A. Much longer.
^B. Longer.
^D. Much, much longer.
24) X-ray tube current is controlled by:
|A. the current passing through the filament.
|B. the distance from the cathode to the anode.
|C. the type of material used in the target.
|D. the voltage and waveform applied to the x-ray tube.
^A. O.K.! The voltage applied across the tube controls the type
of X-rays produced.
^B. The distance between the cathode and anode has nothing to do
with it, but it is controlled by an element of the cathode.
^C. The type of material at the anode target has no bearing on
^D. The voltage and waveform controls the velocity and
wavelength of the X-rays produced.
25) The voltage and waveform applied to the x-ray tube be a
high-voltage transformer primarily determines the:
|A. quantity of radiation.
|B. duration of exposure.
|C. penetrating ability.
|D. x-ray beam divergence.
^A. Quantity of radiation is not a function of voltage and
^B. This is not their primary function.
^C. ROGER! Increasing the voltage produces X-rays of shorter
wavelength and high penetrating ability.
^D. The direction or spread of the beam is not a function of
voltage or waveform.
26) Lead foil in direct contact with x-ray film:
|A. intensifies the scatter radiation more than the primary
|B. decreases the contrast of the radiographic image.
|C. intensifies the primary radiation more than the scatter
|D. should not be used when gamma rays are emitted by the source
of radiation.
^A. Visa-versa.
^B. It increases contrast.
^C. VERY GOOD! Primary radiation (hard X-rays) are only
slightly attenuated by lead foil whereas secondary (soft
X-rays) or scattered radiation is absorbed almost completely
by the foil.
^D. Lead foil is used for both X- and gamma radiography.

27) Fluorescent intensifying screens are usually mounted in pairs in

rigid holders called:
|A. film racks.
|B. cassettes.
|C. emulsifiers.
|D. diaphragms.
^A. These are used to hold film during developing.
^B. PRECISELY! Cassettes hold fluorescent intensifying screens
in direct contact with the film in a cassette.
^C. These are wetting agent used in developing.
^D. Intensifying screens are rigid and do not vibrate as with
the case of diaphragms.

28) Radiographic sensitivity, in the context of the minimum detectable

flaw size, depends on:
|A. graininess of the film.
|B. the unsharpness of the flaw image in the film.
|C. the contrast of the flaw image on the film.
|D. all three of the above.
^A. What about contrast?
^B. What about unsharpness?
^C. What about film graininess?
^D. EXACTLY! Film graininess, unsharpness of the image, and
contrast all determine the minimum detectable flaw size.

29) In order to decrease geometric unsharpness:

|A. radiation should proceed from as small a focal spot as other
considerations will allow.
|B. radiation should proceed from as large a focal spot as other
considerations will allow.
|C. the film should be as far as possible from the object being
|D. the distance from the anode to the material examined should
be as small as is practical.
^A. CORRECT! All radiation emitted from a point source for
radiography should be as small as possible.
^B. A large focal spot or point source increases scattering and
will produce foggy radiographs.
^C. This increases the prenumbral shadow and thus decreases
image sharpness.
^D. This is true since the target at the anode is the point
source, but this alone will not decrease geometric
unsharpness and to close a spacing will increase foggy due
to scattering.
30) As the kilovoltage applied to the x-ray tube is raised:
|A. X-rays of longer wavelength and more penetrating power are
|B. X-rays of shorter wavelength and more penetrating power are
|C. X-rays of shorter wavelength and less penetrating power are
|D. X-rays of longer wavelength and less penetrating power are
^A. Longer wavelengths have less penetrating power.
^B. YOU'RE RIGHT! Increasing the voltage increases the speed of
the bombarding electrons on the target to produce shorter
wavelength X-rays with higher penetrative power.
^C. Shorter wavelengths have greater penetrating power.
^D. Just the opposite.
31) In order to increase the intensity of X-radiation:
|A. the tube current should be increased.
|B. the tube current should be decreased.
|C. the test specimen should be moved further from the film.
|D. a lower kilovoltage should be applied to the tube.
^A. CORRECT! The tube current controls the amount of electrons
released at the filament that will bombard the target; thus,
increasing the number or intensity of X-rays.
^B. This reduces the number of X-rays produced.
^C. This does not increase X-ray intensity and will result in an
increase in the prenumbral shadow on unsharpness.
^D. This does not effect intensity only lowers the penetrating
power of the X-rays produced.
32) Primary radiation which strikes a film holder or cassette through
a thin-portion of the specimen will cause scattering into the shadows
of the adjacent thicker portions producing an effect called:
|A. radiation imaging.
|B. spotting.
|C. undercut.
|D. unsharpness.
^A. This is radiography in general.
^B. Spotting is usually a result of improper developing.
^C. ALRIGHTY! It undercuts or exposes adjacent film portions
and results in a deterioration of image quality.
^D. This is a result, but not the exact name of the effect in
33) Scattered radiation caused by any material, such as a wall of
floor, on the film side of the specimen is referred to as:
|A. primary scattering.
|B. undercut.
|C. reflected scattering.
|D. backscattered radiation.
^A. Primary scattering is caused by the specimen itself.
^B. This occurs at the film and is caused by slightly attenuated
radiation striking the film cassette or holder.
^C. It can be reflected, but this is not what it is called.
^D. YES INDEEDY! Backscattered radiation is the scattering of
radiation after it exits the back of the specimen and
bounces off surrounding objects.
34) Which of the following materials is suitable for use in vessels
or pails used to mix processing solutions?
|A. Stainless steel.
|B. Aluminum.
|C. Galvanized iron.
|D. Tin.
^A. YES! Stainless steel will not react with processing
solutions. Also most plastics are suitable container
^B. Processing solutions will react with aluminum.
^C. Processing solutions will react with the zinc coating on
galvanized containers.
^D. Tin can react with some processing solution and pure tin
containers are expensive.
35) Any of the body tissues may be injured by excessive exposure to
X or gamma rays but particularly sensitive are:
|A. blood.
|B. lens of the eye.
|C. internal organs.
|D. all of the above.
^A. How about internal organs?
^B. How about blood?
^C. How about the lens of the eye?
^D. AFFIRMATIVE! Excessive exposure to X- or gamma radiation is
dangerous for any part of the human body.
36) A general rule used to define the amount of radiation exposure
that is excessive is:
|A. Although small amounts of radiation (0.4 R per week or less)
are beneficial since they build up an immunity to these rays,
anything above 0.4 R per week is excessive.
|B. Any dose over 5 R per week is excessive.
|C. Any dose which causes a mid-range reading on a Geiger
counter is excessive.
|D. Any unnecessary exposure to radiation is excessive.
^A. Humans do not develop an immunity to X or gamma radiation.
^B. True, but not a general rule this excessive.
^C. This can vary greatly depending on the sensitivity range of
the instrument from mild to deadly.
^D. EXACTLY! Any unnecessary exposure to radiation is not only
excessive, but foolish as well.
37) X-ray exposure may be due to:
|A. the direct beam from the x-ray tube target.
|B. scatter radiation arising from objects in the direct beam.
|C. both A and B above.
|D. both A and B above plus residual radiation that exists for the
first few minutes after the x-ray machine has been returned to the
"off" position.
^A. Yes, but what else?
^B. Yes, but what else?
^C. OF COURSE! X-rays cease the instant the voltage is cut off,
there is not "residue".
^D. There is no residual radiation once the voltage is cut off.
38) A general rule often employed for determining the kilovoltage to
be used when X-raying a part is:
|A. the kilovoltage should be as high as other factors will
|B. the kilovoltage should be as low as other factors will
|C. the kilovoltage is always a fixed value and cannot be
|D. the kilovoltage is not an important variable and can be
changed over a wide range without affecting the radiograph.
^A. This is a waste of power, likely to produce a poorer quality
radiograph, and creates a greater radiation exposure hazard.
^B. CORRECT! Why waste power to produce a lower quality
radiograph at a risk to your and others health?
^C. The kilovoltage (kV) is highly adjustable in industrial
X-ray machines to meet a variety of testing requirements.
^D. The kilovoltage (kV) controls the penetrating power of the
X-rays produced! This allows the machine to be adjusted to
meet various situations.
39) If a piece of lead 1/2 inch thick is placed in the path of a beam
of radiation emanating from cobalt-60, it will reduce the dose rate
at a given location by:
|A. one-third.
|B. one-quarter.
|C. one-half.
|D. three-quarters.
^A. More.
^B. Double it.
^C. YES!
^D. Less.
40) Excessive exposure of film to light prior to development of the
film will most likely result in:
|A. a foggy film.
|B. poor definition.
|C. streaks.
|D. yellow stain.
^A. YOU'RE RIGHT! The "fog" is due to a partial exposure of the
film to excess light.
^B. An indirect result.
^C. Maybe.
^D. This is a development chemical problem.
41) White crescent-shaped marks on an exposed x-ray film are most
likely caused by:
|A. crimping film after exposure.
|B. crimping film before exposure.
|C. sudden extreme temperature change while processing.
|D. warm or exhausted fixer.
^A. Not good for the film, but does not result in white
crescent-shaped marks.
^C. Although detrimental, this does not result in white
crescent-shaped marks.
^D. This causes a different effect on the film not white
crescent-shaped marks.
42) Reticulation resulting in a puckered or netlike film surface is
probably caused by:
|A. crimping film after exposure.
|B. sudden extreme temperature change while processing.
|C. water or developer on unprocessed film.
|D. excessive object-to-film distance.
^A. Not healthy for the film, but will not result in a puckered
or netlike film surface.
^B. RIGHT ON! Sudden temperature changes result in reticulation
of the film.
^C. This will ruin the film and it should not be used, but this
is not the cause of reticulation.
^D. This has nothing to do with the physical effect we are referring to here.
43) Frilling or loosening of the emulsion from the base of the film is most
likely caused by:
|A. water or developer on unprocessed film.
|B. low temperature of processing solutions.
|C. developer solution contamination.
|D. warm or exhausted fixer solution.
^A. Although film splashed or sprayed with water or developer
before processing not be used this does not cause frilling
or loosening of the emulsion.
^B. This usually results in a underdevelopment of the film not
frilling or loosening.
^C. This usually results in over development, underdevelopment,
or staining of the radiograph.
^D. YES INDEED! Make sure all chemicals are fresh and at the
correct temperature before processing. This is just one of
many problems which will result.
44) If an exposure time of 60 seconds was necessary using a 4-foot
source-to-film distance for a particular exposure, what time
be necessary if a 2-foot source-to-film distance is used and all
other variables remain the same?
|A. 120 seconds.
|B. 30 seconds.
|C. 15 seconds.
|D. 240 seconds.
^A. A lot less, use inverse square law.
^B. Less, use inverse square law.
^C. O.K.! At half the distance exposure time is one fourth
according to the inverse square law.
^D. A whole lot less, use inverse square law.
45) One of the general rules concerning the application of geometric
principles of shadow formation to radiography is:
|A. the X-rays should proceed from as large a focal spot as other
considerations will allow.
|B. the film should be as far as possible from the object being
|C. the distance between the anode and the material examined
should always be as great as possible.
|D. all three of the above are correct.
^A. This increases shadow formation.
^B. This increases shadow formation.
^C. TRUE! The optimum distance depends on specimen size,
thickness, film speed, source strength, etc.
^D. Answers A and B are incorrect and actually increase shadow
46) As a check on the adequacy of the radiographic technique, it is
customary to place a standard test piece on the source side of the
specimen. The standard test piece is called a:
|A. reference plate.
|B. lead screen.
|C. penetrameter.
|D. illuminator.
^A. In reference to what? This is not correct terminology.
^B. This is used to reduce scattering, not as a "standard".
^C. ROGER! The use of particular penetrameters are determined
by the code procedure.
^D. This is a term describing the light board used when reading
a radiograph by illuminating the radiograph form behind.
47) The duration of an exposure is usually controlled by:
|A. controlling the milliamperage.
|B. a timer.
|C. controlling the source-to-film distance.
|D. a choke coil in the filament transformer.
^A. Indirectly.
^B. YES! This is the direct control.
^C. Indirectly.
^D. Has nothing to do with it.
48) A penetrameter is used to indicate:
|A. the size of discontinuities in a part.
|B. the density of the film.
|C. the amount of film contrast.
|D. the quality of the radiographic technique.
^A. Not its purpose unlike photographs radiographs are life-size
and measurements can be made directly on a finished
^B. This is a densitometer.
^C. This depends on factors such as source (gamma or X-ray),
source strength, film type, etc. Penetrameters are not used
to directly measure contrast.
^D. ABSOLUTELY! Different code requirements state which
penetrameter size to use in order to assure a minimum
quality level is reached in radiographs.
49) A fluorescent intensifying screen will:
|A. transform x-ray energy into visible or ultraviolet light to
which a photographic emulsion is sensitive.
|B. result in reticulation.
|C. decrease in graininess of the image when using gamma rays.
|D. increase the definition in a radiograph.
^A. VERY GOOD! Hard penetrating short wavelength X-rays convert
only on percent of their total energy to image producing
light and the use of intensifying screens is sometimes
necessary to produce an acceptable image.
^B. This is a processing temperature problem.
^C. They will increase the graininess.
^D. They will increase the graininess and lower definition.
50) The three main steps in processing a radiograph are:
|A. developing, frilling, and fixation.
|B. developing, fixation, and washing.
|C. exposure, developing, and fixation.
|D. developing, reticulating, and fixation.
^A. No frilling.
^C. Exposure is not a part of processing.
^D. No reticulation.
51) Lead foil screens are used in radiography:
|A. to improve the quality of the radiograph by preferentially
reducing the effect of scatter radiation.
|B. to reduce the exposure time.
|C. both A and B are reasons for using lead foil screens.
|D. neither A nor B are reasons for using lead foil screens.
^A. Yes, but what else?
^B. Yes, but what else?
^C. EXACTLY! Lead screens can be used as intensifiers or to
reduce the effects of scattered radiation.
^D. At least one answer is correct.
52) Kilovoltage, exposure time, and source-to-film distance are three
of the most important x-ray exposure factors that can be controlled.
A fourth such exposure factor is:
|A. focal point size.
|B. temperature.
|C. filament-to-focal spot distance.
|D. milliamperage.
^A. Effects image quality, but not exposure time.
^B. Effects processing, but not exposure time.
^C. Does not effect exposure time.
^D. CORRECT! Milliamperage controls the number of X-rays
produced and therefore controls the exposure time.
53) When the minute silver grains on which the x-ray film image is
formed group together in relatively large masses, they produce a
visual impression called:
|A. air bells.
|B. graininess.
|C. reticulation.
|D. frilling.
^A. No, air bells are caused by bubbles of air trapped on the
film during processing.
^B. AFFIRMATIVE! Logical choice. Minute silver grains when
grouped together increase the graininess of the radiograph.
^C. This is caused by a sudden temperature change in processing
resulting in a puckered or netlike film.
^D. Frilling is caused by warm or exhausted fixer.
54) To prevent excessive backscatter from reaching a radiograph
film, one should:
|A. back the cassette with a sheet of lead, the thickness needed
depending on the radiation quality.
|B. place a mask between the specimen and the front surface of
the film.
|C. back the exposure holder with a thick sheet of lead (at
least 1/2 inch).
|D. place a filter in the x-ray or gamma ray beam near the
source or x-ray tube.
^B. A mask at the front will not reduce "back" scatter.
^C. 1/2" is too thick!
^D. This will not necessarily reduce backscatter.
55) Static marks, which are black tree-like or circular marks on a
radiograph, are often caused by:
|A. film being bent when inserted in a cassette or holder.
|B. foreign material or dirt imbedded in screens.
|C. scratches on leak foil screens.
|D. improper film handling techniques.
^A. This results in white crescent-shaped marks on the film.
^B. These can appear as specks on the radiograph and can scratch
the emulsion leaving white scratch marks.
^C. This usually will not effect the radiograph unless the
screen is punctured or torn.
^D. YES SIRREEBOB! Static electricity produced by improper film
handling techniques exposed the emulsion producing black
tree-like flaws on the resulting image.
56) The purpose of agitating an x-ray film during development is to:
|A. protect the film from excessive pressure.
|B. renew the developer at the surface of the film.
|C. disperse unexposed silver grains on the film surface.
|D. prevent reticulation.
^A. There should be no pressure on the film at all to reduce.
^B. RIGHTO! Developer is constantly being depleted at the
film's surface during processing and agitation is necessary
to insure uniform results.
^C. This is on of the purposes of the fixer.
^D. Reticulation is caused by sudden temperature changes.
57) When manually processing films, the purpose for sharply tapping
hangers tow or three times after the films have been lowered into
the developer is to:
|A. disperse unexposed silver grains on the film surface.
|B. prevent frilling.
|C. dislodge any air bubbles clinging to emulsion.
|D. all of the above.
^A. This is the purpose of fixation.
^B. To prevent frilling you must maintain the fixer strength and
control its temperature.
^C. AYE MATE! Air bubbles will appear as bell shapes on the
resulting radiographic image.
^D. Only one is correct.
58) The activity of the developer solution is maintained stable by:
|A. constant agitation.
|B. maintaining processing solutions within the recommended
temperature range.
|C. avoiding contamination from the wash bath.
|D. addition of replenisher.
^A. Yes, but not for the long-term.
^B. This controls only the short-term activity.
^C. Dilution by the bath water will only slightly reduce the
short-term developer activity.
^D. YES INDEEDY! Periodic replenishment of the developer is
needed to replace the depleted chemical due to processing
59) The purpose of fixation is:
|A. to remove all the undeveloped silver salts of the emulsion.
|B. to leave the developed silver as a permanent image.
|C. to harden the gelatin.
|D. all of the above.
^A. Yes, but what about hardening?
^B. Yes, but what about removing the undeveloped silver salts?
^C. Yes, but what about leaving a permanent image?
^D. ABSOLUTELY! The purpose of fixation is to accomplish all three.
60) For best results when manually processing film, solutions should
be maintained within a temperature range of:
|A. 65 and 75 degrees F.
|B. 65 and 75 degrees C.
|C. 75 and 85 degrees F.
|D. 75 and 85 degrees C.
^A. YES! This is considered the optimum range for processing X-ray films.
^B. Way to hot this is Centigrade!
^C. Cooler.
^D. Extremely hot 100 degrees C is boiling!
61) Water spots on films can be minimized by:
|A. rapid drying of wet film.
|B. immersing wet film for one or two minutes in a wetting agent solution.
|C. by using a fresh fixer solution.
|D. by cascading water during the rinse cycle.
^A. This will not necessarily reduce water spots can even increase them.
^B. OF COURSE! Wetting agents allow the film to dry evenly and reduce
water spotting.
^C. Has nothing to do with water spots.
^D. Water spots are produced in drying and how the fresh water
is used to wash the film has no effect.
62) The small area in the x-ray tube from which the radiation emanates
is called the:
|A. diaphragm.
|B. focal spot.
|C. focusing cup.
|D. cathode.
^A. This is used after the X-rays exit the tube.
^C. The small area is within the focusing cup, but is not the
cup itself.
^D. This is the filament end where the electrons flow.
63) Unwanted inclusions in a part will appear on a radiograph as:
|A. a dark spot.
|B. a light spot.
|C. a generalized gray area of varying contrast.
|D. either a dark or light spot or area depending on the relative
absorption ratio of the part material and the inclusion material.
^A. Maybe.
^B. Maybe.
^C. Not a generalized area very specific area.
64) The radiation quality of a gamma-ray source is:
|A. determined by the size of the focal spot.
|B. determined by the isotope involved.
|C. can be varied by the operator.
|D. is greater in iridium-192 than in cobalt-60.
^A. There is no focal spot in a gamma ray source.
^C. The operator has no control over the quality of gamma-rays
emitted by a radioisotope.
^D. Cobalt-60 is more penetrating, but their overall quality
must be considered almost equal.
65) The most common material used to provide protection against X-rays is:
|A. high density brick.
|B. an alloy of 70 percent steel and 30 percent copper.
|C. tungsten.
|D. lead.
^A. Not common.
^B. Not in this case.
^C. Can be used, but is expensive and is commonly used as a
target material in X-ray tubes.
^D. VERY GOOD! Lead is very effective, relatively inexpensive,
and compact.
66) A curie is the equivalent of:
|A. 0.001 millicuries.
|B. 1,000 millicuries.
|C. 1,000 megacuries.
|D. 100 megacuries.
^A. This is one thousandth of a curie.
^B. YES! One thousand milli-(one thousandth) curies equal one
^C. This is one billion curies.
^D. This is one hundred million curies.
67) With a given exposure time and kilovoltage, a properly exposed radiograph
is obtained with a 6 milliamperes-minutes exposure at the distance of 20
inches. It is desired to increase the sharpness of detail in the image by
increasing the source-to-film distance to 40 inches. The correct milli-
amperage-minutes exposure to obtain the desire radiographic density at the
increased distance is:
|A. 12 milliamperes-minutes.
|B. 24 milliamperes-minutes.
|C. 3 milliamperes-minutes.
|D. 1.7 milliamperes-minutes.
^A. Longer, use the inverse square law.
^B. PRECISELY! Doubling the distance increases the exposure
requirement four fold according to the inverse square law.
^C. A lot longer, use the inverse square law.
^D. A whole lot longer, use the inverse square law.
68) Very short wavelength electromagnetic radiation produced when
electrons travelling at high speeds collide with matter is called:
|A. X-radiation.
|B. beta radiation.
|C. gamma radiation.
|D. none of the above.
^B. Beta radiation is the ejection of a particle and unlike
electromagnetic energy has no wavelength only velocity.
^C. This is a short wavelength emitted from certain atomic
nuclei and does not involve colliding electrons into matter.
^D. One is correct.
69) The exposure of personnel to X- and gamma radiation can be
measured or monitored by means of:
|A. film badges.
|B. dosimeters.
|C. radiation exposure survey meters.
|D. all of the above.
^A. Yes, but how about exposure survey meters?
^B. Yes, but how about film badges?
^C. Yes, but how about dosimeters?
^D. RIGHT ON! Film badges, dosimeters, and radiation exposure
survey meters are all used to measure or monitor the
exposure of personnel to X- and gamma radiation.
70) Assuming that a good radiograph is obtained at a setting of 10
milliamperes in 40 seconds, how much time will be necessary to
obtain one equivalent radiograph if the milliamperage is change
to 5 milliamperes (all other conditions remain constant)?
|A. 20 seconds.
|B. 10 seconds.
|C. 80 seconds.
|D. 160 seconds.
^A. More.
^B. Much more.
^C. TRUE! The inverse square does not apply here and cutting the
amount of X-rays produced would double the exposure time.
^D. Too much.
71) A graph showing the relation between material thickness, kilovoltage,
and exposure is called:
|A. a bar chart.
|B. an exposure chart or technique chart.
|C. an characteristic curve.
|D. an H & D curve.
^A. No, not a bar chart.
^B. YES!
^C. No, not a characteristic curve this is applied to film
^D. No, it's a curve, but not an H & D curve.
72) A graph which expresses the relationship between the logarithm of the
exposure applied to a photographic material and the resulting photographic
density is called:
|A. a bar chart.
|B. an exposure chart.
|C. the characteristic curve.
|D. a logarithmic chart.
^A. No, not a bar chart.
^B. No, this deals with material thickness and kilovoltage.
^C. YES! The plot of this function is a characteristic curve
depending on film type and the radiation source.
^D. This could be a chart of any logarithmic function, not this
relationship though.
73) Short wavelength electromagnetic radiation produced during the
disintegration of nuclei of radioactive substances is called:
|A. X-radiation.
|B. gamma radiation.
|C. scatter radiation.
|D. backscatter radiation.
^A. This is produced by colliding electrons with matter.
^B. CORRECT! Gamma and X- radiation of the same wavelength are
identical, but are produced differently.
^C. This can result form both X- and gamma radiation.
^D. This can result form both X- and gamma rays.
74) A photographic image recorded by the passage of X or gamma rays
through a specimen onto a film is called a:
|A. Fluoroscopic image.
|B. Radiograph.
|C. Isotopic reproduction.
|D. None of the above.
^A. This is a special type of X- or gamma ray photograph, more
^B. CORRECTO MUNDO! A radiograph is the general term applied to
all X- or gamma ray photographs.
^C. This is a gamma ray source manufacturing process.
^D. There is one correct answer.
75) The normal development time for manually processing X-ray film
|A. 12 to 18 minutes in processing solutions at 75 degrees F.
|B. 3 to 8 minutes in processing solutions at 60 degrees F.
|C. 12 to 18 minutes in processing solution at 68 degrees F.
|D. 5 to 8 minutes in processing solutions at 68 degrees F.
^A. Too long and a little warm.
^B. Too cool.
^C. Too long.
^D. YES! Just right. Actual time will vary between 5 to 8
minutes depending on other factors. 68 degrees F is considered the
optimum developing temperature.
76) In order to achieve uniformity of development over the area of
X-ray film during manual processing:
|A. the film should be placed in a dryer after being developed.
|B. the developer should be agitated by means of mechanical stirrers
or circulating pumps.
|C. the film should be agitated while in the developer.
|D. the film should be transformed directly from the developer to the fixer.
^A. This is completely wrong. What about a spot and fixing
^B. Not necessary for agitation to be mechanical in nature.
^C. YOU'RE RIGHT! Agitation is necessary to replenish depleted developer
at the film's surface, whether it's mechanical or manual is of no
^D. What about the stop bath?
77) When referring to a "2T" or "4T" hole in the ASTM penetrameter, the T
refers to:
|A. the part thickness.
|B. the penetrameter thickness.
|C. the time of exposure.
|D. the time for developing.
^A. Wrong thickness.
^B. ALRIGHTY! 2T equals 2% and 4T equals 4% of the material's
^C. Refers to thickness, not exposure.
^D. Refers to thickness, not developing time.
78) A sheet of lead with an opening cut in the shape of the part to
be radiographed may be used to decrease the effect of scattered
radiation which undercuts the specimens. Such a device is called:
|A. a mask.
|B. a filter.
|C. a backscatter absorber.
|D. a lead foil screen.
^A. YES INDEEDY! Because it "masks" out everything but the
object being radiographed.
^B. Filters do not have holes.
^C. A backscatter absorber is placed behind the film the sheet
referred to here is placed in front of the film.
^D. Yes, it is just a lead foil screen, but it has a proper
79) Two X-ray machines operating at the same nominal kilovoltage and
milliamperage settings:
|A. will produce the same intensities and qualities of
|B. will produce the same intensities but may produce different
qualities of radiation.
|C. will produce the same qualities but may produce different
intensities of radiation.
|D. may give not only different intensities but also different
qualities of radiation.
^A. What if their focal spot size differs?
^B. What if the target material differs?
^C. What if the distance between the anode target and cathode
^D. AYE! Many other factors besides kilovoltage and
milliamperage determine X-ray intensity and quality.
80) Fluoroscopy differs from radiography in that:
|A. fluoroscopy used a much lower kilovoltage than radiography.
|B. fluoroscopy is much more sensitive than radiography.
|C. the X-ray image is observed visually on a fluorescent screen
rather than recorded on a film.
|D. fluoroscopy permits examination of thicker parts than does
^A. Not necessarily true.
^B. Not as sensitive as film radiography.
^C. O.K.! This is why it is called fluoroscopy.
^D. Not always the case, radiography permits examination of
thicker parts if radiation source strength is equal.
81) An advantage of the pocket dosimeter type of ionization chamber used
to monitor radiation received by personnel is:
|A. it provides a permanent record of accumulated dosage.
|B. it provides an immediate indication of dosage.
|C. it is the most sensitive detector available.
|D. all of the above are advantages.
^A. Does not show permanent accumulated dosage. The dosimeter is used
to measure a short-term dose.
^B. ABSOLUTELY! It is not a permanent record.
^C. Not the most sensitive detector available; radiation survey
meters are often much more sensitive to detecting radiation.
^D. Only one is correct.
82) The density difference between two selected portions of a
radiograph is known as:
|A. unsharpness.
|B. radiographic contrast.
|C. specific activity.
|D. subject density.
^A. Unsharpness can be caused by other factors besides film
^B. ROGER! The selected portions should be from the lightest
and darkest areas of the radiograph to measure the overall
image contrast.
^C. Specific activity refers to the radiation emitted by an
isotope and is measured in curies per gram.
^D. The subject refers to the specimen being radiographed not
the density of the resulting radiograph.
83) One requirement for keeping fluorescent screens in good condition
is that they must:
|A. be cleaned with a lint-free cloth each time they are used.
|B. not be exposed to intense ultraviolet radiation.
|C. be mounted in a rigid container at all times.
|D. not be exposed to caustic fumes.
^A. Not unless they get dirty. Cleanliness is a good habit, but
affects the screen's function very little.
^B. VERY GOOD! UV light depletes the screen of the available
material used to intensify the X- or gamma radiograph.
^C. This is not necessary and has no effect on the screens
overall performance.
^D. Not wise, and usually has no adverse effect on the screen's
overall performance.
84) In making an isotope exposure in an unshielded area, you find the
dose rate 6 feet from the source is 1200 mR/hr. What would be the
dose rate at 24 feet?
|A. 75 mR/hr.
|B. 100 mR/hr.
|C. 200 mR/hr.
|D. 300 mR/hr.
^A. PRECISELY! According to the inverse square law increasing
the distance by 4 results in 1/16th the exposure.
^B. Less, 1/16th the exposure according to the inverse square
law. One fourth squared.
^C. Less. What is one-fourth squared multiplied by 1200?
^D. Less. What is four squared divided into 1200.
85) The intensity of X- or gamma radiation is measured in:
|A. roentgens.
|B. ergs.
|C. roentgens per unit of time.
|D. H & D units.
^A. Partially correct.
^B. This measurement involves mass and X- and gamma rays are
considered to have no mass, just energy.
^C. EXACTLY! Roentgens only refer to the ionization power of
the radiation for one cubic-centimeter of air.
^D. No, H & D is the name used for the film characteristic curve.
86) When producing radiographs, if the kilovoltage is increased:
|A. the subject contrast decreases.
|B. the film contrast decreases.
|C. the subject contrast increases.
|D. the film contrast increases.
^A. OF COURSE! An increase in kilovoltage produces shorter
wavelength X-rays which are less photo-reactive at the film.
^B. The overall contrast of a film is set during manufacture
with the slower speed film offering the greatest contrast.
^C. The sorter wavelength X-rays produced are less
photo-reactive at the film.
^D. Film contrast is determined mainly by film speed and type.
87) The accidental movement of the specimen or film during exposure
or the use of a focus-film distance that is too small will:
|A. produce a radiograph with poor contrast.
|B. make it impossible to detect large discontinuities.
|C. result in unsharpness of the radiograph.
|D. results in a fogged radiograph.
^A. Contrast may be affected, but movement will blur the image.
^B. Not necessarily true depends on the amount of movement.
Movement will have a blurring effect.
^C. YOU BET! Just as in conventional photography movement blurs
the image and reduces its sharpness.
^D. This is caused by scattered radiation not movement.
88) A properly exposed radiograph that is developed in a developer solution
at a temperature of 58 degrees F for 5 minutes will probably be:
|A. overdeveloped.
|B. underdeveloped.
|C. fogged.
|D. damaged by frilling.
^A. Remember the optimum temperature is 68 degrees F and developing
time of between 5 to 8 minutes.
^B. YEA! 58 degrees F is too cool and five minutes is barely enough
developing time for 68 degrees F. The combination of the two
results in an underdeveloped radiograph.
^C. This is cause by scattered radiation or excessive exposure to light.
^D. This is caused by too warm or exhausted fixer solution.
89) A good radiograph is obtained using a milliamperage of 15 milliamperes and
an exposure time of 1/2 minute. What exposure time will be necessary to
produce an equivalent radiograph if the milliamperage is change to 5 milli-
amperes and all other conditions remain the same?
|A. 4 1/2 minutes.
|B. 1 1/2 minutes.
|C. 3 minutes.
|D. 1/6 minute.
^A. If the amount of X-rays produced is one-third the exposure
time needed to be multiplied by 3.
^B. GOOD! One-third the X-rays means the exposure time must be tripled.
^C. Too long, this is a six fold increase for one-third the amount of
^D. This is half the time for one-third the amount of X-rays and
would result in a severely underexposed radiograph.
90) Lead screens in contact with the film during exposure:
|A. increase the photographic action on the film largely by reason
of the electron emission and partly by the secondary X-rays
generated in the lead.
|B. absorb the shorter wavelength scattered radiation more than
the long wavelength primary radiation.
|C. intensify the photographic effect of the scatter radiation
more than that of the primary radiation.
|D. none of the above.
^A. TRUE! They also reduce fogging due to scattered radiation.
^B. Shorter wavelength X-rays are primary X-rays.
^C. They increase the photographic effect of the primary
^D. There is one correct answer.
91) The sharpness of the outline in the image of the radiograph is a measure
|A. subject contrast.
|B. radiographic definition.
|C. radiographic contrast.
|D. film contrast.
^A. This is a factor dependent on the subject and not the film.
^B. SURE! Sharpness is a measure of how well an object is
defined against its background.
^C. This is a measure of the film density between two areas of
the radiograph.
^D. Contrast is not a measurement of sharpness.
92) An unshielded isotope source gives a dosage rate of 900 mR per hour
at 10 feet. What would the unshielded dosage rate be at 30 feet?
|A. 300 mR/hr.
|B. 600 mR/hr.
|C. 100 mR/hr.
|D. 2700 mR/hr.
^A. Less, use the inverse square law. What is 1/3 squared?
^B. Much less, what is 3 squared divided into 900.
^C. YOU'RE RIGHT! According to the inverse square law the
distance is 3 times as much and 3 squared is 9. Therefore,
the output is 1/9 of 900.
^D. Way too much, use the inverse square law. How much is 3
squared divided into 900.
93) Which has the shortest wavelengths?
|A. Visible light.
|B. Microwaves.
|C. 100 kilovolt peak X-rays
|D. Infrared radiation.
^A. Visible light is next to the shortest.
^B. Microwaves are the longest.
^C. CORRECT! These are the shortest. Would 400 kilovolt X-rays
be shorter or longer than 100 kilovolt X-rays?
^D. Infrared radiation is next to the longest in this group.
94) Beta particles are:
|A. neutrons.
|B. protons.
|C. electrons.
|D. positrons
^A. Neutrons can be ejected from an atom's nucleus and be used
for radiographic purposes, but they are not Beta particles.
^B. Protons are positively charged particles that lie in the
nucleus of every element, but are not Beta particles.
^C. ALRIGHTY! Electrons ejected from an atom's nucleus are
known as Beta particles.
^D. This is the particle formed when the incident X-ray photon
has sufficient energy to be converted into the mass of and
electron/position pair upon colliding with matter.
95) A radioactive source with an activity of one curie has:
|A. 1,000 disintegrations per second taking place.
|B. 1,000,000 disintegrations per second taking place.
|C. 1,000,000,000 disintegrations per second taking place.
|D. 370,000,000,000 disintegrations per second taking place.
^A. Much much more.
^B. Much more.
^C. More.
^D. YESIRREEBOB! This is a tremendous number of
disintegrations, but remember the total number of atoms in a
gram of Cobalt-60 equals approximately 1021 atoms.
96) The formula for determining permissible accumulated personnel dose is:
|A. 12 (N-18)
|B. 18 (5+N)
|C. 5 (N-18)
|D. 12 (N+18)
^A. No, but part of your answer is correct.
^B. Not one part of your answer is correct.
^D. Not one part of your answer is correct.
97) The metal that forms the image on an x-ray film is:
|A. tin.
|B. silver.
|C. tungsten.
|D. iron.
^A. It's shiny like tin, but it's not tin.
^B. AYE! Silver bromide is a light sensitive compound that
reduces to black metallic silver after it is exposed to
radiation or light and then developed.
^C. No, this is a common target material used in X-ray tubes.
^D. It's not iron, but its chemical symbol is Ag.
98) Unexposed boxes of x-ray film should be stored:
|A. flat.
|B. on edge or end.
|C. in a pile.
|D. it doesn't matter.
^A. This could result in pressure damage to the film.
^B. CORRECTO MUNDO! Storing film in a vertical position greatly
reduces the chances of pressure damage due to stacking.
^C. Of course not. X-ray film is to expensive and delicate to
be treated this way.
^D. Yes it does matter. What way would likely reduce the chance
of pressure damage due to the weight of stacking?
99) The lead symbol "B" is attached to the back of the film holder to
|A. sensitivity.
|B. whether excessive backscatter is present.
|C. radiographic contrast.
|D. density.
^A. Sensitivity to what?
^B. RIGHT ON! The resolution of the lead B on the resulting
radiograph indicates the amount of backscatter present
during exposure.
^C. What does the "B" stand for?
^D. Would you abbreviate the word density with a "B"? What does
the "B" stand for?
100) Penetrameters for _____ are considered Group 1 Materials and need
not have an identification notch.
|A. Inconel.
|B. Nickel.
|C. Stainless steel.
|D. Aluminum bronze.
^A. No, it's the metal made mainly of iron.
^B. No, it's the metal made mainly of iron.
^D. No, it's the metal made mainly of iron.
101) The purpose of a dated decay curve is to:
|A. determine the source size at any time.
|B. calculate shielding requirements.
|C. determine the source strength (activity) at any time.
|D. mark the date and length of time for each exposure.
^A. Why would the size measurement be needed at any time?
Radioisotopes don't grow smaller.
^B. Shielding requirements must exceed the amount needed for
protection at full strength any decay after that is
^C. AFFIRMATIVE! This is the logical choice because size and
shielding are set, and atomic decay is not recorded on a
film log.
^D. This is a film or exposure log.
102) Why is cobalt-60 used as a radiation source for medium-weight
metals of thickness ranges form 1.5 to 9 inches?
|A. Because of its short half-life.
|B. Limited amount of shielding required.
|C. Because of its penetrating ability.
|D. None of the above.
^A. Its half-life is 5.3 years, hardly short.
^B. Cobalt-60 emits a radiation dose equivalent to a 2 million
volt X-ray machine which necessitates maximum shielding.
^C. O.K.! Cobalt-60 emits highly penetrating X-rays of 1.17 and
1.33 MeV.
^D. There is one correct answer.
103) The cause for poor image definition could be:
|A. too short source-to-film distance.
|B. screens and film not in close contact.
|C. film graininess.
|D. all of the above.
^A. Yes, but what about film graininess?
^B. Yes, but what about too short a source-to-film distance?
^C. Yes, but what about not having your screen and film in close
^D. ABSOLUTELY! All these factors will contribute to poor image
104) During manual film processing, the purpose of the stop bath is to:
|A. change the exposed silver salts to black metallic silver.
|B. neutralize the developer and stop the developing process.
|C. eliminate most water spots and streaks.
|D. none of the above.
^A. This is the purpose of the developer.
^B. ROGER! The stop bath contains a weak acid that "stops" the
developing action.
^C. No, this is what a wetting agent is used for.
^D There is one correct answer. The stop bath stops something.
105) A thin metallic sheet (brass, copper, aluminum, etc.) placed at
the source to reduce effects of softer radiation is known as:
|A. an intensifying screen.
|B. a filter.
|C. an electron inducer.
|D. a focusing cup.
^A. An intensifying screen is used to increase the radiations
photographic effect.
^B. VERY GOOD! By reducing the effect of the soft X-rays the
resulting radiograph will be less foggy.
^C. This is not a conventional radiographic term.
^D. This is an element of the X-ray tube.
106) The reason a "shim" is used in radiographic setup is to:
|A. improve the penetrameter image.
|B. reduce diffraction.
|C. simulate weld reinforcement.
|D. intensity the image.
^A. The penetrameter always receives the same exposure treatment
as the rest of the material.
^B. This is the purpose of a screen.
^C. PRECISELY! This is used to check and calibrate the
radiographic equipment.
^D. This is the purpose of a intensifying screen.
107) The focal spot size of an x-ray machine must be known in order to
|A. the geometric unsharpness value.
|B. kilovolt peak output.
|C. milliamperage settings.
|D. exposure time.
^A. EXACTLY! The exact size must be known. This usually is
measured in hundredths or thousandths of an inch.
^B. The kilovoltage peak output is not determined by the focal
spot. Remember that a smaller focal spot gives a sharper
^C. Milliamperage and focal spot do not directly relate.
Remember that a small focal spot increases radiographic
^D. Exposure time is determined by factors such as: material
thickness, film speed, subject to source distance , source
strength, etc.
108) A section with a significant increases in thickness, variation is
required to be shown on a single radiograph within a desired film
density range. This may be accomplished by:
|A. increasing kilovoltage.
|B. using a coarser grain film.
|C. both A and B are correct.
|D. neither A nor B are correct.
^A. OF COURSE! By increasing the kilovoltage shorter more
penetrating X-rays are produced, thus enabling a radiograph
of equal contrast to be made of the thicker area.
^B. This would probably increase the density range and decrease
^C. Only one is correct. A higher speed film would probably
change the density range.
^D. One of them is correct. What would you do to produce
shorter higher penetrating X-rays?
109) The density of a radiograph image refers to:
|A. the thickness of the film.
|B. the thickness of the specimen.
|C. the weight of the film.
|D. the degree of film blackening.
^A. Density refers to compact dark areas of the radiographic
^B. Density refers to compact dark areas of the radiographic
^C. Density refers to compact dark areas of the radiographic
^D. YEA! The blackening is a result of clumps of black metallic
110) A beam of radiation consisting of a single wavelength is known as:
|A. characteristic radiation.
|B. fluoroscopic radiation.
|C. monochromatic radiation.
|D. microscopic radiation.
^A. Characteristic radiation can be made up of many different
specific wavelengths.
^B. There ain't no such animal. Which answer begins with "one"
for one wavelength?
^C. GOOD! Monochromatic literally mans one (mono) color
(chromatic). Generally light and thus radiation are thought
of as having a color (wavelength).
^D. Micro what? Look at the other answers which one begins with
a prefix meaning "one" for one wavelength?
111) The image of the required penetrameter and hole on the radiograph
indicates that the radiograph has the required:
|A. contrast.
|B. definition.
|C. sensitivity.
|D. latitude.
^A. The image of the hole although can be affected by contrast
this is not the requirement here.
^B. Poor definition can make the image hard to discern, but the
radiograph may still have sensed the penetrameter hole.
^C. TRUE! Even if the latitude of the radiograph is wide or
narrow, or the contrast and definition shoddy the imaging of
the penetrameter hole is a measure of radiographic
^D. This is referring to the film latitude or exposure range.
This has nothing to do with how sensitive a radiograph is to the hole.
112) The primary parts of an atom are:
|A. proton, neutrino, electron.
|B. proton, electron, gamma ray.
|C. photon, electron, neutron.
|D. proton, electron, neutron.
^A. No neutrinos.
^B. Gamma rays are not a primary, but we'd all be irradiating
ourselves with our bodies which are made up of atoms.
^C. No photons. These are packets of electromagnetic radiation.
^D. YOU BET! These are the primary atomic parts there are many
others which are very small, but do not concern us here.
113) X-rays and gamma rays always travel:
|A. in pairs.
|B. orbital spheres.
|C. straight lines.
|D. none of the above.
^A. X- and gamma rays travel in independent energy packets known
as photons. They travel in a direct line from their source
until collisions or gravity alter their course.
^B. If they traveled in circles or orbital spheres how can they
go straight through an object to create an image on film?
^C. SURE! According to Sir Isaac Newton they will continue
traveling in a straight line forever, until a collision or
gravity affects their course.
^D. There is one straight and true blue answer.
114) A large source size can be compensated for by:
|A. increasing the source-to-specimen distance.
|B. addition of lead screens.
|C. increasing the specimen-to-film distance.
|D. increasing penumbra.
^A. YEP! By using the inverse square law doubling the distance
decreases the radiation by 2 squared (2x2) or a factor of 4.
^B. This will only eliminate the soft X-rays and not
substantially reduce the hard short wavelength more
penetrating X-ray.
^C. This will result in a radiograph with poor definition due to
the increase geometric distortion.
^D. This is the same as answer C. Increasing the penumbra shadow reduces
definition and would be defeating your purpose of trying to obtain the
sharpest image possible.
115) Radiation arising directly from the target of an x-ray tube or an
accelerator, or from a radioactive source, is usually referred to as:
|A. secondary radiation.
|B. primary radiation.
|C. backscatter.
|D. inherent radiation.
^A. This is radiation that includes Compton scattering and is
produced after the X-rays exit the tubes or accelerator.
^B. YOU'RE RIGHT! They are also known as Bremsstrahlung (German
for braking.) X-rays.
^C. Backscatter takes place after the X-rays have exited the
tube and passed through the specimen.
^D. Radioisotopes inherently emit radiation, but there are no
inherent X-rays. Think of "first" X-rays.
116) To produce X-rays, electrons are accelerated to a high velocity
by an electrical field and then suddenly stopped by a collision
with a solid body. This body is called:
|A. cathode.
|B. filament.
|C. target.
|D. generator.
^A. The cathode is where the electrons travel from.
^B. The filament is at the cathode and is the source of the
accelerating electrons.
^C. CORRECT! A target material at the anode then emits a
spectrum of X-rays whose minimum wavelength is controlled by
the kilovoltage.
^D. A generator generates electrons or electricity which is used
in X-radiographs to create X-rays.
117) The best x-ray efficiency is produced when the target material has:
|A. a low atomic number.
|B. a high atomic number.
|C. a low hardness.
|D. a high hardness.
^A. Elements with low atomic numbers are light and less dense
making them poor X-ray emitters.
^B. ALRIGHTY! elements with high atomic numbers are the
heavier, more dense elements and make excellent X-ray
^C. Hardness has nothing to do with it. Tungsten makes an
excellent target material it is dense and very hard.
^D. Hardness has nothing to do with it. Gold makes an excellent
target material. It is dense, but not hard.
118) What is sometimes used to change the alternating current from the high
voltage transformer to direct current for the purpose of increasing the
X-ray machine output?
|A. Rectifier.
|B. Cathode x-ray tubes.
|C. Gas x-ray tube.
|D. Vacuum x-ray tube.
^B. No, all X-ray tubes have a cathode. This is not a tube.
^C. No, the X-ray tube has nothing to do with the conversion of
AC to DC.
^D. No, the X-ray tube has nothing to do with the conversion of
AC to DC.
119) In a fluoroscopic inspection system using a 15 inch source-to-material
distance and 2 inch material-to-screen distance, transverse vibration of
which item will cause the most image blurring?
|A. Source vibration.
|B. Screen vibration.
|C. Material vibration.
|D. Equal effects.
^A. The source should not vibrate and should be in a fixed
position. Even so source vibration does not create the most
image blurring.
^B. The screen should not vibrate and should be in a fixed
^C. AYE! The source and screen are in a fixed position and
should not vibrate; however their vibrating does not create
the most image blurring.
^D. One has a more pronounced effect on blurring.
120) If a fluorescent screen is accidentally exposed to unattenuated
x-rays, which of the following occurs?
|A. Intense heat generated in the screen will permanently
destroy the screen crystals.
|B. Screen blackens due to overexposure.
|C. The screen is essentially undamaged.
|D. Screen sensitivity and light level will be permanently
^A. This is simply not true. X-rays do not generate any
significant amount of heat in the materials they strike.
^B. You are thinking of the photographic effect on film which is
used only once. Fluorescent screens are used over and over
and repeated exposures leave them virtually unchanged.
^C. RIGHT ON! If the screen were greatly effected by attenuated
or unattenuated X-rays their repeated use would be severely
limited and this is not the case.
^D. This depends on the length of exposure which would have to be very
long to cause a permanent change in the screen sensitivity.
121) Which of the following is an advantage of a fluoroscopic system
when compared to a radiographic system?
|A. Screens do not absorb scattered radiation so the image
density is enhanced.
|B. Live image presentation for immediate viewing.
|C. Screen systems exhibit superior sensitivity and resolution to films.
|D. The equipment is normally not portable.
^A. This is incorrect. They do absorb scattered radiation and
image density is a term referring to film.
^B. CORRECTO MUNDO! A "real-time" radiographic system has many
advantages including eliminating on going film and
development cost, but lacks the sensitivity of film.
^C. This is totally the opposite of the truth. They have less
sensitivity and resolution.
^D. This is true, but is not an advantage.
122) A fluoroscopic installation utilizing fluorescent screen requires:
|A. A screen support with lead foil screens to control scatter.
|B. Lead glass, mirrors, or other means for transmitting the
fluorescent image without subjecting the operator to x-radiation.
|C. Both of the above.
|D. Neither of the above.
^A. Lead foil screens are used in film radiography and do not
offer much protection.
^B. YES INDEEDY! These are needed to shield and protect the
operator from nonconverted X-rays passing through the
^C. Do you need lead foil screens?
^D. One is correct and used to protect the operator from
nonconverted X-rays that could pass through the screen.
123) In performing fluoroscopic examination of a part, it is important to
|A. geometry.
|B. scatter radiation.
|C. source kilovoltage and milliamperage.
|D. all of the above.
^A. What about scatter radiation?
^B. What about kilovoltage and milliamperage?
^C. What about geometry.
^D. O.K.! Geometry, scatter radiation, kilovoltage, and
milliamperage are all important control factors in
124) In X-radiography, the ability to penetrate the test object is governed by:
|A. source-to-film distance.
|B. time.
|C. kilovoltage.
|D. milliamperage.
^A. The source to film distance is less important in X-ray
penetrating ability than the subject to source distance.
^B. Exposure time is not a factor governing X-ray penetrating
ability. What controls wavelength of the X-rays produced.
^C. AFFIRMATIVE! Kilovoltage determines the minimum wavelength
of the spectrum of X-rays produced. Increasing kilovoltage
produces short wavelength more penetrating X-radiation.
^D. Milliamperage controls the number of X-rays produced, not
their penetrating ability.
125) Which of the following types of radiation is emitted by cobalt-60 and used
in nondestructive testing?
|A. Neutrons.
|B. Gamma rays.
|C. X-rays.
|D. Alpha particles.
^A. Neutrons are not emitted by the atomic disintegration of
^B. ABSOLUTELY! Gamma rays are the result of the atomic
disintegrations occurring in Cobalt-60.
^C. X-rays are produced by electrons onto a target material,
bombarding not by the atomic decay of Cobalt-60.
^D. Alpha particles are composed of two protons and two neutrons
or a Helium nucleus, and are emitted by Cobalt-60, but are
not used for NDT.
126) The term used to describe the loss of excess energy by the
nucleus of radioactive atoms is called:
|A. decay (disintegration).
|B. ionization.
|C. scintillation.
|D. activation.
^A. ROGER! It is the atomic decay (disintegration) that creates
gamma rays which is energy lost by the material in the form
of radiation.
^B. This is caused by the energy absorbed by atoms from the X-
or gamma rays outside the nucleus of a radioactive atom.
^C. This is the phenomena that lights up the screen used in
^D. Activation of what? This is not radiographic terminology.
The loss of energy due to a breakdown of neutrons in the
nucleus of radioactive elements.
127) X-rays, gamma rays, and alpha particles all have one thing in
common-they are all:
|A. particulate radiations.
|B. electromagnetic radiations.
|C. microwave radiations.
|D. ionizing radiations.
^A. X- and gamma rays travel in energy packets known as photons
which are not particles and are without mass.
^B. Alpha particles are not electromagnet radiation. They are
particles containing a Helium nucleus and have mass.
^C. Microwaves, like X- and gamma rays, are a class of
electromagnetic radiation and have wavelengths much longer
than X- or gamma rays.
^D. VERY GOOD! All three are capable of ionizing (creating
negative or positive ions) elements or compounds.
128) The term used to express the number of curies of radioactivity per
gram or ounce of source weight is:
|A. decay.
|B. emissivity.
|C. specific activity.
|D. source output.
^A. Decay refers to atomic disintegration activity which
directly relates to the curie, but this is the wrong answer.
^B. Emissivity can also refer to a materials ability to radiate
heat and is a general term not directly related to the
^C. PRECISELY! The specific activity is the curies per gram or
ounce of material. One curie equals 3.7 x 1010 atomic
disintegrations per second.
^D. Close, but the correct term refers to the activity of the
decaying atomic nuclei.
129) Atoms, molecules, and various subatomic particles which carry
either a positive or negative electrical charge are called:
|A. photoelectrons.
|B. photons.
|C. ions.
|D. compounds.
^A. These create the photographic action on the film, but all
electrons are negatively charged.
^B. Photons are subatomic particle, but always carry a positive
^C. EXACTLY! Compounds are composed of only molecules, all
electrons are negative, and all protons are positive.
^D. Compounds are composed of many molecules. A single compound
molecule can carry a charge. Compounds are composed of
several atoms and are not subatomic particles.
130) Gamma and X-radiation interact with matter and may be absorbed by:
|A. photoelectric absorption.
|B. Compton scattering.
|C. pair production.
|D. all of the above.
^A. What about positron-electron pair production?
^B. What about photoelectric absorption?
^C. What about Compton scattering?
^D. OF COURSE! These are the only three absorption phenomena
131) Approximately what percent of the original radioactivity is left
after six half-lives?
|A. 0.005
|B. 10
|C. 33.3
|D. 2
^A. More.
^B. Less.
^C. A lot less.
^D. YEA! This is an approximation it is actually one 64th or
1.56 percent.
132) The velocity of all electromagnet radiation is:
|A. 186,000 miles per second.
|B. 18,600 miles per second.
|C. 1,860,000 miles per second.
|D. 1,860 miles per second.
133) The radiation intensity of a radioisotope:
|A. increases with time.
|B. decreases with time.
|C. is not affected as time elapses.
|D. none of the above.
^A. No it does the opposite.
^B. GOOD! The half-life is a measure of this decrease.
^C. Yes it is, radioisotopes decay with time.
^D. Yes, there is one correct answer.