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COMPREHENSIVE VIVA QUESTIONS

Subject: EDC
1. how a pn-junction can be formed? define avalanche & zener breah down?
2. what are the current components of diode?
3. define intrinsic stand-off ratio?
4. Transistor is called current controlled device?why?
5. Define dirt current?
6. Define Early effect in a Transister
7. Distinguish b/w JFET & MOSFET?
8. What are the advantages & disadvantages of JFET over BJT?
9. What are the advantages of FET?
10.Define peak inverse voltage of a diode?
11.Although zener diode is operated in the reverse break down region, but it doesn’t burn ? why?
12. Explain UJT charactiristics

Subject: ECA
1. Define Phase Distortion?
2. What is the importance of CC amplifier?
3. What is the effect of Bandwidth in Multistage amplifiers?
4. What is Cascade amplifier?
5. What is the importance of Darlington amplifier?
6. What is the need of power amplifier?
7. Give the classification of power amplifier?
8. Why Class B power amplifier has more efficiency than Class A power amplifier?
9. What are the advantages of Class-B push pull power amplifier?
10. What is the importance of Complementary symmetry power amplifier?
11. What is Stagger turned amplifier?
12. Define Load regulation?
13. What is the need of a Voltage Regulator?
14. What is the advantage of negative feedback?
15. What is Barkhausen criterion?

Subject NETWORK ANALYSIS


1. what is current if a 10 coulomb charge passes a point in 0.5 sec
2. What are passive elements?
3. What is the internal resistance of a ideal voltage source?
4. If a network contains B branches and N nodes, then the number of mesh equations?
5. What is the phasor difference between voltage and current for a pure inductor?
6. What is coefficient of coupling?
7. What is power factor?
8. Define reactive power?
9. Which parameters are widely used in transmission line theory?

Subject: Signals & Systems


1. What is a Signal? Define
2. What do you know about an LTI system
3. What is the formula for Fourier Transform
4. Explain the Fourier Spectrum
5. Compare the four series & fourier transform
6. How are the input & output signals related in an LTI system in time domain
7. What are the uses of correlation
8. How are correlation & convolution related
9. What is a Casual System
10. How are the rise time & B.W. related
11. What do understand by the term “Complete set of Orthogonal Signals”
12. What do you understand by the term ROC in Z-transform

13. What is Nyquist rate & Nyquist period


14. What do you mean by Aliasing and how do you eliminate the same
15. How are Fourier , Laplace & Z - transforms related

Subject :PTSP:
1. Define Probability as a relative frequency?
2. Classify the types of a Random Variable?
3. Define Probability Density Function?
4. What do you mean by expected value of a Random Variable?
5. Define Correlation?
6. Define Covariance?
7. What is the relation between Correlation & Covariance?
8. Give the comparison between Correlation & Cross-Correlation?
9. Define distribution function for two Random Variables X & Y?
10. What are disadvantages of Moment Generating Function?
11. What are the advantages of Characteristic Function?

Subject: PDC
1. What is the difference between Linear wave shaping and Non linear wave shaping?
2. Define rise time and give the relationship between rise time and bandwidth?
3. Why high pass circuit is called as an Differentiator?
4. Why low pass circuit is called as an Integrator?
5. Define clipper and what are the other names of clippers?
6. Define clamper?
7. Why we need clamping circuit?
8. Define clamping theorem?
9. What are the linear elements and non linear elements?
10. Write the application of diode?
11. What are the applications of mono stable multi vibrator?
12. What are the applications of bi stable multi vibrator?
13. Define time base generator?
14. What is the difference between sampling gate and logic gate?
15. What is frequency synchronization?
Subject: EMTL
1. Explain Coulomb’s Law in Vector form.
2. Relation between E and V.
3. What is Gauss Law.
4. What is Homogenous and Isotopic Medium
5. What is Biot-Savart’s Law
6. What is Inconsistency of Ampere’s Law and how it is modified
7. What is Magnetic Vector Potential.
8. Maxwell’s Equations in point, Integral, Word Format.
9. What are the characteristics of Uniform Plane Wave.
10. Explain about Skin effect and Skin depth.
11. Explain Normal incident on a perfect conductor. Mention the equations for reflection
coefficient, transmission coefficient.
12. What is Poynting Vector
13. What are TE, TM and TEM Waves
14. Define Dominant Mode, Cutoff frequency of a waveguide
15. What are various types of Transmission lines
16. What are Primary and Secondary constants and their equations
17. What is characteristic Impedance, Velocity of Propagation and group velocity
18. Properties of OC and SC transmission lines
19. Relation between reflection coefficient, and VSWR
20. Values of K and S for OC, SC and ML
21. Explain about Smith chart and its applications

22. What is Quarter Wave Transformer and its application

Subject: AC
1. What is need for Modulation?
2. What is TDM?
3. What is the Power of AM Signal?
4. What are the analog modulation techniques?
5. What is white noise?
6. What is Gaussian PDF?
7. What is Range of AM Broad Casting?
8. What is range of FM Broad casting?
9. What is Super heterodyning?
10. What is Mixer?
11. What is Carson’s rule?
12. What is difference between PAM , PWM?
13. Difference between AM and FM?

Subject :STLD
1.What are self reflecting codes?
2.Find the Excess-3 code for the decimal number 392?
3.What are the Universal Gates?
4.State the basic theorems used in Boolean algebra?
5.What is a logic gate?
6.Give the comparison between Combinational & Sequential circuits?
7.What is a Multiplexer?
8.Define Half-adder & Full-adder?
9.Give the comparison between Synchronous & Asynchronous Sequential circuits?
10.What is Race-Around Condition? How it is avoided?
11.Give the comparison between Ripple & Ring Counter?
12. What is Moore & Mealy machine? Compare them?
13. Give the notations used in an ASM chart?
14. What is the difference between Flowchart & ASM chart?
15. Give the comparison between PROM, PLA, PAL?

Subject: LICA
1. What is the use of level Translator in OP-Amp?
2. Define EMRR?
3. Define Slew rate?
4. What are Applications of comparators?
5. What are the Demerit of open loop op-amp as comparators?
6. What are the Applications of Logarithmic Amplifier?
7. What are the Applications of 555-timer in Monostable mode?
8. What are the Applications of 555-timer in Astable mode?
9. What is the Duty cycle of Astable Multivibrator
10. What is Lock-in range of PLL?
11. What is Capture-range of PLL?
12. What are the Applications of PPL?
13. What are the advantages of Active filters over Passive Filters?
14. What is a ALL PASS filter?
15. What is virtual grounding of op-amp?

Subject: DC
1. Define sampling, quantization and Quantization error?
2. Explain the steps to convert Analog signal to digital signal?
3. Explain differences between DPCM, Delta Modulation and Adaptive Delta
Modulation?
4. Explain slope overload distortion?
5. Explain different types of Digital Modulation techniques?
6. Define Information, Entropy, rate of Information?
7. Define Channel coding?

8. Define source coding?


9. Explain some of source coding techniques?
10. Explain some of channel coding techniques?
11. Explain linear block code?
12. Explain Binary cyclic codes?
13. What is the use of channel encoder and channel decoder?
14. Compare PAM, PWM, PPM?
15. Is PCM is a coding technique or Modulation technique?
16. Define nyquist rate?

Subject: AWP
1. What is an radiating element?
2. What is a dipole (or) dipole antenna?
3. Which is called a current element and why?
4. Define directivity of an antenna?
5. Which antenna is called as Microwave antenna?
6. Which antenna is called as UHF antenna?
7. Define radiation resistance of and antenna?
8. What are the modes of propagation?
9. Define Duct propagation?
10. What are the elements of Yagi-uda antenna?
11. Define gain of an antenna?
12. What is line of sight?
13. What is speciality of folded dipole?
14. Why very high gain in case of parabolic reflector?

Subject: DICA

1. How many number NHOS transistors exist in 4-I/P NAND gate?


2. CMOS NAND gate is faster than CMOS VOR gate. Why?
3. What Is significance of schottkey transistor in TTL gates?
4. Explain the difference between TTL totcm pole o/p and open collector o/p?
5. Which is the fastest logic family?
6. What is the difference between functions and procedures?
7. What is simulation?
8. What is test bench?
9. What is the mandatory statement is used in structural design flow?
10. What is the mandatory statement is used in Behavioral design flow?
11. How many number of enable I/P’s are existed in 74x138 decoder?
12. What is the difference between latch and flip-flop?
13. What is the disadvantage of JK FF? And how to avoid it?
14. What is the difference between SRAM (OR) DRAM?
15. Explain about detta delay concept?

Subject: MPI
1. What is Memory Segmentation?
2. What is the difference between Micro processor & Micro controller?
3. What are the addressing modes of 8086?
4. What are Data copy / Transfer instruction in 8086?
5. What is the difference between test & logical AND instructions?
6. What is Interrupt Vector table?
7. What is the difference between Macro & Sub Routine?
8. What is the importance of 8255?
9. What is the difference between Asynchronous Data Transfer & Synchronous Data
Transfer?
10. What is the difference between unconditional Jump & Conditional Jump instructions?
List some
conditional Jump Instructions?
11. What are Assembler Directives?

12. What is stack pointer?


13. Define a) Maskable interrupts b) Non Maskable interrupts
14. What is DMA controller
15. What is the input to the stepper motor for rotation in clockwise and anticlockwise
direction?
16. What is RS232?
17. Define SCON, PCON ,TMOD

Subject: VLSI
1. What are the features of MOSFET, is it a unipolar or bipolar device?
2. What are the main aspects to be considered while fabricating an IC in VLSI?
3. What is photo etching & diffusion?
4. What does the stick diagram convey?
5. What are two design styles to draw a stick diagram?
6. What are advantages of static complementary gate?
7. What is VHDL simulation?
8. What is VHDL Synthesis?
9. What are advantages of PLD’s?
10. What is ion implantation?
11. Give two basic rules for designing a layout?

Subject: DSP
1. What is LTI System?
2. What is LInearities?
3. What is Invariance?
4. Define Fourier Transform?
5. What is scaling property?
6. Explain Z-Transform?
7. Relate Z-Transform and S-Domain?
8. What is ROC?
9. What is Stability?
10. What is Causality?
11. What is a IIR filter?
12. What is FFT?

Subject: MWE
1. What is velocity modulation?
2. What is Electron Bunching?
3. What is Faraday rotation?
4. What is the difference between TWT and Two cavity Klystron?
5. What do you mean by O-type and M-type classification of microwave tubes?
6. What is PIN Diode and its applications?
7. What are the limitations of conversional tubes over microwave tubes?
8. What is Magic Tee
9. What is directional coupler?

Subject: TSSN

1. Describe the operation of hybrid Network topologies


2. What are the functions of STS- Multiplexes and add / drop multiplexers.
3. Define each of the following terms: program, procedure, processor, process, user, task,
job and subroutine.
4. What are the different types of busy hours
5. What is SPC control software
6. Explain functions of LCU
7. What are merits and demerits of serial and parallel data transmission.
8. Explain dedicated client / server networks
9. Compare centralized and distributed SPC?
10. Basic concepts of connection oriented and connectionless protocols

Subject: DIP
1. What is digital image processing?
2. Define image enhancement in spatial domain and frequency domain?
3. What is the need of image transform?
4. Give the 1-D and 2-D DCT transform and inverse transform.
5. What is histogram processing?
6. Define image smoothing and sharpening?
7. Define image compression
8. Define image segmentation
9. Define thresholding
10. Give some edge detection techniques
11. Define coding redundancy
12. Distinguish lossless and lossy compression.
13. What are the image processing applications?

Subject: OC
1. What are the advantages of Optical Fibers
2. Classify Optical Fibers based on no. of modes. Classify Optical fibers based on
Refractive Index
3. What is Numerical aperture. How it is related to n1 and n2
4. What is TIR, Acceptance angle, V-number
5. What are various fiber attenuation mechanisms
6. Explain about Material dispersion and Waveguide dispersion
7. Explain about Inter model and Intra model dispersion. Which is dominant in fibers
8. What are various fiber splicing techniques
9. What are various LED structures
10. Explain the Principle of LASER action
11. Compare LED and LASER
12. How is PIN different from APD
13. What is BER and mention various error sources
14. What is Link Power Budget
15. What is Rz and NRz coding in optical links
16. Explain the Principle of “WDM”
17. Explain about OTDR

Subject: EMI
1. Explain the difference between static error & dynamic error?
2. Define accuracy & precision?
3. What is difference between signal generator & function generator?
4. What are components used to construct a wave analyzer?
5. What is the purpose of accelerating anodes in CRT?
6. Define active & passive transducers?
7. How can we measure pressure using transducers?

Subject: MCA
1. Why Micro controller is also called a Micro Computer?
2. What are the Model in which SI can be programmed to use in 8051?
3. What is purpose of IP Register?
4. What is interrupt latency?
5. What is ISR?
6. What are the features of RTOS?
7. What is Preemptive Scheduling?
8. What is the function of IDE tool?
9. Explain SWI instruction & its application?

Subject :CMC
1. Explain how a handoff is initiated?
2. What are the antennas used at cell site?
3. Difference between channel sharing and channel borrowing
4. Differentiate dropped call rate from blocked call.
5. Explain the significance of SIM in Mobile station.
6. Explain setup channels, Control Channels.
7. Explain how the 666 channels are divided into groups?

Subject: Radar
1. Explain Radar Equation
2. What is Doppler Frequency
3. What is Monopulse Radar
4. How do you get the Moving target in an MTI Radar
5. What do you understand by the term Radar Target
6. What is a matched filter and how is it different from an LPF
7. What is unambiguous range
8. What is beam width in an Antenna Pattern

Subject :ERTS
1. What is the need of pipelining?
2. What is an embedded system?
3. List the applications of embedded systems.
4. Describe why a general-purpose processor would cost less than a single-purpose
processor
5. What is state machine.
6. What are RT-level combinational components.
7. What is the following:
i) Interrupt handler ii) Interrupt vector table.
8. What are the following parts of embedded systems?
a) Processors b) Memory c) Operating systems d) Programming Languages.
9. Compare various methods of inter task communication.
10. What are events? Explain the role of events in RTOS.
11. What is meant by “Tasks” in RTOS?
12. What is meant by Hand held Operating Systems.
13. What is IEEE 1394 fire wire protocol?