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Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

TIMBER TRUSS DESIGN PROCEDURE

1. Determine the dead and live loads acting on the truss


2. Compute the stresses
3. Determine the required sizes
4. Design the joints

Example : Standard Truss

7m

Slope 22.5º
Spacing of truss 600 mm c/c
SG 5, Std Grade, Dry Timber

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 1


Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

Load Determination

 Dead Load - Long Term


On rafter : 0.7 kN/m2 on slope
On plan : 0.7 / cos 22.5º = 0.76 kN/m 2
On ceiling tie : 0.25 kN/m2

 Live Load - BS6399


On rafter - 0.75 kN/m2 on plan ( medium term )
On ceiling tie : 1. 0.25 kN/m2 ( consider as long term )
2. 0.9 kN point load ( short term )

# Assume wind load on rafter as less severe than live load in the design
of the members.

 Wind Load ( very short term )


Taking design wind speed , V = 33 m/s
For conservative approach ,
Cpi = 0.2 and Cpe = 0.9 CP3 Chap. V

- Rafter Wind Load = 0.613 x 10-3 x 332 x 0.9


= 0.6 kN/m2 ( -ve )

- Ceiling Tie Wind Load = 0.613 x 10-3 x 332 x 0.2


= 0.134 kN/m2 ( -ve )

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 2


Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

Stress Computation

3 conditions of loading are required to calculate the member stresses :


1. Long Term ( only long term loads )
2. Medium Term ( long term + medium term loads )
3. Short Term ( all loads )

LONG TERM LOADING

On rafter = 0.76 kN/m2 x 0.6m x 7m


4 bays
= 0.798 kN

On ceiling = ( 0.25 + 0.25 ) x 0.6 x 7


3 bays
= 0.7 kN

LONG TERM
0.798
( 0.76 + 0.75 ) x 0.6 x 7 / 4 bays

4.4
0.798
0.798
1.7
4.9
0.749 0.749
0.8

4.6 3.0
2.646 0.7 0.7 2.646

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 3


Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

MEDIUM TERM
1.59
( 0.25 + 0.25 ) x 0.6 x 7 / 3 bays

7.0
1.59
1.59
2.4
8.0
1.145 1.145
1.5

7.4 5.0
4.25 0.7 0.7 4.25

VERY SHORT TERM

Rafter = ( 0.76 + 0.75 – 0.36 ) x 0.6 x 0.7 = 1.21 kN

Ceiling Joist = ( 0.25 + 0.25 – 0.134 ) x 0.6 x 0.7 = 0.51 kN

1.21
1.21

1.21

0.86 0.86
0.51+ 0.9

0.51

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 4


Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

SHORT TERM
1.59

7.0 7.9
1.59
1.59
3.6 2.4
8.0 8.9
1.145 1.6 1.145
1.5

8.9 5.7 8.2


4.83 0.7 + 0.9 0.7 4.53
= 1.6

Grade Stresses (SG 5) . Normally (critical) only check


for :
σ m,g = 9.5 N/mm2
 Medium term
σ t,g = 5.7 N/mm2
( DL + IL )
2
σ c,g = 8.5 N/mm
 Short term
2
Emean = 9100 N/mm ( DL + IL + PL)
2
Emin = 6300 N/mm

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 5


Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

Example :

Assume member size 38 x 100


Finished Size 35 x 97
From table of Properties :
Zxx = 54900 mm3
ίxx = 28 mm
ίyy = 10.1 mm
A = 3400 mm 2

RAFTER DESIGN

Consider medium term load


Check for combine bending and axial force.
apex
3.8

Rafter analysis : 22.5o

3.5

w kN /m

Heel apex

L = 1.9 m L = 1.9 m

0.125 wL2

0.0703 wL2
0.75L

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 6


Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

Consider lower portion of rafter :

w = ( 0.76 + 0.75 ) x 0.6 = 0.906 kN/m


L = 1.9 m
M = 0.0703 x 0.906 x 1.9 2 = 0.23 kNm

Applied bending stress,

σ m,a = M
Z

= 0.23 x 106 = 4.19 N/mm


54900

Under medium term , axial compressive force = 8.0 kN

Applied compressive stress,

σ c,a = P
A

= 8000 = 2.35 N/mm2


3400

Effective length = 3 x 1.75 = 1.42 m


4 cos 22.5 o

Rafter is fully restrained by tiling battens in the less stiff direction.

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 7


Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

Slenderress ratio , λ = Le = 1420 = 50.7


Ίxx 28

σ c// = 8.5 x 1.25 ( medium term )


= 10.625 N/mm2

E min = 6300 = 592.94


σ c// 10.625

From table 10 ( MS 544 )


 K8 = 0.682

σ c, adm = 8.5 x 1.25 x 1.1 x 0.682 = 7.97 N/mm2

σ m, adm = 9.5 x 1.25 x 1.1 = 13.0 N/mm2

σe = 2 E = 2 (6300) = 24.19
2
λ (50.7)2

Combine Compression and Bending ( Clause 12.6 )

σ m,a + σ c,a < 1

σ m, adm 1 - 1.5 σ c,a K8 σ c, adm


σe

3.55 + 2.35 = 0.598 < 1


13 1 - 1.5 X 2.35 X 0.682 7.97

24.19

Therefore it is satisfactory

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 8


Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

Consider portion over node point.

M = 0.125 wL2 = 0.125 x 0.906 x 1.75 2 = 0.347 kNm

Applied bending stress,

σ m,a = M
Z

= 0.347 x 106 = 6.32 N/mm


54900

Axial Compressive force ( Average lower and upper chord )

8 + 7 = 7.5 kN
2

Applied compressive stress,

σ c,a = P
A

= 7500 = 2.21 N/mm2


3400

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 9


Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

At node point , λ < 5.0 , rafter is designed as short column.

σ c, adm = 8.5 x 1.25 x 1.1 = 11.69 N/mm2

Combine Stress calculation for short column

σ m,a + σ c,a
σ m, adm σ c, adm

= 6.32 + 2.21
13.0 11.69

= 0.68 < 0.9

The upper chord need not be checked because axial compressive force is
7kN < 8 kN for lower chord.

 Whole rafter is satisfactory

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 10


Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

DESIGN OF CEILING TIE

Ceiling tie – combined bending and tension.


Under long term – Loads 0.25 + 0.25

The BMD for UDL :

W / unit length

L= 2.33 L L

0.1WL2
,

+ + +

0.08wL2 0.025w L2

Check Outer Bay

W = ( 0.25 + 0.25 ) x 0.6 = 0.3 kN/m


L = 7/3 = 2.33

M = 0.08wL 2
= 0.08 x 0.3 x ( 2.33 ) 2
= 0.13 kNm

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 11


Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

σ m, a = M/Z
= 0.13 x 10 6
54900
= 2.39 N / mm2

Axial tensile force ( long term stress ) = 4.6 kN

σ t, a = 4600
3400
= 1.355 N / mm2

σ m, adm = 9.5 x 1 x 1.1 = 10.45 N /mm 2


σ t, adm = 5.7 x 1 x 1.1 = 6.27 N / mm2

Combination : σ m,a + σ t,a <1


σ m, adm σ t, adm

= 2.39 + 1.355
10.45 6.27
= 0.45 < 1.0

*Satisfactory

At support , M = 0.1wL2
= 0.1 x 0.3 x 2.33 2
= 0.163 kNm

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 12


Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

Axial tensile force = 4.6 + 3.0 = 3.8 kN


2

σ m, a = 0.163 x 10 6
54900
= 2.97 N / mm2

σ t, m = 3800 = 1.12 N / mm 2
3400

Combination : 2.97 + 1.12 = 0.46 < 1


10.45 6.27

* Satisfactory

Under short term - Loads = point load 0.9 kN + UDL

P
0.075 PL

0.175PL

2.33 2.33 2.33

M at center of ceiling tie due to UDL ,


M = 0.025 wL 2
= 0.025 x 0.3 x 2.33 2
= 0.041 kNm

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 13


Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

M due to point load 0.9 kN ,

M = 0.175 PL
= 0.175 x 0.9 x 2.33
= 0.367 kNm

*∑M = 0.408 kNm

σ m, a = 0.408 x 10 6 = 7.43 N / mm 2
54900

Axial tensile force , ( max ) = 8.9 kN

σ t, a = 8900 = 2.62 N / mm 2
3400

Permissible stresses :

σ m, adm = 9.5 x 1.5 x 1.1 = 15.68 N / mm2


σ t, adm = 5.7 x 1.5 x 1.1 = 9.41 N / mm2

Combination : 7.43 + 2.62 = 0.75 < 1


15.68 9.41

 Satisfactory

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 14


Structural Timber Design Course – IEM Dec 2003

At support ,

M for UDL , M = 0.1wL2


= 0.1 x 0.3 x 2.332
= 0.163 kNm

M for point load , M = 0.075 PL


= 0.075 x 0.9 x 2.33
= 0.157 kNm

*∑ M = 0.321 kNm

σ m, a = 0.321 x 106 = 5.85 N / mm2


54900

Axial tensile force = 8.9 + 5.7 = 7.3 kN


2
σ t, a = 7300 = 2.15 N / mm2
3400

Combination , 5.85 + 2.15 = 0.60 < 1


15.68 9.41

* Satisfactory

by David Yeoh of Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn 15