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1: What is difference between Microprocessor and Microcontroller ?

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2: Why is Zener Diode always used in Reverse Bias condition ?

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: Questions on signal processing techniques ?

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8: What is Transmission Frequency of Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and Wi-MAX ?

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11: How many satellites comprise the GPS and expand it ?

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16: On what principle do Transformers work ?c

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20: What is latest satellite from ISRO?
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1.c What is meant by D-FF? D Flip Flop

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2.c What is the basic difference between Latches and Flip flops?

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3.c What is a multiplexer?

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D.c How can you convert an SR Flip-flop to a JK Flip-flop?


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6.c What is Race-around problem? How can you rectify it?

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7.c Which semiconductor device is used as a voltage regulator and why?

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9.c What do you mean by zener breakdown and avalanche breakdown?

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10.cWhat are the different types of filters?

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11.cWhat is the need of filtering ideal response of filters and actual response of
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12.cWhat is sampling theorem?

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1D.cExplain the advantages and disadvantages of FIR filters compared to IIR


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1.cWhat is CMRR? Explain briefly.

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16.c What do you mean by half-duplex and full-duplex communication? Explain
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c What is the need for modulation? (transmitting over a distance, encryption?)
c Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
20c Why we use vestigial side band (VSB-C3F) transmission for picture?
2c When transmitting digital signals is it necessary to transmit some harmonics in addition to fundamental
frequency?
22c For asynchronous transmission, is it necessary to supply some synchronizing pulses additionally or to
supply or to supply start and stop bit?
23c BPFSK is more efficient than BFSK in presence of noise Why?
24c What is meant by pre-emphasis and de-emphasis?
25c What do you mean by 3 dB cutoff frequency? Why is it 3 dB, not  dB? (3dB is the half power value)
26c What do you mean by ASCII, EBCDIC?

Semiconductor devices and circuits:

Resistance, inductance(dc short, ac open), capacitance (ac short , dc open)

Diodes:
types& definitions: p-n, zener(zener breakdown, voltage regulator),tunnel (tunneling effect),varactor,
Impatt,Trapatt, gunn, pin;

Transistors:
two types  Based on minority carrier(BJT:npn,pnp) 2 based on FET principle(IGFET,JFET,MOSFET,MESFET);

Amplifiers:
types:LNA,Power amp,feedback,balanced,distributed amp

Active state (for CE conf):Base if FB and collector is RB:


Saturation:Both bas and collector are FB
Cut-off:Both bas and collector are RB

Untuned Amp:Class A,B,AB,C

Oscillator:total phase shift at input is 0 or multiples of 2pi

MPMC:

MP are memorylessGeneral purpose processors


MC have inbuilt memory and IO ports
to interface MP with ports 25 is used
MP types: 05 (-data, 6 address);06(6data,6 address); 06(6 data, 20 adddress); 026(6 data, 24
address);036(6 data, 32 address);046 (32 data, 32 address); pentium (64 data, 32 address,Pipelining,More
segmentations&memory banks);Pentium Pro(64 data,36 address)

MC: 4K rom, 2 bytes ram,2 timers,4 io ports, serial port,  bit cpu, 6 address lines, 40 pins

Control systems:

Definitions:
System:A no of elements are connected in a sequence to perform a specific function is called a system

Control system: system in which o/p is controlled by i/p


Open loop system(o/p does not change automatically)& closed loop system (output changes automatically)

Stability:BIBO condition :i/p=0 then o/p tends to 0

Limtedly stable,absolutely stable and conditionally stable:

Three ways to check stability: Routh-herwitz criteria, nyquist criteria, root locus method

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1.What are the flags in 8086?c
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10.EXAMPLES of Hardware interrupts?
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1.In 808 which is called as High order / Low order Register?
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.What do you mean by ASCII, EBCDIC?
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7.What is meant by pre-emphasis and de-emphasis?


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9.What is Race-around problem? How can you rectify it?


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10.What is the basic difference between Latches and Flip flops?
ans:
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c Flip flop and their working What is metastable state in flip-flops?
2c Construct a d flip-flop from a t flip-flopDifferentiate b/w flip-flop and latches
3c What is totem pole?
4c Draw the state graphs for a given problem like sequence generator, flip flop etc
5c Implement Boolean expressions using MUX (2 to 4,3 to ,etc)
6c Design a decade counter
c Explain internal organization of memory chips
c What is a bit? What is CMOS? Draw the circuit of an adder using NAND gate
c What is a Karnaugh map?
0c What are the four methods to reduce a Boolean?
c What is the difference b/w half adder and full adder?
2c What are the advantages of CMOS and TTL?What technology is used in CMOS logic?What are VLSI and ULSI?
What is the number of components in both?
3c Explain synchronous and asynchronous counter
4c Minimize the function using Quine McClusky:f=xy+x͛y+yz+x͛y͛z͛
5c What is prime implicant? Which is the universal flip-flop?
6c What is SRAM and DRAM? Compare the two, relative cost of the two
 c What will happen in the case of a power failure for the above?
c What is tristate or high impedance state?
c What are the difference between open collector output and totem pole out put?
20c Find the highest clocking frequency of a digital circuit give the rise time ,fall time and propagation delay?
·
c   c c
c Obtain a square wave from sine wave from Zener diodes
2c What is the difference between oscillator and multivibrator?
3c What is emitter follower? What is an opamp?
4c What is the ideal gain of an opamp?
5c ow is amplification possible in a transistor?
6c Classify power amplifiers
c ow does a diode look(internally)? Explain the working using internal diagram
c Explain processes taking place in the depletion junction of a forward biased diode
c What is a buffer? What is the gain of a buffer?
0c What is an oscillator?
c ow do you forward bias a transistor?
2c What are the practical applications of a transistor?
3c What is reverse recovery time and how does it affect a diode?
4c Draw and explain the working of a monostable vibrator using op amp
5c State Thevenin͛s theorem and Norton͛s theorem What are their applications?
6c What is the virtual ground in an op amp?
 c Differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor
‰ c·

c What is a thyristor and differentiate between thyristor and a diode
2c Switching action of an SCR and triggering Draw the diagram of thyristor
3c Draw an internal block diagram of a normal voltage stabilizer
4c What is a reference variable?
 
 c 
c Define control systems Why are they so important?
2c What are the different types of control systems?
3c Explain open loop with block diagram examples
4c What are the advantages and drawbacks of closed loop?
5c ow can you design a stable system? Explain different stability criteria
6c Explain Ruth-urwitz rule in one sentence What are poles and their significance?
c Is there any control system in this room(interview hall)?
c Draw the block diagram of a control system and write its transfer function
c What is ROC? Explain transformation between s and z planes
0c Differentiate between open and closed loop control systems
c What is meant by adaptive control system?
2c Find the transfer function of a given RLC circuit
  


c What is packet switching and circuit switching? What is the protocol used in telephone network?
2c What is modulation? Why is needed? What are the various types?Compare AM,FM, PMWhich waves will travel
a longer distance- FM or AM and why?
3c What is the mode of transmission of television signals?
4c Compare the bandwidth requirements of AM and FM
5c What do you know about antennae?
6c Why is linking up frequency greater than the down linking frequency?
 
c
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c
c 

c What is a modem? Draw its internal diagram
2c What is VoIP?
3c What is the most important advantage of Bluetooth?
4c What is wave studio? What is Bit rate?
5c What is the difference between mp3 and WAV formats?
6c What is sampling? What is a database? What is VDL? What is a complier?
c What is FSF? Cite any current relevance
c Volume control in TV is logarithmic Why?
c What is the mathematics used in DSP and from which domain to which domain is it converted?
0c Differentiate between macros and functions in C Explain the booting process of a computerWhat is round robin
technique of interrupt arbitration

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DD. What is transistor?c

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