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# Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

## 1. Determine the dead and live loads acting on the truss

2. Compute the stresses
3. Determine the required sizes
4. Design the joints

## Example : Standard Truss

7m

Slope 22.5º
Spacing of truss 600 mm c/c
SG 5, Std Grade, Dry Timber

## by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 1

Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

On rafter : 0.7 kN/m2 on slope
On plan : 0.7 / cos 22.5º = 0.76 kN/m 2
On ceiling tie : 0.25 kN/m2

##  Live Load - BS6399

On rafter - 0.75 kN/m2 on plan ( medium term )
On ceiling tie : 1. 0.25 kN/m2 ( consider as long term )
2. 0.9 kN point load ( short term )

# Assume wind load on rafter as less severe than live load in the design
of the members.

##  Wind Load ( very short term )

Taking design wind speed , V = 33 m/s
For conservative approach ,
Cpi = 0.2 and Cpe = 0.9 CP3 Chap. V

## - Rafter Wind Load = 0.613 x 10-3 x 332 x 0.9

= 0.6 kN/m2 ( -ve )

## - Ceiling Tie Wind Load = 0.613 x 10-3 x 332 x 0.2

= 0.134 kN/m2 ( -ve )

## by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 2

Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

Stress Computation

## 3 conditions of loading are required to calculate the member stresses :

1. Long Term ( only long term loads )
2. Medium Term ( long term + medium term loads )
3. Short Term ( all loads )

4 bays
= 0.798 kN

## On ceiling = ( 0.25 + 0.25 ) x 0.6 x 7

3 bays
= 0.7 kN

LONG TERM
0.798
( 0.76 + 0.75 ) x 0.6 x 7 / 4 bays

4.4
0.798
0.798
1.7
4.9
0.749 0.749
0.8

4.6 3.0
2.646 0.7 0.7 2.646

## by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 3

Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

MEDIUM TERM
1.59
( 0.25 + 0.25 ) x 0.6 x 7 / 3 bays

7.0
1.59
1.59
2.4
8.0
1.145 1.145
1.5

7.4 5.0
4.25 0.7 0.7 4.25

1.21
1.21

1.21

0.86 0.86
0.51+ 0.9

0.51

## by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 4

Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

SHORT TERM
1.59

7.0 7.9
1.59
1.59
3.6 2.4
8.0 8.9
1.145 1.6 1.145
1.5

## 8.9 5.7 8.2

4.83 0.7 + 0.9 0.7 4.53
= 1.6

## Grade Stresses (SG 5) . Normally (critical) only check

for :
σ m,g = 9.5 N/mm2
 Medium term
σ t,g = 5.7 N/mm2
( DL + IL )
2
σ c,g = 8.5 N/mm
 Short term
2
Emean = 9100 N/mm ( DL + IL + PL)
2
Emin = 6300 N/mm

## by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 5

Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

Example :

## Assume member size 38 x 100

Finished Size 35 x 97
From table of Properties :
Zxx = 54900 mm3
ίxx = 28 mm
ίyy = 10.1 mm
A = 3400 mm 2

RAFTER DESIGN

Check for combine bending and axial force.
apex
3.8

## Rafter analysis : 22.5o

3.5

w kN /m

Heel apex

L = 1.9 m L = 1.9 m

0.125 wL2

0.0703 wL2
0.75L

## by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 6

Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

## w = ( 0.76 + 0.75 ) x 0.6 = 0.906 kN/m

L = 1.9 m
M = 0.0703 x 0.906 x 1.9 2 = 0.23 kNm

σ m,a = M
Z

54900

σ c,a = P
A

3400

4 cos 22.5 o

## by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 7

Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

Ίxx 28

= 10.625 N/mm2

σ c// 10.625

 K8 = 0.682

## σ m, adm = 9.5 x 1.25 x 1.1 = 13.0 N/mm2

σe = 2 E = 2 (6300) = 24.19
2
λ (50.7)2

σe

## 3.55 + 2.35 = 0.598 < 1

13 1 - 1.5 X 2.35 X 0.682 7.97

24.19

Therefore it is satisfactory

## by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 8

Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

σ m,a = M
Z

54900

8 + 7 = 7.5 kN
2

σ c,a = P
A

3400

## by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 9

Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

σ m,a + σ c,a

= 6.32 + 2.21
13.0 11.69

## = 0.68 < 0.9

The upper chord need not be checked because axial compressive force is
7kN < 8 kN for lower chord.

## by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 10

Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

## Ceiling tie – combined bending and tension.

Under long term – Loads 0.25 + 0.25

## The BMD for UDL :

W / unit length

L= 2.33 L L

0.1WL2
,

+ + +

0.08wL2 0.025w L2

## W = ( 0.25 + 0.25 ) x 0.6 = 0.3 kN/m

L = 7/3 = 2.33

M = 0.08wL 2
= 0.08 x 0.3 x ( 2.33 ) 2
= 0.13 kNm

## by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 11

Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

σ m, a = M/Z
= 0.13 x 10 6
54900
= 2.39 N / mm2

σ t, a = 4600
3400
= 1.355 N / mm2

## σ m, adm = 9.5 x 1 x 1.1 = 10.45 N /mm 2

σ t, adm = 5.7 x 1 x 1.1 = 6.27 N / mm2

## Combination : σ m,a + σ t,a <1

= 2.39 + 1.355
10.45 6.27
= 0.45 < 1.0

*Satisfactory

At support , M = 0.1wL2
= 0.1 x 0.3 x 2.33 2
= 0.163 kNm

## by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 12

Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

## Axial tensile force = 4.6 + 3.0 = 3.8 kN

2

σ m, a = 0.163 x 10 6
54900
= 2.97 N / mm2

σ t, m = 3800 = 1.12 N / mm 2
3400

10.45 6.27

* Satisfactory

P
0.075 PL

0.175PL

## M at center of ceiling tie due to UDL ,

M = 0.025 wL 2
= 0.025 x 0.3 x 2.33 2
= 0.041 kNm

## by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 13

Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

## M due to point load 0.9 kN ,

M = 0.175 PL
= 0.175 x 0.9 x 2.33
= 0.367 kNm

## *∑M = 0.408 kNm

σ m, a = 0.408 x 10 6 = 7.43 N / mm 2
54900

## Axial tensile force , ( max ) = 8.9 kN

σ t, a = 8900 = 2.62 N / mm 2
3400

Permissible stresses :

## σ m, adm = 9.5 x 1.5 x 1.1 = 15.68 N / mm2

σ t, adm = 5.7 x 1.5 x 1.1 = 9.41 N / mm2

15.68 9.41

 Satisfactory

## by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 14

Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

At support ,

## M for UDL , M = 0.1wL2

= 0.1 x 0.3 x 2.332
= 0.163 kNm

## M for point load , M = 0.075 PL

= 0.075 x 0.9 x 2.33
= 0.157 kNm

*∑ M = 0.321 kNm

54900

## Axial tensile force = 8.9 + 5.7 = 7.3 kN

2
σ t, a = 7300 = 2.15 N / mm2
3400

15.68 9.41

* Satisfactory