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Dyeing & Printing

Classification of Dyes,
Application of Dyes on Textile Materials,
Introduction to Different types of Dyeing
Machineries

Dyeing & Printing 2

Title of Contents

1.0. Introduction to Textile Dyeing - 03

2.0. Classification of Dyes - 05

3.0. Dyeing Process - 07

3.1. Dyeing Methods - 07

3.2. Comparison of Dyeing in Various Stages - 09

3.3. Special Dyeing Effects - 10

3.4. Application of Dyes on Textile Materials - 11

3.5. Direct Dyes - 11

3.6. Azoic Colors - 12

3.7. Reactive Dyes - 15

3.8. Vat Dyes - 20

3.9. Acid Dyes - 25

3.10. Basic Dyes - 28

3.11. Sulphur Dyes - 29

3.12. Disperse Dyes - 30

4.0. Introduction to Different Dyeing Machineries - 31

Dyes, Theory of Dyeing, Classification of Dyes and its application

Dyeing & Printing 3

1.0. Introduction to Textile Dyeing

Dyeing is the process of imparting colours to a textile material in loose fibre,
yarn, cloth or garment form by treatment with a dye.
Dyeing is also the process of coloring textile materials by immersing them in an
aqueous solution of dye, called dye liquor. Normally the dye liquor consists of dye, water
and an auxiliary. To improve the effectiveness of dyeing, heat is usually applied to the
dye liquor.

1.1. Color – Definition

Color or colour is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the
categories called red, green, blue and others. Color derives from the spectrum of light
(distribution of light energy versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral
sensitivities of the light receptors. Color categories and physical specifications of color
are also associated with objects, materials, light sources, etc., based on their physical
properties such as light absorption, reflection, or emission spectra. By defining a color
space, colors can be identified numerically by their coordinates.

Because perception of color stems from the varying sensitivity of different types
of cone cells in the retina to different parts of the spectrum, colors may be defined and
quantified by the degree to which they stimulate these cells. These physical or
physiological quantifications of color, however, do not fully explain the psychophysical
perception of color appearance.

The science of color is sometimes called chromatics. It includes the perception of
color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, and
the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (that is, what we commonly
refer to simply as light).

1.2. Definition – Dye

By definition Dyes can be said to be coloured, ionizing and aromatic organic
compounds which shows an affinity towards the substrate to which it is being applied. It
is generally applied in a solution that is aqueous. Dyes may also require a mordant to
better the fastness of the dye on the material on which it is applied.
The dyes were obtained from animal, vegetable or mineral origin with no or very little
processing. By far the greatest source of dyes has been from the plant kingdom, notably
roots, berries, bark, leaves and wood, but only a few have ever been used on a
commercial scale.

1.3. Definition – Pigment

Pigment is the substance or powder that makes up the color of paint. Pigments
are either organic (derived from plant or animal sources, e.g. ivory black, indigo) or
inorganic (derived from salts or metallic oxides e.g. ocher, cobalt blue).
Dyes, Theory of Dyeing, Classification of Dyes and its application

that it is not removable by simple physical means (e.4. it explains: i.1. Dyes. for dyeing with other dyes. which can be classified as: 1. Classification of Dyes and its application . Normally it is used for printing (with the presence of binder) or mass-coloration of the synthetic fibers. Swelling of the fibers appears to play a large part in dyeing of all fibres. The former mode of attachment is believed to be prevalent in the dyeing of cellulosic fibres. Theory of Dyeing. A dye stuff is a substance which is capable of coloring a textile material in such a manner that it associate closely with the fiber. Anionic – in which the color is caused by the anionic part of the dye molecule. 2. 3. It must be soluble in water. Disperse – in which the color is caused by the whole molecule. The third is applied from an aqueous dispersion. the path for the dye molecules is provided by the intermolecular spaces in the fiber and once the dye has entered the fiber structure it becomes firmly attached to the surface of the molecules either by purely physical forces (Secondary Valences) or by chemical combination. the synthetic fibres may be swollen with suitable agents. More specifically.: rubbing or mild deterging). and is principally affected by water (or solvents in the case of synthetics) and by raising the temperature of the dye bath. Cationic – in which the color is caused by the cationic part of the dye molecule. Theory of Dyeing The general theory of dyeing explains the interaction between dye.4. are capable of going into solution by chemical means. 1. Force of repulsion which are developed between the dye molecules and water and ii. These forces are responsible for the dye molecules leaving the aqueous dye liquor entering and attaching themselves to the polymers of the fibres 1. Dye Molecule Dye molecules are organic molecules. water and dye auxiliary.g. The first two dye molecule types are applied from an aqueous solution. Force of attraction which are developed between the dye molecules and fibres. Acetate rayon and synthetic fibres resist penetration by the dye molecules. whereby a highly dispersed condition may be regarded as a form of solution An essential feature of the dyeing process is that the dye molecule must be capable of entering the fiber structure. but certain dyes are capable of forming a solid solution with the fibrous molecule. fiber. the latter mode in the dyeing of protein fibres. Dyeing & Printing 4 Pigment is a substance that can absorb light and reflect some lights to show color but it is water insoluble substances.

for instance. it is held by the fibre either physically (absorption) or chemically (combination) as soon as the fiber is immersed in the dye bath. Classification of Dyes and its application . e.g. It may be soluble by nature of its chemical interference. A dye must be water soluble in order to dye textile materials. Dyeing & Printing 5 1.) Dyes.e.0. of material with one lb. protein.) y their names e. A dye may have direct „affinity‟ for a fiber (or vice versa) i. basic etc.g. difference in shade being due to different ‟Hue‟. The Dyeing Process The dyeing process can thus be considered as taking place in three phases (i) Attachment of the dye molecule to the surface of the fiber (ii) Penetration into the intermolecular spaces as well as diffusion through the fiber & (iii) Orientation (and fixation) along the long chain molecules. It is necessary to define these conditions because of their influence on the „exhaustion‟ of the dye bath. the rate of such building up being referred to as the „rate of dyeing‟. and presence of electrolytes. the dye. The amount of dye needed for the production of a certain depth of shade is expressed as a percentage of the weight of the material. Dyeing is governed by three factors. This rate of dyeing is governed by the condition of the dye bath.e.4. of (commercial) dye under well defined dyeing conditions. the fiber and the dye liquor. All the three lead an independent assistance which influences the technique of dyeing. On cellulosic. Accumulation of the dye in the fiber is a gradual process. The rate of dyeing decreases with increasing ratio of goods to liquor.g. Acid. Cationic. 1:20. 3. The rate of dyeing is also influenced by the „Material to liquor‟ which is expressed by a fraction. i. reactive. it is proportional to all three factors. 1. at that point where no further dyeing takes place.g. direct. 2... The solution of the dye from which it is applied is called the „dye bath‟. Exhaustion determines that amount of dye which is taken up the fiber or in directly. temperature. disperse.2. Classification of Dyes Dyestuffs can be classified by many methods as follows: y their ionic e. have a greenish or a reddish hue. Dyeing is carried out to produce a certain „Shade‟ by which is meant a certain color. that amount which remains in the dye bath after „equilibrium‟ between dye and fiber is reached. Theory of Dyeing. namely concentration of dye. 2. anionic and non-ionic) y their fiber dye abilities e. polyester. A 1% dyeing represents a shade produced by the coloring of 100 lbs. which means one part (by weight) of the textile material dyed in twenty times its weight of dye bath. polyamide etc. A blue shade may.

Dyes may be of readymade dyes and ingrain dyes. azo. Dyes. synthetic) y their colors e.g. Natural. Theory of Dyeing. black etc.) 2.1. green. stilbene etc. Dyeing & Printing 6 y their chemical structures e. COLOURING MATTER DYES PIGMENTS Ready made dyes Ingrain dyes Azoic Oxidation Mineral Water-soluble Water insoluble Vat Sulphur Disperse Direct Acid Basic Reactive So the Colouring matters can be classified as pigments and dyes.g.g. two or more compounds are combined together in the dyeing process to obtain the color in the final finished product. These ready made are available in both water soluble and water in soluble form. liquid form. Ingrain dyes are those which will not be available in ready made form. Classification of Dyes and its application . anthraquinone.) y their origins e. Ready made dyes are dyes which are readily available in powder form. Classification of Dyes by their Names Though several classifications were available classification of dyes by their names is the widely used one. Red.

Most other classes of synthetic dye. or stock. it is called direct dyeing.2. Piece dyeing. for example. berries and other forms of vegetables and plants as well as from animal and mineral sources. Textiles may be dyed as fibre. which is then heated to the appropriate temperature required for the dye application and dyeing process. Classification of Dyes and its application . The other classes of dyes are known as synthetic dyes. are also applied in this way. Direct Dyeing When a dye is applied directly to the fabric without the aid of an affixing agent. pigment dyes etc. top dyeing. nuts. as yarn. vat dyes. depending upon the type of the fabric or garment being produced. These are based on a particular type of chemical composition. as fabric. might be blended and spun with un-dyed (white) wool fibre to produce soft heather like shade of grey yarn.1. Stock Dyeing Stock dyeing refers to the dyeing of the fibers. It is done by putting loose. Other examples include heather like colours in covert and woolen cheviot. Neutral.1. Garment dyeing etc. Dyes. Dyes are obtained from flowers. Wool fibre dyed black. other than vat and sulfur dyes. Dyeing can be done during any stage in the textile manufacturing process. reactive dyes.1.Acid (Anionic) dyes. In this method the dyestuff is either fermented (for natural dye) or chemically reduced (for synthetic vat and sulfur dyes) before being applied. Basic (Cationic) dyes. Some of these dyes are.1. which are largely used for dyeing cotton. The direct dyes. as garments. unspun fibres in to large vats containing the dye bath. Yarn dyeing. Of these Direct dyeing and Yarn Dyeing methods are the most popular ones. Dyeing Methods Colour is applied to fabric by different methods of dyeing for different types of fiber and at different stages of the textile production process. 3. are water soluble and can be applied directly to the fiber from an aqueous solution. These are known as natural dyes. Stock dyeing is usually suitable for woolen materials when heather like color effects are desired. Tweed fabrics with heather like color effects such as Harris Tweed are examples of stock dyed material.0. Dyeing & Printing 7 3. before it is spun in to yarn. Theory of Dyeing. Solution pigmenting or dope dyeing. sulfur dyes. These methods include direct dyeing. 3.Premetalized dyes. 3. Stock dyeing. Dyeing Process Dyeing is the process of imparting colors to a textile material through a dye (colour).

and then from the outside to the center of the package. Top Dyeing Top dyeing is also the dyeing of the fibre before it is spun in to yarn and serves the same purpose as stock dyeing – that is. Skein dyeing is the most costly yarn-dye method. such as hand knitted yarns are usually skein dyed. An entire warp beam is wound on to a perforated cylinder. Theory of Dyeing. stripes and plaids with different-colored yarns in the weaving process. Classification of Dyes and its application . to produce soft.1. 3. and Space Dyeing. which are mostly produced from the cones of the yarn. Dyes. loosely wound hanks (skeins) of yarn into dye vats that are especially designed for this purpose.3. The various methods used for this type of dyeing include jet dyeing. Warp Beam Dyeing Beam dyeing is the much larger version of package dyeing. but it is only used in the manufacture of woven fabrics where an entire warp beam is dyed. In yarn dyeing. Many spools fit into the dyeing machine in which the flow of the dye bath alternates from the center to the outside.5. Knitted fabrics.4. It is the most common method of dyeing used. Package Dyeing. Skein (Hank) Dyeing Skein dyeing consists of immersing large.1.4. which is then placed in the beam dyeing machine. They are however satisfactory and very widely used for most types of yarns that are found in knitted and woven fabrics. Package Dyeing In package dyeing the yarn is wound on a small perforated spool or tube called a package. 3. 3. Beam dyeing is more economical than skein or package dyeing. Jig dyeing. There are many forms of yarn dyeing. heather like color effects. The top in the form of sliver is dyed and then blended with other colors of dyed top to produce desired heather shades. 3. Top is thus selecting long fibres that are used to spin worsted yarn. are not adaptable to beam dyeing.1.4. Soft. where the flow of the dye bath alternate as in the package dyeing. Warp-beam Dyeing. Package dyed yarns do not retain the softness and loftiness that skein-dyed yarns do.1. lofty yarns.Skein (Hank) Dyeing. Yarn Dyeing Yarn dyeing is the dyeing of the yarns before they have been woven or knitted into fabrics.1.1. pad dyeing and beam dyeing. 3. Dyeing & Printing 8 3. The term top refers to the fibres of wool from which the short fibres have been removed.4.3.2.1. Piece Dyeing The dyeing of cloth after it is being woven or knitted is known as piece dyeing. Yarn dyeing is used to create interesting checks. dyestuff penetrates the fibers in the core of the yarn.

Chambray stripes. such as suits or dresses. depending on the weight) into large nylon net bag. Garment Dyeing Garment dyeing is the dyeing of the completed garments. heather Most costly dyeing method. Chevoit Top like coloration. Dyes. Comparison of Dyeing in various stages. minimal color risk Garment Choice of colors closest Limited to garments of simple Hosiery to fashion season. T-shirts. sweatshirts. corduroy Dyeing is close to satin. zippers. plaids. 3. Dyeing & Printing 9 3. broadcloth Adaptable to all fabrics.6. from prior processing. challis woven and knitted. Classification of Dyes and its application . The machine is appropriately called a paddle dryer. but less than for stock jacquard dyeing knits Piece Least costly stage for Limited to solid colors Batiste dyeing of fabrics. cannot be dyed as garments because the difference in shrinkage of the various components and linings disort and misshape the article. such as sweaters. Theory of Dyeing. The garments are loosely packed.2. From 10 to 50 of the bags are placed in large tubs containing the dye bath and kept agitated by a motor – driven paddle in the dye tub. High percentage of tweed. fibre loss from dyeing and later in yarn spinning Yarn Used for fabrics with Second most costly method. begins carries the risk of fashion molten changing. Easiest Dyeing long before season covert dye penetration. Garment dyeing is done by placing a suitable number of garments (usually about 24 sweaters or the equivalent. Tailored items. The types of apparel that can be dyed are mostly non-tailored and simpler forms. changing. Dyeing before season begins gingham and other multi colored carries the risk of fashion brocade patterns. checks. trims and snaps must be considered. hosiery. Stage of Features and Advantages Limitations and Disadvantages Typical Dyeing Dyed Fabrics Stock and Fabrics have soft. fashion seasons. and pantyhose. thread. The effect on sizing.1. construction panty hose Elimination of material sweaters t- (yarn and fabric) waste shirts.

1.3. as described previously. 3. 3. Tone –on Tone Effects Tone on tone effect is also possible by using one dye bath. Tone on tone effects can only be achieved with the specific varieties of nylon. The effect can be produced by combining two different types of polyester in the same fabric.3.3. deep red and light red colors on the same piece dyed polyester fabric. to create effects such as multi-colours or multi- shades by any yarn-dye or piece-dye method. The dyer accomplishes this by using two or more classes of dye. If yarns of one kind of fibre and yarns of another kind of fibres are used in the warp direction. Cross dyeing is the more economical and quicker way to produce the same effects obtained by other methods.3. polyester and acrylic fibres. one solid color is produced. The effects achieved by expensive stock dyeing method can be replicated easily by this cross dyeing method. but one fibre has strong affinity for dye than the other. becoming deeper in shade.2. A plaid effect can be produced by weaving yarns of different kinds of fibre both in warp and filling directions and then dyeing the fabric in single bath with a mixture of two kinds of dyes. vertical stripes can be produced after dyeing. each of the same color. a fabric composed of rayon and acetate can be dyed by a solid green color by using a direct dye for rayon and disperse dye for acetate. a stock-dyed effect can be obtained. and second fibre remains a lighter shade of the same color. 3. Both types are capable of combining with the same dye class.3. other fibre combinations may require a two –step dyeing process to produce two colours. Special Dyeing Effects Piece dyeing. The fibre with the stronger affinity combines with greater quantity of dye. Classification of Dyes and its application . Two different colors can be dyed in one bath or either type of fibre may be dyed. primarily produces a solid color throughout the goods being dyed. If different fibres are blended in the same yarn. These special properties are imparted during the manufacture Dyes. For example. Cross Dyeing Cross dyeing is a type of dyeing in which a yarn. Dyeing & Printing 10 3. It is possible. however. a fabric. or even a garment made with two or more genetic fibres types having different dye affinities is dyed in a single bath containing two different class of dyes. except that instead of multi color effects. Each class of dye colors only one type of the fibre. leaving the other one white. Whereas certain fibre combination allow for one bath process. Theory of Dyeing. Union Dyeing Union dyeing is same as like cross dyeing. They are light and dark shades of the same color in a fabric containing only one generic fibre – for example.

Hence these salts are exhausting agents for direct while dyeing or cotton. Direct Dyes These colors are known as substantive dyes or Salt dyestuffs or even simply cotton colors. These fastness properties can be improved by certain after-treatments. In addition nylon is produced in both deep-dye and ultra-deep-dye varieties. wool and silk fibres. 3. Selected substantive dyes can be used to give solid shades on wool and cotton mixtures. This is known as bleeding. Properties of Direct Dyes 1. viscose rayon. Dyeing & Printing 11 of the fibre. Some of the dyes need a little amount of soda ash (Sodium Carbonate) for complete dissolve them in water. 4. 2. Direct dyes are also called Substantive dyes because of their excellent substantively for cellulose textile materials like cotton and viscose rayon. Direct dyes are used for dyeing cotton. more dye is taken up by the fiber i. the latter generally becomes stained with the dye from former. viscose rayon. animal fibres such as wool and silk. The colors are well known for its use in dyeing cellulose fibres like cotton.1. If common salt or Glauber‟s salt (Sodium sulphate) is added to the dye during dyeing.4.e. thus providing the possibility for three-tone effects of the same color. 3. Theory of Dyeing. and the fibres are marketed to textile producers as deep –dye types. Direct dyes are readily soluble in water. the dye bath gets exhausted to a greater extent. The tone on tone effects is widely used in the carpet industry for producing tweed-effect designs on piece dyed carpeting.5. Direct dyes have poor washing fastness and poor light fastness. Dyes.5. Applications of Dyes on the textile materials Let us discuss the application of following dyes in the textile materials Direct Dyes Azoic Dyes Reactive Dyes Vat Dye Acid Dyes Basic Dyes Sulphur Dyes Disperse Dyes 3. This class of dyes derives its name from its property of having direct affinity for cellulosic fibres when applied from an aqueous solution. Classification of Dyes and its application . 5. If a piece of cotton dyed with a direct dye is boiled with soap and water which contains also a small piece of un-dyed cotton. 3.

Viscose. The fibres most readily colored with azoic dyes are the man-made and natural cellulose fibres. At the end of the dyeing the material is rinsed in cold water and dried without soaping. All direct dyestuffs combine with basic dyes to give compounds which are less soluble that the original direct dyes. Some direct dyestuffs give better results in a slightly alkaline bath. Fastness properties of Direct dyed goods . The process of dyeing the direct dye on cotton with basic color is known as topping.2.g. to improve the fastness properties after – treatments may be given improve the fastness 3. this process improves the wet fastness of the dyed goods. (N=N) Azoic dyes are also called naphtha dyes or developed colors. From 0. Dyeing & Printing 12 6. for 100 kilograms of cotton fabric 2. Cotton etc. In fact it is advantageous in most cases. with constant stirring to bring it into solution. Azoic Dyes Azoic dyes are so called because their molecules contain azo group. Classification of Dyes and its application .5 to 5% of the dyestuff according to the shade required to be taken.000 liters of water can be taken. e. The dyestuff is pasted with cold water and sufficient boiling water is then added. After Treatments A dye fixing treatment may give in a fresh bath containing a cationic dye-fixing agent before drying.5 to 2% of Sodium carbonate may be used. The dyeing is continued at the boil for ¾ to 1 hour.5. For dyeing only soft water should be used. Dyes.5. 3. It is then added to the dye liquor through a strainer.6. Application of Direct Dyes to Cotton/Viscose The dye bath is usually made up with twenty items as much water as the material. Direct dyes have poor washing fastness and poor light fastness. The cotton material is wetted out in water and entered into the dye bath at 41ºC to 50 ºC and the liquid is raised to the boil over a period of 30 to 40 minutes and then common salt or Glauber‟s salt is added to the dye bath for the complete exhaustion of the dye bath.3. Take for example. these fastness properties can be improved by certain after treatments.Both washing and light fastness of most of the direct dyed goods are generally poor. since it renders the dyestuff more completely soluble in the dye bath. Theory of Dyeing. From 0. However. These salts are exhausting agents for direct dyes while dyeing on cotton. 3.

1. which constitute the azoic dye. The Naphtha is pasted with its own weight of turkey – red oil and little hot water avoiding any lump formation. The application of azoic colors involved two steps – naptholation (dyeing with naphtha) and development (coupling of diazotized base with naphtha).2. The required amount of boiling water is then added to the paste.1. Cool the solution to 50ºC by adding about some quantity of cold water. Dyeing of Cotton with Naphthol Solution The well scoured wet yarn is entered in the cold Naphtha bath are kept turned for several times. If the impregnated goods lie about for any period the decomposition will not occur uniformly and the final result will be patchy. These two components are the naphtha or coupling component. Dyeing & Printing 13 3. In some cases the addition of common salt or Glauber‟s salt increases the absorption of the naphtha solution. Classification of Dyes and its application . Dyeing Cotton with Azoic Dyes Coloring of textile materials with azoic dyes involved the reaction within the fibre polymer system of the two components. Dyes. 3. Therefore the naphthalene material should be developed without any delay. After treatment of the dyed cotton material. In most cases the amount of Naphtha which is absorbed decreases as temperature raises and the operation is therefore carried out at 25º . The sodium salts of the coupling components are usually somewhat unstable towards exposure to air. sodium hydroxide (NaoH) is used. They can be dissolved in water by coveting them into sodium compounds which are soluble in water.30ºC for 20 – 30 minutes.6. The mixture is boiled till a clear solution is obtained. Preparation of Naphtha solution.6. Preparation of Naphthol Solution Naphtha‟s are insoluble in water.6. and the base or di-azo components. For this caustic soda i.1. Theory of Dyeing.1. to avoid carrying over retained liquor into the coupling bath where it would cause surface deposition of the pigment cause the poor rubbing fastness. The impregnated material must not be touched with wet hand or exposed to direct sunlight or brought into contact with metals. After impregnation the goods should be hydro extracted or squeezed thoroughly. The Application of Azoic colors involves the following steps. Preparation of Diazotized base solution. 3. followed by the required amount sodium hydroxide (NaoH) solution is added. especially when in a wet state. Dyeing of cotton yarn with Naphtha solution.e.

1.3. Allow the solution for 20 – 30 minutes for the reaction to go to completion. This is carried out by adding Sodium Nitrite to a solution of hydro chloride of the base in the presence of excess of HCL. 3. This is called coupling (Or) developing process. Now the diazonium chloride which is generally highly soluble in water is formed and a very clear solution is obtained.acid. after which the pH of the solution become in the range of 5 – 6.6. Acid and a few drops of cold water the mixture is then added cold water to dissolve the paste. Classification of Dyes and its application . Coupling will also be retarded if the liquor becomes alkaline.4. It is turned several times and kept for 20 – 30 minutes. During coupling the Azoic color is formed on the cotton material. In some cases the mixture is to be heated or even boiled complete conversion of Base into salt.5. Now the base solution is ready for dyeing. Acid into acetic acid. Dyeing & Printing 14 3.5ºc) for 20 – 30 minutes is called the Diazotization of the Base. Now the base is converted into diazonium chloride (diazotized Base). The mixture is stirred till a clear solution obtained. It should be converted into water soluble salt (hydro chloride of the base) using concentrated hydrochloric acid. Dyes. The base is pasted with a little amount of con.6. The reaction between diazonium chloride and Naphtha (Coupling or developing) takes place quickly over the pH range of 5 to 6. The solution is cooled to 18º . too high a pH and this can occur easily on account of sodium hydroxide (NaoH) which may be left in the cotton after it has been impregnated with Naphtha solution. Now the pH of the solution is too low. 3.6. 2) The reaction of hydro chloride of the base with Nitrous acid usually at low temperatures (Oº . After treatment After the dyeing the dyed material are rinsed in the cold water bath to which a little Hcl acid is preferably added and are then treated in a soaping bath at boil for 30 minutes to remove the loosely combined dye stuffs. Excess of alkali can be neutralized by adding acetic acid or sodium bicarbonate or Aluminum Sulphate. Hcl.1.20 ºC by adding Crushed ice directly into the solution when the required temperature is obtained the pre- dissolved sodium Nitrite is added with constant stirring. Dyeing of Naphthalene material with the Base Solution The naphthalene material is entered the diazotized Base solution. The pH of the solution is therefore raised by adding Sodium acetate. Theory of Dyeing. Sodium acetate converts the free Hcl. Preparation of Diazotized Base Solution 1) The base is insoluble in water. The developing both should be maintained the pH of 5 – 6 and temperature should be kept below 20ºC in the above manner. Through the coupling process the pH should maintain 5-6 and temperature should below 20 ºC.1.

DH + H O – cell DH…….7. 3. In the Base solution. If all stages of azoic dyeing are carefully controlled and followed by thorough soaping – off.6. 5. Dyeing of Viscose Rayon with Azoic Dyes Azoic colors have a much greater affinity for Viscose rayon than for cotton. This rinsing stage is referred to as Soaping – off and involves a through treatment of the dyed textile material with a detergent. Properties of Azoic Dyes 1. The fibres most readily colored with reactive dyes are cellulose fibres. Note: The procedure for dyeing viscose rayon with azoic dyes is the same as that of cotton. Preparation of diazotized Base solution Dyeing of Naphthalene mat. silk and nylon.2. After treatment of Azoic Dyed Viscose Rayon mat. The dyed azoic colors have good washing fastness. The dyed and printed azoic colors have very good to excellent light fastness.3. Theory of Dyeing. wool. Reactive Dyes Reactive dyes are so called because their molecules react chemically with the fire polymers of some fibres to form a covalent bond between the dye molecule and fibre polymer. It is insoluble in water. Reactive dyes are also called as Procion dyes When direct dyestuff is applied to cotton and to viscose rayon the process is one of Physical absorption there is no covalent union between dye and fibres. Textile materials dyed with azoic dyes suffer from poor Rubbing – fastness. which is not removed during the final stage of dyeing. 3.. Preparation of Naphtha solution Dyeing of Viscose rayon with Naphtha solution.HO –Cell Direct dye cellulose dyed (not reactively) Cellulose Dyes. Classification of Dyes and its application . This occurs because of the formation of the insoluble azoic dye on the surface of the fibre which is not removed during the final stage of dyeing.6. 3. It is not a readymade dye but is formed in the fibre substance by the dyer from Components usually referred to as Naphtha and Base. The method of application is as follow. 2. 4. Dyeing & Printing 15 3. poor rub-fastness is unlikely to occur.

hydrogen bonding ands so no. All that we have gained is covalent union (i. however the dye also reacts with water (only after the addition of alkali) and when this rakes place. it has much lower affinity to cotton than direct dyes. fastness to washing and wet processing generally should be much better and so in reactively dyed cellulose DR-O Cell. The porcine dyes. on cotton is very poor and hence it gets washed out progressively during the washing of the garments made from such fabrics. as part of the dyeing process the fabrics Dyes. the dye gets deactivated (hydrolyzed) and then it cannot react with the cotton fibre. the reactive dye resembles like direct dyes in that its exhaustion can be brought about by adding common salt or Glauber‟s salt. The nature of the union between bye and fibre. physical or chemical sorption. and they exhaust better in the presence of an electrolyte (salt). Chemical combination) between dye and fibre. 5 to 30% of the dye used for dyeing and the remaining is deactivated and hence this is a waste. there is no chemical reaction and no covalent union. DH. hydrogen bonding and attachment thorough Vander walls forces. may be difficult to analyze precisely. As a result of this. are readily soluble in water. The application of reactive dyes to cotton materials involves two distinct steps 1) Dyeing with the dye in the presence of common salt to effect as much exhaustion as possible and 2) Chemically reaching the dye with the fibre (fixation) in the presence of an alkali like soda ash. but it was certainly not covalent bond. Classification of Dyes and its application . commonly referred to absorption. when the dye reacts with the fibres. there is. as indicated by the dotted bond. on account of the sulphonic acid groups in their molecules.HO-cell.e. a wet-fastness of a low order. In the first stage of dyeing. Dyeing & Printing 16 Direct dye. Theory of Dyeing. the dye is part of the fibre.. Because of the lower affinity of the deactivated dye (compared to direct dyes on cotton) the washing fastness of this form of the dye present. it is impossible to wash it out or to extract it even with such powerful agents as aqueous pyridine. In neutral solution. With the reactive dye DRcl we have obtained reactively dyed rayon Dr – O cell. During the second stage of application (fixation) the alkali is added to the dye bath. Drcl + HO . applied to cellulose. it may have been mechanical. Therefore.cell DH O cell + HCl Reactive Dye Cellulose reactively (covalently) Dyed cellulose With the old direct dye DH we obtained dyed rayon DH …. they have substantively towards cellulose similar to that of very low affinity direct dyes. The deactivated dye has some affinity for cotton and hence is absorbed and retained by cotton. In the neutral solution physical adsorption and possibly some hydrogen bonding take place. but there is no formation of covalent bonds until alkali has been added. However. In the dyeing and fixing of reactive dyes.

High exhaust reactive dye . Low salt reactive dye . When two chlorine atoms are present in the dye molecule are called Dichloride Procions. „H‟ brand (or „X‟ brand) 3. Cold Brand & Hot Brand Reactive Dyes The reactivity of these dyes is due to the chlorine atoms attached to the triazine ring.7. The Procion dyes. Reactivity of the dyestuffs can be reduced when desirable by blocking one of the reactive chlorine atoms giving H-type Procions. Theory of Dyeing.7.1.2. 2. The stock solution for printing must be kept and used for several hours. the reactivity of the dye decreases considerably and the dyeing has to be carried out at a higher temperature (65ºC to 80ºC). Hot brand reactive dye . Mono chloride procions are referred to as „H‟ type procions. The reactive dyes having only one chlorine atom in their molecule are less reactive. pink. „ME‟ brand 5. 3. These dyes. for dyeing and printing 6. so that they can be applied from an aqueous solution. 3. Dyeing & Printing 17 are boiled with a soap solution after the fixation step. Hence these dyes are called hot brand reactive dyes. Dichloride procions are referred to as M-type procions and their characteristic is that they will combine with alkaline cellulose at room temperature (20ºC to 30ºC) and hence they are called cold brand reactive dyes when only one chlorine atom is present in the dyestuff molecule. LS dyes 3. unlike any other class of dye stuffs. Vinyl Sulphone reactive dye . High exhaust reactive dye . Types of Reactive Dyes 1. The instability of the solutions of the cold-dyeing procion colors was a serious disadvantage in their application to textile printing. 3. These dyes give very bright shades such as orange. which were not possible with other class of dyes.7. 5. on account of the sulphuric acid groups in their molecule. Normally „M‟ Brands are suitable for dyeing and H brands are suitable for printing. are more stable and very suitable for printing. „M‟ brand 2. since it is firmly bound to the fibre by a covalent bond. Their aqueous. The other form of the dye present in the fibre in a chemically reacted form is not removed during the soaping step. Properties of Reactive Dyes 1.3. when most of the deactivated dye is removed from the dyed fabric. react and combine chemically (covalently) with cellulose and this leading to excellent wash-fastness. therefore. are readily soluble in water. 4. They do not react with water nearly as readily as with cellulosic hydroxyl in alkaline conditions. magenta etc. Classification of Dyes and its application . Cold brand reactive dye . „HE‟ brand 4. Dyes.

Theory of Dyeing. 3.7. 8. Short molecules bring two advantages (a) Clarity and brightness of hue and (b) easy penetration and therefore good leveling. involving soaping and rinsing. A stock solution will not remain stable for more than about 4 hours. poor rub-fastness may result. after which it will begin to lose strength due to hydrolysis. Dyes. The presence of acids may reverse this process. followed by dilution with more water. Textile materials which are colored with reactive dyes have to be thoroughly rinsed and scoured. Reactive dyes can react with the hydroxyl groups of the water molecule to produce dye molecules to produce dye molecules with poor substantively for the fiber. Textile materials colored with reactive dyed has very good wash-fastness. The formation of the covalent bond between dye and fiber occurs under alkaline conditions.7.7.4. the temperature of which must not exceed 50ºC.1. In fact it is these molecules which have to be removed by a washing-off process.4. Preparation of Dye Solution The dyestuff is dissolved by making them into paste with cold water. the quantity varying according to the depth of the shade. 9. Dyeing & Printing 18 6. Classification of Dyes and its application . Textile materials colored with reactive dyes have very good light fastness.4. and they are then washed off at the boil for 15 to 30 minutes to extract any of the products of hydrolyzed dye. 3. If these molecules of dye are not removed. 7.2. Because there is some. 11. Perspiration and atmospheric pollution which are both slightly acid may affect textile materials colored with reactive dyes and result in some fading. Procion dyes are dyes with small molecules. even although not very much reaction between procion dyestuffs and water it is very important to wash the dyes fibre thoroughly clean and free from the reaction product with water. Dyeing The goods are loaded into the machine and 30 and 60 parts per 1000 of common salt are added. Application of Cold Brand Reactive Dyes on Cotton (Dichlorotriazinyl Reactive dyes (or) Procion – M brand) 3. their molecules do not have to be very long as those of direct dyes to match the distance between absorption sites on the fibre. 10. Dyeing is continued for further 20 to 40 minutes after which the goods are rinsed to remove the salt and the alkali. The liquor is then raised to the required temperature either 40ºC or 60ºC and the pre dissolved dye is added in the machine is then allowed to run for 20 to 30 minutes and the necessary amount of Soda ash is added over a period of 10 to 30 minutes.

the materials must be rinsed and soap boiled to remove hydrolyzed and unfixed dye. first in hot and then in cold water. After treatment Treat the dyed material with 1 to 2 g/l of neutral soap at boil for 15 minutes and wash it. the goods already having been entered.1. The pre dissolved dye is then added in two portions at five minute intervals followed by the alkali which should be 20 parts per 1000 of soda ash. Classification of Dyes and its application . after which they are soured at the boil. The temperature is brought up to 40ºC and the machine is run for five to ten minutes in order that the fabric can be uniformly impregnated. Theory of Dyeing. The dyestuffs are dissolved by making them into a paste with cold water.5. REACTIVE DYES (OR) PROCION + H brand) The mono chlorotriazinyl dyes or hot brand reactive dyes are less reactive.7. Their aqueous solutions are more stable but they do not react with cellulose so readily and the temperature of dyeing must be increased to 60ºC to 70ºC and in some cases. The dye bath is made by dissolving sufficient common salt to give a concentration of 40 to 80 parts per 1000 according to the depth of the shade. The exhaustion is often not good and much dyestuff will be in retained in the liquor. for 15 to 30 minutes with a synthetic detergent or soap and finally rinsed. APPLICATION OF HOT BRAND DYES ON COTTON (MONOCHLOROTRIAZINYL.5. but of greater significance is the fact that cellulose has some affinity for the hydrolyzed dye which is having lost its chlorine atoms. Dyes. After dyeing. 3. Treat the soaped material with 2 to 3 g/l of cationic dye fixing agent at 40ºC for 20 to 30 minutes and dry it. The goods should then be rinsed in hot water nearly at the boil. Dyeing is continued for a period of 20 to 40 minutes and then continued for 30 to 60 minutes when soda ash (alkali) is used. Dyeing & Printing 19 Considerable importance must be attached to the final washing of goods dyed with procion colors. followed by dilution with more water.7. The alkali should be added in two portions at five minute intervals and the temperature then raised to between 60 to 90ºC according to that which is recommended for the dye selected. The load is first rinsed thoroughly in as great a volume of cold water as the machine permits. as high as 90ºC to 95ºC. 3. has not entered into chemical combination.

(Na2S2O4) (Usually called “hydrous”) is used as the reducing agent and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the solubilizing (Neutralizing) agent.8. For this purpose sodium hydrosulphite. Vat dyes being insoluble in water cannot be directly applied to textile materials. Salt formation by neutralizing these acidic leuco vat dyes by sodium hydroxide to give a water-soluble product. the leuco compounds are oxidized and the insoluble coloring matters are produced on the fibres. Since the second the step results in the formation of water-soluble sodium salt of leuco vat dye. 3. 3. 2. Reduction of the dye into the weakly acidic leuco vat form and 2. Vat dyes provide textile materials with the best color fastness of all the dyes in common use. Vat dyes have always been very expensive compares with other dye classes. The large vat dye molecules is trapped with the polymer system of the fibre. This is attributed to the large vat dye molecule as well as its aqueous insolubility. Classification of Dyes and its application . Reduction followed by solubilizing is called the vatting of the dye. is exposed to air.1. When cotton containing these. Properties of Vat Dyes 1. Vat dyes fabrics have excellent washing fastness. it may be called as the solubilizing step. viscose rayon. Vat dyes are mainly used for coloring of cellulose fibres. This conversion is usually brought about in two steps: 1. The fiber most readily colored with Vat dyes are the natural and man made cellulose fibres of cotton. Vat dyes are insoluble in water and hence cannot be used directly for dyeing but when treated with the reducing agent. They have to be converted into water soluble form having affinity for textile fibres such as cellulose fibres. Dyes. Vat Dyes The name Vat was derived from the large wooden vessel from which the Vat dyes were first applied. 4. because of its size and aqueous insolubility and is absorbed with in the fibre polymer system by Vander wail‟s forces. Theory of Dyeing. 5. Dyeing & Printing 20 3. they leuco compounds are soluble in alkaline solutions in which cotton and other textile fibres have a considerable affinity on them. Vat dyes fabrics have excellent light fastness. but these dyes dyed at low temperature and with small amount of alkali for dyeing wool and silk.8.

1. The dyestuffs do not (with few exceptions) sublime when heated and are often insoluble in boiling pyridine.8. The Anthraquinone vat dyes give colored leuco compounds which are soluble only in Strong alkaline solution and therefore not suitable for animal fibres or protein fibres. 3. vat dyes are divided into two main classes (1) Indigoid vat dye. These are characterized by forming pale yellow leuco compounds which dissolve in week solutions of sodium hydroxide (NaoH). Also Leuco soluble in called Vat dye. Dyeing & Printing 21 The different steps involve in the vatting of the dye are shown below: Vat dye. Classification of VAT dyes Vat dyes are classified based on chemical constitution of the dyes or based on the method of application. The leuco compounds are oxidized readily when exposed to air. Classification of Dyes and its application . caustic soda acid which is Soluble in Reducing Solubilizing (NaoH) solution insoluble in water (Na2S2O4 Water.2.8. They are used in neural or slightly alkaline bath and are suitable both for animal and vegetables fibres. Indigoid Vat Dye The indigoids are usually derivatives of indigo tin. These Indigoid colors sublime when heated and are soluble in boiling pyridine. 3.2. Anthraquinone Vat Dyes The Anthraquinone vat dyes are derived basically from Anthraquinone.2. Theory of Dyeing.8. Dyes. but Soluble in NAOH solution 3. & (2) Anthraquinone vat dye. The indigoids include natural and synthetic Indigo and substituted Indigoes. Based on the chemical constitution.2. Reduced Vat Sodium Insoluble in Dye or Leuco salt of the water and vat Dye.

” (i. Soaping – off. Preparation of leuco Vat dye solution The Vat dyestuff powder is taken in a separate vessel and made into a paste with Turkey red oil (the some weight of dyestuff to be taken) and add some hot water (50º - 60ºC). the application of vat dyes to textile materials involves four distinct steps.8. 3. c) Oxidation.4. The vatted dye solution may than be added to the dye bath containing the required amount of caustic soda sodium hydro sulphate. kept at recommended temperature. and allows standing for 10-20 minutes with occasional stirring. Dyeing The required water for dyeing is taken in the dye bath and it is maintain at proper temperature (50º. Dyeing & Printing 22 3. in which the dyed material is subjected to a treatment either boiling soap or other detergent solution in order to get the proper tone by way of aggregation of smaller dye particles into bigger ones and also to get the optimum fastness. 3. The vatting stage temporarily alters the original color of the dye (Reduced color). d) After treatment.4.8. the complete vatting taking place.2.8. Application of Vat Dyes on Cotton 3.e. The caustic soda is first added and then sodium hydro sulphate is added. involving the use of a chemical like sodium per borate or potassium dichromate or Hydrogen per oxide). Theory of Dyeing.60 ºC) the reducing and dyeing temperatures vary from dyestuffs to dyestuff. in which the soluble form of the dye absorbed by the fibre.8.3.1. Dyes. In above 10-20 minutes the dyestuff will be reduced completely and going to solution. in which the soluble sodium salt of the leuco vat dye is absorbed by the textile material from an alkaline reducing medium in the presence of either a retarding agent or an exhausting agent depending on the rate of dyeing. b) Dyeing.4. a) Vatting in which the insoluble commercial dye is reduced and solidities (vatted) by using Sodium hydrosulphite (hydrose) and sodium hydroxide (NaoH). Principles of application of Vat Dyes Generally. is reconverted into the original insoluble dye by atmospheric oxygen (Airing) or by the use of “chemical oxidation. This can be seen by the clearness of the solution and characteristics of the vat color. Classification of Dyes and its application . especially rubbing fastness by removing the surface deposited dye particles.

This process is usually referred to as chemical oxidation. Classification of Dyes and its application . The dyed material is treated in hot soap solution or a synthetic detergent solution for 15 – 30 minutes. Theory of Dyeing. The yarn is then kept completely immersed under the dye liquor and the dyeing is continued for one hour. Dyes. This loosely deposited dye on the surface of the fiber has to be removed for achieving optimum fastness properties especially rubbing and washing fastness properties. Excess quantities of both sodium hydroxide (NaoH) and sodium hydro sulphate (Na2s2O4) should be present in the dye bath in order to keep the dye in the soluble form.D. The dyed goods may then be removed from the dye bath and excess liquor which contains the unexhausted vat dye. otherwise oxidation of the residual vatted dye takes place in the dye bath itself leading to the appearance of turbidity. After the soaping treatment the dyed goods should be rinsed thoroughly and finally the dyed material is dried. During the oxidation step the sodium salt of leuco vat dye absorbed by the fibre is oxidized and converted into insoluble dye in the fibre. At the same time the vatted dye contained in the residual liquor in the goods being dyed also gets converted into the insoluble form which is loosely deposited on the fibre surface. The exhaustion agents or retarding agents are added to the dye bath depending upon the dyestuffs taken. sodium hydro sulphate is removed as for as possible from the goods. so that the affinity of the color may be uniform. during the entire dyeing period. The dyed goods are rinsed with cold water and then subjected to an oxidation treatment by exposure to atmospheric oxygen. The yarn is turned from time to time… Care should be taken to keep the bath at required temperature and also to keep the yarn thoroughly immersed under the liquor. Important manufacturers of vat dyes in India are Indian Dyestuff Industries (I. This is called “air oxidation” or “airing” but the oxidation may be accelerated by using stronger oxidizing agent such as sodium per borate or hydrogen peroxide or sodium dichromate in the presence of acetic acid. This is achieved by soaping process. At the end of the dyeing the partly or completely exhausted dye bath must be kept in a distinctly reduced condition.I) and ATIC Industries which market them under the trade names of NAVINON and NOVATIC respectively. This is ensured by adding sufficient sodium hydro sulphate. Dyeing & Printing 23 The well scoured wet yarn is entered in the dye bath and turned several times. sodium hydroxide.

Dyes. 4. The goods are entered and the temperature is raised to that at which maximum affinity is developed. together with the required amount of electrolyte. The general method of application is to dissolve the dye in hot but not boiling water and added it to the dye liquor through a strainer. 3. Their application is comparatively simple. Solubilized forms of Vat dyes are the leuco ester part of the dye molecule that is responsible for the aqueous solubility of vat dyes. Because of their low affinity. Indigo sols process a good coverage and leveling properties.8. solubilized vat dyes were developed. Theory of Dyeing. Dyeing & Printing 24 3. Their affinity for cellulose is not great and high percentages of electoral are often necessary and for this reason they have only found favor in dyeing pale shades where color cost is not so important. 5. Cellulosic fibres are dyed in neutral dye liquor and slightly acid baths are used for protein fibres. followed by a developing bath (an oxidizing treatment). The solubilized leuco compounds are known as the Indigo sols. Another range called the Solidness is prepared mainly from anothroquine vat dyes. Soluble vat dyes are mainly applied to viscose rayon. Classification of Dyes and its application .8. SOLUBILISED VAT DYES (INDIGOSOLS) It is realized that the vatting process requires great care. 6. They exhaust well at 20º to 40ºC although there are some requiring temperatures ranging from 60º to 80ºC. they are usually applied by padding process. wool.5. 3.5. The goods are dyed at the appropriate for a period of 30 minutes. Suitable for light and medium depths. Vatting operation is not necessary and hence can be applied directly in the bath. Soluble in Water. and silk fabrics. To simplify the application. Solubilised vat dye have less affinity for the fibres and they exhausted by addition of salt. This has made vat dyes easier to handle and results in more level dyeing. Properties of Solubilized Vat Dyes: 1.1. cotton. 2. which varies from one dye to another.

a week acid (Acetic acid or Formic acid) is added to the dye both. And leveling characteristics: 3. 6. whilst their light – fastness is good to very good. adequate exhausting agent (sulphuric acid) is added to the dye liquor.2. and milling dyes or Natural dyeing acid dyeing acid dyes. Dyeing & Printing 25 3. Acid dyes with Good leveling characteristics This type of acid dye is responsible for their good leveling characteristics. 3. However the light fastness is very good to excellent. but have Dyes. silk and nylon fibres. Acid dyes with poor leveling characteristics These dyes are also known as fast acid dyes. Classification of Acid Dyes Acid dyes are divided into three Groups according to the leveling characteristics 3. acetic or formic acid.2. The dyed acid colors have good light fastness and moderate washing fastness. 4. The washing fastness of these dyes is fair.9. adequate exhausting agent. These dyes are easily applied on wool. Acid dyes with average leveling characteristics The moderate substantive of this type of acid dye is responsible for average leveling characteristics. Acid dyestuff is soluble in water.2. They are in much case soluble in alcohol. They have the best substantive of all the acid dyes. However to obtain sufficient substantive and to ensure. 3. Classification of Dyes and its application . 7. 3.3. 5. 3.2. To obtain sufficient substantive and to and ensure it.9.1. acetic or formic acid and secondly most of them are sodium salts of organics acids. Acid Dyes The Acid dye stuff is so called mainly due to two reasons. They are usually combined with basic dyes. In the first place these classes of dyestuff were applied in a bath containing mineral or organic acids like sulphuric.9. 2. their lack of substantive is evidence by their poor wash fastness.9. As the dye molecules have less attraction for the fibre they will migrate only slowly into the polymer systems of wool or nylon fibres. Theory of Dyeing.9. Properties of Acid Dyes: 1. When acid dyestuffs are treated with a reducing agent they are generally decolorized.2. These dyes are generally applied in the presence of acids like sulphuric.9.1.

The better wash-fastness. nylon has greatly increased affinity for acid dyes. Method of dyeing with acid dyes on NYLON The dyeing properties of acid dyes with regard to nylon and wool are similar. compared with the other two type of acid dyes.3. and sufficient boiling water is added to dissolve it completely. their relatively good substantive for the fibre may result in too rapid uptake and consequently unleveled dyeing The excellent substantive of these dyes require neutral bath in order to obtain slower exhaustion and more level dyeing. The requisite amount of dyestuff is made into a smooth paste. When the pH of the dye solution is 2 or lower. Classification of Dyes and its application . but care is necessary to avoid the possibility of a dissolved particular becoming deposited on the goods. Acid dyes requiring strong acid are applied from a dye liquor containing 3 to 5% of formic acid. Dark shades can be readily be obtained on wool because of the highly amorphous nature of the fibre.4. Preparation of dye solution The acid dyes are easy to dissolve. The shades are very similar to the corresponding colors on wool.9. is due to the greater number of sodium sulphate groups. Dyeing & Printing 26 relatively poor leveling characteristics.3. In wool.9. As a guide. There are a large number of amino groups are present in the wool fibre. the dye sites are of many amino group of the fibre. preferably with a small amount of an anionic or non ionic wetting agent. Application of acid dyes on wool: The application of acid dyes to protein fibers results in an ionic or salt link between the dye molecule and the fibre polymer. The point of the fibre polymer at which the dye is attached is termed the dye site. Theory of Dyeing. The wash fastnesses of these dyes are good to very good. It is advisable to strain the dye solution before adding it to the dye bath. Sulphuric acid should not be used because it can cause degradation of the Dyes.9.5 because the degradation of the nylon would be excessive.1. but the saturation point is lower with nylon. 3. there are approximately twenty times as many amino groups on wool as on nylon and five times as many amino groups on wool as on silk. Under dyeing conditions. Unless care is taken during. In practice. the amino group becomes positively charged and attracts the negatively charged dye anion. 3. which results in relatively easy penetration of the fibre polymer by the dye molecule and because of the presence of minor groups. dyeing cannot be carried out in the pH region of 2 to 2. 3. while their light fastness is fair to good.

The greater crystalline fibre structure of nylon compared with wool as well as the relatively lower number of amino groups means that dark shades on nylon cannot be obtained with acid dyes. are used. preferably. While using boiled off liquor the bath must be neutral or only faintly acidic. Silk will exert its affinity for acid dyes at lower temperature than is the case with wool. The point at which the ionic is formed is the terminal amino groups of nylon. The goods are entered cold and the dye bath is brought to the boil and dyeing continued at this temperature for ¾ to 1 hour. or in liquor containing 2% pyridine. and dyeing is usually commenced at 40ºC and the temperature is not allowed to rise above 85ºC. continued boiling in the same liquor is often effective. Classification of Dyes and its application . When sufficient color has been removed by any of these compounds the wool is rinsed and redeye. c) If treatment with Glauber‟s salt is not successful. may be substituted for the formic acid or. on account of their good migrating properties. Non-ionic leveling agent. 1 to 3% of ammonium acetate may be used. Theory of Dyeing. and this can be exhausted again by cautious addition of acid or. more of the color can be stripped by boiling with 0. how ever be borne in mind that wool felts if it so boiled form too long. 1 to 3% acetic acid (80%). either alone or mixed with cationic products.5% ammonia. 3. b) Boiling in fresh liquor with 20% of Glauber‟s salt will strip some of the color. and the addition of Glauber‟s salt is omitted because it has no beneficial effect. non-ionic mixture such as Tine gal W or Lyogen SMK. Sulfuric acid damages the silk. The application of acid dyes to nylon also results in ionic bonds or salt links between the dye molecules and the polymer. It must.5. 3. Glauber‟s salt is not suitable for use with silk as it diminishes its luster. Stripping / leveling uneven Dyeing of Acid Dyes a) With the molecularly – dispersed acid dyes.9. alternatively. d) Another method is to boil the unevenly-dyed material with 3 to 5% of a cationic. Application of Acid dyes on silk Although silk has an affinity for acid dyes the colors tend to be less fast than on wool. ammonium salt. With these acid dyes exhaustion takes place well with weaker acid.9. Dyeing & Printing 27 nylon.6. Acid used should be acetic acid. Dyes.

Basic dyes do not have affinity for cellulosic fibres like cotton. Dyeing & Printing 28 3.10. and acrylic and mod-acrylic fibres. 9. 10. Special cationic dyes are available for dyeing acrylic fibres. Basic dyes are also called cationic dyes because in solution the basic dye molecule ionizes. 13. Basic dyes are also used for making inks. Classification of Dyes and its application . But.2. But basic dyestuffs are used in after treating cotton or other materials dyed with direct colors. An important property of basic dyes is that they will combine with tannic acid to form an insoluble compound provided mineral acid is absent. 11.10. The wet fastness of the basic dyes on protein fibres can also be improved by back tanning. The basic dyestuff will combine with direct or sulphur or some acid dyestuffs. The outstanding characteristics of the basic are brilliance and intensity of their colors. 6. 2. 15. silk. 3. Sufficient boiling water is then added with constant stirring to dissolve Dyes. Basic Dyes Basic dyes are called so since they are salts of organic bases. causing its colored component to become an action of positively charged radical. 8.10. 12. return to their original color by oxidizing agents or even by exposure to air. This consists of after treating the dyed material with tannic acid in order to form the insoluble complex thereby reducing the tendency to migrate. Basic dyes are readily soluble in alcohol or mentholated spirit. Theory of Dyeing. The use of basic dyes on cotton involves the troublesome process of mandating with tannic acid. The addition of glacial acetic acid helps to dissolve the basic dye quickly in water. Properties of Basic Dyes 1. So they cannot be used together in the same bath. The basic dyes are poor fastness to light and vary with regard to washing fastness from poor to moderate. 3. 4. When treated with a reducing agent most of the basic dyes get converted into their colors less leuco compounds. The dyestuff is first made into a paste with about its own weight of 30% acetic acid. 14. 7. bright shades are demanded on cotton which can only be obtained with them. typewriter ribbons and dyeing leather 3. The bright colors achieved from basic dyes do not usually occur with other dye classes. Basic dyes are used for dyeing wool. Here the direct dyestuff acts as mordant.1. Basic dyes can be removed from the material by boiling it with dilute acetic acid or hydrochloric acid. sometimes. Many of the basic dyes are sparingly soluble in water. Basic dyes are used for woolen goods when particularly bright shades are required which cannot be obtained with an acid dyes. Preparation of Dye Solution: Owing to the relative insolubility special precautions are necessary when dissolving basic dyes. 5.

as will be referred to latter. They exhaust better in the presence of electrolytes and vary considerably with regard to the temperature at which maximum exhaustion takes place. Their wet fastness is good and the light-fastness-satisfactory. their dyeing properties resemble in any respects those of the direct dyes. after being strained through a filter is added. They therefore provide a cheap method of dyeing cellulosic fibres with a wet-fastness better than the direct dyes.11. the after-treatments which improve the fastness of these dyes. which have previously been scoured. The dye bath temperature is slowly raised to the boil and dyeing is continued for ½ to ¾ hour. 3. They are decomposed with acids usually with the liberation of hydrogen sulphate and the Dyes. The excess of hydrogen ions in the liquor counter acts the attracting of the electro negative sites in the fibre and slows down the rate of absorption. the dye solution. but they will withstand the conditions in an acid dye bath and can be incorporated in woolen goods intended for subsequent dyeing. General Properties of Sulphur Dyes The sulphur dyes are cheap and easy to apply. In their reduced state.11.10. and the goods. Theory of Dyeing.3. Dyeing: The dye bath is made up containing 1 to 3 % of 40% acetic on the weight of the wool. however. They are usually insoluble in water but dissolve in a solution of sodium sulphate to which sodium carbonate may or may not be added.1. (Cotton. are entered. the addition of a small amount alkali may be necessary towards the end of the dyeing to complete exhaustion. The sulphur dyes have poor fastness to chlorine and are no use for effect in merchandise which must be bleached with hypochlorite. The fibres most readily colored with sulphur dyes are the natural and man-made cellulosic fibres. Viscose rayon) The Characteristics feature of the dyes of this class is that they all contain sulphur linkages within their molecules. 3. Classification of Dyes and its application . Sulphur Dyes These dyes are so called because they contain sulphur atoms in their molecules. Dyeing & Printing 29 the dye. The sodium sulphate acts a reducing agent severing the sulphur linkage and breaking down the molecules into simpler components which are soluble in water and substantive towards cellulose. The Acetic acid acts as a retarding agent. The basic dyes have such a great affinity for wool fibres the presence of a retarding agent is often desirable. hydro-extracted and dried. When acid has been used. 3. After dyeing the goods are rinsed.

Generally these dyes are insoluble in water. for the purpose of dyeing. 4.12. The application of heat to the dye liquor increase the energy of the dye molecules and accelerate the dyeing of the textile fibre.12. 2. and which. Dyeing & Printing 30 precipitation of insoluble decomposition products. Heating the dye liquor swells the fibre to some extent and assists the dye to penetrate the fibre polymer system resulting in the dye being located in the amorphous Dyes. 3. dispersed in the dye bath by means of dispersing agents. Classification of Dyes and its application . The sulphur dyes resemble the vat dyes in that they are insoluble in water but reduce to a soluble form. 3.e. electric or other fibres. Dyeing with Disperse Dyes Disperse dyes are applied from an aqueous dispersion. Disperse dyes have the ability to undergo sublimation: i. The fibres most readily colored by disperse dyes are the acetate fibres. However they are soluble in hot water to some extent. 3. acrylic and nylon.e. 5. however. referred to as gas-fading. Some of the disperse dyes are. Sodium sulphate is the reducing agent commonly used but in some cases sodium hydro sulphate may be substituted making it possible to dye selected vat and sulphur dyes together. evidenced by the insolubility of disperse dyes. the solubility increasing with temperature. polyester. i. such as may arise from gas. Textile materials which have been colored with disperse dyes have a fair to good light-fastness. eventually migrate to the fibre and form a solid solution in it. suffering serious discoloration. Theory of Dyeing. 6. they can be vaporized without a significant change in their color.1. sensitive to nitrogenous fumes.12. light-fastness or wash-fastness. A feature of disperse dye molecules is their lack of polar groups. On exposure to air or when acted upon by mild oxidizing agents. not form solution. 7. Disperse Dyes These dyes derive their name from the fact that they are insoluble in water and are. Textile materials colored with disperse dyes have a moderate to good wash- fastness. having a greater affinity for the organic fibre than for the water of the dye bath. which readily converts to the accompanied by an alteration of color. General Properties of Disperse Dyes 1.2. 3. a part of the sulphur is oxidized to sulphuric acid.

Two rollers are fitted above the vessel called as cloth rollers. Jigger Dyeing Machine Jigger dyeing machine is the most commonly used for dyeing all kinds of cotton fabric. Classification of Dyes and its application . One is open jigger dyeing machine and other is closed jigger dyeing machine.1. INTRODUCTION TO DIFFERENT DYEING MACHINES There are several dyeing machines used for dyeing of fibre. Theory of Dyeing. the dye molecules are held by hydrogen bonds and Vander walls forces. (Beam Dyeing Machine) 4. 4. This result. There are mainly two types of jigger dyeing machine. When all the cloth Dyes.0. In order to obtain medium to dark shades. Dyeing & Printing 31 regions of the fibre.e. Some of the important of them are (1) Jigger Dyeing Machine (2) Winch Dyeing Machine (3) Jet Dyeing Machine (4) Padding Mangle (5) Package Dyeing Machine (6) High Pressure High Temperature Dyeing Machine. fabric and garments. yarn. The open jigger dyeing machine is shown in the figure. Out of these two rollers one roller is driven by a motor which is called take up roller and the other roller from which the cloth is delivered is called let off roller. and further more the chain molecules are very reluctant to change their positions i. Once within the fibre polymer system. These rollers are rotated by power. polyester fibre is dyed using carries or by using high temperature dyeing techniques. This machine consists of V shaped stainless steel vessel. the dyestuff particles do not penetrate to the fibre easily and in fact the process is so slow that it takes a matter of days or even weeks to dye a Terelene fibre at a dyeing temperate of 85ºC. to close their orientation. Polyester fibres are extremely crystalline and hydrophobic. lack of reactive groups and much more closely packed polymer chains and there are no gaps which molecule are very close to change their position to suitably accommodate they dyestuff molecule. It is difficult to obtain medium or dark shades even by dyeing at the boil.

the take up becomes let off roller. it is called as one end or one turn. Initially. The capacity of the jigger is 100 to 150 gallons.1. After one end is taken. The cloth can be dyed in open width form of full width form. Theory of Dyeing. a large length of (50 kg) cloth is wound on the let off roller and take up roller is then driven by the power. 2. In the present scenario. closed types of jiggers are used. The material to liquor ratio is 1:3 (or) 1:4 which saves considerable amount of chemical cost and steam cost. This type of jigger is very important for dyeing vat. The main advantage is to prevent heat loss and chemical loses by evaporation. These backward and forward movements of cloth through the dye liquor absorb more and more dye. Sulphur etc. 4. In the modern jigger. The dye liquor should be added in batch wise. Dyes. in order to get even shade on the cloth. Dyeing & Printing 32 is passed from the let off roller to the take up roller. The number of ends or turns depends upon the type of the fabric and also the percentage of the shade. knitted fabrics. silk etc are not dyed in jigger dyeing machine. Advantages of Jigger Dyeing Machine 1. Classification of Dyes and its application .1. 4.1. When dyeing all the dye liquor should not be added at one time. Disadvantages of Jigger Dyeing Machine It exerts lot of tension in the warp direction and because of this normally woolen. automatic devices are fitted along with the timing switch by using reversing will take place automatically.2. Chemical and heat loses are less when compared to winch dyeing machine 3.

Embroidery fabrics may be dyed in winch dyeing machine without affecting the embroidery designs. Dyes. to avoid entanglements. It has a perforated portion dividing the machine in to two compartments. Many such loops run together separately by a series of pegs. water inlet are provided in small compartment. After dyeing is over the pieces are separated. voile cloth etc. Winch Dyeing Machine Winch dyeing machine is normally used for dyeing light weight fabrics like knitted fabrics as well as woven. Theory of Dyeing. Dyeing & Printing 33 4. During working. After the sufficient amount of cloth is fed the ends are stitched and making a long continuous loop formation. steam pipe. The loops are drawn in and out of the bath by rotating the winch. Dyeing is carried out in the larger compartment.2. The machine consists of elliptical winch (or) circular winch which is driven by hand or motor. Now-a-days closed type of winch is also used to prevent the temperature loss and pressure loss.2. 4. One is small and the other one is bigger in size. Elliptical winches are most widely used. Dye. one end of the fabric is passed over the guide rollers and winch and under the dye liquor and passed in between the pegs. The winch dyeing machine is different in construction from the jigger.liquor pipe. can be dyed successfully in winch dyeing machine without exerting any tension. Classification of Dyes and its application .1. Advantages Thin and light weight fabrics like knitted fabrics. The winch is made up of stainless steel. silk etc.

Naphthol etc. 4. The supply of the dye-liquor is controlled automatically to maintain a constant level. we will get even dyeing only when retarding / leveling agent is added to the dye liquor. The trough is fitted with dye-liquor and the cloth passes through the dye solution. Therefore the heat and the additional chemicals are provided more when compared to jigger. To reduce the material to liquor ratio. The rollers are arranged one above the other. three or even four mangles.3. The padding mangles may also be used for desizing purposes. The padding mangle consists of two ebonite rollers and one rubber covered roller. Three bowl padding mangle are usually prepared for dyeing of cloth. The pressure on the padding mangle is applied by hydraulic or pneumatic system which enables heavier and uniform pressure.2. Classification of Dyes and its application . Padding Mangle Continuous dyeing methods depend upon the impregnation with the padding mangles. 1:30 or 1:40. Dyeing & Printing 34 4. The speed is 200 yards/minute. which is heated by steam. Dyes. After that the cloth is passed between the ebonite and rubber covered roller to give uniform pressure throughout the fabric. low capacity troughs are generally used with the different shapes. The padding mangles are equipped with two. Disadvantages Fabrics are dyed in rope form. Sulphur. so there are more chances for uneven dyeing.e. Theory of Dyeing. It is used for dyeing vat. The solution used in the trough is divided in two equal portions to avoid uneven dyeing. Therefore. Heat and chemical losses are more because of the wider open tank. The material to liquor ratio is very high i. Some of the machines are provided with jacket troughs for maintaining the temperature of pad liquor. The pressure can be altered depends upon the type of the fabric. An over head tank is connected to the mangle for feeding the stock solution through the perforated pipe.2.

4. Classification of Dyes and its application . Metering wheel is also fixed on winch by external electronic unit. Dyes.1. 4. Then the dye bath is cooled down.4. Its purpose is to record the speed of the fabric. the dye tank contains disperse dye. dispersing agent. In this machine. after the material is taken out. Disadvantages  Cloth is dyed in rope form  Risk of entanglement  Chance for crease formation.4.2. Advantages  Dyeing time is short compared to beam dyeing. A simple device is also fixed to note the shade under working. Theory of Dyeing. Here the material to be dyed will be loaded and the winch is rotated. Dyeing & Printing 35 4. 4. pressure gauge is also fixed in the side of the machine to note the temperature and pressure under working. leveling agent and acetic acid. Again the dye liquor reaches the heat exchanger and the operation is repeated for 20 to 30 minutes at 135o C. so that the material is also rotated. In this machine the cloth is dyed in rope form which is the main disadvantage of the machine. The solution will be filtered and reaches the tubular chamber. The solution is filled up in the dye tank and it reaches the heat exchanger where the solution will be heated which then passed on to the centrifugal pump and then to the filter chamber.  Material to liquor ratio is 1:5 (or) 1:6  Production is high compared to beam dyeing machine. Jet Dyeing Machine This is the most modern machine used for the dyeing of polyester using disperse dyes. The thermometer.

This helps in forcing the dye liquor through the package.6. Package Dyeing Machine A series of technical developments in the recent years has resulted into package dyeing being developed into a highly sophisticated as well as an economic process. Beam Dyeing Machine The beam dyeing machine operates with the same principle as that of package dyeing machine. As a result package dyeing machine has evolved into a very sophisticated apparatus.  Machinery totally enclosed resulting in good working conditions at the dye-house. It offers a number of advantages.  Low liquor ratios. Classification of Dyes and its application . Once full exhaustion is brought about. that leads to level application of dyes.5.5. The term package dyeing usually denotes for dyeing of yarn that has been wound on perforated cores.  High temperature dyeing a possibility.1. The dye flows through to the yarn package with the help of the deliberate perforations in the tube package. effluent and energy. the carrier of coloured yarn is consequently removed from the vessel. fabric or yarn in open width is rolled on to a perforated beam. the dye liquor goes on circulating throughout the vessel and tank. 4. With the start of dyeing cycle. 4. giving savings in water.  Uniform and High rates of liquor circulation. The beam then subsequently slid into a vessel that is closed and pressurized. A large centrifuge removes excess water from the packages. This happens till all the dye is used up or fully exhausted.  Open to large batches. Dyeing & Printing 36 4. in the process leading to reproducible dyeing‟s.  Compatible to automatic control. It can be effectively used to dye yarn or fabric. The process works like this. Finally the yarn is dried using an infra red drying oven.  Considerable reduction in yarn handling. The colour impregnates the Dyes. Latest design Package Dyeing machines are amenable to accurate control and automation. Theory of Dyeing. These features would likely to lead to increases in the application of package dyeing. Advantages of Package Dyeing machine Package dyeing methodologies have been subjected to intensive research and development. The image shows the process working of a Package dyeing machine.

6. and is wound on to a perforated beam. Features of Beam Dyeing Machine  Able to adjust water level in accordance to fabric volume. Usually the beam machines are designed in such a manner so as to hold a single beam or multiple beams in a batch. It also ensures total control of dimensions of the roll of fabric. Theory of Dyeing. Classification of Dyes and its application . 4. 4.2.  The fabric is not allowed to do any movement during the process of dyeing. Dyeing & Printing 37 fabric as the dye liquor is allowed to go on circulating through the perforations in the beam.1. Advantages of Beam Dyeing machine  The fabric is put under controlled tension. Dyes.6.  Optimized circulation system along with high performance pumps. As shown in the figure. there is no movement of the fabric as the hydrostatic pressure of the pump forces the dye liquor through the fabric roll.  Even dyeing and superior dyeing quality. This actually means that there is no application of mechanical action on to the fabric. This results in elimination of creases from the fabric.