MANUAL ON TRANSMISSION LINE TOWERS (Revised

)

CHAPTER-II

CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSMISSION LINES

TECHNICAL REPORT NO.9

Central Board of Irrigation and Power Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri

New Delhi-1 10021

New Delhi

November 1994

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APPENDIX IV

Process Flow Chart for Fabrication of Tower

Detail drawing

Floor layout and shop drawing

Material procurement

Proto manufacture

Assembly of tower

Mass fabrication

Proto test and approval

Marking

Galvanising

Bundling

Despatch

58

CONTENTS

Page No.
Scope .......... 1
11.1 Survey .......... 1
11.2 Manpower, Tools and Plants and
Transport Facilities .......... 1
11.3 Environmental Consideration .......... 3
11.4 Statutory Regulation for Crossing
of Roads, Power Lines, Telecommuni-
cation Lines, Railway Tracks, etc. .......... 4
11.5 Survey .......... 4
11.6 Foundations .......... 10
11.7 Erection of Super Structure and :(
Fixing of Tower Accessories ••.....••• 16
11.8 Earthing .......... 17
11.9 Stringing of Conductors .......... 19
11.10 Hot-Line Stringing of E.H.V. Lines .......... 24
11.11 Protection of Tower Footings .......... 26
11.12 Testing and Commissioning .......... 26
11.13 References .......... 26
Annexures ......•... 27-54 (_

I

CHAPTER-XI

CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSl'vIISSION LINES

A. SCOPE

This chapter will cover the environmental consideration. urvey, Excavation. Stub-setting and Concreting, Erection of 'T",wers, Stringing of Conductor for the Construction of EHV Transmission Lines.

H.1 SURVEY

(i) Reconnaissance Survey

(ii) Alignment Survey

"ii) Detailed Survey

It would also cover soil investigation of representative ~;tes along the route of the line to establish the distribution of .nmdations in different types of soils.

1 1.1.1 Erection of Transmission Line

Erection of transmition line covers Check Survey, Exca - . tion, Setting of S tubs, Casting of Foundations. Erection of Towers, Stringing of Conductors and Groundwire, Final "necking and Commissioning.

1.1.2 MANPOWER, TOOLS AND PLANTS AND TRANSPORT'F ACILITIES

.. .2.1 Survey'

Average output per month per gang consisting of about 10 -rsons will be:

(i) (ii) <Iii)

Alignment Survey Detailed Survey Check Survey

15km 20km 20km

or or

Wherever topographical survey is to be carried out the tput will be less and will depend on the quantum of work.

.2.1.1 Tools required/or Survey Gang
1. Theodolite with stand 1 No
2. Dumpy level with stand 1 No
3. Ranging rod 5 Nos
4. Levelling staff 2 Nos
5. Engineers chain 30m 1 No
20m 1 No
6. Steel Tape 30m 1 No
15 m 1 No
7. Survey umbrella 1 No
8. Chain pins 30 Nos ".

9. Spades, Knives and axes for clearing the bushes and trees

10. Tents. buckets, water drums, camping cots, tables, chairs, and petrornax etc

11.2.1.2 Transport required/or Survey Gang

As per

requirement As per req uirernent

Jeep with trailor

1 No

11.2.2 Excavation Stub-setting and Concreting

Average output per gang consisting of about 85 persons per month will be

Excavation

400-500 rn? Normal soil

60 m3 Soft rock + 180 rn? Normal soil 150 m3 Soft rock

Output of Hand rock will depend on situation

Stub-setting & Concreting

11.22.1 Tools and Plants required for Excavation. Stubsetting and Concreting Gang

1. Stub-setting Templates As per

requirement
2. Stub-setting Jacks -do-
3. Form boxes/Chimneys -do-
4. Mixer machine - Diesel engine driven 1 No
- Hand driven 2 Nos
5. Needle vibrator 1 No
6. Dewatering pump 2 Nos
7 . Air compressor for drilling holes in rock 1 No
8. High carbon drilling rods for Asper
drilling holes in rock requirement
9 . . Exploder 1 No
10. Water tanker trailor 1 No
11. Theodolite with stand 1 No
12. Ranging rod 3 Nos
13. Dumpy level with stand. 1 No
14. Levelling staff 1 No
15. Survey umbrella 1 No
16. Concrete cube mould 6 Nos
17. Wooden shuttering & poles Asper
requirement 2
------_.
18. Mixing sheets 12 Nos
19. Measuring box 6 Nos
20. Metal screen -40 mm mesh 1 No
-20 mm mesh 1 No
- 12.5 mm mesh 1 No
21. Sand Screen - 4.75 mm mesh 1 No
22. o Empty barrel (200 litres capacity) 6 Nos
23. Steel/Aluminium/Wooden ladder
(3.5 m length) 5 Nos
24. 30 m metallic tape 1 No
25. 30 m steel tape 1 No
26. Engineers' spirit level I 2 Nos
27. Steel piano wire/thread 50 m
28. Crow bar 20 Nos
29. Pikaxe 12 Nos
30. Spade 25 Nos
31. Shovel 8 Nos
32. Gamelas 30 Nos
33. Buckets 12Nos
34. Iron rammer (4.5 kg) 5 Nos
35. Masonry trowel 6 Nos
36. Manila rope -(38 mm dia) 150 m
-(12 mm dia) 30 m
37. Pocking rod (16 mm dia) -3 m length 2 Nos
- 1.5 m length 2 Nos
38. Blasting materials. binding wire Asper requirement

39. Hammer. Tommy bar. plumb bob. (0.45 kg)

Hook. (12 mm dia) spanners (both ring As per

and flat) etc. requirement

40. Tents. buckets. water drums. camping ~ per

cots. tables and chairs. petromax etc. requirement

11.2.2.2 Transport required for Stub-setting &:

Concreting Gang

1. Truck 1 No (For transportation of metal and sand from

source. cement. reinforcement steel and other materials from site stores)

2. Tractor with trailor

3. Motor Cycle

1 No 1No

11.2.3 Erection of Tower by Built up Method

Average output per gang consisting of about 50 persons per month will be - 80 mt

1123.1 Tools Required for Tower Erection Gang

1. Ginpole/Derric Pole - 75/100 mm

Construction of Transmission Lines

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0,

dia and of length - 8.5-9 m 2NOI
2. Polypropylene rope -25 mmdia m
-19 mm dia 1000m
. 3. Single sheave pulley - closed type 8 Nos
- Open type 4 Nos
4. Crow bars (25 mm dia and 1.8 m length) 16Nos
5. Spanners (both ring and flat) hammers, Asper
slings (16 mm dia and 1 m length) requirement
hooks. (12 mm dia) 'D' shackle,
tommy-bars 6. Tents, buckets, water drums, camping cots, tables: chairs and petromax etc.

Asper requirement

11.2.3.2 Transport required for Tower Erection Gang

1. Truck 1/2 No

2. Tractor with Tailor

3. Motor Cycle

11.2.4 Stringing of Conductor

1 No 1No

Average output per gang consisting of about 200 persons per month will be Tension Stringing method - Machine stringing

(i) for 400 kV Single Circuit

(ii) for 400 kV Double Circuit

-15km

(iii)

-8km

-SkIn

for ± 500 kV HVDC Multi-Circuit

Requirement of manpower and average output per gang for carrying out various types of transmission lines by manual method is furnished hereunder

Sl Description Manpower Average Output
No of line (Nos) per month (km)
1. .96 kV Single Circuit 75 30
2. .6:.6 kV Double Circuit 75 15
3. 132 kV Single Circuit 100 30
4. 132 tV Double Circuit 100 15
5. 220 leV Single Circuit 125 30.
6. 220 kV Double Circuit 125 .15
7. 400 kV Single Circuit 225 15
8. 400 kV Double Circuit 225 8 11.2.4.1 Tools and Plants required for Stringing Gang for

Tension/Manual Stringing

1. TSE sets (Tensionar & Puller of 8/10t capacity) 1 Set

2. Running block for conductor ~OO Nos

3. 0 Running block for earthwire 60 Nos

4. Head board 2 Nos

23. Conductor lifting tackle 4 Sets

24. Winch - motorised/manual - 10 t Capacity 4 Nos

25. Comeaiong clamp for conductor

(bolted type/automatic) 50/20 Nos

26. Comeaiong clamp for earthwire

(bolted type/automatic)

27. Tirfor (5 t capacity)

28. Aerial (chair for conductor)

29. Aerial trolly

30. Tum buckle - lOt

Construction oj Transmission Lines

.,,;JiI ------- --

5. Pilot WIre each of 800 m length

6. Pilot wire joint

7. Ground roller for Tension/Manual Stringing

8. Wire mesh pulling grip (one end open) of required dia for conductor

9. Wire mesh pulling grip (one end open) of required dia for earthwire

10. Wire mesh pulling grip (double end open) of required size for conductor

11. Articulated joint - Heavy duty (20 t)

- Medium duty (10 t)

- Light duty (5 t)

12. Drum mounting jack for conductor drum of lOt capacity

13. Tum table (5 t capacity)

14. Anchor plate (1.5 m x 1.0 x 8 mm) with IS Nos. Anchor pins

(45 mm dia and 850 mm long)

15. Hydraulic compressor machine - 100 t capacity with die sets

16. Travelling ground

17. Dynamometer -10 t - 2 t

18. Pilot wire reel stand

19. Four sheave pulley with 12 mm dia 300 m length wire .rope

20. Four sheave pulley with 9 mm dia and 300 m length wire rope

21. Four sheave pulley with 12 mm dia and 150 m length wire rope

22. Equiliser pulley (10 t capacity)

- 3t

...

31. Tension/Sag plate (for tensioning purpose)

32. Sag board

33. Marking roller

34. Mismatch roller

35. Joint protector

10Nos 12 Nos

30/100 Nos

6 Nos

2 Nos.

4 Nos 10 Nos 10 Nos 5 Nos

4 Sets 2 Nos

10 Sets

8 Nos

12 Sets 4 Nos 2 Nos 4 Nos

6 Sets

2 Sets

4 Sets 16 Nos

15/10 Nos

6 Nos

6 Nos

4 Nos 16 Nos

6 Nos 6 Nos 8 Nos 4 Nos 2 Nos 6 Nos

3

36. Walkie talkie set

37. Theodolite with stand

38. Thermometer

39. Survey umbrella

40. Hydraulic wire cutter

41. Binocular

42. Flag (red & green)

43. Crow bar (1.8 m length)

44. Nail pullar

45. Wire rope - (19 mm dia) - (16 mm dia)

- (14 mm dia)

46. Polypropylene rope - (25 mm dia) - (19 mm dia)

47. '0' - Shackle - 190 mm long - 150 mm long

- 100 mm long

48. Bulldog clamp - 100 mm long

49. Hammers, spanners, (both flat and ring)

round files, flat files screw drivers, cutting pliers, steel and metallic tapes, hacksaw frame and

blades, deadments, scafolding, slings etc. As per

requirement

50. Tents, buckets, water drums, ~ping cots, As per

table, chair, petromax etc. requirement

112.4.2 Transport required for Stringing

4 Nos 1 No

3 Nos

1 Nos

2 Nos 3 Nos 30 Nos 10 Nos

6 Nos 1000 m

150 m 900m

500 m

500 m

40 Nos 125 Nos 125 Nos 35 Nos

Tension stringing Manual stringing
1. Truck 4 Nos 4 Nos
2. 75 h.p. Tractor 2 Nos INo
3. 35 h.pJ45 h.p. Tractor 5 Nos 6 Nos
and trailors
4. Jeep 2 Nos 2 Nos
5. Motor Cycle 1 No 1 No 11.3

ENVIRONMENT AL CONSIDERATION

The route of transmission line should be aligned in such a way as fa minimise damages to crops and cutting of trees. Special care should be taken to avoid routing of transmission line through lands particularly in Reserved/Protected forests. Even ifline length increases, effons should be made to keep the line of forests.

If forest land cannot be avoided, standard extensions should be provided minimise cutting of trees by ensuring adequate ground clearances.

The line also should be kept away from villages, bulk storage oil tanks, oil or pipe lines, airports, petrol pumps, cluster of hutments, buildings containing inflammable materials such as explosives, cotton godowns. factories, aerodromes Helipads etc.

Construction of Transmission Lines

Important requirement for Choice 01' Route

! transmission line connects two points which may be vel stations, power station and another sub-station or -stations. The line route has to be shortest connecting points. However, it is important that due weightage be 'hile selecting the route to the accessibility of the line truction as well as for maintenance or its total life span. It deviation increasing the route length marginally, the xild be sited in areas which are not inaccessible. It )C possible to transport the materials and tools quickly of breakdowns. Wherever roads are existing the line )C approachable from such roads. It should avoid as far ble waterlogged areas or areas prone to flooding for iods, The transmission line route should avoid inhabited iving sufficient margin for growth of villages. It should ; far as possible the areas where intensive cultivation is .s far as possible crossing of orchards and gardens )C avoided. The additional costs to be incurred in crop sation during construction and delay in attending to owns during operation and maintenance should be y weighed against increase in the route length as also ~ in angle towers. It should be possible for the men 19 the line to be able to reach every location, careful on of the towers, insulators and the accessories without :ruction from the land owners. With intensive irrigation in areas it may be cheaper to have slight deviation, ian having litigation delaying the project apart from the be incurred in making payment for compensation. , wooded areas should be avoided. Prior consultations oe held with the concerned Departments.

th these general remarks the various considerations for ice of route and the construction of the line are dis.n detail in the following paras.

;TATUTORY REGULATION FOR CROSSING )F ROADS, POWER LINES, TELECOMM· JNICATION LINES, RAILWAY TRACKS ETC

Road Crossing

all map road crossings, including National Highbe towers shall be fitted with double suspension or insulator strings depending on the type of towers used.

Power Line Crossing

rere a line is to cross over another line of the same or lower voltage, suspension/tension towers with stan.tensions shall be used. Wherever the line to be coni is crossing another important line for which shut; difficult. suspension towers with required extensions oination with dead end towers shall be used.

Telecommunication Line Crossing

e angle of crossing shall be as near 90 degrees as e. However, deviation to the extent of 30 degrees may iitted under exceptionally difficult situations. When the

angle of crossing is below 60 degrees, the matter shall be referred to the authority incharge of the telecommunication system. Also in the crossing span, power line support shall be as near the telecommunication line as possible to obtain increased vertical clearance between the wires. The crossing shall be in accordance with the code of practice for crossing between power and telecommunication lines.

11.4.4 Railway Crossing

For Railway Crossing, towers shall be Angle/dead end type and railway crossing construction shall conform to the regulations for Electrical Line Crossings with Railway Tracks issued by the Ministry of Railways from time to time.

11.4.5 River Crossing

In case of major river crossing, LOwers shall be of suspension type using double suspension strings and the anchor towers on either side of the main river crossing shall be dead end type. Clearance required by the navigation Authority shah be provided in case of navigable rivers. For non-navigable rivers, clearance shall be reckoned with respect to highest flood level (HFL).

11.4.6 Other Provisions

11.4.6.1 The transmission line in the vicinity of Aerodrome shall meet the requirement laid down by the Director General, Civil Aviation, Government of India.

11.4.6.2 Requisite vertical and horizontal clearance to ad-

jacent structures shall be maintained as per I.E. Rules.

11.4.6.3 The electrical clearance required for different kinds

of crossing are given in Annexure-' A' .

l

11.5 SURVEY

The survey of high voltage transmission lines must be carried out accurately and expeditiously. A mistake in the field or subsequent office work: may cause unnecessary expenditure and inconvenience.

It is, therefore, essential that every care should be taken in setting out, levelling and ploning the profile of the route. The care and fore-thought given at the first stage of surveying goes a long way in achieving economy and successful successive operational stages.

The survey of the transmission line till now is being carried out in India by conventional methods using only the Topo sheets and instruments like vernier theodolite, dumpy level, engineers' chains or measuring tapes, for selecting the

route and further field works. -

However, in advanced <countries to avoid time over run and cost over run, modem survey instruments and techniques, like Satellite Doppler Techniques, are used for the construction of transmission lines as discussed later in this Chapter.

11.5.1 The work of surveying as applied to transmission lines can be divided into the following:

Construction of Transmission Lines

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1. Rcconnaisance and route alignment survey

2. Detailed survey

3. Tower spotting

4. Check survey

115.1.1 Reconnaissance and ROUle Alignment Survey

A provisional route of transmission line is initially ploucd -m survey maps and a reconnaissance walkover survey is carried out, This is essential to fix up angle tower positions tentatively since many of the physical features on the ground llay not be clearly available in the survey map due to developments that might have taken place subsequent to the preparation of the maps.

The reconnaissance survey is essential to carry out to -:ollect the first hand account of various important field data required for transmission line works.

The general consideration to be kept in view while establishing the preliminary route at the time of reconnaisance survey are as under:

1. The route should be as short and as straight as possible.

2. It is advantageous to lay the line near to or along roadway. The line should be approachable as far as possible.

3. The number of angle towers should be minimum and within these. the number of heavier angle towers shall be as small as possible.

4. Cust of securing and clearing right of way (ROW). making access roads and time required for these works should be minimum.

5. Corridor through which line is taken should have sufficient space to take care of future load developments.

6. Crossing with permanent objects. such as railway lines and roads should be minimum and preferably at right angles (reference shall be made to the appropriate Railway regulations and Railway electrification rules as well as Civil Authorities for protection to be provided for railway and road crossings respectively. Guarding may not be necessary if fast acting protccti ve devices are provided).

7. In case of hilly terrain having sharp rises and falls in the ground profiles. it is necessary to conduct detailed survey and locate the tower positions. The proposition should be most economical and safe.

The following areas should be avoided as far as possible while selecting route:

1. Marshy areas. low lying lands. river beds. earth slip zones etc. involving risk to stability of foundation.

2. Areas subject to floods. gushing nalas during rainy seasons. tanks. ponds. lakes. snow blizzards. hurricanes or similar extreme climatic conditions and natural hazards.

3. Areas which involve risk to human life. damage to public and private properties. religious places. civil and defence installations. industries. aerodromes and their approach and take off funnels habitation of important crops. good farming areas. uneven terrain. quarry sites or underground mines. gardens and plantations.

4. Inaccessible areas where approach roads are not possible.

5. Areas which will create problems of right of way and way leaves.

6. Route involving abrupt changes in levels. too many long spans. river or power line crossings or near parallelism to telecommunication lines.

7. Thick forest or areas involving heavy compensatory payments for acquisition of land etc.

8. Buildings containing explosives. bulk storage oil tanks. oil or gas pipe lines. etc .

9. Aerodromes. helipads, etc.

The reconnaissance survey is also essential for collecting the first hand account of various important field data required for transmission line works. which are as under:

1. Major power line crossing details (66 kV and above)

2. Railway crossing details.

3. Major river crossing details.

4. Source of construction materials. viz., metal. sand. water etc .• along the line.

5. Important rail heads for the purpose of receipt of materials.

6. Important villages or stations coming enroute for the purpose of selection of labour camps.

7. Nature of soil strata along the route and the terrain.

8. Availability of labour, their present rate on daily basis or on contract basis.

9. Names of the major towns for the purpose of selection of site offices.

For fixing the final alignment and angle points on the ground as per the reconnaissance survey. route alignment survey shall be carried out with a theodolite. survey chains! measuring tapes/electronic distance measuring instruments.

115.1.2 Detailed Survey

The object of carrying out detailed survey is to prepare longitudinal and cross section profiles on the approved alignment and to prepare the route plan showing details of deviation angles. important objects coming within the right of way.

General Considerations

Work of detailed survey is distinctly done in two stages:

1. Actual field observations taking level readings and calculating distances. level differences. deflection angles. offset distances etc.

Construction of Transmission Lines

2. Plouing of profiles on graphed tracing papers. 5.1.2.1 Field Observation Recording and Calculations

The method of taking level readings for preparation of ngiiudinal and cross section profile can be

1. By chain and dumpy level.

2. By tacheometric survey with theodolite.

First method is very useful in plain areas where chaining fers no problems. This also requires comparatively less illed surveyors.

Tacheometric method offers a great advantage in hilly gions and such other inaccessible places where chaining is {possible. This method needs skilled surveyors having good derstanding of the usc of theodolite.

In this method, both traversing and levelling is done by cans of a tacheometric theodolite (theodolite having stadia )SS hairs fitted in the eye piece). The horizontal and vertical stances are computed by the help of readings of the stadia res taken on the staff held at the reading station. For the eory of this method reference may be made to any standard rveying text-books.

The above two methods are best explained by means of a orked example of filling field books and calculations thereof Annexure- 'B' of this chapter.

5.1.2.2 Plotting of Profiles

From the field book entries route plan and longitudinal ofile, commonly referred to as 'Survey chan' is prepared in e drawing office. These charts are prepared and plotted on 1 m/5 mm/I cm square paper of formed drawing sheets of aphed tracing paper, which are available for this purpose to .cale of 1 :200-vertical; 1 :2000-horizontal. These shall show:

I. The longitudinal profiles along the centre-line of the transmission line route.

2. The cross-section profile wherever appreciable difference in level exists with reference to centre-line level. In such cases the cross-section levels shall be taken at each 50/100 m intervals.

3. Route plan giving details of all objects lying within the right of way.

4. Angle ofline deviation duly marked left (L) or right (R) as the case may be.

Following general considerations apply in the preparation : the survey charts:

1. Objects and their distances along the route within the right of way from centre line, nearby villages, important roads or rivers should be marked on the route profile,

2. Crossing details with any other power or telecommunication lines, roads, railway lines, canals or rivers should be marked as clearly as possible.

3. Readings should be taken and charts should show, levels of roads, canal embankments, maximum water! flood levels, railway top levels, heights of supports! lines being crossed, all trees coming within the clearance zone.

One typical example of Survey Chart/Profile duly plotted with tower locations is shown in Annexure- 'C'.

115.1.3 Tower Spotting

The work of tower spouing is clearly divided into the

following five operations:

1. Sag tension calculations.

2. Preparation of Sag Template.

3. Application of Sag Template to decide optimum tower position on Survey Chan.

4. Preparation of Structure Limitation Charts.

5. Deciding tower type and preparation of Tower Schedule.

115.1.3.1 Sag Tension Calculations

The span length i.e. distance between two adjucent tower locations is fixed at an optimum level by consideration of various factors like line voltage, ground clearance, topography of the area, conductor used, wind, ice and temperature conditions, availability and cost of line materials and over all project economy. A detailed discussion on this aspect is beyond the scope of present study and it will suffice to assume that the optimum span length for the line is fixed by the purchaser. This optimum span is called the "Basic Design Span" and forms the basis of all calculations to develop a suitable tower design for the line.

A conductor suspended freely between two supports takes the shape known geometrically as "catenary" . The dip from the centre point joining the two supponscalled • Sag' being inversely proponional to the tension in the conductor at null point. For all practical purposes the 'catenary' can well be simplified as a 'Parabola' without much error. In case higher accuracy is desired in findingthe sags (panicularlyin caseoflonger spans) a catenary correction can be applied. For detailed discussion on the shape of catenary and parabola, and catenary correction reference may be made to any standard text book on this subject.

Since weight of tower supporting the conductor and consequently its cost depends upon its height, the tower is designed for a minimum height which is equal to-the maximum sag at design span (at the maximum 'anticipated temperature) plus the minimum ground difference required between the charged conductor and ground as per Indian Electricity Rules.

Maximum sag at design span isgovemed by maximum tension that can be given to the conductor which in turn depends upon the external loading of wind, ice and temperature expected as well as the ultimate tensile strength and other

C- -'1s/rUt:lWn Of ir ansmission Lines

7

... .ysical propcrucs 01 the conductor used. Moreover, from tnc r -isidcrations of safety of electric installations, Indian Elecricity Rules demand a minimum factor of safety to be main' ... ned in tensioning the conductor. All these factors are checked L 'ing 'Sag Tension Calculations' which fixed the maximum "f1sion and maximum sag to be taken for design of tower and su mging ofconductor. For detailed calculations reference may

made to Chapter VI "Loading" of this manual.

I 5.1.3.2 Preparation of Sage Template

Sag Template is a very important tool for the surveyor by 'he help of which the position of tower can be decided on the .urvcy Chan so as LO conform to the limitations of specified , lim urn ground clearance required to be maintained as per . ;::. Rules, between the line conductor to ground telephone

lines, buildings, streets. navigable canals, power lines. or any _er object coming under or near the line and the limitation of v+tical Ioad coming on any particular tower.

Sag Template consists of a set of parabolic curves drawn m a transparent paper, a celluloid or acrylic clear sheet duly cut etween the curves to allow surveyor to see through them on ,"a Survey Charts placed underneath it. The set of curves .onsist of:

'Cold or Uplift Curve' -Showing sag of conductor at minimum temperature and still wind.

'Hot' or 'Maximum .Sag Curve<Showing maximum sag of conductor under still air and maximum temperature and still wind including sag tolerances allowed if any or under maximum ice condition.

Ground clearance Curve-Drawn parallel to curve (2) and at a distance equalto specified minimum ground clearance,

Tower footing Curve-For normal tower drawn parallel to curve under (3) above and separated by a distance equal to maximum sag at design span.

A typical' Sag Template' drawing is shown in Annexure-

In erecting an overhead line all the spans cannot be kept xual because of the profile of the ground and proper clearance considerations. A constant tension is calculated which will be "orm throughout the Section. For calculating this uniform ~f1c;ion an equivalent span or ruling span for the whole section

• c the line IS chosen. The ruling span is then calculated by the lU •• owing formula.

LV=~ L+L:3+L/+ ..

LI + L2 + L3 + .

Where LV = ruling span

L1, L2, L3 etc are different spans in a section.

The 'Cold and Hot' Template Curves are ploued as parabol a. to the sam e scale as the surve y c han for the min im um and maximum sags for the ruling span (normal design span being considered as theoretical ruling span).

115.1.3.3 Application of Sag Template for Tower Spotting

The Sag Template is applied to the profile by moving the same horizontally while always ensuring that the vertical axis is held vertical. The structure positions are marked where the tower footing curve cuts the profile. while the ground clearance curve is just clear and above the profile. The ground clearance curve shall not only clear the route centre line profile but also the profile to the left or right of the centre line upto a distance equal to maximum cross area spread on either side . Besides normal ground clearance, the clearance between power conductor and objects like. other power or telecommunication lines. houses. trolly wires. roads. railway tracks. canal embankments etc., shall be checked. Extra clearance can be got either by reducing the span or providing extension to tower body depending on which alternative is most economical. The weight span on either side of a tower can be easily obtained by marking the low points of sags in two adjacent spans and then reading the distance between the two. On inclined spans, null point may be outside the span. This indicates that the total weight of conductor is taken up by the higher tower and the lower tower is being pulled up by a force equal to the weight of conductor between lower support and the null point Should the upward pull of the uphill span becomes greater than downward load of the next adjacent span, actual uplift will be caused and the conductor would tend to swing clear of the lower upwards. For an easy check of whether a tower is under uplift or not, the following method may be adopted. The Template is applied horizontally until the tops of alternate supports coincide with the Cold Curve. If the support is under uplift and has to be extended so as to be above it and in case requisite standard body extensions do not suffice for doing this, a tower which is designed to take uplift will have to be used. However, for the stability of the line it is not desirable to place a tower in such a position where it is always under permanent uplift condition.

The intermediate spans shall be as near as possible to the normaldesign span. In case an individual span becomes too shon on account of undulations in ground profiles one or more line supports of the Section may be extended by inserting standard body extensions.

In other countries longer stretches of transmission lines in straight run are constructed without Section towers. In India Sections towers may be provided after every 15 tangent towers.

To be in line with the construction practices in other countries this aspect needs review in future.

t. ~)

....

~. ~~.~.

Construction of Transmission Lines ~_ t"

115.1.3.4 Structure Limitation Charts/Towers Spotting Data

Since each tower is designed to withstand a definite load only in each of transverse, vertical and longitudinal directions, .' the surveyor must know these limitations for the various types of towers available for use on line. These limits are given in a chart form called 'Structure Limitation Chart' or 'Tower Spotting Data' which is prepared by the design department These charts define the limits for permissible ruling span, weight span, wind span, individual span and the degree of line deviation allowed on each tower. These charts are made for normal towers only. For all special crossings individual tower checking is essential by the design department. Specimen Tower Spotting Data is shown in Annexure- 'E'.

I

115.1.35 Deciding Tower Type and Preparation of

Tower Schedule

In order to decide the tower type for a particular location

following information is required:

Angle of line deviation on tower.

Whether it is to be used as section tower or dead end tower

Sum of adjacent spans Weight span on tower

For proforma Tower schedule, Annexure-'F' may please be referred to.

11.5.13.5.1 Weight Span

The analytical method for calculating weight span is given below.

Distance of "Null point" or "Low point" of conductor from centre of span is given by formula (see Figs. 1 and 2)

T h

x= -x-

w I

Where

X = distance of low point from centre of span in m T = conductor tension in kg.

h = difference between conductor support levels in m w = unit weight of conductor in kg/m, and

I = span length in m

Weigh! Span

For tower A, right hand side only 1

a=- -X

2

For tower B, left hand side only

b= _1_ -x

2

Similarly, weight span for the other side of the towers can be calculated and total weight span obtained.

If the sum A and B calculated for a particular lower is negative, the tower is under 'uplift'.

Maximum weight span is obtained under the conditions of minimum temperature and no wind.

115.1.4 Check Survey

Object-Check survey is carried out for the following (i) To reconfirm the work carried out during detailed survey.

(ii) To locate and peg mark the tower position on ground controlling to the route profiles.

(iii) To give direction pegs.

A. Checking and Line Aligment

In this operation traversing is done from the known fixed angle point (the starting point or any other obligatory point fixed by the purchaser) in the direction of given line deviation and upto a distance equal to the Section length between the starting point and the next angle point, If this next angle point is firmly marked in field by means of a permanent peg mark (or concrete burjee) then the closing error is noted both in longitudinal and transverse directions. If the error is within 1 % of the total Section length it can be ignored and the permanent mark made during detailed survey is taken as correct and necessary correction in the line deviation angle at the starting point is made and noted in the survey chart,

If the second angle point reached is not marked in field by the detailed survey gang (or the mark is missing) the angle point is tentatively fixed at the place reached as per deviation angle at starting point and first Section length and line aligment proceeded to the next deviation angle and next Section length as per Survey Chart. This process is continued till an angle point is reached which is fixed in field either by permanent burjee or by means of identification marks given in Survey Charts. Intermediate checks can also be made by measuring offsets from the line to well defined objects shown in Survey Charts very accurately (but much reliance cannot be given for correct alignment based on offset distance). These objects onl y guide the surveyor in moving as closely on the correct alignment as possible.

Once the known angle point is reached men the closing error is judiciously distributed in all the previous temporary Sections and all angle points are finally marked on ground by means of concrete pillar. Once the angle points are marked, correct angle of deviation and Section length are measured and noted on Survey Charts. Any adjustment in Section length is normally done in the last span of that section or in that span where very marginal clearance was kept at the time of tower spotting (if reduction is required) or where enough clearance is available (if increase is required).

B Sporting and Peg Marking of Tower Locations

Once each angle is fixed in field by the help of permanent

l

Construction of Transmission Lines

concrete bur ices and exact Section length is known, the survcvor proceeds to mark all intermediate tower positions on the straight line joining the :2 ;1I1!-'1e [10tnLS spaced at a distance equal to individual span lcnuih as glvcn on Survey Chart and after t11-: -.unc IS duly adjusted lur the cloxing error,

In order to help in correct alll:lllllg all intermediate towers between :2 angle points. a number 01 aligmcnt pegs are grvcn at the urnc III exact distance measurement of the Section. The more tile number of alignment pegs the better It will he for the readings as instrument errors are less if smaller distances are measured in onc reading. These pegs are also very useful when main LOwer marking burjccs are found missing at a later date (due to mischief of local people or negligence of excavation marking gang).

C. Directional Peg Marking for Excavation Pit Marking

Directional pegs are essential for correct alignment of tower centre line along longitudinal and transverse directions. On suspension tower, pegs are set along the centre line of route alignment and perpendicular to it. On angle towers these are rotated by an angle equal to half the angle of line deviation.

11.5.2 Various survey techniques, depending upon the field conditions, type of towers and available time frame are used in different countries.

Modern methods like Satellite Doppler Technique, Onhophoto Mapping used in many other countries are discussed . in Appendix-r A'.

11.5_, Clearing of Right of Way

Having decided on the choice of the route, it is necessary to sec right of way before commencing construction work. Information of forest land, cultivated fields, orchards ctc.,

1-------1

Low or null point

b ----1 ---+---l/2

t---e

t----I/2

Figure 1: Distance of Null Point or Low Point from Centre Point

!

should be obtained alongwiih a true assessment of problems facing procurements of right of way and way leaves for access and compensation required LO be paid after evaluation of the value of the damaged crops and vegetation with the help of the Revenue Authorities.

The following right of way widths for different voltages of power lines are recommended

SI Transmission Recommended width of
No Voltage Right of way in metres
1. 66 KV IX
,., 110 KV 22
3. 132KV 27
4. 220KY 35
5. 400KY 52
6. ± 500 KY 52
HYDe
7. XOO KY X5
11.5.4 T(;IHanCC The accuracy of survey work depends upon, the accuracy of surveying instruments, the prcvai ling temperatures, the accuracy of placing instruments and their readings. It shall be ensured, however, that no measurement should be missed during surveys and the survey shall be checked where any doubt anscs,

In transmission line surveys where the linear measurernerus are carried out using an Engineers' chain over rough and uneven ground the expected accuracy is between 1 in 200 to 1 in 250.

T

B

h

Low or null point

b

r-1I2'-- -01-- I 12 --1

Figure 2: Distance of Null Point or Low Point from Centre Point

Construction of Transmission Lines

t-
,( i·
.v- ..
( J() 11.6

FOUNDA nONS

are also not very popular in this country.

j f

11.6.1 Type of Foundations

The different types of foundations adopted in practice depending on the soil or combination of various types of soils encountered at various locations, their advantages, usefulness and method of construction are described in details in chapter X. However, the same are brought out for ready reference in a nutshell hereunder.

11.6.1.1 Chimney and Pyramid Type

This is shown in Annexure- 'G' (Figure 1). These are used in normal type dry and cohesive soils having clay percentage of 15 to 30. Form boxes are required to cast this type of foundations. These are generally P.C.C. type foundations.

11.6.1.2 Block Type

This is shown is Annexure- 'G' (Figure 2). These are used in soft rock and hard rock foundations. Proper care has to be taken LO see that the concrete is poured indirect contact wi th the linner walls of the excavated rock.

11.6.1.3 Under Cut Type

This is shown in Annexure- 'G' (Figure 3). Foundations of this type are very useful in non-cohesive type of soils like hard murrum, Soft murrum, fissured rock, clincker mixed soil. However, the latest trend is to cast these foundations in normal dry soil too because of certain advantages.

11.6.1.4 Spread Footing Type

This is shown in Annexure-Xi' (Figures 4 & 5). These foundations can be either step type or chamfered type. These are generally used in wet submerged normal and submerged black cotton soils.

11.6.1.5 Anchor Rod Type

This is shown in Annexure- 'G' (Figure 6). These foundations are suitable for hard rock strata. The advantage of this type is the reduced depth of foundation.

11.6.1.6 Auger Typelllnder Reamed Type

This is shown in Annexure- 'G' (Figure 7). These foundations will be useful in case of clayee and finn soils. However, these types of foundations are not popular in transmission lines.

11.6.1.7 Steel Plated Type

This is shown in Annexure- 'G' (Figure 8). These will be useful only in case of good cohesive and finn soils where head loading and mixing is a problem (but not hilly terrain). These type of foundations are not very popular for the normal run of the line.

11.6.1.8 Grillage Type

This is shown in Annexure- 'G' (Figure 9). These will be used only in finn soils where approaches are a problem. These

11.6.1.9 Well Type

This is shown in Annexure- 'G' (Figure 10). These will be useful in case of submerged locations, river beds and fully sandy strata.

11.6.1.10 Special Pile Type

This is shown in Annexure- 'G' (Figure 11). These foundations will be very useful in river bed and creek bed having constant flow of water and sea mud to a large depth.

In shallow depth, precast driven piles can also be useful.

In marshy soil, the foundation can also be rested on the wooden piles driven in the soil. If there is solid rock below the river/ creek bed the pile can rest on it

11.6.2 Levelling of Tower Site, Benching, Revetments and Hill Side Extensions

11.6.2.1 Levelling of Tower Site, Benching and Revetments

The location site is normally divided into a number of grids of 3m x 3 m and the reduced levels at the all intersection points arc taken with respect to centre peg of the locations to ascertain the volume of benching/filling that will be required to level the LOwer site. The LOwer site is to be levelled by cutting the excess earth and filling the down area and is to be brought to the centre peg level of the location. A retaining wall/ revetment is to be constructed to avoid the washing out of retainer earth. Normally a revertrnent is constructed upto a height of 15 ern higher than the centre peg level of the location.

11.6.2.2 Jlill Side Extension

In hilly areas where for spotting the locations heavy benching or revetment or both are involved, for normal tower as well as tower with extensions suitable hill side extensions ranging from 2m to 6m can be used. A sketch of a typical hill side extension is shown in Annexure- 'H'.

l

11.6.3 Excavation 11.6.3.1 Pit Marking

Pit marking shall be carried out according to pit marking Chan. The pit size in the case of open c.ut foundation shaU be determined after allowing a margin of 150mm all round. No margin is necessary in the case of under cut foundations. The depth of the excavation at the pit entre shall be measured with reference to the tower centre level.

The design office will furnish the survey gang with an 'Excavation pit Marking Chart' or 'Excavation Plan' (Annexure- '1') which gives distance of pit centres. sides and comers with reference to centre point of the tower. These distances are measured and each pit boundary is marked in the field by means of spade or pick axe along the side of the pits. While excavating care should be taken that earth is cut vertically/tappered/in steps as per the site requirement LO avoid any mishap during the course of excavation and foundation work.

,_:onstruCllon of Transmission Lines

11

'1.63.2 Shoring and Shuttering

In pits excavated in sandy soil or water bearing strata and . .aticularly black cotton soil where there is every likelihood of : :15 collapsing. sharing and shuttering. made out of timber ilanks 30- 35mm thickness or steel frames of adequate strength w suit the requirement, will be provided.

Sand bedding/stone bedding will be provided in founda"lns of marshy and Wet Black Cotton foundations.

. '.63.3 Dewatering

Dewatering shall be carried out manually or by mechani-. cal means or power driven pumps to facilitate excavation and ..sting of foundation. The pumps shall be suitable for handling +ud water. Dewatering is not necessary in case of bored oundations extending below water table.

In areas where sub-soil water recoupment is heavy and

here water cannot be controlled even by use of power driven ""Imps well point system is used for controlling water. In this system a grid of pipes are laid around the area where the pits are _ .cavated and the system is very effective in pumping water

-rucularty in sandy soils. After commencing pumping operation the pit can be excavated avoiding risk of collapse of .arth. This will ensure proper quality of concreting.

Another method is by drilling bore holes of a deeper pit ..... uch below foundation level for pumping out water by ordinary pumps. Number of bore holes depend on the volume of ab-seil water.

In areas where sub-soil water recoupment is very rapid and water can not be controlled 'shallow foundations' will be useful.

11.63.4 Excavation in Rock

For excavation in hard rock. blasting can be resorted to.

eference shall be made to statutory rules for blasting and use -f explosives for this purpose. No blasting is permitted near . permanent work or dwellings. Blasting shall be so made that

• .ts are excavated as near to the designed dimensions as ·racticable.

The work of blasting in rock is carried out in three separate

operations:

(a) Drilling of holes to hold explosive charge (b) Charging of the drilled holes

(c) Fixing the charge

1.63.4.1 Drilling of Holes to Hold Explosive Charge Drilling of holes to hold the explosive charge may be done either manually or with an air compressor as per the requireinent at the site.

The equipment for hand drilling is simple but requires lore man hours and generally consists ofa set of 'Jumpers' or 'Drills' which are usually made from 22mm diameter hexagonal steel bars.

The jumpers are 1 rn, 1.25m and 1.5m long and are suitably shaped. They must be tempered when sharpened. A 2 kg hammer is used for striking the jumper. which is given a slight rotation after each blow. The rate of progress by this in hard rock is 25 to 40cm per hour.

When large quantity of rock is required to be excavated. an air compressor is used for drilling the holes.

11.6.3.4.2 Charging of the Drilled Holes

The charge consists of gelatine and detonator. Either half or a full gelatine is used as per the requirement. Detonator is normally pressed into the gelatine after making a hole in the gelatine with a stick. Detonator is to be pressed in to the gelatine till it is completely embedded in the gelatine. Then this assembly is placed into holes drilled.

11.63.4.3 Fixing the Charge

The detonator leads are first interconnected to form a circuit and later the ends of this circuit are connected to the exploder with separate wires. The exploder is kept in a sheltered spot To fire the shot the exploder handle is rotated at a high speed.

11.63.4.4. Procedure in Case of Misfired Shots (a) The misfired shot should not be touched.

(b) One should not approach a misfired shot until atleast 15 minutes have elapsed and all connections and handle removed from the exploder.

(c) A second hole is to be drilled at a safe distance from the first and in such a direction as will keep the boring tool clear of the first hole.

(d) This second hole is to be charged and fired.

(e) Thedebrisistobesearchedthoroughlyforunexploded· detonator and gelatine.

11.63.45 Additional Precautions

To protect the persons and animals from injuries from flying debris depending on situation the number of holes to be drilled should be less deep and the pit should be covered with a steel plate. Such controlled blasting is an exception if the transmission line is kept away from villages and inhabited areas. Usual precautions for safety of working personnel are taken in all cases.

11.6.4 Soil Investigation and Classification of Foundation

The transmission tower foundation shall be classified based on the soil conditions. Optimisation of foundation design and their safety mainly depend on correctness of soil and their analysis.

11.6.4.1 Soil Investigation

The scope of work includes detailed soil investigation at various tower locations such as railway crossings. major road

12

Construction of Transmission Lines

crossings, power line crossings, river crossings and wherever soil strata differs.

However, the soil investigation activities shall be completed alongwith preliminary survey much before the commencement of main erection activities. Soil investigation need not be carried out in all the locations of the line.

11.6.4.1.1 Soil Investigation at Normal Locations

One bore hole of 150mm dia shall be drilled at the centre point of the tower. Standard penetration test (S.P.T.) shall be carried out a! 1.5m interval or change of strata upto the required depth of 2 .L times below the depth of foundation below existing s~ce elevation or refusal whichever occurs earlier. (B y refusal it shall mean that a standard penetration blow count 'N' of 100 is recorded for 30cm penetration). Bore details and water table uptorequireddepth below existing surface elevation or refusal whichever occurs earlier shall be furnished in the report.

11.6.4.1.2 Soil 1 nvestigation at Special Locations

At certain locations such as rivers banks, river beds or midstream of river and at other places, special soil investigation shall be carried out by drilling two holes each of 150mm diameter at each tower Iocation on the diagonally opposite legs of the lower, considering the base width of tower as 20m.

Standard penetration tests shall be carried out at every 1.5m interval or change of strata till refusal is met subject to maximum of 40m below the existing surface elevation.

Undisturbed samples of soils shall be collected at every 205m interval or change of strata whichever occurs earlier.

In the hard rock the bore drilling shall be continued atleast 5m to ascertain its sufficient thickness.

11.6.4.1.3 Preparation of Test Reports

The investigation report shall contain the following test results:

1. Grain size analysis

2. Nomenclature of soil

3. Atterbergs limit (Liquid and plastic limit only)

4. Triaxial shear Test results containing information about angle of internal friction and cohesion.

5. S.P.T. results containing information about natural

moisture content, Specific gravity and Bulk unit weight.

6. Consolidation test

7. Unconfined compression test

8. Unconsolidated undrained test

9. Presence of carbonates, sulphates, nitrates and organic matters and any other chemicals harmful to the concrete fOundation-obtained from chemical test on soil sample.

10. For rocky, soil core recovery and crushing strength of the rock shall be furnished.

11. The bearing capacities of soil at 3, 4 & 5m below the existing surface elevation for normal investigation and at 3,6 & 9m below the existing surface elevation for special soil investigation shall be furnished considering approximate base width of foundation.

In addition to the above the following data also shall be furnished in the report of Special Soil Investigation.

1. Scouring depth in case the locations are at the bank of river or at midstream.

2. Silting factor in case of midstream and river bank loca-

tions where submergence is envisaged.

3. Depth of fill, if any.

4. Details of water table, water struck etc.

5. Compressibility of sub-soil stratification.

6. Settlement characteristics of the shallow foundations.

The above test results shall be summarised strata-wise as well as in a combined tabular form with all relevent graphs, charts, tables, diagrams and photographs, if any, shall be furnished in the test reports.

The test report shall include bore logs. Bore logs of each bore hole clearly identifying the stratification and type of soil stratum with depth upto the refusal. The locations of water table shall be identified in the bore log. The value of SPT at depth where conducted and various laboratory tests conducted from samples collected at various depths shall be clearly shown against the particular stratum.

The report should contain specific recommendation for the type of foundation. In case the soil parameters obtained from the soil investigation report for a particular tower location, differ from the ones considered during design, a fresh design has to be developed for such locations.

\ \

l

11.6.4.2 Classification of Foundations

Classification of soil shall be made according to IS : 200 (pan 1) 1974 for footing cast in open pits. The foundation designs shall depend upon the type of soil, sub-soil water level and the presence of surface water which have been classified as follow.

11.6.4.1-.1 Normal Dry

To be used for locations where normal dry cohesive or on-cohesive soils are met

4.2.2 Wet

[0 be used for locations

Where sub-soil water is met at 1.5 metres or more below the ground level.

(b) Which are in surface water for long periods with water penetration not exceeding one metre below the ground level e.g. the paddy fields or sugar cane fields.

C O!LSlrUClWn of Transmission Lines

13

J J .6.4.2.3 Partially Submerged

To be 'used at locations where sub-soil water table is met between 0.75 metre to 1.50 metre below the ground level.

11.6.4.2.4 Fully Submerged

To be used allocations where sub-soil water table is within 0.75 metre below the ground level.

11.6.4.25 Black Colton

To be used at locations when soil is clayey type. not necessarily black in colour. which shrinks when dry. swells when wet. resulting in differential movement extending to a maximum depth of about 3.5 metres below ground level.

11.6.42.6 Fissured Rock

To be used at locations where decomposed or fissured rock. hard gravel. kankar, limestone, laterite or any other soil of similar nature is met. Under cut type foundation is to be used for fissured rock locations. Rock anchor type foundation can also be used for fissured rock location where the under cut is not feasible.

In case of fissured rock locations where water table is met at 1.5 metre or more below ground level submerged fissured rock foundations shall be adopted. When the water table in such location is met within 1.5 metre from ground level, fully Submerged Fissured Rock type foundations shall be adopted.

11.6.4.2.7 Hard Rock

The locations where chiselling, drilling and blasting is required for excavation, hard rock type foundations are to be used. For these locations rock anchoring is to be provided to resist uplift forces.

11.6.4.2.8 In addition to the above, depending on the site conditions other types of foundations may also be developed for:

1. Intermediate conditions under the above classifications to effect more economy or

2. For locations where special foundations (well type or piles) are necessitated.

While classifying foundations of Wet, Partially Submerged, Fully Submerged foundations mentioned above. the worst conditions should be considered and not necessarily the conditions prevailing at the time of inspection. For instance. there are areas where sub-soil water rises when canal water letout in the fields raising sub-soil water to a considerable degree. Similarly the effect of monsoon or when the nearby reservoirs are full should also be considered and not the conditions prevailing in open season or summer when work is carried out normally.

11.6.5 Stub-setting

The stubs are set in such a manner that the distance between the stubs and their alignment and slope are as per

design so as to permit assem bling of the superstructure without undue strain or distortion in any part of the structure. There are three methods by which this is generally accomplished.

(i) Use of a combined Stub-setting Template for all the four stubs of the tower.

(ii) Use of Individual Leg Template for each stub.

(iii) Use as a Template the lower tower section or extension, where Stub-setting Template is not available.

The first method is the most commonly used. The Stubsetting Template is composed of a light rigid framework which holds the stubs at the correct alignment and slope. The Stubsetting Template is generally of adjustable type which can suit the standard tower as well as towers with standard extensions. The Template is centred and levelled by sighting through transit The anchors or stubs are bolted to this Template, one at each comer of the Template. and are held in their proper position until the concrete is poured and has hardened. The procedure for setting stubs at site is given in Annexure-T',

The second method is adopted for casting the foundation locations having individual leg extensions or locations having broad base for which use of a single Template for setting all the four stubs is unwieldy. The Individual Leg Template comprises a steel channel or joist having a length more than the size of the pit, by about 2 to 3 metres. A chamfered cleat is welded in the centre of the channel/joist to provide the slope to the stub. The stub is bolted to the cleat of the Template for which holes as required for the slope of the stub are provided. The Individual Leg Templates are initially seton each pit approximately to the . required position w.r.t. the centre point of the tower and after that stubs are bolted to the cleat. The stubs are then brought to proper position w.r.t. the centre of the tower with the help a Theodolite, Dempty level and a measuring tape, before fixing form boxes and pouring concrete.

This type of Templates are very useful for casting the foundations of individual leg extensions in which the foundation pits are staggered and use of either a normal Stub-setting Template or the first section of the tower is not feasible. The foundation layout of unequal leg extensions is shown in

I xure-'K'

.n the third method, lower section of the tower or extenis used for setting stub. In this method two opposite sides lower section of the tower are assembled horizontally on and the stubs are bolted to the same with correct and alignment. Each assembled side is then lifted clear of ..h...il'/nT.",,,,,,,,! with a gin pole and is lowered into the four pits excavated at four comers of the tower to their proper size and depth. The assembly is lifted in such a manner that stubs are not damaged. One side is held in place with props while the other side is being erected. The two opposite sides are then laced together with cross members and diagonals. Then the assembled section is lined up, made square with line and levelled. The proper elevation and levelling are done with a transit. When the

l~ _

-------------- - - -----_--

, to
, E=-
G. c t ..
( r~ lining and levelling has been done. the bolts are tightened up to make the frame as rigid as is reasonably possible. Thereafter the form boxes for foundations are built and the concrete is poured. For heavy towers use of Stub-seuing Template is recommended.

11.6.6 Concreting 11.6.6.1 Type

For reasons of economy and progress it is normal practice to use coarse and fine aggregates available along the line route and/of nearest locations to the route. Ordinary plain or reinforced cement concrete given in IS : 456-1978 shall be used in overhead line foundations.

11.6.6.2 Mixes

For main foundation. M 15 or 1 :2:4 mix cement concrete shall be used. For lean concrete sub-bases or pads. M 10 or 1:3:6 mix cement concrete may be used. The properties of concrete and mix proportions shall be as given in IS: 456-1978.

It shall be permissible to proportionate the concrete as follows.

11.6.6.2.1 Prepare a wooden measuring box of 35 litres capacity (that is equal to 1 bag of 50 kg. of cement) with inside dimensions of 30cm x 30cm x 39cm alternatively a cylinder of 34cm diameter and 39cm height.

The mix quantities according to the measuring box shall be as follows:

'M 15 M 10
Cement 1 bag 1 bag
Sand 2 boxes 3 boxes
Metal 4 boxes 6 boxes
Water 1 boxes less 3 litres 1 box less 1 litre 11.6.6.2.2 Measurement of water may be made with separate water tight drums of the above size or with 1 or 2 Hue mugs.

11.6.6.3 One bag of cement is taken to contain 50 kg or 35 litres of ordinary portland cement

11.6.7 Form Work

11.6.7.1 General

The form work shall conform to the shape, lines and dimensions as shown on the foundation design drawings, and be so, constructed as to be rigid during the placing and compacting of concrete, and shall be sufficiently tight to prevent loss of liquid from concrete. It shall be of light design, easily removable without distortions and shall be of steel or suitable materials. The inner surface coming in contact with concrete shall be smooth and free from projections. Window on one face shall be provided for pyramid forms to facilitate concreting in the lowerparts which shall be fixed after concrete in the bottom pan is placed. In bored footings form work may be needed only towards the top for the portion above ground level.

The form work for slabs and pyramids shall be made symmetrical about the bases of the chimney to ensure interchangeable faces.

11.6.7.2 Clearing and Treatment of Forms

All rubbish. particularly chippings, shaving and sawdust and traces of concrete. if any, shall be removed from the interior of the forms before the concrete is placed. The surface in contact with the concrete shall be wetted and sprayed with fine sand or treated with an approved composition such as black or waste oil etc., before use. every time.

11.6.7.3 Stripping Time

Under fair weather conditions (generally where average daily temperature is 20 degree or above) and where ordinary cement is used. forms may be stripped after 24 hours of the placing of concrete. In dull weather such as rainy periods and very cold temperature, the forms shall be removed after 48 hours of the placing of concrete.

11.6.7.4 Procedure when Removing Form Work

All form work shall be removed without much shock or vibration as otherwise it would damage the concrete or the forms.

11.6.8 Mixing .

11.6.8.1 Concrete shall preferably be mixed in a mechanical

mixer, but hand mixing shall be permissible.

11.6.8.2 When hand mixing is adopted, it shall be carried out on impervious platforms such as iron plain sheets properly overlapped and placed upon level ground. The coarse aggregate shall first be evenly spread out in required quantity over the sheets. The fine aggregate shall be evenly spread out over coarse aggregate next. The aggregates shall then be thoroughly mixed together and levelled. The required amount of cement shall now be spread evenly over the mixed aggregates and wet mixing shall start from one end with required amount of water using shovels. The whole lot shall not be wetted; instead mixing shall proceed progressively. If the aggregates are wet or washed. cement shall not be spread out, but shall be put in progressi vel y.

11.6.8.3 For mixing in mechanical mixers, the same order of placing ingredients in the loader drum shall be adopted, that is coarse aggregate shall be put in first followed by sand, cement and water.

11.6.8.4 Mixing shall be continued until there is a uniform distribution of materials and the mass is uniform in colour and consistency but in no case shall mixing be done for less than 2

( l

minutes.

11.6.8.5 If the aggregates are wet, the amount 0 f water shall be reduced suitably.

11.6.9 Transportation

11.6.9.1 Normally mixing shall be done right at the foun-

Jnslruclwn of Transmission Lines

15

''ition. In places where it is not possible. concrete may be ... ixed at the nearest convenient place. The concrete shall be · mdled from the place of mixing to the place of final deposit is rapidly as practicable by methods which shall prevent the

.gregation or loss of any of the ingredients. If segregation >es occur during transport, the concrete shall be remixed

· efore being placed.

11.6.9.2 During hot or cold weatherrn concrete shall be ansported in deep containers. The deep containers, on -count of their lower ratio of surface area LO mass, reduce the te of loss of water by evaporation during hot weather and loss

Vl heat during cold weather.

£ 1.6.10 Placing and Compacting

; .6.10.1 The concrete shall be placed and compacted before -uing commences and should not be subsequently disturbed. "he placing should be such that no segregation takes place.

11.6.10.2 Concrete shall be thoroughly compacted during the acing operation, and thoroughly worked around the rein-

r'~cement, if any, around embedded fixtures and into corners -: form work by means of 16mm diameter poking bars pointed .... the ends. As a guide for compacting, the poking bars may be ')rked 100 times in an area of 200mm square for 300mm depth. Over compacting causes the liquid to flow out upward using segregation and should be avoided.

· ~.6.10.3 If, after the form work has been removed, the .ncrete surface is found to have defects, all the damaged surfaces shall be repaired with mortar application composed of rnent and sand in the same proportion as the cement and sand ; " the concrete mix. Such repairs shall be carried out well fore the foundation pits are back filled.

t 1.6,10.4 For precautions to be taken on concrete work in .areme weather and under water, the provisions of IS : 456 :

· "78 shall apply.

.6.11 Reinforcement

All reinforcement shall be properly placed according to 'oundation design, drawing with a minimum concrete cover of

.rnm. The bars shall, however, be placed clear of stubs and r' 'aLS where fouling. For binding, iron wire of not less than · 9mm shall be employed, and the bars may be bound at <u&.ernate crossing points. The work shall conform to IS : 2502-

- S3 wherever applicable.

In case of the foundation having steel reinforcement in /rarnid or base slab, atleast 50mm thick pad of lean concrete l.l 1:3:6 nominal mix shall be provided LO avoid the possibility . reinforcement rod being exposed due to unevenness of the lxlnom of the excavated pit.

· /.6.12 Sizes of Aggregates

The coarse aggregate (stone/metal) to be used shall be -vrnm nominal size for slab/pyramid concrete and 20mm minal size for chimney concrete conforming to IS : 383- "'79. These sizes are applicable to ordinary plain cement

concrete. For R.C.C. works the aggregate shall preferably be of 20mm nominal size. The fine aggregate (sand) shall be of preferably Zone I Grade to IS : 383-1979 which is the coarse variety with maximum panicle size of 4.75mm.

11.6.13 Levelling Sub-base

To take care of the unevenness at the bottom of the excavated pit it is necessary to provide a levelling sub-base not less than 1:3:6 proportion and 50mm thickness.

11.6.14 Back Filling

Following opening of form work and removal of shoring and shuuerings back filling shall be started after 24 hours of casting or repairs, if any, to the foundation concrete. Back filling shall normally be done with the excavated soil, unless it consists of large boulderS/stones, in which case the boulders shall be broken to a maximum size of 80mm. The back filling materials should be clean and free from organic or other foreign materials.

The earth shall be deposited in maximum 300mm layers, levelled and wetted and tamped properly before another layer is deposited. Care shall be taken that the back filling is started from the foundation ends of the pits towards the outer ends. After pits have been back filled to full depth, the stub-setting template may be removed.

The back filling and grading shall be carried out to an elevation of about 75mm above the finished ground level to drain out water. After back filling 50mm high earthen embankment (bund) will be made along the sides of excavated pits and sufficient water will be poured in the back filled earth for atleast 24 hours.

11.6.15 Curing

The concrete after setting for 24 hours shall be cured by keeping the concrete wet continuously for a period of 10 days after laying. The pit may be back filled with selected earth sprinkled with necessary amount of water and well consolidated in layers not exceeding 3OOmm. after a minimum period of 24 hours and thereafter both the back filled earth and exposed chimney top shall be kept wet for the remainder of the prescribed time of 10 days. The uncovered concrete chimney above the back filled earth shall be kept wet by providing empty cement bags dipped in water fully wrapped around the concrete chimney for curing and ensuring that the bags be kept wet by the

frequent pouring of water on them. '

11.6.16 Tolerance

The tolerances for various items connected.to the foundation works of transmission line are as under.

11.6.16.1 Stub-setting (Tower Footing)

11.6.16.1.1 All the stub angles for LOwer legs shall be set accurately to the grade and alignment shown on the drawings. The difference in elevation between identical parts of any two stub angles shall not exceed 1/1000 of the horizontal distance

16

Construction of Transmission Lines


( . ., ,
I '.
I.t. l
"
r
l between the stubs. allowance being made for difference. if any, in the lengths of legs and extensions. The actual elevation of any stub angle shall not differ from the computed elevation by more than 1/100 of foundation depth. Stub angles shall be located horizontally so that each is within 6mm of its correct position, and the batter of the stub angles shall not differ from the correct better by more than either 1/100 of exposed stub length, or by the amount of playas offered by the clearance between bolts and holes of the stub-setting template. To ensure greater accuracy, the hole clearance shall not be greater than 1.5mm on the punched side of the Template members.

11.6.16.1.2 If the actual elevation of stubs is beyond 6cm as found after casting the foundation and on the plus side (that is, if the foundation is raised) equivalent depth of earthwork will be provided over the top of the foundation as per design requirements with particular reference to such location. By design requirements is meant the earth required to resist uplift forces.

11.6.16.1.3 The following tolerances shall be applicable in case of position of foundations erected with reference to the tower positions spotted on Survey Chans:

Type of Tower Out of From Centre From Transverse
Ali grunen t Line of Route Centre line
Suspension 0.5 degree 25mm ±250mm
Tension 0.5 degree 25mm ±25mm (Set at bi-section of deviation angle)

11.6.16.2 Concrete and Form Dimensions

The maximum tolerance on the dimensions shall be ±lO mm. All tolerances shall not be on the negative side.

11.7 ERECTION OF SUPER STRUCTURE AND FIXING OF TOWER ACCESSORIES

The LOwers shall be erected on the foundations not less than 10 days after concreting or till such time that the concrete has acquired sufficient strength. The towers are erected as per the erection drawings furnished by the manufacturers to facilitate erection. For the convenience of assembling the LOwer parts during erection operations, each mem ber is marked in the factory to correspond with a number shown in the erection drawing. Any damage to the steel and injuring of galvanising shall be avoided. No member shall be subjected to any undue over stress, during erection.

11.7.1 Method or Erection

There are four main methods of erection of steel transmission towers which are described as below:

(i) Built-up method or Piecemeal method.

(ii) (iii) (iv)

Section method

Ground assembly method. Helicopter method.

11.7.1.1 Built Up Method

This method is most commonl y used in this country for the erection of 66 kV, 132 kV, 220 kV and 400 kV transmission line LOwers due to the following advantages:

(i) Tower materials can be supplied to site in knocked down condition which facilitates easier and cheaper transportation.

(ii) It does not require any heavy machinery such as cranes etc.

(iii) Tower erection activity can be done in any kind of terrain and mostly throughout the year.

(iv) Availability of workmen at cheap rates.

This method consists of erecting the towers, member by member. The tower members are kept on ground serially according to erection sequence to avoid search or time loss. The erection progresses from the bottom upwards. The four main comer leg members of the first section of the lower are first erected and guyed off. Sometimes more than one contiguous leg sections of each comer leg are bolted together at the ground and erected.

The cross braces of the first section which are already assembled on the ground are raised one by one as a unit and bolted to the already erected comer leg angles. First section of the tower thus built and horizontal struts (belt members) if any, are bolted in position. For assembling the second section of the tower, two gin poles are placed one each on the top of diagonally opposite comer legs. These two poles are used, for raising pans of second section. The leg members and braces of this section are then hoisted and assembled. The gin poles are then shifted to the comer leg members on the top of second section to raise the pans of third section of the tower in position for assembly. Gin poles are thus moved up as the tower grows. This process is continued till the complete tower is erected. Cross-arm members are assembled on the ground and raised up and fixed to the main body of the tower. For heavier towers, a small boom is rigged on one of the tower legs for hoisting purposes. The members/sections are hoisted either manually or by winch machines operated from the ground. For smaller base towers/vertical configuration towers one gin pole is used instead of two gin poles. In order to maintain speed and efficiency,' a small8SSembly party goes ahead of the main erection gang and its purpose is to son out the tower members, keeping the members in correct position on the ground and ,assembling the panels on the ground which can be erected as a complete unit.

Sketches indicating different steps.or erection by built up method are shown in Annexure- 'L'

11.7.1.2 Section Method

In the section method, major sections of the LOwer are assembled on the ground and the same are erected as units. Either a mobile crane or a gin pole is used. The gin pole used

Construction of Transmission Lines

17

is approximately 10 m long and is held in place by means of guys by the side of the tower to be erected. The two opposite sides of the tower section of the tower are assembled on the ground. Each assembled side is then lifted clear of the ground with the gin or derrick and is lowered into position on bolts to stubs or anchor bolts. One side is held in place with props while the other side is being erected. The two opposite sides are then laced together with cross members and diagonals; and the assembled section is lined up, made square to the line. After completing the first section, gin pole is set on the top of the first section. The gin rests on a strut of the tower immediately below the leg joint The gin pole then has to be properly guyed into position.

The first face of the second section is raised. To raise the second face of this section itJis necessary to slide the foot of the

I

gin on the strut of the opposite of the tower. After the two

opposite faces are raised, the lacing on the other two sides is bolted up. The last lift raises the top of the towers. After the tower top is placed and all side lacings have been bolted up all the guyes are thrown off except one which is used to lower the gin pole. Sometimes whole one face of the tower is assembled on the ground, hoisted and supported in position. The opposite face is similarly assembled and hoisted and then the bracing angles connecting these two faces are fitted.

11.7.1.3 Ground Assembly Method

This method consists of assembling the tower on ground, and erecting it as a complete unit. The complete tower is assembled in a horizontal position on even ground. The tower is assembled along the direction of the line to allow the crossarms to be fitted. On slopping ground, however, elaborate packing of the low side is essential before assembly commences. After the assembly is complete the tower is picked up from the ground with the help of a crane and carried to its location. and set on its foundation. For this method of erection, a level piece of ground close to footing is chosen from the tower assembly. This method is not useful when the towers are large and heavy and the foundations are located in arable land where building and erecting complete towers would cause damage to large areas or in hilly terrain where the assembly of complete tower on slopping ground may not be possible and it may be difficult to get crane into position to raise the complete tower.

In India, this method is not generally adopted because of prohibitive cost of mobile crane, and non-availability of good approach roads to tower location.

11.7.1.4-Helicopter Method

In the helicopter method, the transmission tower is erected in sections. For example bottom section is rust lifted on to the stubs and then the upper section is lifted and bolted to the first section and the process is repeated till the complete tower is erected. Sometimes a completely assembled tower is raised with the help of helicopter. Helicopters are also used for lifting completely assembled towers with guys from the marshalling

yards where these are fabricated and then transported one by one to line locations. Helicopter hovers over the line location while the tower is securely guyed. The ground crew men connect and tighten the tower guys. As soon as the guy wires are adequately tensioned the helicopter disengages and flies to the marshalling yard. This method is adopted where approach is very difficult or to speed up the construction of the transmission line.

11.7.2 Tightening of Nuts and Punching of Threads and Tack Welding of Nuts

All nuts shall be tightened properly using correct size spanners. Before tightening it is ensured that filler washers and plates are placed in relevent gaps between members, bolts of proper size and length are inserted and one spring washer is inserted under each nut. In case of step bolts, spring washer shall be placed under the outer nut. The tightening shall be carried on progressively from the top downwards, care being taken that all bolts at every level are tightened simultaneously. It may be better to employ four persons, each covering one leg and the face to his right

The threads of bolts shall be projected outside the nuts by one to two threads and shall be punched at three positions on the top inner periphery of the nut and bolt to ensure that the nuts are not lossened in course of time. If during tightening a nut is found to be slipping or running over the bolt threads, the bolt together with the nut shall be changed outright.

11.7.3 Painting of Joints

For galvanized towers in coastal or highly polluted areas, the joints shall be painted with zinc paint on all contact surfaces during the course of erection.

11.7.4 Checking the Verticality of Erected Towers

The finally erected tower shall be truly vertical after erection and no straining is permitted to bring it in alignment Tolerance limit for vertical shall be one in 360 of the tower height

11.8 EARTHING

11.8.1 Each tower shall be earthed after the foundation has been cast. For this purpose, earth strip shall be fixed to the stub during concreting of the chimney and taken out horizontally below the ground level. In normal circumstances, the earth strip shall be provided on No.1 stub leg as given in Figure 3, i.e. the leg with step bolts.

11.8.2 Tower Footing Resistance

The tower footing resistance of all towers shall be measured in dry weather after their erection and before the stringing of earthwire, In no case the tower footing resistance shall exceed 10 ohms. In case the resistance exceeds the specified values, multiple pipe eanhin g or coun terpoise earthing shall be adopted in accordance with the following procedure, but without interferring with the foundation concrete even

18

Construction of Transmission LiIkJ

Sending (Feeding end)

Figure 3: Designation of Tower Legs, Footing and Face

,(

1. represents leg or pit No.1

2. represents leg or pit No.2

3. represents leg or pit No.3

4. represents leg or pit No.4

A. represents near side (NS) transverse face

B. represents near side (NS) longitudinal face

C. represents far side (FS) transverse face

D. represents far side (FS) longitudinal face

NOTE 1: Danger and number plates are located on face 'A'

NOTE 2: Leg 1 represents. the leg with step bolts and anti-climbing device gate,ifany. If two legs with step bolts are required, the next is No.3 leg.

or=truction 01 Transmission Lines

19

f- "'lJ~h the earth strip/counterpoise lead remains exposed at the . cnd.

The connections in such case shall be made with the ting lattice membcrholcson the leg just above the chimney

JO.

Ud Pipe Earth

.he installation of the pipe earth shall be in accordance .r 15 : 5613-1976 (Part II/Section 2). A typical example of type of earthing is given in Annexure- 'M'

• ~.4 Counterpoise Earth

Counterpoise earth consists of four lengths of galvanized l. ~ . Jtranded wires, each fitted with a lug for connection to the ( vpr leg at one end. The wires are connected to each of the legs Inri taken radially away from the tower and embedded horizonu.,..) l50mm below ground level. The length of each wire is

'"T"'<uly limited to 15m but may be increased if the resistance ~l1irements are not met. Galvanized steel stranded wire .. 'kiably of the same size of the overhead ground wire may ,r, '.d for this purpose. A typical example of counterpoise ~ eanhing of tower is given in Annexure- 'N'.

1.9 STRINGING OF CONDUCTORS

l.~ 1 Mounting of Insulator Strings, and Running Blocks

~.t.l Suspension insulator strings shall be used on sus,,.~- 'In towers and tension insulator strings on angle and dead no towers. The strings shall be fixed generally on the tower

. »rior to the stringing of conductors. Damaged insulators flO ~ .tings, shall not be used in the assemblies. Before hoist- 1;; "II insulators shall be cleaned in a manner that will not I 11, injure or scratch the surface of the insulator, but in no :>c~ .aall any oil be used for the purpose. Security clips shall e rr -osiuon for the insulators before hoisting.

<\reing horns or guard rings. if required, shall be placed I· '1g the line on suspension, and facing upwards on tension 1, . ..or string assemblies.

/9 .• .2 Traveller/Running Block Installation

. stallation of travellers, including finger lines where 1. requires consideration of traveller attachment methods \(, we need for and location of traveller grounds and uplift I,'" . For single conductor vertical insulator assemblies, the ,lIers are normally connected directly to the insulators, and ph 'vee' string insulator assemblies, to the yoke plate. For V.:;l .nmdled conductor lines. the travellers are connected to

- \e plate. With post type insulators, the travellers are

JI, .. ected to the end of the insulators. Where travellers are .sraued to string through tension towers, the travellers are .. lly connected directly to the tower. If substantial line wlt'<- are involved, two travellers in tandem may be required , • .-Juce the bending radius of the conductor or the load on h u·aveller. or both.

Where bundled conductor travellers are used at line angle locations of over 5 degrees, it is advisable to change to individual single conductor travellers after the passage of the running board to facilitate accurate sagging.

When adequate quantities of travellers are available, it is common practice to install travellers alongwith the insulators. Under some situations travellers may be attached to slings or rods in place of the normal insulator assembly. Sketch of travellers is shown in Annexure- '0'

Use of travelling grounds and choice of locations must be based on the degree of exposure to electrical hazards. When such hazards exist. as a minimum, traveller grounds should be installed at the first and last tower between tensioner and puller. When stringing in proximity to energized lines. additional grounds shall be installed as required, but at a maximum distance not exceeding 3 km, Additionally. grounds shall be installed within a reasonable distance on each side of an energized crossing. preferably on the adjacent structure.

Travellers with grounds are usually sensitive to direction and care must be exercised in hanging the travellers. Usually the grounds are to the pulling end. Each traveller with grounds must be connected with temporary grounding sets to provide an electrical connection between the traveller and earth, or to some conducting medium that is at earth potential. Personnel should never be in series, with a ground lead. Traveller grounds should have a suitable grounding stub located in an accessible position to enable placing and removing the ground clamps. with hot sticles when necessary. Traveller grounds also help protect the sheave linings .

At the time the travellers are hung, finger lines, when used, . should be installed and tied off at the base of the structures. If the helicopter method of pilot line installation is not to be used, the pilot line could be installed at this time in lieu of finger lines.

11.9.2 Paying out of Earthwire and Conductor 11.92.1 Paying out of Earthwire

Normally earthwire drums are mounted on a turn table.

Pulling machine/tractor are employed to pull the earthwire . Earthwire running blocks are hoisted on the towers prior to taking up of this operation. The earthwire while paying out passes through the earthwire running blocks. Earthwire splices shall be made in such a way that they do not crack or get damaged in the stringing operations. It should be noted that no eanhwire joints are allowed within 30m from the tension or suspension clamp fittings.

11.9.2.2 Paying out of Conductor

11.92.2.1 Slack Layout or Direct Installation Method:

Using this method, the conductor is payed out over the ground rollers by means of a pulling vehicle or the reel carried along the line on a vehicle. The conductor reels are positioned on reel

--- --- .. ---- ------ ----_.- ---_ .... _-._-

20

,C Construction of Transmission Lines ((

stands or jacks. either placed on the ground or mounted on a transporting vehicle. These stands are designed to support the reel on a shaft permitting it to rotate as the conductor is pulled out, Usually a braking device is provided to prevent overrunning and backlash.

When the conductor is payed out past a LOwer pulling is stopped and the conductor placed in travellers are attached to the structure before proceeding to the next structure.

This method is generally applicable to the construction of new lines in cases where maintenance of conductor surface condition is not critical and where terrain is easily accessible to a pulling vehicle. The method is not usually economically applicable in urban locations where hazards exist from traffic or where there is danger of contact with energized circuits, nor it is practical in mountainous regions inaccessible to pulling vehicles.

Major equipment required to perform slack stringing includes reel stands, pulling vehicles and a splicing cart.

11.9.2.2.2 Tension Stringing Method

Multi-conductor lines shall generally be strung with the help of tension stringing equipment. Using this method. the conductor is kept under tension during the stringing process. Normall y. this method is used to keep the conductor clear of the ground and obstacles which might cause conductor surface damage and clear of energized circuits. It requires pulling of a light pilot line through the travellers. w~}.ch in turn is used to pull ina heavier pulling line. The pulling line is then used to pull in the conductors from the reel stands using specially designed tensioners and pullers. For lighter conductors. a light weight pulling line may be used in place of pilot line to directly pull in the conductor. A helicopter or ground vehicle can be used to pull or layout a pilot line or pulling line. Where a helicopter is used to pull out a line, synthetic rope is normall y used to attach the line to the helicopter and prevent the pulling or pilot line from flipping into the rotor blades upon release. The tension method of stringing is applicable where it is desired to keep the conductor off the ground to minimise surface damage or in areas where frequent crossings are encountered. The amount of right of way travel by heavy equipment is also reduced. Usually. this method provides the most economical means of stringing conductor. The helicopter use is particularly advantageous in rugged or poorly accessible terrain.

Major equipment required for tension stringing includes reel stands, tensioner, puller, reel winder, pilot line winder. splicing cart and helicopter or pulling vehicle.

While running out the conductors, care shall be taken such that the conductors do not touch and rub against the ground or objects which could cause scratches or damage to the strands. The conductor shall not be over-strained during erection. The conductor shall be run out of the drums from the top in order to avoid damage due to chafing.

Wherever required jointing of conductor during paying out will be carried out.

11.9.2.2.2.1 Typical Procedures for Stringing Operations

1l.9.2.2.2.1.1 Site Selection, Equipment Location, Anchor and Equipment Grounding

11.9.2.2.2.1.1.1 su« Selection

The selection of pull. tension. anchor and splicing sites must consider accessibility. location of deadrnems, length of conductor LD be strung, available conductor and line lengths, puller capacity, including placement of pullers. tensioners and conductor anchor locations, placement of reel stands, pilot line winders, reel winders and the ability to provide an adequate grounding system.

11.9.2.2.2.1.1.2 Equipmeni Locations

The locations of the puller, tensioners and intermediate anchor sites must be selected so that the structures are not overloaded. A pulling line slope of three horizontal to one vertical from the traveller to the site is considered good practice. It is also necessary that the puller be positioned so that the pulling line enters the machine at the smallest horizontal angle thereby minimizing the possibility of damaging the line. When a bull wheel type puller is employed. the reel winder to recover the pulling line is located at the pulling site. The pilot line winder is located at the tensioner site.

The arrangement of the tensioner and reel stands should be such that the lateral angle between the conductor as it approaches the bull w heel and the plane of rotation of the wheel is not large enough to cause the conductor to rub on the sides of the groove. For example. birdcaging problems were eliminated in large conductors by using a maximum fleet angle of 1.5 degree from the plane normal to the conductor reel axis and a back tension of approximately 4500 N. Problems of bird caging are normally more acute in the case oflargeconductors having three or more aluminum layers.

11.9.2.2.2.1.1.3 Anchors

Anchors are normally required for holding equipment in place and snubbing conductors against tensions imposed. The type of anchor is dependent upon the soil conditions and stringing and sagging tensions. Portable equipment as well as ground type anchors are often used for this purpose. Slack should be removed from all anchor lines prior to loading to minimize the possibility of equipment movement or impact loads to the anchors.

11.9.2.2.2.1.1.4 Equip_Ill Grounding

Adequate grounding must be established at all sites. The methods required and equipment used will be determined by the degree of exposure to electrical hazards and the soil conditions at the site. All equipment, conductors, anchors and structures within the work area must be bonded together and to the ground source.

Con.SITUCiiiJn 0/' Fransnussion Lines

21

J 1.<).2.2.:'.1.2 Installation ofConducior

Once the rope pulling lines have been installed prior to IJulling in any conductor or conducnvc type pulling lines, a -unning ground must be installed between the rcclstand or tcnsioncr lor conductor. or puller for pulling line. and the first lower. This ground must be bonded 10 the ground previously

stablishcd at the site.

Pulling lines are usually pulled in under tension. The pulling line is then connected to a single conductor through swivel link. or to bundle conductors through swivel links and , running board.

Swivcllinks should not be used on a three strand synthetic pulling line. Pulling lines may be synthetic fibre or wire rope. "'hen wire rope is used, it is recommended that swaged type Ir braided type be used since ithas less tendency to rotate under load, which minimizes spinning problems.

A ball bearing swivel link is usually used for the connections .etween conductors. pulling lines and running boards. Swivel 'inks must be sufficient rated worked load to withstand loads placed on them during tension stringing. They should also be compaublc with the travellers being used so that they can pass

hrough without spreading or damaging the sheaves. These special line stringing s~ivcllinks are clevis type and cornpatiblc with woven wire grips and swaged steel pulling lines. It is .

ccornrnendcd that swivel links not be passed over bullwheels under significant tension since they may be weakened or damaged due to bencting.

When reeving the bullwhecls of a tensioner with the 'onductor entering and leaving the wheel from the top facing in the direction of pull, the conductor should enter from the left and leave from the right for right hand lay (standard for

luminium conductor) and enter from the right and leave from the left for left-hand lay (standard for groundwire). The procedure eliminates the tendency of loosening of outer layer .trands while conductor passes around the bull wheel.

It is recommended that conductor of only one rnanufac'urer be used in a given pull, and preferably in any given ruling span. This precaution helps in minimizing the possibility of ..Iifference In sag characteristic of conductor significantly.

Attachment of the conductor to the pulling line, running hoard or to another reel of conductor to be pulled successively IS accomplished by the use of woven wire grips. These grips

hould be compatible strength wise and sized as close as 'l()ssible for the conductor or pulling line on which they are used. Overall diameter of the grip over the conductor or rope .hould be small enough to pass over the sheaves without "arnage to the sheave or its lining and the grip must also be capable of mating with a proper size swivel link.

Metal bands should be installed over the grip to prevent it .rorn accidentally coming off and dropping the conductor. The .pen end of the grip should be secured with two bands. This should then be wrapped with tape to prevent accidentally

stripping the gnp 011 the conductor if the end were to snag or catch. This is particularly Important when these grips are used on pulling lines or between lengths of conductor when more than one reel is strung. The grips will then pass through the travellers backwards and if the ends arc not banded and taped, they may slip off.

Experience has shown that pulling speed is an important factor in achieving a smooth stringing operation. Speeds of 3- 4 km/hour usually provide a smooth passage of the running board or connecting hardware, or both, over the travellers. whereas slower speeds may cause significant swinging of the traveller and insulator hardware assemblies. Higher speeds create a potential hazard of greater damage in case of a malfunction.

The maximum tension imposed on a conductor during stringing operations should not exceed than necessary to clear obstructions on the ground. Thisclcarance should be confirmed by observation. In general, stringing tension of about one-half of the sagging tension is a good criterion. If greater tensions are required, consideration must be given to any possible prestressing of conductors that may result, based on the tension and lime involved. Consideration must also be given to the fact that when long lengths of conductor are strung, the tension at the pulling end may exceed the tension at the tensioner by a significant amount. Difference in tension is caused by the length of conductor strung, number and performance of travellers, differences in elevation of supporting structures, etc.

Light and steady back tension should be maintained on the conductor reels at all times sufficient to prevent over run in case of a sudden stop. It must also be sufficient to cause the conductor to lie snugly in the first groove of the bull wheel and to prevent slack in the. conductor between bull wheels. It may be necessary periodically to loosen the brake on the reel stand as the conductor is payed off. As the reel empties, the moment arm available to overcome the brake drag is reduced, and the tension therefore rises. This may cause the conductor to wedge into the underlying layers on the reel.

The reel should be positioned so that it will rotate in the same direction as the bullwheels. Loosening of the stranding that often occurs between the reel and the bullwheels of th~ tensioner is caused to a great extent by coil memory in the conductor. As the conductor is unwound from the reel and straightens out, the outer strands become loose, a conctition that is particularly noticeable in a large diameter conductor andean be best observed at the point at which it leaves the reel. As the conductor enters the bull wheel groove, the pressure of contact tends to push the loose outer strands back towards the reel where the looseness accumulates, leading to the condition commonly known as birdcaging. If this condition is not controlled, the strands can become damaged to the extent that the damaged area of conductor must be removed. This 'problem can be remedied by allowing enough distance between the reel and tensioner to permit the strand looseness to distribute along

22

Cons/ruc(iQl'loJTransmissjQnLines

the intervening length of conductor and simultaneously maintaining enough back tension on the reel stretch the core and inner strands to sufficiently tighten the outer strands.

The maximum time conductors may safely remain in the travellers depends on wind induced vibration or other motion of the conductors. Wind blown sand can severely damage conductors in a few hours if clearance is less than about 3m over loose sand with little vegetation. Damage from vibration at sagging tensions is quite possible and, when required, dampers should be installed promptly. However, at lower tensions generally used for initial stringing, damage to conductors or sheave bearings, or both, is not likely to occur from vibration. Even for travellers having lined sheaves with root diameters 20 times the conductor diameter, it is important to complete conductor stringing, sagging, plumb marking, clipping. spacing and damping operations as soon as possible to prevent conductor damage from weather. particularly wind. Conductor should not be strung if adverse weather is predicted before the entire sequence can be completed.

Sub-conductor oscillation may occur in bundled conductor lines and tie-down methods. Temporary spacers. or other means may be required to prevent conductor surface damage prior to installation of spacers. Temporarily positioning of one sub-conductor above another to prevent conductor clashing is undesirable since different tension history will produce subconductor mismatch unless the tensions are low and duration short enough so that creep is not a factor. Conductor clashing can mar the strands and produce slivers which can result in radio noise generation.

If a bull wheel type puller is utilized. the pulling line must be recovered during the pulling operation on a separate piece of equipment. This function is usually performed by a reel winder which is placed behind the puller in an arrangement similar to the reel stand at the tension site. These coils shall be removed carefully and if another length is required to be run out, a joint shall be made according to the recommendation of the manufacturers. Drum battens shall be removed just prior to moving drums on drum stands. Drums will be transported and positioned on station with the least possible amount of rolling.

The conductors. joints and clamps shall be erected in such a manner that no birdcaging, over-tensioning of individual wires or layers or other deformation or damage to the conductors shall occur. Clamps or hauling devices shall. under erection conditions. allow no relative movement of strands or layers of the conductors.

Scaffolding shall be used where roads. rivers. channels. telecommunication or overhead power lines. railway lines, fences or walls have to be crossed during stringing operations. It shall be seen that normal services are not interrupted or damage caused to property. Shut-down shall be obtained when working at crossing of overhead power lines.

The sequence of running out shall be from top to downwards i.e. the earthwire shall be run out first, followed by the conductors in succession. In case of horizontal configuration tower. middle conductor shall be strung before stringing of outer conductors is taken-up.

A sketch of Tension stringing operation is shown in Annexure- 'P'

11.9.3 Repairing of Conductor

Repairs to conductors. in the event of damage caused to isolated strands of a conductor during the course of erection. if necessary. shall becarriedoutduring the running out operations, with repair sleeves. Repairing of conductor surface shall be done only in case of minor damage, scuff marks etc., keeping in view both electrical and meChanical safe requirements.

Repair sleeves may be used when the damage is limited to the outer layer of the conductor and is equivalent to the severances of not more than one third of the strands of the outer most layer. No repair sleeve shall be fitted within 30m of tension or suspension hardware fittings. nor shall more than one repair sleeve per conductor normally be permitted in any one span.

11.904 Jointing

The fullest possible use shall be made of the maximum conductor lengths. in order to reduce to a minimum number of joints. All the joints on the conductor shall be of compression type. in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturers for which all necessary tools and equipments like compressors. die sets etc .• shall be arranged. The final conductor surface shall be clean smooth and shall be without any projections. sharp points, cuts, abrasions etc .• Conductor ends to be joined shall be coated with an approved grease immediately before final assembly. Surplus grease shall be removed after assembly.

All joints or splices shall be made atleast 30 metres away from the structures. No joints or splices shall be made in tension spans. No tension joint shall be used in any span crossing other major power lines.

The compression type fitting used shall be of self -centering type or care shall be taken to mark the conductors to indicate when the fitting is centred properly. During compression or splicing operation the conductor shall be handled in such a manner as to prevent lateral or vertical bearing against the dies. After pressing the joint the aluminium sleeve shall have all corners rounded, burrs and sharp edges removed and smoothened.

11.9.5 Final Sagging of Conductor and Earthwire

The final sagging of the conductor shall be done by sagging winches.

After being rough sagged the conductor/earthwire shall not be allowed to hang in the stringing blocks for more than 96

23

IrJnSlrUCllon or Transmission Lines

ours before being pulled to the specified sag.

The tensioning and sagging shall be done in accordance with the approved stringing charts before the conductors and earth wire are final I y auached to the towers through the earthwire . am ps for the earth wire and insulator strings for the conductor.

The sag will be checked in the first and last span of the Section in case of Sections upto eight spans and in one .ntcrrncdiate span also for sections with more than eight spans. ne sag shall also be checked when the conductors have been drawn up and transported from running blocks to the insulator cramps.

The running blocks, which are suspended from the • -msmission structure for sagging shall be so adjusted that the conductors on running blocks will be at the same height as the ~uspension clamp to which it is to be secured.

At sharp vertical angles, the sags and tensions shall be , I,ecked on both sides of the angle, the conductor andearthwire shall be checked on the running blocks for quality of tension on vvth sides. The suspension insulator assembly will normally

-sume vertical positions when the conductor is clamped.

Tensioning and sagging operations shall be carried out in normal weather when rapid changes in temperatures are not .zely to occur. Sag board and dynamometers shall be emr'oyed for measuring sag and tension respectively.

The dynarnometers employed shall be periodically checked and calibrated with a standard dynamometer.

Attempts to sag conductor on excessively windy day t' ould be avoided since serious error can result due to conductor ,'olift caused by wind pressure on the conductor. Should severe wind conditions occur when sagging is in progress, the sagging _ ast be stopped till peaceful conditions prevail to resume ;'gging.

Once a Section has been sagged, the sub-conductors of the bundle should be checked for evenness. Unevenness, if any, all be rectified as far as possible with the help of sag adjuster.

The travellers which are used to string conductor are not frictionless and therefore, can cause problems during a sagging operation. If one or more of the travellers becomes jammed,

. :;ging can become very difficult A traveller which swings in ~he direction of the pull may be an indication of a defective traveller. Should unexplainable sagging difficulties occur, the

" ~veller should be checked. Tensions applied to the conductor

( , overcome sticky or jammed travellers can cause sudden, abrupt movement of the conductor in the sagging spans and . yuickly cause change of sag, particularly, if the conductor is r' eady tensioned to the required value.

During sagging care shall be taken to eliminate differen'.ial sags in the sub-conductor as far as possible. However, in no c.zse sag mismatch of more than 25mm shall be allowed.

d.9.6 Clipping in/Clamping in of Conductors

The clipping portion of the conductor stringing operation

involves the work following sagging and plumb marking of the conductors. This entails removing the conductors from the travellers and placing them in their permanent suspension clamps attached to the insulator assemblies.

When clipping is being done, care must be exercised to ascertain that the conductors are grounded prior to clipping despite the fact that the lines being clipped are not attached to any electrical source. This involves placing a local ground upon the conductor at the location of work.

After the conductors have been marked, the erection crew will lift the weight of the conductors, allowing the travellers to be removed and the suspension clamps, and armour rod, if any used, to be placed on the conductors. Lifting is normally done by use of a hoist suspended from the structure and a conductor lifting hook which is designed so as not to notch or severely bend the conductors. After placing the suspension clamps on the conductor, the hooks are lowered thereby placing the weight of the conductor on the suspension clarnpandcompleting the assembly. Where bundle conductors are used, the multiple conductors may be lifted simultaneously by using a yoke arrangement supporting the hooks and a single hoist or other lifting means.

11.9.7 Installation of Spacers

Following the clipping operations for bundled conductor lines, spacers must be installed. This is done by placing the erection crew on the conductors in the 'conductor car' normally known as spacer cycle to ride from structure. Depending on the length of line to be spacered and the equipment available, cars may be hand powered, towed by persons on the ground or in adjacent structures with ropes, or powered by a small engine on the car itself. Care must be exercised to ensure that the concentrated load of the man, car and equipment does not increase the sag appreciably to cause a hazard from obstructions over which the car will pass. The installation of the spacers on the conductor varies with the type and manufacture of the spacer and is normally done in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

The load of the man, car and equipment should be equally distributed to all sub-conductors of the phase. This is particularly important at the time each spacer is attached. Number of spacers-per span and the spacings are provided as per the approved spacer placement chart

11.9.8 Installation of Vibration Dampers/Spacer Dampers

Vibration Dampers/Spacer Dampers are normally placed on the conductors immediately following clipping to prevent any possible wind vibration damage to the conductors which at critical tensions and wind conditions can occur in a matter of a few hours.

The number of dampers/spacer dampers and spacing are provided as per the design requirement and instructions of the manufacturers.

- r ,

,. ;.-

24

Construction of Transmission Lines .: c

_- ---- ------------- - ---------------------- -._------- .. _--_----_---_._-----

11.9.9 Jumpering

The jumpers at the Section and angle towers shall be formed to parabolic shape to ensure maximum clearance requirements, Pnotsuspension insulator string shall be used, if found necessary, to restrict the jumper swings to the design values. Clearance between the conductors and ground and between jumpers and the tower steel work shall be checked during erection and before handing over the line.

11.9.10 Ground Undulation

The provision of 150mm shall be made to account for any undulations in the ground in final still air sag at maximum.

11.10 HOT-LINE STRINGING OF E.H.V. LINES

11.10.1 General

Hot line stringing means stringing of second circuit on the same tower with first circuit electrically & mechanically loaded. This is shown in Figure A.

11.10.1.1 With the available techniques, the hoi-line stringing is done in this country only upto 220 kV. The advantage of stringing second circuit at a later date (with not-line method) is saving in initial capital investment in the form of conductors, insulated hardware. Besides. with provision of Double circuit towers from the beginning saves way problems as second corridor is not required for second circuit

11.10.2 Precautions

11.10.2.1 Hot-line stringing is a specialised job and calls for special precautions. All the crew members are provided with rubber shoes and hand-gloves and are compelled to use them

during the stringing. _

11.10.2.2. All the drums of conductor and pilot wires are solidi y earthed. All the tension locations, where the conductor ends are terminated, are solidly earthed.

11.10.2.3 In addition to above, during final sagging and clipping operation, standard earthing rods are used for connecting each conductor to the tower body.

11.10.3 Operations

11.1 0.3.1 Arrangement for earthing the conductor drums and pilot wire drums is made at both the ends of the section under stringing. The hoisting of insulators, clamping of pilot wire and the conductor and rough sagging of conductor is done as per normal stringing method.

11.10.3.2 Before marking and clipping the dead ends, each phase conductor is solidly earthed in two separate set'>. One set is earthed by means of droppers and earthing rods and second set is by eanhing of conductor end to tower body. This is shown in the Figure B.

While removing the second set of earthing, the conductor end is removed first and the tower end later. Similarly in case of the first set the cable is disconnected from conductor end first and the rod end later.

11.10.3.3 Similarly, before clipping the conductor on the suspension towers, each conductor on both the sides of the clamp is earthed to tower body. After the clipping is over, the earthing cable is first removed from the conductor end and later from the tower end. This is shown in the Figure C.

11.10.3.4 In order to limit the parallelism and induced voltages, it is advisable to do the jumpering work at the end. While doing the jumpering work also the earthing cables are required to be provided.

11.10.4 Earthing

11.10.4.1 Solid earthingsareprovided by driving oneor more G.!. SPIKES in the soil as done in pipe type of earthing. If required, more pipes are driven at the same place. In any case the soil resistance should not be more than 5 ohms.

11.10.4.2 In case of rocky soils, counterpoise type earthing system is used. The length of the wires is decided by trial & error till the earth resistance is lowered to 5 ohms or less.

11.10.4.3 For earthing a flexible copper cable having 10 sq. mm area (20 Ampere capacity) is used. The cable is generally armoured type for rough use. Proper clamps/connectors are used to connect the cable to the conductor and to the earth.

Circuit No. - 2 to be strul'lg is hot line

F1GUREA

Construction of Transmission Lines

25

E/W

TIC

H/C

B/C

Tension tower

G.l.

Earth

Longitudinal Vie ....

FIGUREll

ElW

10 mm2 flexible earthing cable

TIC

H/C

B/C

Suspension tower

FIGURE C

.i

26.

. Construction of Transmission U",s

i

:

11.11 PROTECTION OF TOWER FOOTINGS

The work includes all necessary stone revetment, concreting and earth filling above ground level and the clearance from stacking on the side of all surplus excavated soil, special measures for protection of foundations close to or in nallahas, river beds, etc., by providing suitable revetment or galvanised wire neuing and meshing packed with boulders.

A typical revetment drawing is shown in Annexure-'Q'

lL12 TESTING AND COMMISSIONING

11.12.1 General

Before the line is energised, visual examination of the line shall be carried out to check that all nuts and bolts are tight and insulators and accessories 3n1 in position. The earth connections shall also be checked to verify that these are in order.

11.12.2 Testing

Before commissioning of the lines, the following tests may be carried out:

(a) Conductor continuity leSi- The objective of this test is to verify that each conductor of the overhead line is properl y connected electrically (that is, the value of its electrical resistance does not vary, abnormally from that of a continuous conductor of the same size and length). The electrical resistance of the conductor shall be measured with a Wheatstone bridge or other suitable instrument.

(b) Insulation resistance test-This test may be carried out with the help of a 5 kV megger preferably driven to ascertain the insulation condition of the line.

11.122.1 The line may then be kept charged on no load at the power frequency voltage preferably for 72 hours. for the purpose of full scale testing.

11.12.3 Statutory Requirements

The stannary authorities shall be informed before commissioning the lines and their approval obtained in accordance with Indian Electricity Act, 1910 and Indian Electricity Rules, 1956. (For details see Rules 63 to 69 of Indian Electricity Rules, 1956).

11.13 REFERENCES

1. IEEE Guide to the Installation of Overhead Transmission Line Conductors. (IEE Std. 524-1980). Published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 345 East 47th Street, New York 1.0017, Dec' 18, 1980.

2. The following papers published by the Association of Indian Engineering Industry Transmission Line Division Published on the occasion of International Conference on Trends in Transmission Line Technology during 17th- 18th April, 1985.

(i) "Latest Erection Techniques for Tranmission Line Construction" by Shri R. K. Madan, Mis National Hydro-electric Power Corporation.

(ii) "Tower Foundation design practice" by Shri S.D.

Dand, Mis KEC International Limited, Kurla.

3. Overhead Line Practice-by John Mc-COMBE.

4. Manual ofTransmission Line Towers-Technical Report No.9 of Central Board of Irrigation and Power.

5. Text book on "Surveying and Levelling-by Shri T.P.

Kanetkar.

6. "Company Standard Guide for Transmission Line Surveying"-EMC Ltd., Calcutta.

7. Indian Standard Codes

(a) IS: 5613 (Part Il/Section I)-I976-Code of Practice for Design, Installation and Maintenance of Overhead Power Lines-(Lines above 11 kV and upto and including 220 kV).

(b) IS: 5613 (part Il/Section 2)-1976-Code of Practice for Design, Installation and Maintenance of Overhead Power Lines-(Lines above 11 kV and upto and including 220 kV).

(c) IS : 4091-1979-Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Foundations for Transmission Line Towers and Poles.

(d) IS: 456-1978-Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete.

(e) IS: 3043-1966-Code of Practice for Earthing.

(f) Draft "Indian Standard Code of Practice for Design, Installation and Maintenance for Overhead Power Lines" -Part 3 (400 k V Lines)-Section 1- Design- "IS : 5613 (part III/Sec. I.)".

ConslrucllOn oj Transmission Lines 27
---- -_-------
ANNEXURE 'A'
1. CLEARANCES
1.1 The minimum clearances shall be in accordance with Indian Electricity Rules, 1956 and are given in Table I
TABLE-I
Minimum Clearances
VOLTAGE CATEGORY EXTRA
(IE RLfLES, 1956) HIGH VOLTAGE HIGH VOLTAGE
Nominal System- Voltage 33kV 66kV 110kV 132kV 220kV 400kV ± 500 kV 800kY
Clearance (Minimum value in m) HVDe
(i) Clearance to Ground
(a) Across street 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 7.0 8.84 13.20 12.40
(b) Along street 5.8 6.1 6.1 6.1 7.0 8.84 13.20 12.40
(c) Other areas 5.2 5.5 6.1 6.1 7.0 8.84 13.20 12.40
(ii) Clearance to Buildings
(a) Vertical (*) -from
highest object 3.66 3.97 4.58 4.58 s.4J $ 7.32 11.59 10.90
(b) Horizontal (+) -from
nearest point 1.83 2.14 2.75 2.75 3.66 5.49 10.98 9.15
(iii) At Crossings with
(a) Tramway/trolley bus 3.05 3.36 3.76 3.97 4.78 6.44 10.14
(b) Telecom lines 2.44 2.75 2.75 3.05 4.67 8.18
(c) Railway #
1 Category 'A' and 'C' Groad Guage
Inside station area 10.0 10.3 10.6 10.9 11.2 16.630
Outside station area 7.6 7.9 8.2 8.5 8.8 14.630
Metre/Narrow Gauge
Inside station area 8.8 9.1 9.5 9.8 10.0
Outside station area 6.4 6.7 7.0 7.3 7.6
2. Category 'S'-All Gauges
Inside station area 12.3 13.0 13.7 14.0 15.3 18.63
Outside station area 10.5 11.0 11.7 12.0 13.3 16.63
(iv) Between Lines when crossing each other (derived)
250 V 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
650 V 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
11 kV 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
22kV 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
33 kV 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
66kV 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
110 kV 2.75 2.75 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
132kV 3.05 3.05 3.05 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
220kV 4.58 4.58 4.58 4.58 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
400kV 6.10 6.10 6.10 6.10 6.10 6.10 10.80 10.00
± 500 kVDe 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80
800kV 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
NOTE 1: S Should not cross on/near buildings Construction of Transmission Lines

---.-- -_

28

i(a) (*)

For all crossings, the clearance to be obtained at the worst conditions of proximity of wires. The above table has been compiled with the help of Indian Electricity Rules 1956

Vertical clearance to be obtained at maximum still air final sags (at maximum temperature or ice-loaded conductor at 0 degree Celcius).

i i(b) (+ ) Horizon tal clearance to be obtained at worst load condition wi th maxim um deflected conductor position, including that of insulator string, if any.

iii(c) # Category 'A' tracks electrified on 1 500 V dc system.

NOTE 2

NOTE 3

Category 'B '

tracks already electrified.or likely to be converted to or electrified on 25 kV ac system within the foreseeable future.

tracks not likely to be electrified in the foreseeable future.

Category 'C'

[For categories' A' and' B' crossings up to 650 V shall be by means of underground (U.G.) cables; while it is recommended that U.G. cable be upto II kV. For category 'C', it is recommended that U.G. cable be used upto 650 V. Above these, D.G. cable or overhead crossings may be adopted as preferred by the owner. The minim urn clearance between any of the owner's conductors or guard wires and the Railway's conductors shall not be less than 2 rn.]

Station Area means all tracks lying in the area between the outer most signals of a railway station.

1.2 Mid-span clearance between Earthwire and Power Conductor-The following values may be considered subject to the

conditions given below:

(a) These should also meet the requirements of angle of shielding.

(b) The earth wire sag shall be not more than 90 percent of the corresponding sag of power conductor under still air condition for the entire specified temperature range.

Line Voltage (kV)

Minimum Mid-span clearance (m)

33

1.5

66

3.0

110

4.5

132

6.1

220

8.5

400

9.0

±500 kV HVDC

9.0

800 kV

12.0

Note: The mid-span clearance shall be reckoned as direct distance between earthwire and top power conductor, in case of vertical or triangular formation of conductors, or outer power conductors, in ease of horizontal formation of conductors at minimum temperature and still air conditions.

1.3 Live Metal Clearance: The live metal clearance depends upon the voltage of the conductors in different operating conditions. The values of these clearances corresponding to conditions normally considered for the design of lines are given in Table2 .

Construcnon of Transmission Lines

29

ANNEXURE 'A' (Contd.)

TABLE 2

Minimum Electrical Clearances from Live Conductor to Earthed Metal Parts

TYPE OF INSULA TOR SWING IN MINIMUM ELEC1RICAL CLEARANCE FOR LINE VOLTAGE
S1RING DEGREE 33 kV 66kV 110 kV 132 kV 220kV 400kV 500kV
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
(i) Pin insulator Nil 330
(ii) Tension string
(Single/Double) Nil 330 915 1220 1530 2130 3050 3750
Nill 330 915 1220 1530 2130 * *
(iii) Jumper loo 330 915 1220 1530 2130 3050 3750
(1511)
2oo 330 610 915 1070 1675 * *
30° 330 610 915 1070 * *
(iv) Single suspension
string Nil 330 915 1220 1530 2130 3050 3750
15° 330 915 1220 1530 1980 * *
3oo 330 760 1070 1370 1830 * *
45° 330 610 915 1220 1675 * *
600 330 610 915 1070 * * *
(v) Double Suspension
String Nil 330 915 1220 1530 2130 * Notappli-
cable
Note: The effect of galloping or dencing of conductors has not been taken into consideration while specifying the minimum
electrical clearances.
1.3.1 The values given in Table 2 are considered to be suitable for elevations upto 1000 m above the mean see level (MSL). For
heights over 1000 m and up to 3000m above MSL, it is recommended that the values should be increased by 1.25 percent for every
100m height or part thereof.
SPECIAL NOTE: 1) Value for the 33 kV to 220 kV have been copied from IS 5613 (part Il/Sec 1)-1976
2) Values for 400 kV may be checked by the design department,
3) Values for 500 kV are to be filled up by the design department.
* To be filled up by Kurla ___________________ Cons!r_ut;_liono[_Tr{lnsmissior. Li"!!_s

Calculations of Reduced levels & Chainages
A. By Dumpy Level & Chainages
Sample field book observations
Station Angle of Level Readings Collimation
No. Chainage line
deviation Back Inter Forc (H.!.)
sight sight sight
5.62 1!l%.12
A 0 10015' 6.95
12 4.48
17 3.24
27 2.91
37 3.25
50 4.82
85 2.94
lOO 2.01
150 1.28
200 5.44 - 0.68 19(XUs8
B 300 20°10' 3.58
_ 4.24 ANNEXURE lB'

Route Plan
Reduced
Level L C R
1890.50
1889.17
1891.64
1892.88
1893.21
1892.87
1891.30
1893.18
1894.11
1894.84
1895.44
1897.30
1896.64 NOTE: All the values are in metres

/

r , By Tachcornetric Survey Sample field book

(

Station Angle Readings Stadia Wire Readings
Number Horizontal Venical
Top Mid Bouom
(1) (M) (B)
(in metres) H.I. ROUlS Plan

Details

L R

10030'(L)

1.4

(B) 9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

l(x)

1

(A) 12°lO'(L)

4°10' 3.60 3.00 2.40
8"24' 1.50 1.00 0.50
10036' 1.40 1.00 0.60
2°18' 1.10 1.00 0.90
0000' 1.52
0000' 3.04 3.00 2.96
(-) 11005' 3.05 3.00 2.95
(- ) 6°10' 2.10 2.00 1.90
2°40' 1.15 1.00 0.85
5°18' 1.20 1.00 0.80
2°12' 1.20 LOO 0.80
0000' 1.25 1.00 0.75 I.P.

l

«()!l:!lrUCllon oj Transmission Lines

__________ 31

ANNEXURE'B' Contd)

Calculations (Tacheometric Survey)

Height of Instrument = H.I.

R.L. of Instrument Station (R.LJ =

lAO rn 100.00

Stn. No.

Vertical angle

s

m

Horizontal

Vertical

R.L.A.= RLo+H.I±V-m inm

Remarks

(T-B)

distance V=D Tan e

D=sxK Cos e

(B) 4°10' 1.20 3.00 119.37 8.70 107.10 Angle pt (B)
9 8°24' 1.00 1.00 97.87 14.45 114.85
6 10036' 0.80 1.00 77.29 14.46 114.86
7 2°18' 0.20 1.00 19.97 0.80 10l.20
6 0000' 0.00 1.52 0.00 0.00 99.88 Exst. pt
8 0000' 0.08 3.00 0.00 0.00 98.40
4 (-) 1005' 0.10 3.00 10.00 (-) 0.19 98.21
3 (-) 6°10' 0.20 2.00 19.76 (-) 2.14 97.26
2 2°40' 0.30 1.00 29.94 1.39 101.79
Ix 5°18' 0.40 1.00 39.66 3.68 104.08 CST (I)
1 2°12' 0.40 1.00 39.94 1.53 101.93
(A) 0000' 0.50 1.00 50.00 0.00 100.40 Angle pt (A)
B.M.l00.00
Where' K' is the.Instrument Coefficient which is furnished by the Instrument manufacturers. In the above calculations value
of 'K' has been taken as 100.
V=DTAN9 Where
D = sxkxCos28 RLo = Reduced Level of Instrument Station
RLA= RLo+ HJ±V-ffi RLA = Reduced Level of Staff Station Staff

Collilllation line

G.l.

Stadia .... ith Line of Collimation Inclined

_ _.- -- - _._.. ,. -.----t.~---

l .

<:> <:> -3

IV -o

c,

a..

--

o

~ u ..... ClI -'" Vl

.,; Z

c:> '" ,.,

00·6~ OO·OZ

00·15 0061

oo-zs ooal

ons DOLI

00·a5

ons

DrlS

00·09

00·59 00ll

05·59

06·59

on9 006

Dna 008

onL DOL

OHs 009

00·59 005

OS,L

5,-01

<:> C> C> ..z

e :>

"Ii

o

~ .. .... :> ~ .. ex:

0091

0051

OO~I

OO£L

OOU

0001

OOZ

.. • ...

Oi e

.5

.. ... c ,.

'";;; a

n; e

~ o Z

·0 Vl

..

Ii z

.", c

.!!

.", OJ

- '" >

~ "5

'-'

.. OJ .&. .. :> III

.. GO .&. .. :> III

Construction oj Transmission Lines

33

ANNEXURED

Typical Sag Template Drawing

Ground clearance curve (3) Tower footing curve (4)

Normal span 400 m

Scala

Hor. 1 cm = 20m Ver. 1 cm = 2 m

PARTICULAR

1. CONDUCTOR MOOSE ACSR

2. ULTIMATE STRENGTH 16434 Kg'

3. TEMPERATURE RANGE 00-370-75°

4. NORMAL SPAN 400 m

5. SAG OF CONDUCTOR AT MINIMUM TEMPERATURE AT NORMAL TEMPERATURE NOWIND

6. MAXIMUM SAG

CONDUCTOR 12.865 m

EARTHWIRE 10.196 m

7. TENS'ION AT MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE

STILL WIND

8. TENSION AT MINIMUM TEMPERATURE

STILL WIND

GROUNDCLEARANCE 8.840 m

GROUND UNDULATIONS 0.150 m

ANNEXURE-E

Construction a/Transmission Lines

STRUCTURE LIMITATION CHARTrrOWER SPOTTING DATA (FOR 400 KV TRANSMISSION LINES)

Tower Type 'A'MKD. 'A' 'B'MKD. 'B' 'C' MKD. 'C' 'D'MKD.'D'
Max. Angle of Deviation 2° 15° 15° to 300 6QO/D.E.
Vertical Load Limitations
on Weight Span. Max. (Min.) Max. (Min) Max. (Min.) Max (Min.)
Groundwire effect
(a) Both Spans 600 (200) 600 (0) 600 (0) 600 (0)
(b) One Span 360 (100) 360 (-200) 300 (-200) 360 (-300)
Conductor effect
(a) Both Spans 600 (200) 600 (0) 600-({) 600 (0)
(b) One Span 360 (100) 360 (-200) 360 (-200) 360 (-300)
Weights
Groundwire effect
(a) Both Spans 350 (117) 350 (0) 350 (0) 350 (0)
(b) One Span 210 (58) 210 (-117) 210 (-117) 210 (-175)
Conductor effect
(a) Both Spans 2405 (802) 2405 (0) 2405 (0) 2405 (0)
(b) One Span '~~~,::~~) 1443· (~02) 1443 (~02) 1443 (~02)
",\j
Permissible sum of " ,'2°~OO 15°~00 300~00 6QO-800
adjacent span for 1~38 14-876 29-874 59-868
various deviation 0-878 13-956 28-952 58-936 I..
angles. 12-1034 ' 27-1028 57-1004
11-11 1'2 26-1104 56-1074
10-1190 25-1182 55-1144
Design
(a) Groundwire
(i) 32° Full wind 1574 1561/1574 1520/1574 1363/1574
(ii) ()O x 2!3 Full wind 1525 1521/1525 1473/1525 1321/1525
(b) Conductor
(i) 32l' Full wind 4470 8864/8940 8635/8940 7742/8940
(ii) ()O x 2!3 Full wind 4582 9086/9164 8852/9164 7936/9164
TOWER TYPE
18m and 25m Extension (a) Maximum Wind span 300m
for Tower type 'A' marked 'A' (b) Deviation Angle o degree
(c) Vertical load Limitation on Weight span of Conductor/Ground wire;
Maximum Minimum
(i) Both spans 600 200
(ii) One span 360 100 Consrrucrion of Transmission Lines

35

ANNEXUREE (Contd.)

6A. J 8m and 25m Extension

for Tower type 'D' marked 'D'

(a) Maximum wind span 400 m

(b) Deviation Angle 40 degree

(c) Vertical load limitation on weight span of Conductor/Groundwirc:

Maximum

Minimum

(i) Both spans (ii) One span

(-) 600 (-) 360

o (-) 300

7. 8.

Way leave clearance 26 metres either side from centre of line of tower.

Electrical clearance for Railway crossing

I

(a) For Category' A' (Section electrified on 1500 Volts D.C.)

(b) For Category 'B' (Section already electrified or likely to be

convened to or electrified on 25 kV A.C. System within

foreseeable future 18.63

(c) For Category 'C' (Section not likely to be electrified in the foreseeable future)

(i) for Broad guage tracks 13.41

Inside station limits (m) 16.63

Outside station limits (m) 14.63

16.63

9.

(ii) for Metre & Narrow guage tracks

Minimum clearance between power line to power line crossing

12.19 6100 mm

10.97 9.75

NOTES:

l. Vertical loads on individual spans are acting downwards for suspension towers.

2. Broken wire condition: As per specification requirement.

3. Maximum sum of adjacent spans for various angles of deviations are subjected to the condition that maximum live metal clearance and minimum ground clearance are available.

4. Limit of Highway crossing span: 250 metres

5. Maximum deviation angle for dead end tower:

(a) Line side and Slack span side: 15 degree on either side.

(b) For River crossing Anchoring with longer wind span with 0 degree deviation on crossing span and 30 degree deviation on either side.

6. Angle tower types 'B', 'C' & 'D' are designed for following unbalanced tension resulting from unequal Ruling spans of 200 m and 400 m on each side of the towers for normal condition only.

Temperatures

Unbalanced Tension

At 32 degree Celsius (Without wind) At Zero degree Celsius (Without wind)

Groundwire 80

85

Conductor 983 376

7. Tower type 'C' to be used as Transposition tower with 0 degree deviation.

8. Tower type' B' to be used as Section towers. The number of consecutive spans between two section points shall not exceed 15.

--_- - .-- .. ------
~.~~;
" r-
. [~~
36 Construction of Transmission Lines
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38 Construction of Transmission Lines

=------------------------------------------------

;-". ",.

ANNEXUREH

Sketch 0 f Hill Side Extensions

u.

_L" -'1SlrUCILOn of Transmlssion Lines

ANNEXUREl

EXCAVA nON MARKING CHART

ELEVATION

D

ibI W

"'/ /

/

/ /

. /

.V·

/.

f------M-----~ PLAN

Dimensions in mm
Description Dimensions for pit marking
H F M N AS AB( ABCO ABCOE ABCOEA
(Normilll wet loraticn 3000 2295 9686 13698 S991 9686 11981 15227 20453
-

'Wet location 3000 2295 10661 15077 6478 10661 12956 16202 22118
'Wet lccatien 3000 2295 11637 16457 6966 1'1631 13932 17177 23783 Construction of Transmission Lines

---_-- -----_.

40

(

ANNEXURE:]

PROCEDURE FOR SETTING STUBS AT SITE BY COMBINED TEMPLATE

The Stubs are set with the help of the Stub-setting Templates, which are supplied loose, ready to be assembled at site. All four excavated pits are to be lean concreted to correct level sighted through level and the stubs are to be placed on the lean concrete pad. Correct alignment is carried out by 0.9 kg Plumb bob 4 in numbers hung from centre of horizontal bracings.

Following is the procedure for Stub-setting at site:

1 Assemble the Template as per the drawing alongwith the

supply.

2 Set the Template as per the drawing at site.

3 Place the Stub-setting Jacks below the Template.

4 Align Template, alongwith the line and centre it over the centre peg of the location.

S Fix up the stub to the Template and with the help of a

TEMPLATE

STue

dumpy level, level the Template comers to the required level.

6 Ensure that all the four stubs are at the same level.

7 Check the alignment and centring of the Template again. 8 By placing on 8 to 12 screw jac.ks according to the length

of Template, with a levelling instrument fine adjustment can be made by lifting/lowering the screw jacks, and the stubs can be perfectly levelled. This ensures accurate verticality of the tower. For ensuring all towers in one line and cross-arms at right angle to it, 4 plumb bobs should be dropped from the centre of the horizontal members of the Template to correspond to the cross pegs and alignment pegs given during the line alignment survey for the tower location.

PI T

SCREWJ

'-

Construction of Transmission Lines

41

-_------------------- -----.

ANNEXUREK

Foundation Layout of Unequal Leg Extensions

R.L.100m

3

R.L.97m

/ /

Om leg extension ."." / /'

" ./

X R.L. 100m

/°0 '",

/ "\..

/ "

/ "

-,

-,

R.L.98m

4

2m leg extension

II " I

II I II

" II

I II II

"

Pit No.4

2

3m leg extension

Individual

Leg Template

4m leg extension

T

2m

Pit No.1

( c

42

Different Steps of Tower Erection

3/4" Polypropylene Rope

(

Construction a/Transmission Lines

Polyproplyene Rope ~==F~------~~~ 1" Polypropylene Rope

Step No.1

ANNEXURE L

Step No. n

polypropylene Rope

l

:;onslruclion of Transmission Lines

43

Different Steps of Tower Erection

Step No. m

3/4" Polypropyl Rope

Step No. 'N

.,

44

---_--_

____________________ Cf}_~truction o/Transmission Lines

,

/1

/ /

/

/

Jlfferent Steps of Tower Erection

3/4· Polypropylene rope

Step No. V

Different Steps of T ower Erection

I

Step No. VI

45

Conslruelion of Transmission Lines

Differen t Steps 0 f Tower Eredion

Step No. Vil

)

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it<l

46

--~- -------

Construction o/Transmission Lines

Different Steps of Tower Erection

Step No.

I1i

nstruction oj Transmission Lines

47

Different Steps of Tower Erection

Step No. IX

---------------- ------ ----------

48

Construction oj Transm£~ion Lines

Typical Sketch of pipe Type Earthing

ANNEXURE M

ns mm dia holes for counter

175 mm dia holes for

urthing strip MKD-A --- ~

SOx6 mm th;~" (j~lyd_ steel flat extended 500 mm Deyono ;11. ccncr ere

Requlrel!lent of coke and salt

... N

.;;;

Coke ~ 150 kg Salt ~ 15 kg

Detail at-A

Coke & salt

A

-#tr0!4 · Strip-B7 t

.. _.+._-

13.5 mm dia holes for 12 mm dia bolts Pipe flattend & drilled for 12 111111 dia bolts

<:> ...

~ III III

Detail at-H

.. .0

o ,_

Oetail af -B

Material Reqd. Per Earthing Set

Illy

length in ••

2S .1'1 dia bo .. pipe hot dip Galvd.

SOx6 111m thick Gilvd. stetl flat-B

3000

3325

60x6 11111 thick earthing strip 'A' Reqd one per tower with stub !This strip to be supplied for all tower) This flat will be at right angle to stub & will becoN horizontal after twist

(ill.d. HRH 16 mill dia bolt s & nuts with S til. threads

Gal.d. HRH 12 mm dia bolts & nuts fully threaded

35

30

Construction of Transmission Lines

49

ANNEXURE N

Typical Sk ath of Counter Poise Type Earthing

LL. of Tower

I

Towllegs

·_·t·_·

I I

I I

Reqd length of counter poise wire to minimum of 15.0 m length per leg

Sleeve to be compressed after fixing 'Wire

20

! 1

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m _/ r------ i fT

r-~;""""- I I t ~~o

..., I iii L - - - -. ~ - _f_+ I

T '= 85 .1 L12 111111 dia hole

r :3

50

Construction of Transmission Lines

Sketch of Travellers/Running Blocks tAil dimensions are in mml

ANNEXURE 0

~~._L 1

r-----~~-----+-----L--

Traveller for Single Condudor

T

C> .." ,.,

I_ 86 • I

1

,.,

;:!

1------4200 ---~

Traveller for Bundle Moose Conductor

'":onslruclion of Transmission Lines

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51

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52

Construction of Transmission Lines

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ConslrucllOn of jransrrusslOn Unes

53

APPENDIX :A

MODERN METHODS OF SURVEYING (Reference to the clause: 11.5.2)

1.1 Satellite Doppler Technique

Accurate and flexible survey data arc necessary to achieve the minimum cost transmission line routing with the minimum environmental impact. Precise and reliable topographic data arc obtained including detailed and accurate horizontal and vertical terrain information by compiling large scale 'Orthophoto'. maps of the proposed transmission corridors. These give a 'Picture' of the route which is geometrically correct and overlayed on this are contour lines which depict the changes in elevation of the land.

By studying these maps, transmission corridors are selected which are most attractive for lower installation purposes. Within these corridors. specific line routes can be defined on the map and profiles of these lines are automatically generated for detailed analysis.

Before mapping is produced points with known coordinates are established throughout the area to control the photographs both horizontally and vertically.

Each of the various components of route survey under this technique are discussed in following paras.

1.1.1. J nitial Survey

Under initial survey. one or more preliminary transmission corridors are established. These are established with the help of To po sheets of the region and after having a walkover survey along the tentative route alignment.

1.1.2. Controls

Control points are fixed along the route for which the latitude. longitude and elevations are accurately known. An initial reconnaissance will establish the most suitable sites for the control points based on terrain conditions. Control points need not be proposed along the transmission line corridors. they can be at the sides of roads or elsewhere they cause the minim urn impact on the land owners. Each of these points is to have a permanent marker placed on the ground. This is because the field staff is required to return to the same points again and again during the execution period of the project Two types of permanent markers are used. For the preliminary control, a concrete cylinder is placed approximately 6 ft in the ground with the top of the cylinder flush with the surface. This is used for the 8to 10 points which are surveyed using doppler satellite techniques. Concrete markers are installed along the proposed route to provide the overall basis for the control net work. A receiver is placed on each control point to monitor the position of satellite. From this information. position coordinates are calculated for the receiver locations on the ground.

The remaining points are surveyed using the Inertial

Survey system which coordinate the control points (in x, y and z) between any two of the previously established doppler points. For these points. a 4 ft long steel bar is driven in the ground so that the top is flush with the surface. Inertial Survey System is operated from a helicopter in order to produce large number of coordinated points in a minimum amount of time.

1.13 Orthophoto Mapping

Aerial survey mapping (photogrammetry) has a definite application to the planning and design of transmission lines and is used in the advanced countries both in the preliminary stages of line routing and in the preparation of plan and profile maps for structure plotting.

Aerial photography is taken immediately after fixing the control points along the tentative route alignment in order to minimise the loss of targets due to weather or any other problems. Here it is necessary that these control points show up very clearly when the aerial photography is taken.

Orthophoto is a photograph of the area which is true to scale in all respects. it gives the transmission line engineer a complete picture of all ground features with the added bonus of the required venical data. It is produced from aerial photography using computer technique.

A band. approximately 2 kms wide is generally mapped along the preliminary corridors. The horizontal scale for the mapping is 1: 10.000 with 1 m contour intervals in the plain section and 5 m contour in the mountaneous terrain. This gives a good basis for selection of tower site with spot height accuracy to within I to 2 metres.

Some of the specific advantages of using photogramrnetry techniques for transmission line survey are as under:

1.1.4 Advantages

Determines the best route: The broad coverage provided by aerial photographs facilitate selection of best line route. Potential routing difficulties can be recognised and avoided before any field activity begins. Also angles can be selected easily for efficient and economical use of structures.

1.15 Economical

Aerial surveying has definite economic advantages-both in respect of time and cost. Where mountaineous/rugged terrain. inaccessible swamp land or heavily populated areas are encountered. even greater economies can be realised.

1.1.6 Saves Times

Data that could take months to obtain by ground survey can be obtained by aerial survey in a much shoner period of time.

(

54

Construction of Transmission Lines

1.1.7 Greater Visual Details

The use of photogrammetry techniques provides visual details as well as permanent visual record of existing features which can not be obtained by any other means.

1.1.8 More Accurate Engineering. Design & Construction Bids

Accurate plan and profile maps can be prepared from photographic enlargement, which help the designers to spot the lowers and design the footing with greater accuracy and economy.

1.1.9 Flexibility

All necessary line data, including tower spouing profiling etc. can be determined from the orLhophotos for any number of route variation, without returning to the actual site. In fact, changes in the route alignment can be made with the minimum difficulty.

1.1.1 0 Confidential

Aerial surveys are confidential and therefore help in minimising the way leave problems.

1.1.11 Equipment required and their cost

Equipment required for Satellite Doppler Technique are:

Equipment for control surveys i.e .• Satellite doppler global position system. Inenial survey system and Electronic distance measurement system. Equipment for aerial photography i.e. Aeroplane, Camera & Photomechanical laboratory.

Mapping equipment-Analytical stereo compilers. Cost of these equipments is definitely substantially high and as such initial investment for acquiring the same is much more. In regard to the operational cost, it may vary due to geographic location, distance from aerial survey station to job site. type of aircraft employed, quality of photography and degree of accuracy required.

- \e plate. With post type insulators, the travellers are

JI, .. ected to the end of the insulators. Where travellers are .sraued to string through tension towers, the travellers are .. lly connected directly to the tower. If substantial line wlt'<- are involved, two travellers in tandem may be required , • .-Juce the bending radius of the conductor or the load on h u·aveller. or both.

Where bundled conductor travellers are used at line angle locations of over 5 degrees, it is advisable to change to individual single conductor travellers after the passage of the running board to facilitate accurate sagging.

When adequate quantities of travellers are available, it is common practice to install travellers alongwith the insulators. Under some situations travellers may be attached to slings or rods in place of the normal insulator assembly. Sketch of travellers is shown in Annexure- '0'

Use of travelling grounds and choice of locations must be based on the degree of exposure to electrical hazards. When such hazards exist. as a minimum, traveller grounds should be installed at the first and last tower between tensioner and puller. When stringing in proximity to energized lines. additional grounds shall be installed as required, but at a maximum distance not exceeding 3 km, Additionally. grounds shall be installed within a reasonable distance on each side of an energized crossing. preferably on the adjacent structure.

Travellers with grounds are usually sensitive to direction and care must be exercised in hanging the travellers. Usually the grounds are to the pulling end. Each traveller with grounds must be connected with temporary grounding sets to provide an electrical connection between the traveller and earth, or to some conducting medium that is at earth potential. Personnel should never be in series, with a ground lead. Traveller grounds should have a suitable grounding stub located in an accessible position to enable placing and removing the ground clamps. with hot sticles when necessary. Traveller grounds also help protect the sheave linings .

At the time the travellers are hung, finger lines, when used, . should be installed and tied off at the base of the structures. If the helicopter method of pilot line installation is not to be used, the pilot line could be installed at this time in lieu of finger lines.

11.9.2 Paying out of Earthwire and Conductor 11.92.1 Paying out of Earthwire

Normally earthwire drums are mounted on a turn table.

Pulling machine/tractor are employed to pull the earthwire . Earthwire running blocks are hoisted on the towers prior to taking up of this operation. The earthwire while paying out passes through the earthwire running blocks. Earthwire splices shall be made in such a way that they do not crack or get damaged in the stringing operations. It should be noted that no eanhwire joints are allowed within 30m from the tension or suspension clamp fittings.

11.9.2.2 Paying out of Conductor

11.92.2.1 Slack Layout or Direct Installation Method:

Using this method, the conductor is payed out over the ground rollers by means of a pulling vehicle or the reel carried along the line on a vehicle. The conductor reels are positioned on reel

--- --- .. ---- ------ ----_.- ---_ .... _-._-

20

,C Construction of Transmission Lines ((

stands or jacks. either placed on the ground or mounted on a transporting vehicle. These stands are designed to support the reel on a shaft permitting it to rotate as the conductor is pulled out, Usually a braking device is provided to prevent overrunning and backlash.

When the conductor is payed out past a LOwer pulling is stopped and the conductor placed in travellers are attached to the structure before proceeding to the next structure.

This method is generally applicable to the construction of new lines in cases where maintenance of conductor surface condition is not critical and where terrain is easily accessible to a pulling vehicle. The method is not usually economically applicable in urban locations where hazards exist from traffic or where there is danger of contact with energized circuits, nor it is practical in mountainous regions inaccessible to pulling vehicles.

Major equipment required to perform slack stringing includes reel stands, pulling vehicles and a splicing cart.

11.9.2.2.2 Tension Stringing Method

Multi-conductor lines shall generally be strung with the help of tension stringing equipment. Using this method. the conductor is kept under tension during the stringing process. Normall y. this method is used to keep the conductor clear of the ground and obstacles which might cause conductor surface damage and clear of energized circuits. It requires pulling of a light pilot line through the travellers. w~}.ch in turn is used to pull ina heavier pulling line. The pulling line is then used to pull in the conductors from the reel stands using specially designed tensioners and pullers. For lighter conductors. a light weight pulling line may be used in place of pilot line to directly pull in the conductor. A helicopter or ground vehicle can be used to pull or layout a pilot line or pulling line. Where a helicopter is used to pull out a line, synthetic rope is normall y used to attach the line to the helicopter and prevent the pulling or pilot line from flipping into the rotor blades upon release. The tension method of stringing is applicable where it is desired to keep the conductor off the ground to minimise surface damage or in areas where frequent crossings are encountered. The amount of right of way travel by heavy equipment is also reduced. Usually. this method provides the most economical means of stringing conductor. The helicopter use is particularly advantageous in rugged or poorly accessible terrain.

Major equipment required for tension stringing includes reel stands, tensioner, puller, reel winder, pilot line winder. splicing cart and helicopter or pulling vehicle.

While running out the conductors, care shall be taken such that the conductors do not touch and rub against the ground or objects which could cause scratches or damage to the strands. The conductor shall not be over-strained during erection. The conductor shall be run out of the drums from the top in order to avoid damage due to chafing.

Wherever required jointing of conductor during paying out will be carried out.

11.9.2.2.2.1 Typical Procedures for Stringing Operations

1l.9.2.2.2.1.1 Site Selection, Equipment Location, Anchor and Equipment Grounding

11.9.2.2.2.1.1.1 su« Selection

The selection of pull. tension. anchor and splicing sites must consider accessibility. location of deadrnems, length of conductor LD be strung, available conductor and line lengths, puller capacity, including placement of pullers. tensioners and conductor anchor locations, placement of reel stands, pilot line winders, reel winders and the ability to provide an adequate grounding system.

11.9.2.2.2.1.1.2 Equipmeni Locations

The locations of the puller, tensioners and intermediate anchor sites must be selected so that the structures are not overloaded. A pulling line slope of three horizontal to one vertical from the traveller to the site is considered good practice. It is also necessary that the puller be positioned so that the pulling line enters the machine at the smallest horizontal angle thereby minimizing the possibility of damaging the line. When a bull wheel type puller is employed. the reel winder to recover the pulling line is located at the pulling site. The pilot line winder is located at the tensioner site.

The arrangement of the tensioner and reel stands should be such that the lateral angle between the conductor as it approaches the bull w heel and the plane of rotation of the wheel is not large enough to cause the conductor to rub on the sides of the groove. For example. birdcaging problems were eliminated in large conductors by using a maximum fleet angle of 1.5 degree from the plane normal to the conductor reel axis and a back tension of approximately 4500 N. Problems of bird caging are normally more acute in the case oflargeconductors having three or more aluminum layers.

11.9.2.2.2.1.1.3 Anchors

Anchors are normally required for holding equipment in place and snubbing conductors against tensions imposed. The type of anchor is dependent upon the soil conditions and stringing and sagging tensions. Portable equipment as well as ground type anchors are often used for this purpose. Slack should be removed from all anchor lines prior to loading to minimize the possibility of equipment movement or impact loads to the anchors.

11.9.2.2.2.1.1.4 Equip_Ill Grounding

Adequate grounding must be established at all sites. The methods required and equipment used will be determined by the degree of exposure to electrical hazards and the soil conditions at the site. All equipment, conductors, anchors and structures within the work area must be bonded together and to the ground source.

Con.SITUCiiiJn 0/' Fransnussion Lines

21

J 1.<).2.2.:'.1.2 Installation ofConducior

Once the rope pulling lines have been installed prior to IJulling in any conductor or conducnvc type pulling lines, a -unning ground must be installed between the rcclstand or tcnsioncr lor conductor. or puller for pulling line. and the first lower. This ground must be bonded 10 the ground previously

stablishcd at the site.

Pulling lines are usually pulled in under tension. The pulling line is then connected to a single conductor through swivel link. or to bundle conductors through swivel links and , running board.

Swivcllinks should not be used on a three strand synthetic pulling line. Pulling lines may be synthetic fibre or wire rope. "'hen wire rope is used, it is recommended that swaged type Ir braided type be used since ithas less tendency to rotate under load, which minimizes spinning problems.

A ball bearing swivel link is usually used for the connections .etween conductors. pulling lines and running boards. Swivel 'inks must be sufficient rated worked load to withstand loads placed on them during tension stringing. They should also be compaublc with the travellers being used so that they can pass

hrough without spreading or damaging the sheaves. These special line stringing s~ivcllinks are clevis type and cornpatiblc with woven wire grips and swaged steel pulling lines. It is .

ccornrnendcd that swivel links not be passed over bullwheels under significant tension since they may be weakened or damaged due to bencting.

When reeving the bullwhecls of a tensioner with the 'onductor entering and leaving the wheel from the top facing in the direction of pull, the conductor should enter from the left and leave from the right for right hand lay (standard for

luminium conductor) and enter from the right and leave from the left for left-hand lay (standard for groundwire). The procedure eliminates the tendency of loosening of outer layer .trands while conductor passes around the bull wheel.

It is recommended that conductor of only one rnanufac'urer be used in a given pull, and preferably in any given ruling span. This precaution helps in minimizing the possibility of ..Iifference In sag characteristic of conductor significantly.

Attachment of the conductor to the pulling line, running hoard or to another reel of conductor to be pulled successively IS accomplished by the use of woven wire grips. These grips

hould be compatible strength wise and sized as close as 'l()ssible for the conductor or pulling line on which they are used. Overall diameter of the grip over the conductor or rope .hould be small enough to pass over the sheaves without "arnage to the sheave or its lining and the grip must also be capable of mating with a proper size swivel link.

Metal bands should be installed over the grip to prevent it .rorn accidentally coming off and dropping the conductor. The .pen end of the grip should be secured with two bands. This should then be wrapped with tape to prevent accidentally

stripping the gnp 011 the conductor if the end were to snag or catch. This is particularly Important when these grips are used on pulling lines or between lengths of conductor when more than one reel is strung. The grips will then pass through the travellers backwards and if the ends arc not banded and taped, they may slip off.

Experience has shown that pulling speed is an important factor in achieving a smooth stringing operation. Speeds of 3- 4 km/hour usually provide a smooth passage of the running board or connecting hardware, or both, over the travellers. whereas slower speeds may cause significant swinging of the traveller and insulator hardware assemblies. Higher speeds create a potential hazard of greater damage in case of a malfunction.

The maximum tension imposed on a conductor during stringing operations should not exceed than necessary to clear obstructions on the ground. Thisclcarance should be confirmed by observation. In general, stringing tension of about one-half of the sagging tension is a good criterion. If greater tensions are required, consideration must be given to any possible prestressing of conductors that may result, based on the tension and lime involved. Consideration must also be given to the fact that when long lengths of conductor are strung, the tension at the pulling end may exceed the tension at the tensioner by a significant amount. Difference in tension is caused by the length of conductor strung, number and performance of travellers, differences in elevation of supporting structures, etc.

Light and steady back tension should be maintained on the conductor reels at all times sufficient to prevent over run in case of a sudden stop. It must also be sufficient to cause the conductor to lie snugly in the first groove of the bull wheel and to prevent slack in the. conductor between bull wheels. It may be necessary periodically to loosen the brake on the reel stand as the conductor is payed off. As the reel empties, the moment arm available to overcome the brake drag is reduced, and the tension therefore rises. This may cause the conductor to wedge into the underlying layers on the reel.

The reel should be positioned so that it will rotate in the same direction as the bullwheels. Loosening of the stranding that often occurs between the reel and the bullwheels of th~ tensioner is caused to a great extent by coil memory in the conductor. As the conductor is unwound from the reel and straightens out, the outer strands become loose, a conctition that is particularly noticeable in a large diameter conductor andean be best observed at the point at which it leaves the reel. As the conductor enters the bull wheel groove, the pressure of contact tends to push the loose outer strands back towards the reel where the looseness accumulates, leading to the condition commonly known as birdcaging. If this condition is not controlled, the strands can become damaged to the extent that the damaged area of conductor must be removed. This 'problem can be remedied by allowing enough distance between the reel and tensioner to permit the strand looseness to distribute along

22

Cons/ruc(iQl'loJTransmissjQnLines

the intervening length of conductor and simultaneously maintaining enough back tension on the reel stretch the core and inner strands to sufficiently tighten the outer strands.

The maximum time conductors may safely remain in the travellers depends on wind induced vibration or other motion of the conductors. Wind blown sand can severely damage conductors in a few hours if clearance is less than about 3m over loose sand with little vegetation. Damage from vibration at sagging tensions is quite possible and, when required, dampers should be installed promptly. However, at lower tensions generally used for initial stringing, damage to conductors or sheave bearings, or both, is not likely to occur from vibration. Even for travellers having lined sheaves with root diameters 20 times the conductor diameter, it is important to complete conductor stringing, sagging, plumb marking, clipping. spacing and damping operations as soon as possible to prevent conductor damage from weather. particularly wind. Conductor should not be strung if adverse weather is predicted before the entire sequence can be completed.

Sub-conductor oscillation may occur in bundled conductor lines and tie-down methods. Temporary spacers. or other means may be required to prevent conductor surface damage prior to installation of spacers. Temporarily positioning of one sub-conductor above another to prevent conductor clashing is undesirable since different tension history will produce subconductor mismatch unless the tensions are low and duration short enough so that creep is not a factor. Conductor clashing can mar the strands and produce slivers which can result in radio noise generation.

If a bull wheel type puller is utilized. the pulling line must be recovered during the pulling operation on a separate piece of equipment. This function is usually performed by a reel winder which is placed behind the puller in an arrangement similar to the reel stand at the tension site. These coils shall be removed carefully and if another length is required to be run out, a joint shall be made according to the recommendation of the manufacturers. Drum battens shall be removed just prior to moving drums on drum stands. Drums will be transported and positioned on station with the least possible amount of rolling.

The conductors. joints and clamps shall be erected in such a manner that no birdcaging, over-tensioning of individual wires or layers or other deformation or damage to the conductors shall occur. Clamps or hauling devices shall. under erection conditions. allow no relative movement of strands or layers of the conductors.

Scaffolding shall be used where roads. rivers. channels. telecommunication or overhead power lines. railway lines, fences or walls have to be crossed during stringing operations. It shall be seen that normal services are not interrupted or damage caused to property. Shut-down shall be obtained when working at crossing of overhead power lines.

The sequence of running out shall be from top to downwards i.e. the earthwire shall be run out first, followed by the conductors in succession. In case of horizontal configuration tower. middle conductor shall be strung before stringing of outer conductors is taken-up.

A sketch of Tension stringing operation is shown in Annexure- 'P'

11.9.3 Repairing of Conductor

Repairs to conductors. in the event of damage caused to isolated strands of a conductor during the course of erection. if necessary. shall becarriedoutduring the running out operations, with repair sleeves. Repairing of conductor surface shall be done only in case of minor damage, scuff marks etc., keeping in view both electrical and meChanical safe requirements.

Repair sleeves may be used when the damage is limited to the outer layer of the conductor and is equivalent to the severances of not more than one third of the strands of the outer most layer. No repair sleeve shall be fitted within 30m of tension or suspension hardware fittings. nor shall more than one repair sleeve per conductor normally be permitted in any one span.

11.904 Jointing

The fullest possible use shall be made of the maximum conductor lengths. in order to reduce to a minimum number of joints. All the joints on the conductor shall be of compression type. in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturers for which all necessary tools and equipments like compressors. die sets etc .• shall be arranged. The final conductor surface shall be clean smooth and shall be without any projections. sharp points, cuts, abrasions etc .• Conductor ends to be joined shall be coated with an approved grease immediately before final assembly. Surplus grease shall be removed after assembly.

All joints or splices shall be made atleast 30 metres away from the structures. No joints or splices shall be made in tension spans. No tension joint shall be used in any span crossing other major power lines.

The compression type fitting used shall be of self -centering type or care shall be taken to mark the conductors to indicate when the fitting is centred properly. During compression or splicing operation the conductor shall be handled in such a manner as to prevent lateral or vertical bearing against the dies. After pressing the joint the aluminium sleeve shall have all corners rounded, burrs and sharp edges removed and smoothened.

11.9.5 Final Sagging of Conductor and Earthwire

The final sagging of the conductor shall be done by sagging winches.

After being rough sagged the conductor/earthwire shall not be allowed to hang in the stringing blocks for more than 96

23

IrJnSlrUCllon or Transmission Lines

ours before being pulled to the specified sag.

The tensioning and sagging shall be done in accordance with the approved stringing charts before the conductors and earth wire are final I y auached to the towers through the earthwire . am ps for the earth wire and insulator strings for the conductor.

The sag will be checked in the first and last span of the Section in case of Sections upto eight spans and in one .ntcrrncdiate span also for sections with more than eight spans. ne sag shall also be checked when the conductors have been drawn up and transported from running blocks to the insulator cramps.

The running blocks, which are suspended from the • -msmission structure for sagging shall be so adjusted that the conductors on running blocks will be at the same height as the ~uspension clamp to which it is to be secured.

At sharp vertical angles, the sags and tensions shall be , I,ecked on both sides of the angle, the conductor andearthwire shall be checked on the running blocks for quality of tension on vvth sides. The suspension insulator assembly will normally

-sume vertical positions when the conductor is clamped.

Tensioning and sagging operations shall be carried out in normal weather when rapid changes in temperatures are not .zely to occur. Sag board and dynamometers shall be emr'oyed for measuring sag and tension respectively.

The dynarnometers employed shall be periodically checked and calibrated with a standard dynamometer.

Attempts to sag conductor on excessively windy day t' ould be avoided since serious error can result due to conductor ,'olift caused by wind pressure on the conductor. Should severe wind conditions occur when sagging is in progress, the sagging _ ast be stopped till peaceful conditions prevail to resume ;'gging.

Once a Section has been sagged, the sub-conductors of the bundle should be checked for evenness. Unevenness, if any, all be rectified as far as possible with the help of sag adjuster.

The travellers which are used to string conductor are not frictionless and therefore, can cause problems during a sagging operation. If one or more of the travellers becomes jammed,

. :;ging can become very difficult A traveller which swings in ~he direction of the pull may be an indication of a defective traveller. Should unexplainable sagging difficulties occur, the

" ~veller should be checked. Tensions applied to the conductor

( , overcome sticky or jammed travellers can cause sudden, abrupt movement of the conductor in the sagging spans and . yuickly cause change of sag, particularly, if the conductor is r' eady tensioned to the required value.

During sagging care shall be taken to eliminate differen'.ial sags in the sub-conductor as far as possible. However, in no c.zse sag mismatch of more than 25mm shall be allowed.

d.9.6 Clipping in/Clamping in of Conductors

The clipping portion of the conductor stringing operation

involves the work following sagging and plumb marking of the conductors. This entails removing the conductors from the travellers and placing them in their permanent suspension clamps attached to the insulator assemblies.

When clipping is being done, care must be exercised to ascertain that the conductors are grounded prior to clipping despite the fact that the lines being clipped are not attached to any electrical source. This involves placing a local ground upon the conductor at the location of work.

After the conductors have been marked, the erection crew will lift the weight of the conductors, allowing the travellers to be removed and the suspension clamps, and armour rod, if any used, to be placed on the conductors. Lifting is normally done by use of a hoist suspended from the structure and a conductor lifting hook which is designed so as not to notch or severely bend the conductors. After placing the suspension clamps on the conductor, the hooks are lowered thereby placing the weight of the conductor on the suspension clarnpandcompleting the assembly. Where bundle conductors are used, the multiple conductors may be lifted simultaneously by using a yoke arrangement supporting the hooks and a single hoist or other lifting means.

11.9.7 Installation of Spacers

Following the clipping operations for bundled conductor lines, spacers must be installed. This is done by placing the erection crew on the conductors in the 'conductor car' normally known as spacer cycle to ride from structure. Depending on the length of line to be spacered and the equipment available, cars may be hand powered, towed by persons on the ground or in adjacent structures with ropes, or powered by a small engine on the car itself. Care must be exercised to ensure that the concentrated load of the man, car and equipment does not increase the sag appreciably to cause a hazard from obstructions over which the car will pass. The installation of the spacers on the conductor varies with the type and manufacture of the spacer and is normally done in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

The load of the man, car and equipment should be equally distributed to all sub-conductors of the phase. This is particularly important at the time each spacer is attached. Number of spacers-per span and the spacings are provided as per the approved spacer placement chart

11.9.8 Installation of Vibration Dampers/Spacer Dampers

Vibration Dampers/Spacer Dampers are normally placed on the conductors immediately following clipping to prevent any possible wind vibration damage to the conductors which at critical tensions and wind conditions can occur in a matter of a few hours.

The number of dampers/spacer dampers and spacing are provided as per the design requirement and instructions of the manufacturers.

- r ,

,. ;.-

24

Construction of Transmission Lines .: c

_- ---- ------------- - ---------------------- -._------- .. _--_----_---_._-----

11.9.9 Jumpering

The jumpers at the Section and angle towers shall be formed to parabolic shape to ensure maximum clearance requirements, Pnotsuspension insulator string shall be used, if found necessary, to restrict the jumper swings to the design values. Clearance between the conductors and ground and between jumpers and the tower steel work shall be checked during erection and before handing over the line.

11.9.10 Ground Undulation

The provision of 150mm shall be made to account for any undulations in the ground in final still air sag at maximum.

11.10 HOT-LINE STRINGING OF E.H.V. LINES

11.10.1 General

Hot line stringing means stringing of second circuit on the same tower with first circuit electrically & mechanically loaded. This is shown in Figure A.

11.10.1.1 With the available techniques, the hoi-line stringing is done in this country only upto 220 kV. The advantage of stringing second circuit at a later date (with not-line method) is saving in initial capital investment in the form of conductors, insulated hardware. Besides. with provision of Double circuit towers from the beginning saves way problems as second corridor is not required for second circuit

11.10.2 Precautions

11.10.2.1 Hot-line stringing is a specialised job and calls for special precautions. All the crew members are provided with rubber shoes and hand-gloves and are compelled to use them

during the stringing. _

11.10.2.2. All the drums of conductor and pilot wires are solidi y earthed. All the tension locations, where the conductor ends are terminated, are solidly earthed.

11.10.2.3 In addition to above, during final sagging and clipping operation, standard earthing rods are used for connecting each conductor to the tower body.

11.10.3 Operations

11.1 0.3.1 Arrangement for earthing the conductor drums and pilot wire drums is made at both the ends of the section under stringing. The hoisting of insulators, clamping of pilot wire and the conductor and rough sagging of conductor is done as per normal stringing method.

11.10.3.2 Before marking and clipping the dead ends, each phase conductor is solidly earthed in two separate set'>. One set is earthed by means of droppers and earthing rods and second set is by eanhing of conductor end to tower body. This is shown in the Figure B.

While removing the second set of earthing, the conductor end is removed first and the tower end later. Similarly in case of the first set the cable is disconnected from conductor end first and the rod end later.

11.10.3.3 Similarly, before clipping the conductor on the suspension towers, each conductor on both the sides of the clamp is earthed to tower body. After the clipping is over, the earthing cable is first removed from the conductor end and later from the tower end. This is shown in the Figure C.

11.10.3.4 In order to limit the parallelism and induced voltages, it is advisable to do the jumpering work at the end. While doing the jumpering work also the earthing cables are required to be provided.

11.10.4 Earthing

11.10.4.1 Solid earthingsareprovided by driving oneor more G.!. SPIKES in the soil as done in pipe type of earthing. If required, more pipes are driven at the same place. In any case the soil resistance should not be more than 5 ohms.

11.10.4.2 In case of rocky soils, counterpoise type earthing system is used. The length of the wires is decided by trial & error till the earth resistance is lowered to 5 ohms or less.

11.10.4.3 For earthing a flexible copper cable having 10 sq. mm area (20 Ampere capacity) is used. The cable is generally armoured type for rough use. Proper clamps/connectors are used to connect the cable to the conductor and to the earth.

Circuit No. - 2 to be strul'lg is hot line

F1GUREA

Construction of Transmission Lines

25

E/W

TIC

H/C

B/C

Tension tower

G.l.

Earth

Longitudinal Vie ....

FIGUREll

ElW

10 mm2 flexible earthing cable

TIC

H/C

B/C

Suspension tower

FIGURE C

.i

26.

. Construction of Transmission U",s

i

:

11.11 PROTECTION OF TOWER FOOTINGS

The work includes all necessary stone revetment, concreting and earth filling above ground level and the clearance from stacking on the side of all surplus excavated soil, special measures for protection of foundations close to or in nallahas, river beds, etc., by providing suitable revetment or galvanised wire neuing and meshing packed with boulders.

A typical revetment drawing is shown in Annexure-'Q'

lL12 TESTING AND COMMISSIONING

11.12.1 General

Before the line is energised, visual examination of the line shall be carried out to check that all nuts and bolts are tight and insulators and accessories 3n1 in position. The earth connections shall also be checked to verify that these are in order.

11.12.2 Testing

Before commissioning of the lines, the following tests may be carried out:

(a) Conductor continuity leSi- The objective of this test is to verify that each conductor of the overhead line is properl y connected electrically (that is, the value of its electrical resistance does not vary, abnormally from that of a continuous conductor of the same size and length). The electrical resistance of the conductor shall be measured with a Wheatstone bridge or other suitable instrument.

(b) Insulation resistance test-This test may be carried out with the help of a 5 kV megger preferably driven to ascertain the insulation condition of the line.

11.122.1 The line may then be kept charged on no load at the power frequency voltage preferably for 72 hours. for the purpose of full scale testing.

11.12.3 Statutory Requirements

The stannary authorities shall be informed before commissioning the lines and their approval obtained in accordance with Indian Electricity Act, 1910 and Indian Electricity Rules, 1956. (For details see Rules 63 to 69 of Indian Electricity Rules, 1956).

11.13 REFERENCES

1. IEEE Guide to the Installation of Overhead Transmission Line Conductors. (IEE Std. 524-1980). Published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 345 East 47th Street, New York 1.0017, Dec' 18, 1980.

2. The following papers published by the Association of Indian Engineering Industry Transmission Line Division Published on the occasion of International Conference on Trends in Transmission Line Technology during 17th- 18th April, 1985.

(i) "Latest Erection Techniques for Tranmission Line Construction" by Shri R. K. Madan, Mis National Hydro-electric Power Corporation.

(ii) "Tower Foundation design practice" by Shri S.D.

Dand, Mis KEC International Limited, Kurla.

3. Overhead Line Practice-by John Mc-COMBE.

4. Manual ofTransmission Line Towers-Technical Report No.9 of Central Board of Irrigation and Power.

5. Text book on "Surveying and Levelling-by Shri T.P.

Kanetkar.

6. "Company Standard Guide for Transmission Line Surveying"-EMC Ltd., Calcutta.

7. Indian Standard Codes

(a) IS: 5613 (Part Il/Section I)-I976-Code of Practice for Design, Installation and Maintenance of Overhead Power Lines-(Lines above 11 kV and upto and including 220 kV).

(b) IS: 5613 (part Il/Section 2)-1976-Code of Practice for Design, Installation and Maintenance of Overhead Power Lines-(Lines above 11 kV and upto and including 220 kV).

(c) IS : 4091-1979-Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Foundations for Transmission Line Towers and Poles.

(d) IS: 456-1978-Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete.

(e) IS: 3043-1966-Code of Practice for Earthing.

(f) Draft "Indian Standard Code of Practice for Design, Installation and Maintenance for Overhead Power Lines" -Part 3 (400 k V Lines)-Section 1- Design- "IS : 5613 (part III/Sec. I.)".

ConslrucllOn oj Transmission Lines 27
---- -_-------
ANNEXURE 'A'
1. CLEARANCES
1.1 The minimum clearances shall be in accordance with Indian Electricity Rules, 1956 and are given in Table I
TABLE-I
Minimum Clearances
VOLTAGE CATEGORY EXTRA
(IE RLfLES, 1956) HIGH VOLTAGE HIGH VOLTAGE
Nominal System- Voltage 33kV 66kV 110kV 132kV 220kV 400kV ± 500 kV 800kY
Clearance (Minimum value in m) HVDe
(i) Clearance to Ground
(a) Across street 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 7.0 8.84 13.20 12.40
(b) Along street 5.8 6.1 6.1 6.1 7.0 8.84 13.20 12.40
(c) Other areas 5.2 5.5 6.1 6.1 7.0 8.84 13.20 12.40
(ii) Clearance to Buildings
(a) Vertical (*) -from
highest object 3.66 3.97 4.58 4.58 s.4J $ 7.32 11.59 10.90
(b) Horizontal (+) -from
nearest point 1.83 2.14 2.75 2.75 3.66 5.49 10.98 9.15
(iii) At Crossings with
(a) Tramway/trolley bus 3.05 3.36 3.76 3.97 4.78 6.44 10.14
(b) Telecom lines 2.44 2.75 2.75 3.05 4.67 8.18
(c) Railway #
1 Category 'A' and 'C' Groad Guage
Inside station area 10.0 10.3 10.6 10.9 11.2 16.630
Outside station area 7.6 7.9 8.2 8.5 8.8 14.630
Metre/Narrow Gauge
Inside station area 8.8 9.1 9.5 9.8 10.0
Outside station area 6.4 6.7 7.0 7.3 7.6
2. Category 'S'-All Gauges
Inside station area 12.3 13.0 13.7 14.0 15.3 18.63
Outside station area 10.5 11.0 11.7 12.0 13.3 16.63
(iv) Between Lines when crossing each other (derived)
250 V 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
650 V 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
11 kV 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
22kV 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
33 kV 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
66kV 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
110 kV 2.75 2.75 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
132kV 3.05 3.05 3.05 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
220kV 4.58 4.58 4.58 4.58 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
400kV 6.10 6.10 6.10 6.10 6.10 6.10 10.80 10.00
± 500 kVDe 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80
800kV 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
NOTE 1: S Should not cross on/near buildings Construction of Transmission Lines

---.-- -_

28

i(a) (*)

For all crossings, the clearance to be obtained at the worst conditions of proximity of wires. The above table has been compiled with the help of Indian Electricity Rules 1956

Vertical clearance to be obtained at maximum still air final sags (at maximum temperature or ice-loaded conductor at 0 degree Celcius).

i i(b) (+ ) Horizon tal clearance to be obtained at worst load condition wi th maxim um deflected conductor position, including that of insulator string, if any.

iii(c) # Category 'A' tracks electrified on 1 500 V dc system.

NOTE 2

NOTE 3

Category 'B '

tracks already electrified.or likely to be converted to or electrified on 25 kV ac system within the foreseeable future.

tracks not likely to be electrified in the foreseeable future.

Category 'C'

[For categories' A' and' B' crossings up to 650 V shall be by means of underground (U.G.) cables; while it is recommended that U.G. cable be upto II kV. For category 'C', it is recommended that U.G. cable be used upto 650 V. Above these, D.G. cable or overhead crossings may be adopted as preferred by the owner. The minim urn clearance between any of the owner's conductors or guard wires and the Railway's conductors shall not be less than 2 rn.]

Station Area means all tracks lying in the area between the outer most signals of a railway station.

1.2 Mid-span clearance between Earthwire and Power Conductor-The following values may be considered subject to the

conditions given below:

(a) These should also meet the requirements of angle of shielding.

(b) The earth wire sag shall be not more than 90 percent of the corresponding sag of power conductor under still air condition for the entire specified temperature range.

Line Voltage (kV)

Minimum Mid-span clearance (m)

33

1.5

66

3.0

110

4.5

132

6.1

220

8.5

400

9.0

±500 kV HVDC

9.0

800 kV

12.0

Note: The mid-span clearance shall be reckoned as direct distance between earthwire and top power conductor, in case of vertical or triangular formation of conductors, or outer power conductors, in ease of horizontal formation of conductors at minimum temperature and still air conditions.

1.3 Live Metal Clearance: The live metal clearance depends upon the voltage of the conductors in different operating conditions. The values of these clearances corresponding to conditions normally considered for the design of lines are given in Table2 .

Construcnon of Transmission Lines

29

ANNEXURE 'A' (Contd.)

TABLE 2

Minimum Electrical Clearances from Live Conductor to Earthed Metal Parts

TYPE OF INSULA TOR SWING IN MINIMUM ELEC1RICAL CLEARANCE FOR LINE VOLTAGE
S1RING DEGREE 33 kV 66kV 110 kV 132 kV 220kV 400kV 500kV
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
(i) Pin insulator Nil 330
(ii) Tension string
(Single/Double) Nil 330 915 1220 1530 2130 3050 3750
Nill 330 915 1220 1530 2130 * *
(iii) Jumper loo 330 915 1220 1530 2130 3050 3750
(1511)
2oo 330 610 915 1070 1675 * *
30° 330 610 915 1070 * *
(iv) Single suspension
string Nil 330 915 1220 1530 2130 3050 3750
15° 330 915 1220 1530 1980 * *
3oo 330 760 1070 1370 1830 * *
45° 330 610 915 1220 1675 * *
600 330 610 915 1070 * * *
(v) Double Suspension
String Nil 330 915 1220 1530 2130 * Notappli-
cable
Note: The effect of galloping or dencing of conductors has not been taken into consideration while specifying the minimum
electrical clearances.
1.3.1 The values given in Table 2 are considered to be suitable for elevations upto 1000 m above the mean see level (MSL). For
heights over 1000 m and up to 3000m above MSL, it is recommended that the values should be increased by 1.25 percent for every
100m height or part thereof.
SPECIAL NOTE: 1) Value for the 33 kV to 220 kV have been copied from IS 5613 (part Il/Sec 1)-1976
2) Values for 400 kV may be checked by the design department,
3) Values for 500 kV are to be filled up by the design department.
* To be filled up by Kurla ___________________ Cons!r_ut;_liono[_Tr{lnsmissior. Li"!!_s

Calculations of Reduced levels & Chainages
A. By Dumpy Level & Chainages
Sample field book observations
Station Angle of Level Readings Collimation
No. Chainage line
deviation Back Inter Forc (H.!.)
sight sight sight
5.62 1!l%.12
A 0 10015' 6.95
12 4.48
17 3.24
27 2.91
37 3.25
50 4.82
85 2.94
lOO 2.01
150 1.28
200 5.44 - 0.68 19(XUs8
B 300 20°10' 3.58
_ 4.24 ANNEXURE lB'

Route Plan
Reduced
Level L C R
1890.50
1889.17
1891.64
1892.88
1893.21
1892.87
1891.30
1893.18
1894.11
1894.84
1895.44
1897.30
1896.64 NOTE: All the values are in metres

/

r , By Tachcornetric Survey Sample field book

(

Station Angle Readings Stadia Wire Readings
Number Horizontal Venical
Top Mid Bouom
(1) (M) (B)
(in metres) H.I. ROUlS Plan

Details

L R

10030'(L)

1.4

(B) 9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

l(x)

1

(A) 12°lO'(L)

4°10' 3.60 3.00 2.40
8"24' 1.50 1.00 0.50
10036' 1.40 1.00 0.60
2°18' 1.10 1.00 0.90
0000' 1.52
0000' 3.04 3.00 2.96
(-) 11005' 3.05 3.00 2.95
(- ) 6°10' 2.10 2.00 1.90
2°40' 1.15 1.00 0.85
5°18' 1.20 1.00 0.80
2°12' 1.20 LOO 0.80
0000' 1.25 1.00 0.75 I.P.

l

«()!l:!lrUCllon oj Transmission Lines

__________ 31

ANNEXURE'B' Contd)

Calculations (Tacheometric Survey)

Height of Instrument = H.I.

R.L. of Instrument Station (R.LJ =

lAO rn 100.00

Stn. No.

Vertical angle

s

m

Horizontal

Vertical

R.L.A.= RLo+H.I±V-m inm

Remarks

(T-B)

distance V=D Tan e

D=sxK Cos e

(B) 4°10' 1.20 3.00 119.37 8.70 107.10 Angle pt (B)
9 8°24' 1.00 1.00 97.87 14.45 114.85
6 10036' 0.80 1.00 77.29 14.46 114.86
7 2°18' 0.20 1.00 19.97 0.80 10l.20
6 0000' 0.00 1.52 0.00 0.00 99.88 Exst. pt
8 0000' 0.08 3.00 0.00 0.00 98.40
4 (-) 1005' 0.10 3.00 10.00 (-) 0.19 98.21
3 (-) 6°10' 0.20 2.00 19.76 (-) 2.14 97.26
2 2°40' 0.30 1.00 29.94 1.39 101.79
Ix 5°18' 0.40 1.00 39.66 3.68 104.08 CST (I)
1 2°12' 0.40 1.00 39.94 1.53 101.93
(A) 0000' 0.50 1.00 50.00 0.00 100.40 Angle pt (A)
B.M.l00.00
Where' K' is the.Instrument Coefficient which is furnished by the Instrument manufacturers. In the above calculations value
of 'K' has been taken as 100.
V=DTAN9 Where
D = sxkxCos28 RLo = Reduced Level of Instrument Station
RLA= RLo+ HJ±V-ffi RLA = Reduced Level of Staff Station Staff

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Construction oj Transmission Lines

33

ANNEXURED

Typical Sag Template Drawing

Ground clearance curve (3) Tower footing curve (4)

Normal span 400 m

Scala

Hor. 1 cm = 20m Ver. 1 cm = 2 m

PARTICULAR

1. CONDUCTOR MOOSE ACSR

2. ULTIMATE STRENGTH 16434 Kg'

3. TEMPERATURE RANGE 00-370-75°

4. NORMAL SPAN 400 m

5. SAG OF CONDUCTOR AT MINIMUM TEMPERATURE AT NORMAL TEMPERATURE NOWIND

6. MAXIMUM SAG

CONDUCTOR 12.865 m

EARTHWIRE 10.196 m

7. TENS'ION AT MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE

STILL WIND

8. TENSION AT MINIMUM TEMPERATURE

STILL WIND

GROUNDCLEARANCE 8.840 m

GROUND UNDULATIONS 0.150 m

ANNEXURE-E

Construction a/Transmission Lines

STRUCTURE LIMITATION CHARTrrOWER SPOTTING DATA (FOR 400 KV TRANSMISSION LINES)

Tower Type 'A'MKD. 'A' 'B'MKD. 'B' 'C' MKD. 'C' 'D'MKD.'D'
Max. Angle of Deviation 2° 15° 15° to 300 6QO/D.E.
Vertical Load Limitations
on Weight Span. Max. (Min.) Max. (Min) Max. (Min.) Max (Min.)
Groundwire effect
(a) Both Spans 600 (200) 600 (0) 600 (0) 600 (0)
(b) One Span 360 (100) 360 (-200) 300 (-200) 360 (-300)
Conductor effect
(a) Both Spans 600 (200) 600 (0) 600-({) 600 (0)
(b) One Span 360 (100) 360 (-200) 360 (-200) 360 (-300)
Weights
Groundwire effect
(a) Both Spans 350 (117) 350 (0) 350 (0) 350 (0)
(b) One Span 210 (58) 210 (-117) 210 (-117) 210 (-175)
Conductor effect
(a) Both Spans 2405 (802) 2405 (0) 2405 (0) 2405 (0)
(b) One Span '~~~,::~~) 1443· (~02) 1443 (~02) 1443 (~02)
",\j
Permissible sum of " ,'2°~OO 15°~00 300~00 6QO-800
adjacent span for 1~38 14-876 29-874 59-868
various deviation 0-878 13-956 28-952 58-936 I..
angles. 12-1034 ' 27-1028 57-1004
11-11 1'2 26-1104 56-1074
10-1190 25-1182 55-1144
Design
(a) Groundwire
(i) 32° Full wind 1574 1561/1574 1520/1574 1363/1574
(ii) ()O x 2!3 Full wind 1525 1521/1525 1473/1525 1321/1525
(b) Conductor
(i) 32l' Full wind 4470 8864/8940 8635/8940 7742/8940
(ii) ()O x 2!3 Full wind 4582 9086/9164 8852/9164 7936/9164
TOWER TYPE
18m and 25m Extension (a) Maximum Wind span 300m
for Tower type 'A' marked 'A' (b) Deviation Angle o degree
(c) Vertical load Limitation on Weight span of Conductor/Ground wire;
Maximum Minimum
(i) Both spans 600 200
(ii) One span 360 100 Consrrucrion of Transmission Lines

35

ANNEXUREE (Contd.)

6A. J 8m and 25m Extension

for Tower type 'D' marked 'D'

(a) Maximum wind span 400 m

(b) Deviation Angle 40 degree

(c) Vertical load limitation on weight span of Conductor/Groundwirc:

Maximum

Minimum

(i) Both spans (ii) One span

(-) 600 (-) 360

o (-) 300

7. 8.

Way leave clearance 26 metres either side from centre of line of tower.

Electrical clearance for Railway crossing

I

(a) For Category' A' (Section electrified on 1500 Volts D.C.)

(b) For Category 'B' (Section already electrified or likely to be

convened to or electrified on 25 kV A.C. System within

foreseeable future 18.63

(c) For Category 'C' (Section not likely to be electrified in the foreseeable future)

(i) for Broad guage tracks 13.41

Inside station limits (m) 16.63

Outside station limits (m) 14.63

16.63

9.

(ii) for Metre & Narrow guage tracks

Minimum clearance between power line to power line crossing

12.19 6100 mm

10.97 9.75

NOTES:

l. Vertical loads on individual spans are acting downwards for suspension towers.

2. Broken wire condition: As per specification requirement.

3. Maximum sum of adjacent spans for various angles of deviations are subjected to the condition that maximum live metal clearance and minimum ground clearance are available.

4. Limit of Highway crossing span: 250 metres

5. Maximum deviation angle for dead end tower:

(a) Line side and Slack span side: 15 degree on either side.

(b) For River crossing Anchoring with longer wind span with 0 degree deviation on crossing span and 30 degree deviation on either side.

6. Angle tower types 'B', 'C' & 'D' are designed for following unbalanced tension resulting from unequal Ruling spans of 200 m and 400 m on each side of the towers for normal condition only.

Temperatures

Unbalanced Tension

At 32 degree Celsius (Without wind) At Zero degree Celsius (Without wind)

Groundwire 80

85

Conductor 983 376

7. Tower type 'C' to be used as Transposition tower with 0 degree deviation.

8. Tower type' B' to be used as Section towers. The number of consecutive spans between two section points shall not exceed 15.

--_- - .-- .. ------
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" r-
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36 Construction of Transmission Lines
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u Construction oj T ransmissinn Lines

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38 Construction of Transmission Lines

=------------------------------------------------

;-". ",.

ANNEXUREH

Sketch 0 f Hill Side Extensions

u.

_L" -'1SlrUCILOn of Transmlssion Lines

ANNEXUREl

EXCAVA nON MARKING CHART

ELEVATION

D

ibI W

"'/ /

/

/ /

. /

.V·

/.

f------M-----~ PLAN

Dimensions in mm
Description Dimensions for pit marking
H F M N AS AB( ABCO ABCOE ABCOEA
(Normilll wet loraticn 3000 2295 9686 13698 S991 9686 11981 15227 20453
-

'Wet location 3000 2295 10661 15077 6478 10661 12956 16202 22118
'Wet lccatien 3000 2295 11637 16457 6966 1'1631 13932 17177 23783 Construction of Transmission Lines

---_-- -----_.

40

(

ANNEXURE:]

PROCEDURE FOR SETTING STUBS AT SITE BY COMBINED TEMPLATE

The Stubs are set with the help of the Stub-setting Templates, which are supplied loose, ready to be assembled at site. All four excavated pits are to be lean concreted to correct level sighted through level and the stubs are to be placed on the lean concrete pad. Correct alignment is carried out by 0.9 kg Plumb bob 4 in numbers hung from centre of horizontal bracings.

Following is the procedure for Stub-setting at site:

1 Assemble the Template as per the drawing alongwith the

supply.

2 Set the Template as per the drawing at site.

3 Place the Stub-setting Jacks below the Template.

4 Align Template, alongwith the line and centre it over the centre peg of the location.

S Fix up the stub to the Template and with the help of a

TEMPLATE

STue

dumpy level, level the Template comers to the required level.

6 Ensure that all the four stubs are at the same level.

7 Check the alignment and centring of the Template again. 8 By placing on 8 to 12 screw jac.ks according to the length

of Template, with a levelling instrument fine adjustment can be made by lifting/lowering the screw jacks, and the stubs can be perfectly levelled. This ensures accurate verticality of the tower. For ensuring all towers in one line and cross-arms at right angle to it, 4 plumb bobs should be dropped from the centre of the horizontal members of the Template to correspond to the cross pegs and alignment pegs given during the line alignment survey for the tower location.

PI T

SCREWJ

'-

Construction of Transmission Lines

41

-_------------------- -----.

ANNEXUREK

Foundation Layout of Unequal Leg Extensions

R.L.100m

3

R.L.97m

/ /

Om leg extension ."." / /'

" ./

X R.L. 100m

/°0 '",

/ "\..

/ "

/ "

-,

-,

R.L.98m

4

2m leg extension

II " I

II I II

" II

I II II

"

Pit No.4

2

3m leg extension

Individual

Leg Template

4m leg extension

T

2m

Pit No.1

( c

42

Different Steps of Tower Erection

3/4" Polypropylene Rope

(

Construction a/Transmission Lines

Polyproplyene Rope ~==F~------~~~ 1" Polypropylene Rope

Step No.1

ANNEXURE L

Step No. n

polypropylene Rope

l

:;onslruclion of Transmission Lines

43

Different Steps of Tower Erection

Step No. m

3/4" Polypropyl Rope

Step No. 'N

.,

44

---_--_

____________________ Cf}_~truction o/Transmission Lines

,

/1

/ /

/

/

Jlfferent Steps of Tower Erection

3/4· Polypropylene rope

Step No. V

Different Steps of T ower Erection

I

Step No. VI

45

Conslruelion of Transmission Lines

Differen t Steps 0 f Tower Eredion

Step No. Vil

)

.. c ..

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a. o .... a. >.

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46

--~- -------

Construction o/Transmission Lines

Different Steps of Tower Erection

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I1i

nstruction oj Transmission Lines

47

Different Steps of Tower Erection

Step No. IX

---------------- ------ ----------

48

Construction oj Transm£~ion Lines

Typical Sketch of pipe Type Earthing

ANNEXURE M

ns mm dia holes for counter

175 mm dia holes for

urthing strip MKD-A --- ~

SOx6 mm th;~" (j~lyd_ steel flat extended 500 mm Deyono ;11. ccncr ere

Requlrel!lent of coke and salt

... N

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Coke ~ 150 kg Salt ~ 15 kg

Detail at-A

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Illy

length in ••

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3000

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(ill.d. HRH 16 mill dia bolt s & nuts with S til. threads

Gal.d. HRH 12 mm dia bolts & nuts fully threaded

35

30

Construction of Transmission Lines

49

ANNEXURE N

Typical Sk ath of Counter Poise Type Earthing

LL. of Tower

I

Towllegs

·_·t·_·

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50

Construction of Transmission Lines

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ANNEXURE 0

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Construction of Transmission Lines

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ConslrucllOn of jransrrusslOn Unes

53

APPENDIX :A

MODERN METHODS OF SURVEYING (Reference to the clause: 11.5.2)

1.1 Satellite Doppler Technique

Accurate and flexible survey data arc necessary to achieve the minimum cost transmission line routing with the minimum environmental impact. Precise and reliable topographic data arc obtained including detailed and accurate horizontal and vertical terrain information by compiling large scale 'Orthophoto'. maps of the proposed transmission corridors. These give a 'Picture' of the route which is geometrically correct and overlayed on this are contour lines which depict the changes in elevation of the land.

By studying these maps, transmission corridors are selected which are most attractive for lower installation purposes. Within these corridors. specific line routes can be defined on the map and profiles of these lines are automatically generated for detailed analysis.

Before mapping is produced points with known coordinates are established throughout the area to control the photographs both horizontally and vertically.

Each of the various components of route survey under this technique are discussed in following paras.

1.1.1. J nitial Survey

Under initial survey. one or more preliminary transmission corridors are established. These are established with the help of To po sheets of the region and after having a walkover survey along the tentative route alignment.

1.1.2. Controls

Control points are fixed along the route for which the latitude. longitude and elevations are accurately known. An initial reconnaissance will establish the most suitable sites for the control points based on terrain conditions. Control points need not be proposed along the transmission line corridors. they can be at the sides of roads or elsewhere they cause the minim urn impact on the land owners. Each of these points is to have a permanent marker placed on the ground. This is because the field staff is required to return to the same points again and again during the execution period of the project Two types of permanent markers are used. For the preliminary control, a concrete cylinder is placed approximately 6 ft in the ground with the top of the cylinder flush with the surface. This is used for the 8to 10 points which are surveyed using doppler satellite techniques. Concrete markers are installed along the proposed route to provide the overall basis for the control net work. A receiver is placed on each control point to monitor the position of satellite. From this information. position coordinates are calculated for the receiver locations on the ground.

The remaining points are surveyed using the Inertial

Survey system which coordinate the control points (in x, y and z) between any two of the previously established doppler points. For these points. a 4 ft long steel bar is driven in the ground so that the top is flush with the surface. Inertial Survey System is operated from a helicopter in order to produce large number of coordinated points in a minimum amount of time.

1.13 Orthophoto Mapping

Aerial survey mapping (photogrammetry) has a definite application to the planning and design of transmission lines and is used in the advanced countries both in the preliminary stages of line routing and in the preparation of plan and profile maps for structure plotting.

Aerial photography is taken immediately after fixing the control points along the tentative route alignment in order to minimise the loss of targets due to weather or any other problems. Here it is necessary that these control points show up very clearly when the aerial photography is taken.

Orthophoto is a photograph of the area which is true to scale in all respects. it gives the transmission line engineer a complete picture of all ground features with the added bonus of the required venical data. It is produced from aerial photography using computer technique.

A band. approximately 2 kms wide is generally mapped along the preliminary corridors. The horizontal scale for the mapping is 1: 10.000 with 1 m contour intervals in the plain section and 5 m contour in the mountaneous terrain. This gives a good basis for selection of tower site with spot height accuracy to within I to 2 metres.

Some of the specific advantages of using photogramrnetry techniques for transmission line survey are as under:

1.1.4 Advantages

Determines the best route: The broad coverage provided by aerial photographs facilitate selection of best line route. Potential routing difficulties can be recognised and avoided before any field activity begins. Also angles can be selected easily for efficient and economical use of structures.

1.15 Economical

Aerial surveying has definite economic advantages-both in respect of time and cost. Where mountaineous/rugged terrain. inaccessible swamp land or heavily populated areas are encountered. even greater economies can be realised.

1.1.6 Saves Times

Data that could take months to obtain by ground survey can be obtained by aerial survey in a much shoner period of time.

(

54

Construction of Transmission Lines

1.1.7 Greater Visual Details

The use of photogrammetry techniques provides visual details as well as permanent visual record of existing features which can not be obtained by any other means.

1.1.8 More Accurate Engineering. Design & Construction Bids

Accurate plan and profile maps can be prepared from photographic enlargement, which help the designers to spot the lowers and design the footing with greater accuracy and economy.

1.1.9 Flexibility

All necessary line data, including tower spouing profiling etc. can be determined from the orLhophotos for any number of route variation, without returning to the actual site. In fact, changes in the route alignment can be made with the minimum difficulty.

1.1.1 0 Confidential

Aerial surveys are confidential and therefore help in minimising the way leave problems.

1.1.11 Equipment required and their cost

Equipment required for Satellite Doppler Technique are:

Equipment for control surveys i.e .• Satellite doppler global position system. Inenial survey system and Electronic distance measurement system. Equipment for aerial photography i.e. Aeroplane, Camera & Photomechanical laboratory.

Mapping equipment-Analytical stereo compilers. Cost of these equipments is definitely substantially high and as such initial investment for acquiring the same is much more. In regard to the operational cost, it may vary due to geographic location, distance from aerial survey station to job site. type of aircraft employed, quality of photography and degree of accuracy required.

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