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MINI PROJECT REPORT
ON

“Automatic Railway Gate Controller Using Stepper Motor”

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR

THE REWARD OF THE DEGREE

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

IN
ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

SUBMITTED BY

M.KAVITHA 06141A0408
P.MAHESH YADAV 06141A0423
K.SAIDIVYA 06141A0457

UNDER THE ESTEEMED GUIDANCE OF

INTERNAL GUIDE EXTERNAL GUIDE


Mr.P.ABBAIAH M.Tech S.KISHORE
Associate Professor Project Manager
Department of E.C.E NSIC
S.R.T.I.S.T, Nalgonda. Hyderabad.

Department of electronics and communication engineering


SWAMI RAMANANDA TIRTHA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE &
TECHNOLOGY, NALGONDA
(NBA Accredited)

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(Affiliated to J.N.T.U., Hyderabad)
Nalgonda-508004
2009-2010

SWAMI RAMANANDA TIRTHA INSTITUTE


OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
NALGONDA -508004

Department of Electronics and


Communication Engineering

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this is a miniproject


report entitled

“Automatic Railway Gate Controller”

Is a bonafide work done by

M.KAVITHA 06141A0408
P.MAHESH YADAV 06141A0423
K.SAIDIVYA 06141A0457

Of final year, Electronics and Communication


Engineering branch submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirement for the award of B.Tech, degree of the
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, 2009-2010

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Project Guide Head of the Department


Mr.P.ABBAIAH M.Tech Mr.P.Lachi Reddy,M.tech,ph.D
Associate Professor Professor
Department of E.C.E Department of E.C.E
S.R.T.I.S.T, Nalgonda. S.R.T.I.S.T, Nalgonda.

Principal
Dr.S.YADAGIRI
S.R.T.I.S.T, Nalgonda
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is our privilege to express our deep gratitude and indebtedness to our


Management & Principal Mr.S.Yadagiri of Swami Ramananda Tirtha Institute of
Science and Technology,Nalgonda for their moral support.

We thank Mr.P.Lachi Reddy,Profeesor & Head of Electronics and


Communication Engineering Department,for his valuable suggestions and cooperation in
the completion of the mini project.
We solemnly offer our sincere gratitude to our internal guide,Mr.P.Abbiah
Depatment of Electronics and Communication,whose constant encouragement and
cooperation has made this miniproject successful.
It is a great pleasure to complete our miniproject in NSIC under the guidance of
Mr.S.Kishore Kumar,we highly grateful to them for their encouragement and open
minded discussion during the mini project work.
We express our heartful thanks to those who have directly or indirectly helped us
in carrying out this mini project successful.
Last but not least we are thankful to our parents.who have stood behind us at all
the stages of the mini project.

Project associates
M.KAVITHA ( 06141A0408)

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P.MAHESH YADAV (06141A0423)
K.SAIDIVYA ( 06141A0457)

ABSTRACT

This project work aims at the design, development, fabrication and testing of
working model entitled “Automatic Railway Gate Controller”. It is basically related to
Radio communication and signalling system. An Automatic Railway gate controller is
unique in which the railway gate is closed and opened or operated by the Train itself by
eliminating the chances of human errors.

The largest public sector in India is the Railways. The network of Indian Railways
covering the length and breath of Indian Railways covering the length and breath of our
country is divided into nine Railway zones for operational convenience. The railway
tracks criss-cross the state Highways and of course village road along their own length.
The points or places where the Railway track crosses the road are called level
crossings. Level crossings cannot be used simultaneously both by road traffic and trains,
as this result in accidents leading to loss of precious lives.

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INDEX
S.no List of contents page No

01 Introduction

1.1 Introduction 01

1.2 Block diagram & Description 02-03

02 Introduction to microcontroller

2.1 Introduction to micro controller 04-05

2.2 AT 89C51 Microcontroller 06-10

03 Stepper motor

3.1 Introduction to stepper motor 11-13

3.2 types & applications. 14 -16

04 ULN 2003

4.1 Introduction to ULN 2003 17-18

4.2 Pin description of ULN 2003 19-21

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05 LM 324

5.1 LM 324 & Features 22-23

06 Light Dependable Resistor 24

07 Interfacing Devices

7.1 Interfacing of Stepper Motor with ULN2003 25-27

7.2 Stepper Motor Interfacing with AT89C51 28-29

7.3 Interfacing of Lm324 with At89c51 30-31

8 Regulated Power Supply

8.1 Regulated Power Supply & Features 33-35

9 Software 36-40

10 Conclusion 42

11 Bibliography 43-44

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Aim of this project is to control the unmanned rail gate automatically using
embedded platform. Today often we see news papers very often about the railway
accidents happening at un- attended railway gates. Present project is designed to avoid
such accidents if implemented in spirit. This project is developed in order to help the
INDIAN RAILWAYS in making its present working system a better one, by eliminating
some of the loopholes existing in it. Based on the responses and reports obtained as a
result of the significant development in the working system of INDIAN RAILWAYS,
This project can be further extended to meet the demands according to situation. This can
be further implemented to have control room to regulate the working of the system. Thus
becomes the user friendliness.

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In this project AT89c51 Micro controller Integrated Chip plays the main role. The
program for this project is embedded in this Micro controller Integrated Chip and
interfaced to all the peripherals. The timer program is inside the Micro controller IC to
maintain all the functions as per the scheduled time. Stepper motors are used for the
purpose of gate control interfaced with current drivers chip ULN2003 it’s a 16 pin IC.

Features:

• There is no time lag to operate the device


• Accuracy.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

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ULN STEPPER
REGULATED
2003 MOTOR
89C51
POWER SUPPLY
MICRO
CONTROLLER

LM LIGHT DEPENDANT
324 RESISTOR

Fig 1. 1.1 Block Diagram of AUTOMATIC RAILWAY GATE

CONTROLLER

1.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION:

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AT89C51 is a 40 pin dip micro controller, can be divided in to four ports, it is
driven by 5v supply. In this project Atmel 89c51 Micro controller Integrated Chip plays
the main role. The program for this project is embedded in this Micro controller
Integrated Chip and interfaced to all the peripherals. The timer program is inside the
Micro controller IC to maintain all the functions as per the scheduled time. The Light
dependent resistor is interfaced to Atmel 89c51 Micro controller to display the message,
stepper motors are used for the purpose of gate control interfaced with current drivers
chip ULN2003. ULN2003 is a current driver chip used for supply control to the stepper
motor; it is a 16 pin dip.
Here a stepper motor is used for controlling the gates. A stepper motor is a widely
used device that translates electrical pulses into mechanical movement. They function as
their name suggests - they “step” a little bit at a time. Steppers don’t simply respond to a
clock signal. They have several windings which need to be energized in the correct
sequence before the motor’s shaft will rotate. Reversing the order of the sequence will
cause the motor to rotate the other way.This project work aims at the design,
development, fabrication and testing of working model entitled “Automatic Railway Gate
Controller”. It is basically related to Radio communication and signalling system. An
Automatic Railway gate controller is unique in which the railway gate is closed and
opened or operated by the Train itself by eliminating the chances of human errors.The
largest public sector in India is the Railways. The network of Indian Railways covering
the length and breath of Indian Railways covering the length and breath of our country is
divided into nine Railway zones for operational convenience. The railway tracks criss-
cross the state Highways and of course village road along their own length. The points or
places where the Railway track crosses the road are called level crossings. Level
crossings cannot be used simultaneously both by road traffic and trains, as this result in
accidents leading to loss of precious lives.

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CHAPTER 2

INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER

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2.1 INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER:

A computer-on-a-chip is a variation of a microprocessor, which combines the


processor core (CPU), some memory, and I/O (input/output) lines, all on one chip. The
computer-on-a-chip is called the microcomputer whose proper meaning is a computer
using a (number of) microprocessor(s) as its CPUs, while the concept of the
microcomputer is known to be a microcontroller. A microcontroller can be viewed as a
set of digital logic circuits integrated on a single silicon chip. This chip is used for only
specific applications.

ADVANTAGES OF MICROCONTROLLER:

A designer will use a Microcontroller to

1. Gather input from various sensors

2. Process this input into a set of actions

3. Use the output mechanisms on the Microcontroller to do something useful

4. RAM and ROM are inbuilt in the MC.

5. Multi machine control is possible simultaneously.

6. ROM, EPROM, [EEPROM] or Flash memory for program and operating


parameter storage.

Examples:
8051, 89C51 (ATMAL), PIC (Microchip), Motorola (Motorola), ARM Processor,
Applications: Cell phones, Computers, Robots, Interfacing to two pc’s.

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2.2 AT89C51 MICTROCONTROLLER:

Description:
The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer
with 4Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The
device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology
and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. The
on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a
conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU
with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer,
which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control
applications.

AT89C51 features:

• 4Kbytes of Flash memory, 128 bytes of RAM.

• 32 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters.

• a five vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port,

• on - chip oscillator and clock circuitry.

• In addition, the AT89C51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero
frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes.

• The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port
and interrupt system to continue functioning.

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• The Power-down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator
disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.

Pin diagram of AT89C51 MICROCONTROLLER

Pin diagram:

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Fig 2.2.1 Pin diagram of AT89C51 MICROCONTROLLER

7
Pin Description:
VCC: Supply voltage.
GND: Ground.
The AT 89c51 micro controller is a 40-pin IC. The 40th pin of the controller is
Vcc pin and the 5V dc supply is given to this pin. This 20th pin is ground pin. A 12 MHZ
crystal oscillator is connected to 18th and 19th pins of the AT 89c51 micro controller and
two 22pf capacitors are connected to ground from 18th and 19th pins. The 9th pin is Reset
pin.

Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin
can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as
high impedance inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed low order
address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode P0
has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming, and
outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during
program verification.

Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output
buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are
pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that

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are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.
Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and
verification.

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Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output
buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they
are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs Port 2
pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the
internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from
external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses
16-bit addresses (MOVX @

DPTR). In this application, it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During
accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2
emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the
high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and
verification.

Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output
buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they
are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port
3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the
pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the
AT89C51 as listed below:

Port Pin Alternate Functions


P3.0 RXD (serial input port)
P3.1 TXD (serial output port)
P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0)
P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1)
P3.4 T0 (timer 0 external input)
P3.5 T1 (timer 1 external input)
P3.6 WR (external data memory write strobe)
P3.7 RD (external data memory read strobe)

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Table 2.2.1 Port3 description of AT89C51 Microcontroller

9
RST: Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is
running resets the device.

ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the
address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input
(PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant
rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency, and may be used for external timing or clocking
purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external
Data Memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location
8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction.
Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the
micro controller is in external execution mode.

PSEN: Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. When the
AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice
each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to
external data memory.

EA/VPP: External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the
device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H
up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be
internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program
executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP)
during Flash programming, for parts that require 12-volt VPP.

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XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock
operating circuit.

XTAL2: It is the output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

10

CHAPTER 3

STEPPER MOTOR

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STEPPER MOTOR

3.1 Introduction to stepper motor:


A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless, synchronous electric motor that
can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. The motor's position can be
controlled precisely, without any feedback mechanism (see open loop control). Stepper
motors are similar to switched reluctance motors (which are very large stepping motors
with a reduced pole count, and generally are closed-loop commutated).

Fig no: 3.1.1 Basic stepper motor

Fundamentals of Operation:

Stepper motors operate differently from normal DC motors, which rotate when voltage is
applied to their terminals. Stepper motors, on the other hand, effectively have multiple
"toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. The
electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit, such as a microcontroller. To
make the motor shaft turn, first one electromagnet is given power, which makes the gear's

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teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet's teeth. When the gear's teeth are thus
aligned to the first electromagnet, they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. So
when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates
slightly to align with the next one, and from there the process is repeated. Each of those
slight rotations is called a "step," with an integral number of steps making a full rotation.
In that way, the motor can be turned by a precise angle.

12

Stepper motor characteristics:

Stepper motors are constant power devices. As motor speed increases, torque
decreases. The torque curve may be extended by using current limiting drivers and
increasing the driving voltage. Steppers exhibit more vibration than other motor types, as
the discrete step tends to snap the rotor from one position to another. This vibration can
become very bad at some speeds and can cause the motor to lose torque. The effect can
be mitigated by accelerating quickly through the problem speed range, physically
damping the system, or using a micro-stepping driver. Motors with a greater number of
phases also exhibit smoother operation than those with fewer phases.

Open-loop versus closed-loop commutation

Steppers are generally commutated open loop, i.e. the driver has no feedback on
where the rotor actually is. Stepper motor systems must thus generally be over
engineered, especially if the load inertia is high, or there is widely varying load, so that
there is no possibility that the motor will lose steps. This has often caused the system
designer to consider the trade-offs between a closely sized but expensive
servomechanism system and an oversized but relatively cheap stepper.

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A new development in stepper control is to incorporate a rotor position feedback
(eg. an encoder or resolver), so that the commutation can be made optimal for torque
generation according to actual rotor position. This turns the stepper motor into a high
pole count brushless servo motor, with exceptional low speed torque and position
resolution. An advance on this technique is to normally run the motor in open loop mode,
and only enter closed loop mode if the rotor position error becomes too large -- this will
allow the system to avoid hunting or oscillating, a common servo problem.

13

3.2 Types & Applications:

There are three main types of stepper motors:

• Permanent Magnet Stepper


• Hybrid Synchronous Stepper
• Variable Reluctance Stepper

Two-phase stepper motors:

There are two basic winding arrangements for the electromagnetic coils in a two
phase stepper motor: bipolar and unipolar.

Unipolar motors:

A unipolar stepper motor has logically two windings per phase, one for each
direction of magnetic field. Since in this arrangement a magnetic pole can be reversed
without switching the direction of current, the commutation circuit can be made very
simple (e.g. a single transistor) for each winding. Typically, given a phase, one end of

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each winding is made common: giving three leads per phase and six leads for a typical
two phase motor. Often, these two phase commons are internally joined, so the motor has
only five leads.

Fig 3.2 Unipolar stepper motor coils

In the construction of unipolar stepper motor there are four coils. One end of each
coil is tide together and it gives common terminal which is always

14

connected with positive terminal of supply. The other ends of each coil are given
for interface. Specific color code may also be given. Like in my motor orange is first coil
(L1), brown is second (L2), yellow is third (L3), black is fourth (L4) and red for common
terminal.

By means of controlling a stepper motor operation we can

1. Increase or decrease the RPM (speed) of it


2. Increase or decrease number of revolutions of it
3. Change its direction means rotate it clockwise or anticlockwise

To vary the RPM of motor we have to vary the PRF (Pulse Repetition Frequency).
Number of applied pulses will vary number of rotations and last to change direction we
have to change pulse sequence.

So all these three things just depends on applied pulses. Now there are three different
modes to rotate this motor

1. Single coil excitation


2. Double coil excitation
3. half coil excitation

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Unipolar stepper motors with six or eight wires may be driven using bipolar drivers
by leaving the phase commons disconnected, and driving the two windings of each phase
together [diagram needed]. It is also possible to use a bipolar driver to drive only one
winding of each phase, leaving half of the windings unused [diagram needed].

Bipolar motor:

Bipolar motors have logically a single winding per phase. The current in a
winding needs to be reversed in order to reverse a magnetic pole, so the driving circuit
must be more complicated, typically with an H-bridge arrangement. There are two leads
per phase, none are common.

Static friction effects using an H-bridge have been observed with certain drive
topologies Because windings are better utilized, they are more powerful than a unipolar
motor of the same weight.

15

Applications:

• Computer-controlled stepper motors are one of the most versatile forms of


positioning systems. They are typically digitally controlled as part of an open loop
system, and are simpler and more rugged than closed loop servo systems.
• In the field of linear actuators, linear stages, rotation stages, goniometers, and
mirror mounts. Other uses are in packaging machinery, and positioning of valve
pilot stages for fluid control systems.
• In floppy disk drives, flatbed scanners, computer printers, plotters and many more
devices.

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16

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CHAPTER 4
ULN 2003

17
ULN 2003
4.1 Introduction:

The ULN2003 is a high-voltage, high current Darlington drivers comprised of


seven NPN Darlington pairs.

Features:

1) Output current (single output) 500mA MAX.

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2) High sustaining voltage output 50V MIN.

3) Input compatible with various types of logic.

Applications:

 Relay

 Hammers

 Lamp and display(LED)drivers

18
4.2 PIN DIAGRAM:

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Fig:4.2.1 Pin diagram of ULN2003

Features:

• No. of pins:16
• Temperature, Operating Range:-20°C to +85°C
• Transistor Polarity:NPN
• No. of Transistors:7
• Case Style:DIP-16
• Min operating temperature:-20°C
• Max operating temperature:85°C
• Base Number:2003
• Max Output current:500mA
• IC Generic Number:2003
• Input Type:TTL, CMOS 5V
• Output Type: Open Collector
• Transistor Type: Power Darlington
• Max Input Voltage:5V
• Max Output voltage:50V 19

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PIN CONNECTIONS OF ULN2003:

Fig 4.2.2 Pin configuration of ULN 2003

The ULN2001A, ULN2002A, ULN2003 and ULN2004Aare high Voltage, high


current Darlington arrays each containing seven open collector Darlington pairs with
common emitters. Each channel rated at 500mAand can withstand peak currents of
600mA.Suppressiondiodesare included for inductive load driving and the inputs are
pinned opposite the outputs to simplify board layout.
These versatile devices are useful for driving a wide range of loads including
solenoids, relays DC motors; LED displays filament lamps, thermal print heads and high
power buffers. The ULN2001A/2002A/2003A and 2004A are supplied in 16 pin plastic
DIP packages with a copper lead frame to reduce thermal resistance. They are available
also in small outline package (SO-16) as ULN2001D/2002D/2003D/2004D.

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20
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF DARLINGTON PAIR: The circuit below is
a ‘Darlington Pair’ driver. The first transistor’s emitter feeds into the second transistor’s
base and as a result the input signal is amplified by the time it reaches the output.
Darlington pairs are back to back connection of two transistors with some source
resistors.

Fig: 4.2.3 The Darlington pair connection of transistor.

The important point to remember is that the Darlington Pair is made up of two
transistors and when they are arranged as shown in the circuit they are used to amplify
weak signals. The amount by which the weak signal is amplified is called the ‘GAIN’.
.

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CHAPTER 5
LM 324

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LM 324:

5.1 Introduction:

These amplifiers are designed to specifically to operate from a solitary supply


over a wide range of voltages. Also can function when the difference between the two
supplies is 3V to 30V and VCC is at least 1.5V more positive than the input common
mode voltage.

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Fig: 5.1 Pin diagram of LM324

23

Pin
Descriptions

V+ = Supply
voltage

GND = Gnd (0V)


connection for
supply voltage

Input(s) = Input to Op-Amp

Output(s) = Output of Op-Amp

Features:

• Supply voltage V + : +32VDC or +16VDC


• Differential Input Voltage : 32VDC
• Input Voltage : -0.3VDC to +32VDC

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• Power Dissipation : 570mW

• Operating Temperature : 0 to 70C degree


• Output Current Source : Typical 40mA
• Output Current Source : Typical 40mA
• Output Current Sink : Typical 20mA
• Input Offset Voltage : Typical 2.0mVDC
• Operates on a single supply over a range of voltages

Unique features:
In the linear mode, the input common-mode voltage range includes ground
and the output voltage can also swing to ground, even though operated from only a
single power supply voltage. The unity gain crossover frequency and the input bias
current are temperature-compensated.

Applications:

• In Transducer amplifiers.
• DC amplification blocks and conventional operations.

24

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CHAPTER 6

LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR

25

LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR

6.1 Description:

This practical is about using a light dependent resistor (LDR) as a sensor. The
LDR must be part of a voltage divider circuit in order to give an output voltage, Vout ,
which changes with illumination.

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A light dependent resistor is a resistor whose resistance decreases with


increasing incident light intensity. It can also be referenced as a photo conductor. An
LDR is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of high
enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough
energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner)
conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance.

An LDR device can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. An intrinsic semiconductor has its
own charge carriers and is not an efficient semiconductor, e.g. silicon. In intrinsic devices
the only available electrons are in the valence band, and hence the photon must have
enough energy to excite the electron across the entire band gap. Extrinsic devices have
impurities, also called do pants, and added whose ground state energy is closer to the
conduction band; since the electrons do not have as far to jump, lower energy photons
(i.e., longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the device. If a
sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by phosphorus atoms (impurities), there
will be extra electrons available for conduction.

Fig 6.1.1 Light dependent resistor


26
Note that an LDR responds in an extremely non-linear way to the light intensity. The
resistance of a LDR changes from a few meg-ohms in dim light to a few kilo ohms in
bright light (maybe even a few ohms depending upon the light intensity and LDR used.).
So I would suggest that u first connect the LDR as
VCC ------ LDR------- LM 324 -------- Microcontroller.
and plot the voltage across the 1K resistor with respect to different light intensities on the

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LDR.Then connect this voltage output to a ADC via a simple non-inverting op-amp
amplifier and connect the ADC to the Microcontroller.

Applications:

• Camera light meters, street lights, clock radios, alarms, and outdoor clocks.
• They are also used in so dynamic compressors together with a small incandescent
lamp or light emitting diode to control gain reduction.
• Lead sulfide and Idiam sulfide LDRs are used for the mid infrared spectral
region.Ge: Cu photoconductors are among the best far-infrared detectors
available, and are used for infrared astronomy and infrared spectroscopy.

27

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CHAPTER 7

INTERFACING DEVICES

28

7.1 INTERFACING OF STEPPER MOTOR WITH ULN2003

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Fig no:7.1.1 ULN2003 is interfaced with the stepper motor

ULN2003 is a 16 pin dip. Its connections can be explained as follows

First 4-pins of chip are connected to microcontroller pin at 37-40 pins and second
at 21-24 pins. And 8th pin of chip is grounded. A stepper contains 5 terminals, 4 winding
wires and a power supply wire. These 4 winding wires are connected to chip and another
to supply. in this circuit too the four pins "Controller pin 1",2,3 and 4 will control the
motion and direction of the stepper motor according to the step sequence sent by the
controller.

29

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7.2 STEPPER MOTOR INTERFACING WITH AT89C51

1 vcc 40
2 39
3 38
4 37
5 36
6 A 35
7 T 34
8 8 33

9 9 32

10 C 31 1 u 9
11 5 30 2 l 10
12 1 29 3 n 11
13 28 4 2 12
MOTOR
14 27 5 0 13
15 26 6 0 14
16 25 7 3 15
17 24 8 16
18 23
19 22

20 21

fig no: 7.2.1 stepper motor interfacing with AT89C51 using ULN2003.

The interfacing of stepper motor consists of several parts like AT89C51


microcontroller, stepper motor, and ULN2003 current driver chip. This can be used in
this project for the purpose of gate control . For the gate control a 12v stepper motor is
used.ULN2003 is a current driver chip used for supply control to the stepper motor; it is a
16 pin dip.AT89C51 is a 40 pin dip micro controller, can be divided in to four ports, it is
driven by 5v supply.

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Fig no: 7.2.2 The block diagram of stepper motor interfacing

Here a stepper motor is used for controlling the gates. A stepper motor is a widely
used device that translates electrical pulses into mechanical movement. They function as
their name suggests - they “step” a little bit at a time. Steppers don’t simply respond to a
clock signal. They have several windings which need to be energized in the correct
sequence before the motor’s shaft will rotate. Reversing the order of the sequence will
cause the motor to rotate the other way.

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31

7.3 INTERFACING OF LM 324 with AT 89C51


MICROCONTROLLER

40

A
T
8

9
9 C
5
1
1 L 14
2 M 13
3 3 12 31
4 2 11
5 4 10
6 9
7 8

18
15Kohm

19 20

Fig 7.3.1 Interfacing of LM324 with AT89c51 Microcontroller

The LM324 integrated circuit is a Quad operational amplifier(op-amp).The device has


four individual Op-amp circuits housed in a single package.

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32

CHAPTER 8

REGULATED POWERSUPPLY

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8.1 REGULATED POWER SUPPLY:

A variable regulated power supply,also called a variable bench power supply,is one
which you can continuously adjust the output voltage to your requirements. Varying the
output of the power supply is recommended way to test a project after having double checked
parts placement against circuit drawings and the parts placement

This type of regulation is ideal for having a simple variable bench power supply.
Actually this is quite important because one of the first projects a hobbyist should
undertake is the construction of a variable regulated power supply. While a dedicated
supply is quite handy e.g 5V or 12V,it’s much handier to have a variable supply on hand,
especially for testing.

Most digital logic circuits and processors need a 5 volt power supply. To use these
parts we need to build a regulated 5 volt source. Usually you start with an unregulated
power to make a 5 volt power supply, we use a LM7805 voltage regulator IC (Integrated
Circuit).

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The IC is shown below.

Fig: 8.1.1 LM 7805 block diagram

34

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Fig: 8.1.2 Pin representation of LM 7805


The LM7805 is simple to use. You simply connect the positive lead of your
unregulated DC power supply(anything from 9VDC to 24VDC) to the Input pin, connect
the negative lead to the Common pin and then when you turn on the power, you get a 5
volt supply from the Output pin.

Circuit features:

• Brief description of operation: Gives out well regulated +5V output,


output current capability of 100mA.
• Circuit protection: Built-in overheating protection shuts down output when
regulator IC gets too hot.
• Circuit complexity: Very simple and easy to build.
• Circuit performance: Very stable +5V output voltage, reliable operation
• Availability of components: Easy to get, uses only very common basic
components.
• Design testing: Based on datasheet example circuit, I have used this circuit
successfully as part of many electronic projects.
• Applications: Part of electronics devices, small laboratory power supply

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35

CHAPTER 9
SOFTWARE

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9.1 Software:
1. Program for gate control:

#include<reg51.h>

void MSDelay (unsigned int value);

sbit sense1=P1^0;

sbit sense2=P1^1;

sbit buz1=P1^4;

sbit buz2=P1^5;

sbit led=P2^7;

void main ()

int i;

P1=0xf0;

buz1=0;

buz2=0;

led=0;

while (1)

if (sense1==1 && sense2!=1)

buz1=1;

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led=1;

37

for (i=0;i<=2;i++)

P2=0x66;

MSDelay (10);

P2=0xCC;

MSDelay (10);

P2=0x99;

MSDelay (10);

P2=0x33;

MSDelay (10);

sense1=0;

if (sense2==1 && sense1!=1)

buz1=0;

led=0;

for (i=0; i<=2;i++)

P2=0x66;

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MSDelay (10);

P2=0x33;

38

MSDelay (10);

P2=0x99;

MSDelay (10);

P2=0xCC;

MSDelay (10);

for(i=0;i<=2;i++)

P0=0x66;

MSDelay (10);

P0=0xCC;

MSDelay (10);

P0=0x99;

MSDelay (10);

P0=0x33;

MSDelay (10);

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sense2=0;

if (sense1==1 && sense2==1)

39

buz2=1;

MSDelay (200);

buz2=0;

sense1=0;

sense2=0;

void MSDelay (unsigned int value)

unsigned int x,y;

for(x=0; x<1275;x++)

for(y=0;y<value;y++);

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40

CHAPTER 10

CONCLUSION

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10.1 CONCLUSION:

From the above discussion and information of this system we, upto now
surely comes to know that it is highly reliable effective and economical at dense
traffic area, sub urban area and the route where frequency of trains is more.
As it saves some auxiliary structure as well as the expenditure on
attendant it is more economical at above mentioned places than traditional railway
crossing gate system. We know that though it is very beneficial but it is also
impossible to install such system at each and every places, but it gives certainly a
considerable benefit to us, thereby to our nation.

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42

CHAPTER 11
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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43
REFERENCES:
1. Kenneth.J.Ayala”The 89C51 Microcontroller Architecture programming
and Applications”, Pen ram International.
2. D.Roychoudary and Sail Jain”L.I.C”, New Age International.
3. “Principles of Electronics” by V.K.MEHTA.
4. “Communication Systems” by Simon Hawkins.
5. “Electrical Technology – vol. 2- B.L. Theraja.

WEB REFERENCES:

1. http://www.learn-c.com/adc0809.pdf
2. http://www.atmel.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/doc0265.pdf
3. http://www.ortodoxism.ro/datasheets/texasinstruments/max232.pdf

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44

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