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4 June 2010

Developing Planning Unit, University College London

Client: International Water Management Institute

GIDA ASHAIMAN REPORT


Authors: MSc Environment & Sustainable Development Students: Sa’adatu Abatemi-Usman,
Veronica Cheng, Andrea Demurtas, Sara Guy, Ai Kaibu, Cassidi Kunvipusilkul, Robin Pratap,
Salman Rassouli, Hauwa Usman

[1]
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abbreviations 3

Preface 4

Executive Summary 5

1 Introduction 6
1.1 Purpose of the study 6
1.2 Urban & peri-urban agriculture 6
1.3 Food sovereignty 6
1.4 Background: Ashaiman GIDA site 6

2 Research 7
2.1 Definition of SUPA & areas investigated 7
2.2 Methodology / conceptual framework 7
2.3 Tools 10
2.4 Limitations 10

3 Ashaiman GIDA site 11


3.1 Findings 11
3.1.1 Environmental sphere (encroachment, farming practices, right bank) 11
3.1.2 Social sphere 14
3.1.3 Economic sphere 15
3.1.4 Policy sphere 15
3.2 Summary 16

4 Recommendations 17
Strategy 1: Land control: drawing the line 17
Strategy 2: Development of the right bank: right bank rehab 19
Strategy 3: Farmers‘ association: unity & strength 21

5 Conclusions 23

References

Appendices

Appendix A: Payment of irrigation service charges to the Ghana Irrigation Development Authority
Appendix B: Mono-cropping versus crop rotation, intercropping and integrated farming: an introduction
Appendix C: Research schedule
Appendix D: District Citizens Monitoring Committee
Appendix E: Costs of growing 1 acre of rice
Appendix F: Organisational hierarchy of Ghana Irrigation Development Authority and the Irrigation Development Centre
Appendix G: Findings and food sovereignty
Appendix H: Strategies

[2]
ABBREVIATIONS
AIFCS Ashaiman Irrigation Farmers Cooperative Society

AshMA Ashaiman Municipal Assembly


AshWGUPA Ashaiman Working Group on Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture

AWGUPA Accra Working Group on Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture

CACS College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences

DCMC District Citizens Monitoring Committee

DPU Development Planning Unit

EPA Environmental Protection Agency

FUP Federation of the Urban Poor

GC Ghana cedi

GIDA Ghana Irrigation Development Authority

GWCL Ghana Water Company Limited

IDC Irrigation Development Centre

ILGS Institute of Local Government Studies

IWMI International Water Management Institute

JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency

MoFA Ministry of Food and Agriculture

MWD Metropolitan Works Department

NDPC National Development Planning Commission

RBC Right Bank Committee

RD Roman Down

RUAF Resource Centres on Urban Agriculture and Food Security


SUPA Sustainable urban and peri-urban agriculture

TCPD Town and Country Planning Department

TDC Tema Development Corporation

UPA Urban and peri-urban agriculture

WMD Waste Management Department

[3]
June 2010
SUSTAINABLE URBAN AGRICULTURE
IN ASHAIMAN, GHANA

The GIDA site


(Ashaiman, Ghana)

PREFACE
Over the past 5 months, many people and working at the Roman Down site for their
organisations have helped us in our cooperation.
research. Special thanks are due to Dr
Olufunke Cofie and the International Water Special mention must also be made of the
Management Institute, Memuna Mattah and Ashaiman Irrigation Farmers Cooperative
Nii Ofoe Hansen for their commitment and Society, Ghana Irrigation Development
generous assistance. We are also extremely Authority and the Ashaiman Stool for
grateful for the support and advice from our receiving us. Thanks are also due to the
lecturers and team leaders, Adriana Allen, Roman Downs Farmers’ Cooperative and all
Pascale Hofmann, Alex Frediani and Rita the other individuals and organisations who
Valencia. We also thank our colleagues graciously gave us their time.

[4]
Location
Ashaiman is a rapidly urbanising
municipality located approximately
20 km east of Accra, capital city of
Ghana. The site studied is a
government-led irrigation scheme
used also as a model for agricultural
development.

MAP OF GIDA
SITE
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Agriculture is a key industry in Ghana, occupying a central socio- We review the progress of the GIDA Ashaiman scheme and the roles
economic position (JICA, 2006); in addition, urban and peri-urban of the various groups involved. The report outlines a framework for
agriculture (UPA) is seen as both a common and beneficial use of land analysing the sustainability of the scheme and its position with regards
(Smit and Nasr, 1992). The situation regarding food in Accra is that to food sovereignty, looking at environmental, social, political and
40% of the inhabitants are, “considered vulnerable, in that they have economic spheres. While political commitment for UPA is presently in
enough food for now, but still spend a high proportion of income on rhetoric, the situation on the ground shows conflict among institutional
food, making them vulnerable to seasonal and price changes or other groups (particularly around issues of land and encroachments), a low
global food supply issues” (Maxwell et al., 2000). Urban agriculture importance attributed to ecological concerns and a lack of supportive
can serve the multiple purposes of helping to alleviate poverty while financial options.
also conserving natural resources and making productive use of
under-utilized areas. The recommendations given are aimed at sustaining UPA in Ashaiman
and further afield, and towards promoting the principles of food
In Ghana, a national policy for food security contributed to the sovereignty. Strategies are focused on land (allocation and use) and
introduction of the Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA) and the organisation of farmers:
its subsequent schemes. This report details research conducted into
sustainable UPA on one such GIDA site, located in Ashaiman, a ๏ Drawing the line: defining and protecting the areas of land
rapidly urbanising area near Accra. The current state of UPA at the dedicated to agriculture and putting a halt to further
Ashaiman GIDA site was ascertained, achievements and problems encroachments and the degradation of natural resources
identified, and potential solutions to these problems proposed. necessary for UPA.

Food sovereignty, as an alternative paradigm to both food security ๏ Right bank rehab: rehabilitation and development of an unused
and current global food systems, was used as the benchmark and area of the Ashaiman GIDA site with full participation of all
signpost for the research. The challenges of food sovereignty are stakeholders, to make the best use of the land and safeguard
particularly pertinent in a country such as Ghana, with a strong it for agricultural purposes.
export-oriented agricultural sector. We believe that sustainable UPA
can be used to support the progress of food sovereignty, particularly ๏ Unity and strength: improving the resilience of UPA through
strengthening the internal cohesion and functioning of the
given the importance attached to local food markets and food for
farmers’ association while at the same time networking with
people rather than export and trade (Nyéléni, 2007, La Via
other farmers to give them a louder voice, greater control and
Campesina).
a wider knowledge base.

[5]
1 INTRODUCTION
Purpose, Structure & Scope of the Report
President Kwame Nkrumah in the early 1960’s.
1.1 Purpose of the study 1.3 Food sovereignty
The total area is approximately 155 ha, divided
This project builds upon the research on When discussing food sovereignty, we first into a left (56 ha) and right bank (99 ha) by a
sustainable urban agriculture conducted in need to consider the more established concept central drainage canal. The reservoir,
2009 by the DPU students of the 2008/2009 of ‘food security’ and why food security could constructed in 1965−68, has a capacity of
academic year. Focusing on land, water and not live up to the expectations of either approximately 5.6 million metric tons and
waste management, our study aimed to: scholars or stakeholders within the sustainable provides the water for irrigation.
development discourse. Under the Food and
๏ explore the existing achievements Agriculture Organization’s definition, food Agriculture is a key export industry of Ghana1.
and their background, security prioritises the permanent availability of Shortly after independence, the Ghanaian
๏ identify remaining obstacles, and and access to healthy food for all; however, it government worked on the development of a
๏ develop potential strategic fails to address how this is to be achieved. formal irrigation scheme in order to increase
interventions for overcoming these Neo-liberal advocates then encourage poor domestic food production; the Ashaiman GIDA
obstacles countries to achieve food security through site was one such project.
importing cheap food or foreign aid, rather
towards the achievement of sustainable urban
than through domestic production (Lee, 2007), A top-down, centralized management
and peri-urban agriculture (SUPA) in the
ignoring the dependency created by this approach failed to adequately maintain the
Greater Accra Region, using the Ghana
integration with the global market and the irrigation facilities. Under the World Bank’s
Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA) site in
threats to smallholder producers, who cannot Structural Adjustment Program of the 1980s,
Ashaiman as a case study.
compete with subsidized imports. By contrast, government expenditure on the irrigation
The study will be analysed using the principles
the notion of food sovereignty prioritizes the scheme was reduced and the irrigation sites
of food sovereignty, which we believe is the
production of food for local consumption, became dilapidated (Sato, 2006). Against this
ultimate goal that SUPA should support.
resulting in a sustainable pattern of agriculture backdrop, the Ashaiman GIDA site was
in which the viability of both the social and selected by the Japan International
1.2 Urban & peri-urban agriculture ecological aspects of agriculture is guaranteed Cooperation Agency (JICA) as a model site for
(Pimbert, 2008, La Via Campesina). the Small-Scale Irrigated Agriculture Promotion
Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is
Plan in the 1990’s, aiming for a transition from
recognized increasingly by the private sector,
governments (national and local), NGOs and Food Sovereignty government- to farmer-led management (JICA,
2006). With JICA’s support, the Irrigation
development agencies as a means for poverty “Food sovereignty is the right of peoples to Development Centre (IDC) in Ashaiman was
alleviation in urban and peri-urban areas. Cities define their own food and agriculture; to established within GIDA as a “base for the
Farming for the Future (Adam-Bradford et al., protect and regulate domestic agricultural development and dissemination of irrigated
2006) defines UPA as: “… the growing of production and trade in order to achieve farming techniques” (ibid.) and the left canal
plants and the raising of animals for food and sustainable development objectives; to was reconstructed. Currently, 93 farmers are
other uses within and around the cities and determine the extent to which they want to be growing rice, maize, okra and other vegetables
towns, and related activities such as the self-reliant; to restrict the dumping of products on the site; in addition, unregistered farmers
production and delivery of inputs, and the in their markets; and to provide local fisheries- are using land known as Roman Down (RD)
processing and marketing of products”. There based communities the priority in managing and seasonal farmers are using land on the
is great potential but also elements of risk the use of and the rights to aquatic resources. right bank. Registered farmers belong to the
around various issues, for example, health Food sovereignty does not negate trade but Ashaiman Irrigation Farmers Cooperative
benefits and impacts, local economic rather it promotes the formulation of trade Society (AIFCS) and pay an irrigation service
development and urban environmental policies and practices that serve the rights of charge to GIDA every 6 months (APPENDIX A).
management. peoples to food and to safe, healthy and
ecologically sustainable production.” (La Via
City dynamics have changed rapidly over Campesina)
recent decades and, due to continued urban
growth and rural−urban migration, cities have
to extend their capacities in terms of 1.4 Background: Ashaiman GIDA
infrastructure, providing economic site
opportunities, housing and, of course, food
provision. UPA can play a sizeable role in The Ashaiman GIDA site is located in
improving livelihoods of the urban population; Ashaiman Municipality, which was carved from
having been part of many cities for centuries, it Tema in 2008. Ashaiman is 5 km2 and has a
is flexible and can be adapted to changing population of approximately 75,000. The site is
situations. At least 50% of the average income one of 22 projects run by GIDA, a government
organization under the Ministry of Food and
of a family living in a developing country is
Agriculture (MoFA).
Report by:
spent on food (Adam-Bradford et al., 2006).
Sa’adatu Abatemi-Usman
With this figure in mind, UPA can contribute
The land for the site, traditionally owned by the Veronica Cheng
significantly to food security, especially among Andrea Demurtas
the urban poor, and help to move societies stool, was purchased by the Tema Sara Guy
towards food sovereignty. Development Corporation (TDC) when the Ai Kaibu
government launched the GIDA project under Cassidi Kunvipusilkul
Robin Pratap
1 Salman Rassouli
According to the 2000 census, 50.6% of the labour force (4.2 million people) is directly engaged in
agriculture, and the contribution of agriculture to national GDP is approximately 40% in Ghana (MoFA, 2007, Hauwa Usman
MoFA seminar 10 May 2010).

[6]
2 RESEARCH
2) Sustainable farming practices conventional market-oriented agriculture. On
2.1 Definition of SUPA & areas to
In order to maintain and enhance the the other hand, SUPA has been seen as an
be investigated natural resource base, a reduced appropriate tool for achieving the ecological
To address the research aim mentioned earlier, dependence on chemical inputs goals of food sovereignty, in terms of its
the team developed a working definition of (e.g., fertilizer, herbicide and approach to using ecological inputs and
SUPA. pesticide) is necessary. Cropping considering long-term benefits for both
techniques can also increase or humans and the environment (Pimbert, 2008).
decrease resilience (APPENDIX B). The Neoliberal economics and the green revolution
Sustainable Urban and team hypothesised that there are
economic barriers to adopting
paradigm advocate the replacement of
smallholders with large-scale, industrial
Peri-Urban Agriculture ecologically sustainable farming farming and of intercropping with cash mono-
“Urban and peri-urban agriculture is a practices. crops, undermining both the socio-economic
process of crop and/or animal livelihood of the farmers and the environment.
production activities in the city and its 3) Farmers’ association and This double-edged damage becomes more
peri-urban areas for consumption and/or collective action significant when we consider that, in the global
commercial purposes. Its sustainability is The farmers’ association should be South, 800 million people are dependent on
dependent on the physical environment, integral conveying farmers’ needs to small-scale UPA (Pimbert, 2008). Countries
the availability of resources and the policy-makers. Joint action amongst aiming to secure a sustainable food supply
relationships among actors. Suitable farmers may improve their economic should follow appropriate policies that support
farming practices that maintain and and political conditions. UPA. However, domestic production alone
enhance the natural resource base and cannot guarantee the sustainability of food
supply, since agricultural practices may still
supportive policies across all levels of 2.2 Methodology/conceptual
governance are needed to enable contradict the principles of food sovereignty.
sustainable UPA, thus enhancing health
framework To move UPA toward sustainability (SUPA), all
and well-being in the city, food security Rapid urbanization and increasing rural−urban principles of food sovereignty should be
and moving towards food sovereignty.” migration in the South is changing the face of considered and integrated in policy-making for
poverty from being a rural phenomenon to an (S)UPA.
increasingly urban one. “Today a poor person
is more likely to be African, to be a child, a Four main spheres were found to be crucial to
Based on this definition, the Terms of woman or an elderly person in an urban area, SUPA on the GIDA site: policy, environment,
Reference and secondary research, three main to be landless, to live in an environmentally economics and society. These spheres
areas were investigated: fragile area and to be a refugee or a displaced influence (positively or negatively) the
person (Human Development Report, 1997)”. sustainability of UPA; the principles of food
1) Water supply and waste In this atmosphere, the importance of (S)UPA sovereignty also apply across these spheres.
management meeting the principles of food sovereignty as a The different spheres are inter-related and
A sufficient quantity of good-quality “precondition to genuine food security (Via coordination among them is needed to ensure
water is an essential natural resource Campesina, 1996)” has become more and SUPA.
in terms of the physical environment more significant. It may be true to say UPA
required for sustainable agriculture. To better understand the integration of food
would not be sustainable unless practiced
Encroachments on the Ashaiman sovereignty in SUPA and the relationship
through the principles of food sovereignty.
GIDA site, exacerbated by a lack of between the two, we have developed a set of
Autonomous, localized food production
waste collection and sewerage of criteria, using Nyéléni’s Pillars of Food
systems, such as UPA, are encouraged by the
surrounding area, are affecting the Sovereignty (2007), against which the current
concept of food sovereignty as genuine tools
water quality for irrigation, as well as situation can be measured. These criteria are
securing the right and access of vulnerable
the volume of water available. given in the table on the following page.
groups to food that have been neglected in

POLICY
SPHERE

ENVIRONMENTAL
SOCIAL SPHERE
SPHERE SUPA

ECONOMIC Conceptual
SPHERE Framework

[7]
Six pillars of food Spheres of influence in achieving and maintaining sustainable UPA
sovereignty
Policy sphere Economic sphere Environmental sphere Social sphere
Focuses on food for people
Availability of Food is Food is affordable, Migrants have a share in UPA
enough, healthy distributed healthy and nutritious practices to provide sufficient
and nutritious equitably and food
food for all, without prejudice
particularly among people Indigenous people are involved
vulnerable groups in UPA

Women are involved in UPA


Values food providers
Respecting the Policies support Economic policies are Urbanization and Media adequately reflect the
right of small security of tenure not biased to encroachments are not a importance of UPA and small-
farmers and and/or control industrial or Green threat to UPA holder farms
rejects policies over land for UPA Revolution-inspired
that threaten or farmers farming but put value
undervalue their on and provide
role Youth are opportunities for
encouraged and urban farmers
supported in UPA
Farmers have access
Official media to loans and credit
adequately reflect with suitable payment
the importance of terms and interest
UPA and small- rates
holder farms

Localises food systems


Bringing food Policies support Access to local Consumers choose local
providers and the expansion of market as a source of products
consumers closer local markets for income is guaranteed
and rejecting of UPA produce Farmers are not integrated into
policies that Farmers are not global trade and dependent on
favour Imported crops dependent on exporters but sell crops to the
unsustainable are subject to middlemen for selling local market
international trade tariffs crops
and
unaccountable Local
remote consumption is
commercials prioritized over
export

Puts control locally


Gives local Public and Local urban/peri-urban farmers
producers control private sector have a voice and can decide
over their natural ownership or the methods and products they
resources and management is grow.
rejects limited in UPA by
privatisation of decentralised Farmers’ associations help
local resources policies farmers to gain management
through laws and knowledge
contracts The control and
responsibilities Associations operate in a
are well transparent and accountable
transferred to the manner
municipal level
and roles are well
defined

[8]
Builds knowledge and skills
Supports Policies do not Traditional practices are used Farmers’ associations are
sustainable support use of in UPA linked to enhance and
localized food genetically exchange indigenous
production modified crops knowledge and skills
knowledge and and limit
skills and rejects undermining
undermining technologies
technology
Education on and
experimentation
with traditional
practices takes
place

Works with nature


Has an agro- Appropriate Adequate state and The source of water is not There is consumer
ecological policies favour international funds are contaminated and suitable for pressure for organic
production and composting allocated to education UA. produce
farming approach on environmentally
that maximize Appropriate friendly farming Irrigation methods reduce
long term regulations methods health risk and contamination
ecosystem encourage and
functions and facilitate The water used for irrigation
improve resilience composting does not pose any threat to
plants farmers or consumers
Intercropping is practised
Regulations limit
the excessive use Food grown respects the local
of chemicals and vegetation
destructive
farming Farmers implement closed
technologies loop farming
Soil has a good structure (not
Monitoring of the compacted) and is suitable for
quality and agricultural purposes
nutrition of UPA
products takes Soil quality is protected from
places toxicity and salinity caused by
the (over-) use of chemical
inputs (fertilizers, herbicides,
pesticides, etc)
Farmers’ practices endorse:
 Minimization
 Reusing
 Recycling
 Composting

The areas of food production


are free from waste
The surrounding area is clean

The surrounding area is


served by adequate garbage
collection
Source: Adapted from Nyéléni, 2007

[9]
2.3 Tools
An initial review of the literature on UPA was conducted to underpin the theoretical perspective
of the research. In addition, the literature concerning the political and administrative context of
TOOLS
Ghana, in particular Accra, Ashaiman and the GIDA site, and the approach to UPA were
reviewed.

This was followed by fieldwork in Accra and Ashaiman, consisting of a number of meetings with
primary and secondary stakeholders from state, private and civil society sectors. Authorities
from MoFA, GIDA, Zoom Lion, the Stool and others were consulted. This information was
complemented by individual (semi-structured) interviews with farmers and officials; focus groups
with the farmers to identify their perceptions of farming on the site GIDA; and transect walks to
gain understanding of the infrastructure and natural environment of the site (for a full schedule of
the fieldwork conducted, see APPENDIX C).

2.4 Limitations
Fieldwork was conducted within a 2-week timeframe. The language barrier resulted in a possible
loss of understanding or even misunderstanding, and the disengagement of some farmers from
focus group discussion. We were also unable to meet with all relevant stakeholders, such as the
encroachment residents and migrant farmers. A final presentation and plenary session was held
with the majority of stakeholders, which allowed areas of conflicting information to be raised; the
additional presence of the Stool would have made the discussion more complete.

Research was conducted using our Terms of Reference, focussed on urban agriculture, as the
starting point. Therefore, we mostly focussed on the views and needs of farmers and not, for
example, those in need of housing.

On-site
research

Focus Groups
Between 4 and 11 May 2010, nine
focus groups were conducted
with approximately 45 farmers.
Primary data on the perceptions
and practices of the farmers with
regard to the natureal and built
environment, political support,
financial situations and social
interactions were gathered

[10]
THREATS TO 3 ASHAIMAN GIDA SITE
WATER 3.1 Findings
3.1.1 Environmental Sphere
Encroachment
Encroachments on the GIDA site are a claims that the Ashaiman GIDA site is on a
significant threat to sustaining the irrigation long lease of 125 years of which 75 years is
scheme. Houses have been erected around the already spent, yet the Stool has not received
reservoir, on the shoulder of the left bank, the full compensation. Land in Ashaiman is
along the left irrigation canal on the buffer zone becoming increasingly valuable as the area
and pollution catchment area, and on the becomes further urbanised.
floodplain of the site. Land erosion and solid
waste cause siltation and pollution of the Currently, the Land Allocation Committee,
reservoir, as well as pollution from waste water. which includes representatives from Ashaiman
Reducing the buffer zone, developments Municipal Assembly (AshMA), the IDC/GIDA,
affecting the catchment drain and the Stool and the farmers (AIFCS), meets
inappropriate use of water in the canals regularly to discuss the land issue. There have
increase the likelihood of water pollution. The been negotiations between the government
boundaries were marked by trees, which have and the Stool to allow a 50 m buffer zone on
in some areas been cut down by encroachers. the catchment area of the left canal, and there
are also plans to demolish 150 homes out of
Encroachments on the buffer zone are the the total 1000 encroachment residences on
result of an unclear land ownership agreement GIDA-managed land. The District Citizen’s
between the government and the Stool, as well Monitoring Committee (APPENDIX D) is
as unclear demarcation of boundaries. It is facilitating dialogue between the RD farmers
apparent that the government has not enforced and the Stool with regards to land security.
its authority strictly; as such, farmers who feel However, there is an urgent need for a more
the direct impact have no control to resolve the comprehensive negotiation among GIDA, TDC,
problem. Due to the lack of documented farmers, Stool and residents to resolve the land
evidence and unclear demarcation, the Stool disputes.

From top to bottom:


Encroachments around the
reservoir; just below the dam; and
alongside the left irrigation canal.
Plans for the demolition of illegal
development were repeatedly
raised; however, the root causes of
the conflict, including a lack of
consistency between customary
and official land systems, also need
to be addressed.

[11]
Farming Practices
CHARACTERISTICS
Farming activities on the GIDA site take place resources, moving them away from the
on the 56 ha of the left bank. Each farmer fundamental principles of food sovereignty
cultivates a plot of 1−2.5 acres (0.4−1 ha). and sustainability.
Although most farmers acknowledge the
negative impacts of using chemical fertilizers, Intercropping is used rarely; crop rotation and
pesticides and herbicides, they continue to mono-cropping are more common. The
use them. Chemical fertilizers are used at farmers claim that their small plot size
many stages of crop production, from land discourages them from intercropping, as they
preparation to shortly before harvesting. From believe they will yield an insufficient amount of
interviews with farmers we learned that each kind of vegetable for sale. In fact,
pesticides are widely used. Farmers do not intercropping methods can be implemented
use compost because they perceive it to be on small plots; when done appropriately it
labour intensive, time consuming and with gives a high yield, promotes resilience and
high associated transportation costs. has the potential to reduce the use of
Research into the viability of composting as a chemical pesticides and fertilizers (pers.
private enterprise has been conducted by comm. Biel R, 2010). However, land limitation
Zoom Lion. The farmers are more concerned is still the main constraint that hinders farmers
with short-term rather than long-term goals, from farming practices such as integrated Left canal
even though their land tenure is secure. In farming (the combination of crop, animal and The only fully functioning main canal
other words, farming practices are not fish farming). on the site.
harmonious with nature. By contrast, they
degrade the natural

Intercropping
Intercropping is used rarely; crop
rotation and mono-cropping are more
common.

Integrated farming
A MoFA-run demonstration farm with
fish ponds, pigs, poultry and rise
paddies.

[12]
Right Bank
UNPRODUCTIVE LAND The 99 ha of the right bank are designed to be ‘Youth in Agriculture’ program. This
irrigated through the right canal by gravity. Program, implemented by Ghanaian
However, the canal is constructed of earth government, aims to reduce the both
rather than concrete, allowing water seepage, unemployment and poverty. According to
and water flow is impeded by waste and MoFA, approximately 47,000 people benefitted
weeds. As a result, not only is the canal too from the program in 2009 (IIJ 2009). As a
shallow to channel the water, it is also blocked result, in 2010 the government will invest
by debris. At present, only part of this area is another 50 million GC into the program (Ghana
being used to cultivate onions seasonally and Business News 2010). Both GIDA and the
informally by migrant farmers. In individual Stool recognize the potential of the Youth in
interviews, farmers mentioned that onions can Agriculture program for the right bank.
provide additional benefits for farmers above
their usual cultivation. However, the GIDA has drafted plans to rehabilitate the right
information on migrant farmers was gathered bank to
towards the end of our research and we were which MoFA has agreed in principle, and is
not able to meet any of these farmers or now working on sourcing funds. The IDC has
follow-up on, for example, the regulations also proposed introducing small animal
governing this use of the right bank. farming and aquaculture on the right bank.
The lack of water has forced farmers on the Even with the repair of the right canal, the
Right Canal right bank to volume of the water from the reservoir would
The canal is not made of concrete abandon their land and transfer to the left only allow 70% of the right bank to be
and water flow is impeded by waste bank, resulting in smaller plot sizes for irrigated. As a result, any planned intervention
and weeds. Not only is the canal too cultivation, thereby generating lower incomes. will require less water-intensive activities. GIDA
shallow, it is also blocked by debris Rehabilitation of the right canal is capital is looking to implement new technology, such
intensive, beyond the farmers’ means, so they as water dripping, on the site. A major
are dependent on GIDA for reinforcing the drawback, however, is the minimal to
canal. GIDA also requires external funding to nonexistent
develop the right bank as it lacks the role that AIFCS farmers have in the
necessary finance. decision-making and development plans for
There are a number of ideas for the the right bank.
development of the right bank, such as the

Right Bank
As the right canal is not functioning,
this area is under-utilised for farming.
Plans are being developed to
rehabilitate the right bank.

[13]
3.1.2 Social Sphere
On the GIDA site there are 93 farmers who have formed a
cooperative, the AIFCS, which has been registered with the
Department of Cooperatives since 1998. AIFCS is also a member General Assembly
of the Ghana Peasant Farmers Association. Members and their
elected executives manage the cooperative. Chairman

Within the assembly, there are various sub-committees; each Disciplinary Committee Vice Chairman Welfare Committee
comprises five members, including the sub-committee chair as the
figure on the right hand shows. The Chairman and the executive Secretary Agriculture Committee
members are elected by the General Assembly. Once elected, the
chairman designates the respective positions for each member of
Finance Committee Treasurer
the Executive Committee. Elections are held every 3 years and
members can be elected for two consecutive terms only. The last
Organizer
election was in 2007. All decisions taken by the executive members
have to be ratified by the General Assembly to take effect. Since
2000, accounts are opened to members at the end of each year to
Womanʼs Leader Maintenance Officer
increase transparency.

All members of the cooperative work together once a month in Maintenance Committee
order to maintain common property. A fine of 5 GC is levied on any
member who fails to participate. The maintenance committee
works closely with GIDA to co-manage the site. The cooperative (1) Maintenance committee chaired by the Maintenance Officer
does not play a role in sales or marketing; as a result, farmers have (2) Agriculture committee chaired by the Secretary
to deal with ‘market mummies’ individually, which has made the (3) Finance committee chaired by the Treasurer
farmers vulnerable. (4) Disciplinary committee chaired by the Vice Chairman
(5) Welfare committee chaired by the Vice Chairman
During the fieldwork, a joint focus group of the AIFCS, farmers from
the RD site and representatives from the Federation of the Urban
Poor took place. A vision for sustainable agriculture in Ashaiman
was discussed and the creation of an ‘umbrella’ organisation of
farmers in Ashaiman was agreed upon, in order that the farmers
may support each other and work together, for example, in political
lobbying.

Combined farmers meeting


A joint focus group with farmers
from the main GIDA site and Roman
Down. The farmers discussed their
Meeting vision for agriculture in Ashaiman
and agreed to forge stronger ties
between Roman
between the two associations
Down & GIDA
site farmers

[14]
3.1.3 Economic sphere
Farmers belonging to the AIFCS make regular financial contributions of up to 62 GC/year to the association that are allocated to administration,
welfare and share capital funds.

Financial contributions of the Ashaiman Irrigation Farmers Cooperative Society


Fund Amount, frequency Use and distribution
Administration 1 GC/month To cover administrative costs of running the cooperative
Welfare 10 GC/6 months Financial assistance for those in need (e.g., through illness or death in
the family). Distribution is decided by the Welfare Committee
Share capital 30 GC/year For investment purposes

In addition to these funds, there is a Farmers’ Bank on the site that provides loans for inputs of seeds and chemicals. However, in our discussions
with the farmers, lack of adequate finance was highlighted as a significant problem. Owing to the nature of farming, there is a need for cash
advances throughout the growing process, not only at the input stage. The costs of hiring labour was one of the highest costs of the process (for
more detailed information, see APPENDIX E). The absence of cash credit availability leads the farmers to rely on market mummies, who not only
dictate the prices of produce but also influence the crops grown to suit their demands.

A women’s savings group was previously active in the AIFCS but the leaders left the farm and members of the group were not able to get their
money. However, the farmers were positive regarding the potential benefits of regular group savings and, with support from an organisation such
as the Federation of the Urban Poor, some members would be interested in starting such groups. Greater financial independence would help to
reduce the dependency on GIDA and the market mummies, a desire that was expressed strongly by the farmers.

3.1.4 Policy sphere


The traditional belief in Ghana is that “all power is in land” (Dyasi, 1985). This belief is founded on the principle that land provides the basic
elements that sustain people; in turn, the earth is owned by the ancestors who maintain it. Therefore, the land, waters and minerals cannot be
owned by individuals as they are sacred and must be treasured (ibid), rather they are safeguarded by the chiefs, which is why land transactions
are leases rather than outright purchases. On the GIDA site, various institutions, such as MoFA, GIDA, IDC, AshMA and the Stool, have inter-
related roles regarding food production, poverty alleviation, sustainable land practices and sound indigenous beliefs that can ensure SUPA and
lead to food sovereignty.

The relationships of the various parties and institutions on the GIDA site as their activities relate to UPA have been mapped using the Web of
Institutionalisation (Levy, 1996).

The Web of Institutionalisation


MoFA AshMA MoFA
NDPC Organisational Sphere
GIDA JICA
IDC DANIDA
Policy Sphere Market Mummies NDPC
Mainstream
MoFA Responsibility for
GIDA Resources
RUAF MoFA ILGS Transformatory
AshMA GIDA TDC Principles
GTV AshMA GWLC
NDPC TCP

Political
Policy / Planning Procedures
Commitment
Farmers DCMC
MoFA AshMA
associations FUP MoFA
EPA Stool
(RD & AIFCS) IDC
ILGS IDC
Market
mummies’
associations Pressure of Representative Staff Development
Political Political
Constituencies Structures
Delivery of
AshMA
Farmers Stool Programmes &
Market mummies’ Woman & Men’s Projects
associations Methodology
Encroachment Experience &
residents their Reflexive MoFA IDC / GIDA
WMD GWLC IDC IWMI
Interpretation of MWD Zoom Lion ILGS JICA
Reality

Applied
Theory Building
Research
IWMI
Citizen Sphere RUAF MoFA WMD Delivery Sphere
CACS / University of NDPC Stool
WMD Ghana AshMA
Fisheries Department DPU

Source: Adapted from Levy, 1996

High influence & high support Low influence & high support Low influence & low support High influence & low support

[15]
Looking south
over the GIDA site
from the dam

GIDA is as much a demonstration site as an agricultural scheme. The concerns. Food providers are not always valued by the system and
IDC, as the research arm of GIDA, provides numerous workshops and farmers do not have control of the land they farm.
training for the farmers on new techniques, as well as guiding crop
choices, resulting in an absence of indigenous knowledge and Regarding SUPA, there appears to be a vicious circle in operation on
practices. The organisational structures of GIDA and the IDC are given the site. One of the biggest constraints for the site is poor maintenance
in APPENDIX F. of the irrigation facilities on the right bank, which has led to limited land
available for farmers. This causes a decreased income for each farmer
The dependence of farmers on institutions is manifest in MoFA’s (compared with larger plots), which is combined with inflexible credit
subsidizing of chemical fertilizers and the establishment of the Farmers’ services. Although farmers are aware of the importance of more
Bank by JICA, which lends for seeds and fertilizers. Extension services sustainable farming practices, such as intercropping and composting,
and some forms of credit are available and food production is mainly for their economic conditions and perceptions lead them to adopt less
economic purposes rather than self-consumption, yet the younger sustainable farming practices. The low collection rate of the irrigation
generation is discouraged from farming as a result of the low standing service charge may partially reflect the farmers’ inadequate incomes,
of farmers in society and the low economic benefits. yet it is exacerbating the poor maintenance. In addition, the ecological
impacts of high chemical inputs will bring about a decrease in
The absence of infrastructure further discourages sustainable farming agricultural productivity and increased expense in the long term.
practices. The Stool and AshMA, while claiming to support UPA, plan to
develop the land around the reservoir into a leisure resort as an The Ashaiman GIDA site has enjoyed substantial support both from
alternative income-generating strategy. The Stool is also involved in GIDA/MoFA and external donors, such as JICA; however, there have
selling land to developers; it believes that urbanisation and UPA should been some unintended consequences. Our research revealed an
have equal opportunities, although they appear to lean more towards apparent financial and technical dependency at two levels, the farmers
urbanisation (Ashaiman Stool Chairman). on GIDA and GIDA on external donors. This loss of control over
finances impacts practical decisions regarding farming practices. In
3.2 Summary addition, the high level of technical training received through GIDA/IDC
belittles the value of traditional knowledge and skills, rendering them
An overall assessment of our findings using the criteria developed is almost non-existent.
given in APPENDIX G. The Ashaiman GIDA site is now facing a
substantial challenge from encroachments and their impacts on water A transparent policy- and decision-making process in close
quality and quantity. The lack of agreement and documentation collaboration and coordination with all stakeholders is lacking, leading
regarding the land allocated to the GIDA site seems to be the main to confusion and setting the scene for potential future conflicts. In
cause of this threat to the long-term viability of the irrigation scheme. particular, active participation of the farmers in decisions regarding the
The roots of the conflict can be traced back to political (customary and running and development of the site, as well as the integration of UPA
official systems, as well as individual interests), economic (revenue from into Ashaiman’s relevant plans and policies is desirable to give local
land leases and development) and societal (a need for more housing) control.

[16]
4 RECOMMENDATIONS
Our recommendations are aimed at improving the sustainability of UPA. A more in-depth discussion of the
reasoning behind each strategy is given in APPENDIX H.

Strategy 1: Land control: drawing the line

Encroachments on the eastern side of the GIDA site cause several problems to the farmers and are threatening the long-term survival of the
scheme. From our research, the root cause seems to be the mismatch between the traditional council and current local administration regarding
the leasing of the land, especially for some areas, such as Roman Down or the reservoir’s banks. It is thus necessary to involve local dwellers and
workers in understanding the problem (sub-strategy 1), to conduct a technical assessment of the requirements of protecting the site, and to insure
that new and existing housing is adequate for Ashaiman’s growth and has access to municipal services and infrastructure (sewage, piped water,
waste collection, etc).

Define and protect areas dedicated to urban agriculture.


Main objective: having secure boundaries and a buffer zone to protect farmland and water reserves.

Actors (main
Sub-strategy Actions Timeline Outcomes Monitoring
driver[s])

Sub-objective Facilitate and lower resistance to the process (of securing boundaries)
Expand the role and Map local stakeholders Immediate Bringing local actors to a
membership of the and engage them in the common understanding of
Land Allocation appraisal of the the problem
Committee encroachment problem
Needs of different DCMC
AshMA
stakeholders identified
GIDA

Produce a common Short term Report


proposal to address the (3 months) Integration of local needs
issue within city-wide projects

Sub-objective Define environmental and technical necessities of the site

Implement a technical State of the Environment Short term Report


environmental Report of Ashaiman (6 months) TCPD
assessment (University of
Ghana)

Include the views coming Short term Integrate planning with


from the expanded Land (6 months) actors’ needs, including
Allocation Committee in protection of farmers and
the masterplan adequate residential TCPD
development DCMC

Define the buffer zone Short term Masterplan for Ashaiman


(6 months) includes buffer zones TCPD
GIDA

Demarcate the boundaries Short term Secure flooding/ catchment


of flooding/catchment (6 months) areas
areas GIDA

[17]
Sub-objective Secure competences, roles and future upgrading of the area

Redefine and Conclude new Medium term New, documented lease


formalise the arrangements with local (1 year) that all parties agree on
agreement for the chief (if necessary)
GIDA scheme
AshMA
MoFA
DCMC
Stool
Improve coordination Define new protocol to Medium term New, publicised protocol
procedures between formally register (1 year) for land sales/leases
traditional and formal customary leases
land agreements

Motivation
GIDA/IDC: The progressive expansion of encroachments is threatening the scheme. GIDA/IDC, as the formal tenants of the site,
have a responsibility to protect it as a priority.
AshMA TCPD: among the duties of TCPD is the zoning of the city and the provision of infrastructure to citizens. The
encroachments are undermining the TCPD plans and the possibility of planned development in the area.
Stool: To maintain a good relationship with the local administration and farmers on the GIDA site, the Stool must help to resolve
current land disputes in Ashaiman.

Resources
The resources for implementing this strategy would have to come mainly from AshMA and GIDA. The preliminary State of the
Environment Report could be outsourced to university students, while the farmers’ association could provide labour for securing
the perimeter of the GIDA scheme.

Monitoring
The monitor selected for the second strategy is the DCMC, with the participation of AIFCS and Roman Down farmers for actions
more related to the GIDA scheme. Areas to monitor are:
· Effective involvement of local stakeholders
· Production of documents showing the boundaries of the GIDA scheme
· Financial allocations for practically securing the boundaries
· Removal acts/demolition of houses illegally built

Food sovereignty
The principle of protecting natural resources and securing the land are core values of food sovereignty. This strategy aims to
create a stable and legally sound basis from which to protect farmed land from the speculative interests of the housing sector
from a long-term perspective.

AIFCS: Ashaiman Irrigation Farmers Cooperative Society; AshMA: Ashaiman Municipal Assembly; DCMC: District Citizens
Monitoring Committee; GIDA: Ghana Irrigation Development Authority; IDC: Irrigation Development Centre; MoFA: Ministry of
Food and Agriculture; TCPD: Town and Country Planning Department.

[18]
Strategy 2: Development of the right bank: right bank rehab

A portion of the 99 ha of the right bank is farmed seasonally and informally; farmers on the left bank struggle because of limited plot size, while in
Roman Down farmers are farming informally. The development of the right bank is both a logical solution and a necessary action, in order to
prevent possible encroachments.

Interviews with key stakeholders revealed a lack of coordination between the different bodies interested in developing the area and a general lack
of resources for development. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a committee (Right Bank Committee [RBC]) to assess different plans for the
area and provide in-depth consultation with other stakeholders (particularly farmers). Having farmer representatives in the RBC would help to
address any potential conflicts at the initial planning stage to ensure that actions proceed in the most effective and appropriate way. Any plans for
the rehabilitation of the right bank should also take into account the impact of such plans on the migrant farmers who use the land at present. The
inclusion of migrant farmers on the RBC would be beneficial; unfortunately, as we were unable to meet this group we cannot say to what degree
they are organised or willing to participate in such a venture.

When the opportunity of a composting site has been presented to farmers, several technical difficulties were raised. However, the incorporation of
a composting facility on site could resolve many of their concerns.

Expand urban agriculture through long-term strategic plans for peri-urban areas.
Main objective: proactively safeguarding green areas from new housing; making productive use of farmland available.

Actors (main
Sub-strategy Actions Timeline Outcomes Monitoring
driver[s])

Sub-objective Ensure transparency and participation in the decision-making process


Create a committee Identification of Short term Local stakeholders
for the development of representatives of other (3 months) representative
the right bank main actors (AshMA, AshMA
Stool, Farmers)
GIDA
AshWGUPA
Establishment of the Short term Assessment and public
committee (RBC) (3 months) disclosure of projects for
the right bank

Identify a site for Short term Site identification


Integrated Farming on the (3 months)
right bank

Establish a dialogue with Short term Feasibility of Integrated


the Fishery Department to (3 months) Farming determined
implement IF on the Right
AIFCS
Bank GIDA
(Monitoring
RBC
Committee)

Identify possible sources Short term Financial possibilities


of finance (6 months)

Sub-objective Replace the use of chemicals with natural compost and begin recycling practices

Implement a Identify a suitable site on Short term Site identified


composting site the right bank (6 months) GIDA/IDC
RBC
Zoom Lion

Feasibility study and Medium term Economic budgeting


economic preliminary (1 year) AshWGUPA
assessment
Zoom Lion
Realisation of the Medium term Composter realised
composter (3 years)

[19]
Motivation
AIFCS: Limited access to land is one of the main concerns of farmers; therefore, their participation in the development of the right
bank is in their best interests.
MoFA−GIDA: The GIDA scheme is one of the most organised sites of urban agriculture in Ghana. Expanding and improving it
would create a model that could be replicated in other urban areas. Results from research into more ecologically sustainable
farming practices could be applied on GIDA sites across Ghana.
AshMA: In the AshMA plans for a global city, protection and use of currently unused green areas is a must, especially to preserve
the pleasantness of the place in sight of touristic developments
Zoom Lion: Providing composters close to the city centres and integrating them into urban farming practices could be a profitable
business if planned in participation with the main customers of the composted output.

Resources
The whole planning process would be resource intensive. AshMA and MoFA should take the main responsibility for financial inputs,
providing initial resources for the RBC; once the committee is set up, private entrepreneurship would provide the money to build
the Integrated Farm and the composter. Projects to implement the site would be initially financed with revenues from the land
rented to farmers.

Monitoring
A multi-stakeholder committee, able to represent the political interests and citizens requests, would be ideal to monitor a more
technical organism like the Right Bank Committee and private involvement. The farmers interests would be best represented both
as the main driver of the strategy (RBC) and in the monitoring part, with the involvement of the AIFCS monitoring committee.
· Meetings of the RBC
· Projects reviewed by the committee
· Financial sources identified
· Private partners involved

Food sovereignty
The right bank is a large unused area which has to be protected and which has to be developed by farmers and local civil society.
It can be the opportunity to implement more ecological farming practices and to help to manage biodegradable waste.

AIFCS: Ashaiman Irrigation Farmers Cooperative Society; AshMA: Ashaiman Municipal Assembly; AshWGUPA: Ashaiman Working
Group on Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture; GIDA: Ghana Irrigation Development Authority; IDC: Irrigation Development Centre;
MoFA: Ministry of Food and Agriculture; RBC: Right Bank Committee.

[20]
Strategy 3: Farmers’ association: unity & strength

The AIFCS plays an important role; however, it has shown several limitations with regard to its dependence on external actors. Furthermore, to
date the association has not taken a particularly proactive role. Therefore, two strategies are proposed: one of internal reorganisation, to be carried
out by the AIFCS; and one of networking, to be fostered by AshMA and MoFA.

Strengthening the internal organisation follows three main directions:

๏ Improve management practices: after being elected, the executive team should follow a training course (one or two workshops) in
organisational management and group dynamics, as provided in Accra under AWGUPA. The IDC could provide the necessary human
resources. Creating additional area-specific task forces is also suggested to involve a greater number of farmers in active management of
the scheme.

๏ Increase transparency of the executive team: given the number of farmers in GIDA scheme conflicts among them may easily arise; it is
therefore necessary to have procedures to avoid suspicion and mistrust.

๏ Improve self-financing capacity: research has highlighted the constraints to farmers’ choices posed by limited finances. Saving groups
could ease the situation, while also building social capital within the AIFCS.

The association can also be empowered in the local community. For this purpose, AshMA and MoFA-Ashaiman should support the creation of a
multi-stakeholder task force, along the model of AWGUPA, while supporting networking among farmers of other sites in Ashaiman (e.g., migrant
farmers) and among other stakeholders of food value chain (market women, consumer groups, catering enterprises etc.)

Improve the resilience of urban agriculture through the farmers’ association.


Main objective: Strengthen the internal organisation and external position of the farmers’ association

Actors (main
Sub-strategy Actions Timeline Outcomes Monitoring
driver[s])

Sub-objective Strengthen internal organisation

Improve management Train elected executive on From next Increased efficiency of the
practices basic management elections (to be executive
AIFCS
practices (IDC) repeated for
GIDA/IDC
every new
election)
Creation of new task Short term Dedicated groups to deal
forces (3 months) with common issues:
· Marketing
· Machinery maintenance
· Sustainable farming
practices
· Patrolling

Increase transparency Identify a monitoring team Immediate Improved internal


of the executive team monitoring and control
AIFCS
AIFCS
Release an audio- Immediate Improved accountability
recorded report on the Recorded basis for
works of the executive assessment
every 6 months

Improve self-financing Release a 6-months Immediate Improved financial


capacity budget (for plenary accountability
session)
Initiate saving groups on Immediate Reduced dependence on
the model of FUP (inputs, market women
machinery maintenance) Allow farmers who are not AIFCS
officially creditworthy
access to funding FUP

[21]
Sub-objective Improve external position

Have an active role in Create a multi-stakeholder Short term Increasing political


policy-making task force (AshWGUPA) (3 months) representation
on the model of AWGUPA United actions planned MoFA
and carried out AshMA

Strengthen links to Create a partnership with Immediate Having a platform for


other farmers Roman Down farmers’ dealing with common AIFCS
associations association issues MoFA
AshMA
AIFCS
Encourage city/nation- Short term Increasing political
wide farmers association (3 months) representation
(in part already done?) AIFCS
MoFA

Improve their position Facilitate new partnership Short term Becoming an important AIFCS
in the local within the local civil (3 months) and accepted local actor MoFA
community society AshMA
FUP
Motivation
AIFCS: Besides being well organised, the farmers’ association can improve its performances by increasing participation and
improving accountability. Financing has been highlighted by the farmers as one of the biggest limitations in their business.
Grassroots models of self-financing are a strong alternative.
MoFA: Having more organised and connected partners would help MoFA to implement its policies easily and more efficiently
because it will be dealing with fewer bodies rather than several site-specific associations.
GIDA/IDC: By adding management practices to its workshops, GIDA would carry out actions towards achieving the goal of less
hands-on site management.
AshMA: It is in the interests of AshMA to have strong and organised partners for the promotion of a more sustainable urban
development.

Resources
This strategy requires resources mainly in terms of personnel commitment and time, especially from MoFA and the IDC.
AIFCS should commit mostly human resources and a small amount of money for the audio-recording

Monitoring
Implementing a reorganisation of the association, the AIFCS should create a monitoring committee, which could go beyond
internal control and collect information also on the support of institutions to the second part of the strategy. For monitoring the
internal reorganisation, the AIFCS monitoring committee could collect information regarding:
· Farmers actively involved in the association (part of task forces or committee)
· Audio-recorded reports
· Saving groups created
· Workshop organised by IDC
· Joint meetings with Roman Down’s association
· Networks created
· Commitment from AshMA for the creation of AshWGUPA

Food sovereignty
These recommendations are aimed at the empowerment and networking of farmers. Under the principles of food sovereignty,
farmers have the right to direct their lives and their produce. This can only be achieved with strong organisational capabilities and a
consistent political voice that is heard. It is also necessary to build strong local ties with other actors to be able to implement a
localised food system.

AIFCS: Ashaiman Irrigation Farmers Cooperative Society; AshMA: Ashaiman Municipal Assembly; AshWGUPA: Ashaiman Working
Group on Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture; FUP: Federation of the Urban Poor; GIDA: Ghana Irrigation Development Authority;
IDC: Irrigation Development Centre; MoFA: Ministry of Food and Agriculture.

[22]
5 CONCLUSIONS
Investigation of the Ashaiman GIDA site gives an insight into more ecologically sustainable farming practices. A
some of the challenges facing UPA in a rapidly urbanising dependence and elevation of modern farming practices also
area in the context of a planned intervention. In a situation negates the value of indigenous practices, and short-term
where the green (UPA) and brown (housing needs) agendas productivity is prioritised over long-term sustainability.
clash, land remains a contentious issue, even where a
government site has been established. The situation is made Food sovereignty, with its emphasis on local markets and
more complex by the tandem operation of customary and people, valuing small-scale farmers and working with nature,
official land systems. In addition, some of the indirect provides a challenging yet compelling direction for UPA in
consequences of unplanned development are visible. The the Greater Accra Region. The role of UPA within food
lack of agreement and documentation regarding the land sovereignty is not clearly defined, yet the principles
allocated to the GIDA site threatens the long-term viability of highlighted are not incompatible with SUPA and the
the irrigation scheme through the effects of encroachments objectives are ecological, social and financial sustainability.
on water quality and quantity. The strategies recommended support these aims through:
increased dialogue with and participation of farmers and
Further, a side effect of this planned intervention is that of other stakeholders; greater control for farmers through a
dependence, seemingly created by external assistance in greater voice and wider financial options; decreasing
setting up and developing the site, and by the large amount reliance solely on GIDA through working more with other
of training and facilities provided to farmers. Regarding organisations; and increased self-reliance of the farmers.
finance in particular, dependency is evident on at least two The ultimate goal of food sovereignty is a long way off;
levels: GIDA on external donors; and the farmers on GIDA. however the proposals given provide initial steps towards
This lack of self-reliant funding is impeding the adoption of this ambitious target.

[23]
REFERENCES
Adam-Bradford A, Bailkey M, de Bon H et al. (2006). Cities Farming for the Future. van Veenhuizen R (Ed.). IIRR/RUAF/IDRC, Ottawa, Canada.

Adams S, Athulathmudali S, Breyer E et al. (2009). Towards a Model of Sustainable Urban Agriculture: A Case Study of Ashaiman, Ghana.
DPU, UCL, London, UK.

Dyasi HM (1985). Culture and the environment in Ghana. Environmental Management 9(2), 97−103.

JICA (2006). Historical changes in technical cooperation provided to Ghana’s irrigated agriculture sector. In: A Study of the Effectiveness and
Problems of JICA's Technical Cooperation from a Capacity Development Perspective. Available at www.jica.go.jp/english/publications/reports/
study/capacity/200609/pdf/200609_04e.pdf (Accessed 30 May 2010).

Lee R (2007). Food Sovereignty and Food Security. Centre for Rural Economy Discussion Paper Series No.11, Centre for Rural Economy,
University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

Levy C (1996). The Web of Institutionalisation. Working Paper No. 74, UCL, London, UK.

Maxwell D, Levin C, Armar-Klemesu M, Ruel M, Morris S, Ahiadeke C (2000). Urban Livelihoods and Food and Nutrition Security in Greater
Accra, Ghana. Available at www.who.int/nutrition/publications/WHO_multicountry_%20study_Ghana.pdf (Accessed 30 May 2010).

Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Ghana (2007). Food and Agriculture Sector Development Policy (FASDEP II). www.mofa.gov.gh/FASDEP
%20II (Accessed 29 May 2010).

Nyéléni (2007). As cited in Mulvaney P. Food Sovereignty Comes of Age. www.foodethicscouncil.org 2(3), 19−20 (Accessed 25 March 2010).

Pimbert M (2008). Towards Food Sovereignty. Available at www.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/14855IIED.pdf (Accessed 30 May 2010).

Sato K (2006). Construction of Participatory Irrigation Management in Ghana Irrigation Project Sites Assisted by Foreign Aid. PhD thesis,
University of Tsukuba, Japan [Article in Japanese].

Smit J, Nasr J (1992). Urban agriculture for sustainable cities: using wastes and idle land and water bodies as resources. Environment &
Urbanization 4(2), 141−152.

Websites

FAO. www.fao.org (Accessed 2 June 2010).

Ghana Business News. 2010. Ghana to implement GH¢50m youth in agriculture project in 2010.
http://www.ghanabusinessnews.com/2009/09/25/ghana-to-implement-gh%C2%A250m-youth-in-agriculture-project-in-2010/ (accessed 21
June 2010).

IIJ, the International Institute for Journalism of InWEnt. 2009. Ghana: Youth in agriculture gets GH¢10.7m government support.
http://inwent-iij-lab.org/Weblog/2009/08/25/ghana-youth-into-agriculture-gets-governments-support/ (accessed 21 June 2010).

La Via Campesina. www.viacampesina.org (Accessed 30 May 2010).

Interviews, seminars & focus groups

Ashaiman Stool Chairman (2010). Meeting with the Chief and his associates, Ashaiman, Ghana, 8 May.

Ashaiman Irrigation Farmers Cooperative Society (2010). Focus groups and individual interviews, Ashaiman, Ghana, 4−11 May.

Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Ghana (2010). Seminar within MSc Fieldtrip, Paloma Hotel, Accra, Ghana, 10 May.

[24]
APPENDICES
Appendix A: Payment of irrigation service charges to the Ghana Irrigation Development Authority
Appendix B: Mono-cropping versus crop rotation, intercropping and integrated farming: an introduction
Appendix C: Research schedule
Appendix D: District Citizens Monitoring Committee
Appendix E: Costs of growing 1 acre of rice
Appendix F: Organisational hierarchy of Ghana Irrigation Development Authority and the Irrigation
Development Centre
Appendix G: Findings and food sovereignty
Appendix H: Strategies

[25]
Appendix A

Payment
of
irriga.on
service
charges
to
the
Ghana
Irriga.on
Development
Authority.

ISC/ha Area
 Amt.
 Amt.
 Amt.
Disbursed



Year Season %
recovery
(GC) cropped.
Ha expected
GC received
GC GC

Rainy 52.3 1509 1033.37 68 685.18


2002 25
Dry 52.6 1524 100.71 7 1448.81
Rainy 64.7 2129 1058.65 50 240.2
2003 25
Dry 63.1 2049 1547.23 76 362.31
Rainy 65.07 2147.5 992.6 46 2648.6
2004 25
Dry 64.87 2137.5 1416.7 66 662.5
Rainy 45.62 2350 837.88 36 2347.43
2005 50
Dry 50.86 2874 1292.57 45 256.07
Rainy 51.25 4660.8 4346.35 93 969.7
2006 80
Dry 50.21 4494.4 717.68 16 972.68
Rainy 43.81 3504.8 3504.8 100 5757.88
2007 80
Dry 49.91 3812.8 1100.13 29 3439.63
Rainy 46.88 3750.4 2540 68 No
data
2008 80
Dry 47.78 3822.4 2140 56 No
data
Amt.:
Amount;
GC:
Ghana
cedi;
ISC:
IrrigaPon
service
charge.
Source:
Interview
with
Ghana
IrrigaPon
Development
Authority,
Accra,
Ghana,
12
May
2010.

[26]
Appendix B: Mono-cropping versus crop rotation, intercropping and integrated farming: an introduction
Several cropping patterns are widely used in agricultural practice: control, which can bring the population of each species into
mono-cropping, crop rotation, intercropping and integrated balance, means that outbreaks of pests are rare. Moreover, this
farming. Since World War II, a less diverse pattern of cropping, system can maintain the fertility of the soil, as nutrients in the soil
originating in the industrialised countries and termed ‘mono- are able to accumulate and reproduce through the biodiversity of
cropping’, has been implemented widely (Liebman and Dyck, the system. Intercropping is a good long-term agricultural practice
1993). Mono-cropping is a method growing the same crops in the that reduces the use of chemicals.
same place repeatedly, without resting the land. It is dependent on
high use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to attain a high yield. Integrated farming is a further agriculture system that uses a
More recently, this methodology has been transferred to developing combination of crop production and animal farming in the same
countries to grow cash crops and vegetables for sale to and area. The crops and animals should support and assist each other.
support of developed countries. However, mono-cropping is However, in order to operate integrated farming successfully, the
susceptible to both environmental and economic risks. correct operating system and management of the activities are
Economically, a single crop system is vulnerable to shocks from needed to ensure that farmers are utilising the synergies within the
market prices and fluctuating weather − the system lacks flexibility physical environment, economic and social systems. The labour
and resilience, the complete reverse of natural ecosystems. From investment, funds, land and production inputs have to be
an environmental perspective, the dependence of mono-cropping considered. Importantly, the waste from one production system
on chemical fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides will increase must be reused as an input to another system effectively; this
productivity in the short term but causes drastic soil degradation in method can reduce input costs and promotes a closed-loop,
the long term, reducing productivity due to: erosion, compacting, recycling farming system that benefits nature. For example, chicken
soil structure destruction and loss of organic substances. Moreover, droppings can be used to promote algae growth in fish ponds, pig
mono-crops are subject to chronic pest and weed problems, which manure can be used on vegetable fields, waste water from fish
exacerbate the issues mentioned previously (Dairy Nutrient, 2005). ponds can be used in rice paddies, bee keeping can be conducted
in an orchard or a composting site can be set-up on the farm
Crop rotation is a farming methodology that attempts to run farms (Department of Agriculture).
in harmony with nature. “Crop rotation involves growing different
crops in systematic and recurring sequence on the same land … Integrated farming is widely practiced in Thailand, under the name
Ration cycles typically extend over several years with often only ‘New Theory Agriculture’, as part of the ‘Sufficiency Economy
annual changes of crops but the concept of crop rotation also Principle’ introduced by King Rama IX. This integrated farming
includes the use of green manures and cover crops.” (Liebman and system can help Thai people to survive even during times of
Dyck, 1993, pp. 93). With good farming practices and a well- economic crises and secures livelihoods by providing food for
selected combination of crop types, farmers can grow different many people, as demonstrated by a poverty rate of less than 10%,
crops on a cycle throughout the year while maintaining the soil’s a lower rate than in many developed counties (Isarangkun and
organic matter and top soil, leading to high productivity; for Pootrakool, 2005). Integrated farming in Thailand has the aim of
example, a field experiment of crop rotation between maize and helping farmers to operate their farms independently, reducing
various legumes in Africa resulted in an increase in maize impacts from external factors. The practice is set by a rough
production (Horst and Ardter, 1994). formula, where an area of 1.6–2.4 ha is divided into four parts: 30%
is used as rice paddy, 30% for mixed cultivation, 30% as a fish
Intercropping is “the growing of two or more crops in close pond and 10% for housing and small-scale animal farming (Border
proximity to promote interaction between them” (Sullivan, 2003, pp. Patrol Police Bureau, 2007; ONEP, 2000). One success story is that
3). This methodology uses the principle of diversity, mimicking the of a farmer in the Thai countryside who used to grow only rice but
natural ecosystem. There are different types of intercropping: changed to integrated farming using the King’s principle. He now
traditional intercropping, mixed intercropping relay intercropping has a greater variety of food production, which has given him an
and strip cropping. This methodology can give higher production improved quality of life, as proved by his award of Best Farming
per unit of land more than mono-cropping; however, careful Practice prize in the province in 2001 (Land Development
selection and arrangement of plants is needed, such as the type of Department, 2001). This integrated pattern of farming was
plant, maturity rate and plant density (ibid.). By imitating nature, designed for use mainly in rural areas; however, can be translated
intercropping has the potential to reduce or even stop the use of to urban or peri-urban areas and the formula can be adapted to suit
chemical pesticides, which can reduce investment costs, is the conditions of a particular site.
environmentally friendly and has benefits for human health.
Diversity in ecosystems brings stability to the system. Natural pest

References
Border Patrol Police Bureau (2007). Royal Project: New Theory Agriculture. www.bpp.go.th/project/project_4.html (Accessed 30 March 2010).
Dairy Nutrient (2005). Crop Rotation: Risks of Mono-cropping Systems and Renewed Interest in Crop Rotation. http://dairynutrient.wisc.edu/
468/page.php?id=165 (Accessed 28 April 2010).
Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. Integrated Farming. http://oard3kk.dyndns.org/newfarm.asp (Accessed
12 April 2010).
Horst WJ, Hardter R (1994). Rotation of maize with cowpea improves yield and nutrient use of maize compared to maize monocropping in an
Alfisol in the Northern Guinea savanna of Ghana. Plant and Soil 160, 171—183.
Isarangkun C, Pootrakool K (2005). Sustainable Economic Development Through the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy.
www.sufficiencyeconomy.org/old/en/ (Accessed 31 March 2010).
Land Development Department (2001). Year Report 2001. www.ldd.go.th/ofsweb/news/report_ldd_44/report_ldd_44/report_ldd_44_19.pdf
(Accessed 27 May 2010).
Liebman M, Dyck E (1993). Crop rotation and intercropping strategies for weed management. Ecological Application 3(1), 92—122.
Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP), Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (2000). Report on
the Environmental Situation 2000. www.onep.go.th/download/soe43dl.html (Accessed 30 March 2010).
Sullivan P (2003). Intercropping Principles and Production Practices. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service: A Project of
National Center for Appropriate Technology. http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/intercrop.html#prod (Accessed 27 April 2010).

[27]
Appendix C

Research
schedule.

Month Day Stakeholders AcPvity
Jan‐Apr Literature
review,
seminars,
lectures
Feb 5 DPU Group
presentaPon
on
progress
Mar 5 DPU Interim
group
presentaPon
Apr 28 DPU Pre‐fieldtrip
group
presentaPon
2 City
tour
of
Accra
Group
presentaPon
on
reserch
plan
IWMI
Seminar,
Q&A
session
3
AWGUPA Seminar,
Q&A
session
Local
facilitator IniPal
meePng
Focus
groups
Farmers
Transect
walk
4
IDC Seminar,
Q&A
session
MoFA
Ashaiman Seminar,
Q&A
session
WMD Seminar,
Q&A
session
Zoom
Lion Seminar,
Q&A
session
5
EPA Seminar,
Q&A
session
IDD
&
Ghana
TV ObservaPon,
transect
walk
Farmers Interview
GIDA Interview,
transect
walk
Fishery
Department Interview,
transect
walk
FUP Interview
6
Roman
Down
Farmers Focus
group

AshMA
Seminar,
Q&A
session
Municipal
Planning
and
CoordinaPng
Unit
Field
trip
May
GIDA Seminar,
Q&A
session
GOAN Seminar,
Q&A
session
7
DANIDA Seminar,
Q&A
session
Enterprise
Works/Relief
InternaPonal Seminar,
Q&A
session
Farmers Focus
groups
8
Ashaiman
Stool Seminar,
Q&A
session
ExoPc
Vegetable
Sellers
AssociaPon Interview
ILGS Seminar,
Q&A
session
10
MoFA Seminar,
Q&A
session
Social
Investment
Fund Interview
Joint
focus
group
with
Roman
Down

Farmers
farmers
Farmers Interview
11
IDC Interview
AshMA
Seminar,
Q&A
session
Assembly
member
Ghana
FederaPon
of
the
Urban
Poor Interview
12 GIDA Interview
Land
planning Seminar,
Q&A
session
13 Various
stakeholders Group
presentaPon,
Q&A
session
26 DPU Final
group
presentaPon
Jun 4 DPU Final
group
report
submission

Field
visit

[28]
Appendix D: District Citizens Monitoring Committee

The Ashaiman District Citizens Monitoring Committee (DCMC) is a Ghana, to ensure that pro-poor policies were being adhered to.
civil society group led by Braimah Abdulai from the Rural−Urban Through this, the DCMC became aware of the problems regarding
Women and Children Development Agency. The DCMC is a land and encroachments facing farmers on Roman Down. The
network comprises different NGOs and community-based group works primarily through establishing dialogue between
organizations, as well as individual representatives from the Stool, different actors to bring about solutions, as well as lobbying and
Municipal Assembly and Roman Down farmers. advocacy, although the resources for this are limited.

The role of the DCMC is to monitor policies, such as national health A member of the DCMC attended the joint focus group of farmers
and insurance policies, or grants through, for example, budget from the GIDA site and Roman Down, where he was able to meet
tracking. In Ashaiman, one of the group’s initial tasks was to with farmers from both areas, as well as a representative of the
conduct agricultural budget tracking for a national NGO, Send- Federation of the Urban Poor.

[29]
Appendix E

Costs
of
growing
1
acre
of
rice.
Land
preparaPon Ploughing
+
hand
weeding
+
levelling
+
line
marking
:
155
GC

Carrying
+
transplanPng
:
75
GC
PlanPng
Seeds:
20‐40kg/acre
(1
kg
=
1
GC)

Spraying PesPcide:
mainly
CONDAX
(low
cast
and
effecPve),
8
GC/bag,
20‐Pmes/acre

MPK
(50
GC/bag),
UREA
(40
GC/bag)
and
ammonia
(30
GC/bag):
6
bags
in
total
(2:2:2
or

FerPlizer
3:1:2),
two
applicaPons
and
top
dressing

Hand
weeding Labour:
40
GC/acre

Maintenance Mending
of
bund:
30
GC

Bathing IntroducPon
of
rodenPcide:
24
GC

Bird
scaring 3
GC
x
30
days
x
2
people
Miscellanious:
70
GC
Cumng:
60
GC
HarvesPng Heaping:
30
GC
Threshing:
60
GC

Drying
and
Bagging 60
GC

22‐25
bags
can
be
harvested
from
1
acre
(84
kg/bag).
Price
is
variable
from
55
to
70
GC
but

Selling
the
average
is
60
GC/bag.

Average
es.mated

962
GC
total
costs
Average
es.mated

1410
GC
sales
Profit 448
GC

[30]
Organisa.onal
hierarchy
of
Ghana
Irriga.on
Development
Authority

MINISTRY
OF
FOOD
AND
AGRICULTURE
(MoFA)

BODY
OF
DIRECTORS

CHIEF
EXECUTIVE

LEGAL
SERVICES
&

INTERNAL
AUDIT STATES

MANAGEMENT
Development Centre

DEPUTY
CHIEF
EXECUTIVE
‐

DEPUTY
CHIEF
EXECUTIVE
‐
ENGINEERING
AGRONOMY

PLANNING,
 IRRIGATION

PROJECT
 FINANCE
AND

REGIONAL
 MONITORING
AND
 PROJECT
OPERATIONS
 TECHNOLOGY

DEVELOPMENT
 ADMINISTRATION


[31]
OFFICES
(6) EVALUATION
 DEPARTMENT DEVELOPMENT

DEPARTMENT DIRECTORATE
DEPARTMENT DEPARTMENT
(Jan.
2010‐)
PROJECT

ENVIRONMENTAL

PROJECTS PLANNING
&
 SURVEY FINANCE QUALITY
ASSURANCE
MANAGEMENT
CO‐ORDINATION

DESIGN
&
 TECHNOLOGY
 PUBLIC
 RESEARCH
&



BUDGET
QUANTITIES TRANSFER RELATIONS INNOVATION
(IDC)
SOIL
&
WATER

PLANT
&

M
&
E MANAGEMENT
 ADMINISTRATION
EQUIPMENT TRAINING
&

PARTICIPANT
MANPOWER

DEVELOPMENT
CONSTRUCTION

Appendix F: Organisational hierarchy of Ghana Irrigation Development Authority and the Irrigation

POST
HARVEST

&

&
MARKETING
MAINTENANCE

FARM

MANAGEMENT
Appendix F (cont.): Organisational hierarchy of Ghana Irrigation Development Authority and the Irrigation
Development Centre

Organisa.onal
hierarchy
of
the
Irriga.on
Development
Centre

Director

AdministraPon Finance

Water
 Farmers

Farming
Unit CulPvaPon
Unit Environment
Unit
Management
Unit OrganizaPon
Unit

Vegetable

Rice
Unit
Unit

[32]
Appendix G: Findings and food sovereignty

The concept of Food Sovereignty is new and fascinating. It offers Having the findings organised in this way, it was possible to assess
the farmers perspective in matter of food production and the performances of these conceptual areas under the principles of
distribution, in line with ecological principles and more equitable food sovereignty as developed in the table on page 8 and 9. In
social distribution. However, the Nyéléni, chart and other chapter 3, we organised our findings according to particular issues
documents produced under the principles of Food Sovereignty we found critical, leaving the underlying analytical process hidden.
offer only rather general guidelines for the practical application of Here we make it explicit, providing the link between findings and
the paradigm. Basing the whole analysis on them seemed to be the Food Sovereignty principia.
dangerous and would probably have limited the scope of our Below are presented the criteria with a synthetic judgment and a
research. For this reason, we developed a supporting framework brief explanation of the reasons why we assigned a given rating
which would have helped us to identify areas to study (civil society, according to our findings.
natural and built environment, policy support and financial issues).

[33]
Appendix G: Findings and food sovereignty (cont.)

Environmental
sphere
Criteria Judgement
 Reasoning

UrbanizaPon
and
encroachments
are
not
a
threat
 The
impacts
of
encroachment
are
indirect,

to
UPA through
the
effects
on
the
water
supply
and

threats
to
the
whole
system

TradiPonal
pracPces
are
used
in
UPA Farmers
are
encouraged
to
use
modern

techniques;
there
is
however
a
lack
of

machinery
available

The
source
of
water
is
not
contaminated
and
 The
cleanliness
of
water
used
for
irrigaPon
is

suitable
for
UA. under
threat
for
the
future,
but
is
currently

suitable
for
farming
IrrigaPon
methods
reduce
health
risk
and

contaminaPon

The
water
used
for
irrigaPon
does
not
pose
any

threat
to
farmers
or
consumers
Intercropping
is
pracPsed
 RotaPon
cropping
is
generally
preferred
over

intercropping,
respecPng
natural
ecosystems
to

Food
grown
respects
the
local
vegetaPon a
certain
extent

Farmers
implement
closed
loop
farming Closed‐loop
pracPces
are
not
used
Soil
has
a
good
structure
(not
compacted)
and
is
 Farmers
use
a
high
amount
of
chemical
inputs
suitable
for
agricultural
purposes

Soil
quality
is
protected
from
toxicity
and
salinity

caused
by
the
(over‐)
use
of
chemical
inputs

(ferPlisers,
herbicides,
pesPcides,
etc)
Farmers’
pracPces
endorse: ComposPng
is
perceived
as
overly
labour‐,
Pme‐

 MinimizaPon
 and
cost‐intensive
 Reusing

 Recycling
 The
farmland
is
clean
but
the
surrounding
areas

 ComposPng
 have
build‐up
of
waste

The
areas
of
food
producPon
are
free
from
waste
The
surrounding
area
is
clean The
surrounding
area
is
not
served
by
waste

collecPon
or
sewage
services
The
surrounding
area
is
served
by
adequate

garbage
collecPon

[34]
Appendix G: Findings and food sovereignty (cont.)

Policy
sphere
Criteria Judgement
 Reasoning

Policies
support
security
of
tenure
and/or
control
over
land
 While
there
are
plans
to
involve
more

for
UPA
farmers youth,
these
are
not
currently

realised
Youth
are
encouraged
and
supported
in
UPA

Official
media
adequately
reflect
the
importance
of
UPA

and
small‐holder
farms
Policies
support
the
expansion
of
local
markets
for
UPA
 Among
many
stakeholders
there
is
a

produce mindset
towards
the
value
of
crop

exports
Imported
crops
are
subject
to
tariffs
Imported
goods
may
be
cheaper
than

Local
consumpPon
is
prioriPzed
over
export domesPc
produce
Public
and
private
sector
ownership
or
management
is
 Ghana
operates
a
decentralised
local

limited
in
UPA
by
decentralised
policies government
system

The
control
and
responsibiliPes
are
well
transferred
to
the
 Land
ownership
follows
both

municipal
level
and
roles
are
well
defined customary
and
official
lines
Policies
do
not
support
use
of
genePcally
modified
crops
 The
IDC
is
experimenPng
with

and
limit
undermining
technologies NERICA
rice

EducaPon
on
and
experimentaPon
with
tradiPonal
 Workshops
on
modern
farming

pracPces
takes
place techniques
are
held
Appropriate
policies
favour
composPng There
is
lisle
pracPcal
support
for

organic
compost
use
and
few
limits

Appropriate
regulaPons
encourage
and
facilitate
 on
the
use
on
chemical
inputs

composPng
plants


RegulaPons
limit
the
excessive
use
of
chemicals
and

destrucPve
farming
technologies

Monitoring
of
the
quality
and
nutriPon
of
UPA
products

takes
places

[35]
Appendix G: Findings and food sovereignty (cont.)

Economic
sphere
Criteria Judgement
 Reasoning


?
Food
is
affordable,
healthy
and
nutriPous Insufficient
data
gathered
to
make
a

judgement

Economic
policies
are
not
biased
to
industrial
or
Green
 Farmers
have
difficulPes
accessing

RevoluPon‐inspired
farming
but
put
value
on
and
provide
 credit
through
official
avenues

opportuniPes
for
urban
farmers
Interest
rates
are
too
high
making

Farmers
have
access
to
loans
and
credit
with
suitable
 them
unsuitable
for
urban
farmers
payment
terms
and
interest
rates
Access
to
local
market
as
a
source
of
income
is
guaranteed Farmers
are
dependent
on
market

women
for
sale
of
their
produce
and

Farmers
are
not
dependent
on
middlemen
for
selling
crops have
lisle
choice
in
the
crops
grown

Adequate
state
and
internaPonal
funds
are
allocated
to
 Environmentally
friendly
farming
did

educaPon
on
environmentally
friendly
farming
methods not
come
across
as
a
priority

[36]
Appendix G: Findings and food sovereignty (cont.)

Social
sphere
Criteria Judgement
 Reasoning

Migrants
have
a
share
in
UPA
pracPces
to
provide
sufficient
 Farmers
are
mostly
immigrants
to
the

food area

Indigenous
people
are
involved
in
UPA There
is
a
support
from
the
Stool
for

more
indigenous
people
to
be

Women
are
involved
in
UPA involved
in
farming

Almost
20%
of
farmers
are
women
Media

adequately
reflect
the
importance
of
UPA
and
small‐ There
has
been
some
negaPve

holder
farms coverage
of
UPA
in
the
media;

however,
farmers
and
GIDA
have
also

used
the
media
to
present
their

views
Consumers
choose
local
products
 There
is
evidence
of
a
consumer
bias

against
locally
grown
produce

Farmers
are
not
integrated
into
global
trade
and
dependent

on
exporters
but
sell
crops
to
the
local
market Sale
is
mostly
local,
no
mulPnaPonals

are
involved
Local
urban/per‐urban
farmers
have
a
voice
and
can
decide
 Farmers’
voice
ouen
goes
unheard;

the
methods
and
products
they
grow.

 they
cannot
decide
independently

their
methods
and
products
Farmers’
associaPons
help
farmers
to
gain
management

knowledge When
raised,
the
issue
of

transparency
and
potenPal

AssociaPons
operate
in
a
transparent
and
accountable

mismanagement
led
to

manner
disagreements
among
the
farmers
Farmers’
associaPons
are
linked
to
enhance
and
exchange
 The
links
between
farmers
do
not

indigenous
knowledge
and
skills
 serve
to
build
or
value
indigenous

knowledge
and
skills

There
is
consumer
pressure
for
organic
produce No
evidence
for
an
organic
market

was
found

Organic
labelling
has
been
asempted

with
lisle
success

[37]
Appendix H: Strategies

Strategy 1. Land control: drawing the line Strategy 2. Development of the right bank: right bank
The first strategy is aimed at solving the main problem and the rehab
biggest threat to the survival of the Ghana Irrigation Development The strategies proposed for the right bank are aimed at creating a
Authority (GIDA) scheme at present. The growth of the city is transparent process for future developments and to introduce more
reaching a point where the new buildings are only few metres from ecological methods of biodegradable waste disposal. For the first
the farmed land and the reservoir’s banks, while in Roman Down, part, we suggest to direct the efforts of the Right Bank Committee
houses are built on land that used to be farmed. When the site was (RBC) towards the promotion of more sustainable farming
planned, a wide buffer zone was set aside to protect the source of techniques, described more in detail in APPENDIX B. To reach this
water, the land to be farmed and the flooding areas (land to be kept target, it would be expedient to establish a dialogue with the
undeveloped to allow the excess water to flood during the rainy Fisheries Department and with the other farmers located near the
season). Encroachments create problems not only in terms of land dam, as they are already applying integrated farming techniques. To
lost for agriculture, but also in terms of pollution to the reservoir and overcome the lack of funds, we suggest that the committee should
waterways; new houses do not have access to sewage systems or be actively involved in the search of resources, especially in the
waste collection, so all their refuse is dumped into the water. The private sector. Contributions from farmers should have priority but
encroachments on Roman Down could ultimately result in damage their economic situation will probably not allow this level of
for the scheme (the water would reflux into the canals rather than investment. The integrated farms could provide the necessary inputs
flowing out of the site when the capacity limit of the dam is reached) for a progressive implementation of a canals’ system on the right
and poses a risk to residents of the area. bank, which should be less extensive than the one currently in place,
owing to the limitation highlighted by GIDA, that the reservoir
Interviews with the local administration and with the traditional capacity is not sufficient to irrigate the entire right and left banks. The
councils have shown that the root cause of this problem is the introduction of animals would also reduce the amount of water
unclear definition of the agreement for the leasing of the site. The required.
Stool is now selling land which should be left empty in the flooding
areas, while on the reservoir’s bank, houses are progressively Financial contributions to the integrated farms could come also from
expanding beyond the land allocated by the Stool in the past. an agreement with Zoom Lion for the realisation of a composting site.
Although it may be risky to lease the land to an external actor, at the
To solve the problem it is necessary thus to find an agreement moment this seems to be the only stakeholder that could provide the
between the residents, the Stool and the technical requirements. The expertise and money for completing this action. The fact that the site
first sub-strategy is proposed to address the necessities and the is close to the city centre (meaning that it is less expensive to bring
reasons for the residential developments; it should be lead by the biodegradable waste from the city) and that farmers are the
Land Allocation Committee and should produce a common proposal purchasers of the final output (economies of proximity) should allow
to address the issue. At the same time, the Town and Country GIDA to impose advantageous conditions on the contract. Of course,
Planning Department (TCPD) should produce a State of the this action should be modelled on the needs of the farmers, as the
Environment Report (being a wide piece of research, this could be costs associated with compost are perceived as one of the main
outsourced to local masters or PhD students) while working together barriers to its widespread use.
with GIDA on a technical reassessment of the buffer zone necessary
to protect the scheme and the reservoir. Once technical and ‘civil’
necessities have been defined, the TCPD should integrate the two
and include them in a new masterplan. Once the area has been
defined on paper, farmers could be actively involved to create natural
(e.g., trees) and /or artificial (fences) barriers to separate the scheme
from the city. The new boundaries would be secured also through
new agreements (if necessary) with the Stool.

[38]
Appendix H: Strategies (cont.)

Strategy 3. Farmers’ association: unity & strength had growing success in similar environment. Therefore, we suggest a
The actions suggested to “Strengthen Internal organisation” are pilot saving group on voluntary basis, which would be limited to a
proposed because the findings regarding the association highlighted maximum of 20 people.
the fact that the structure currently in place does not appear to be
effective in producing a real improvement in farmers’ production. The
first sub-strategy is aimed at providing the Executive with basic The role of the association is also limited by external circumstances;
managerial competences; from the meetings with the Irrigation therefore, we suggest the contribution of the local administration,
Development Centre (IDC) we discovered that farmers receive Ashaiman Municipal Assembly (AshMA) and the Ministry of Food and
training in several areas, from watering techniques to crop selection, Agriculture (MoFA) to create a conducive environment for urban and
but it seems that this external contribution is slowing more proactive peri-urban agriculture (UPA) in Ashaiman through a series of
behaviour of the farmers and creating an expectation in them that initiatives. The first action would be the establishment of a multi-
improvements can come only from outside. The second action stakeholder working group, along the model of the Accra Working
derives from the consideration that the more farmers are involved in Group for Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture (AWGUPA), possibly
collective responsibilities, the more effective is the implementation of including some of the people directly involved in AWGUPA. The
association’s plans. The association already has five dedicated promotion of UPA and of the farmers’ interests should also pursue a
committees and we suggest creating further committees; a new wide networking strategy, which we suggest should be both vertical
committee would, for example, deal with patrolling (farmers live some and horizontal. By a vertical strategy we mean that farmers should be
distance away and, during the night, stealing is fairly frequent), part of national and international associations of farmers, while
marketing (farmers now sell individually) and monitoring (the horizontally we refer to other local stakeholder groups. For example,
association lacks an internal monitoring unit). Increasing transparency starting a dialogue with the catering or tourist industry could help
inside the association would be pursued also with audio-recorded farmers to bypass the market-mummies (who at the moment have
reports and a half-yearly plenary session in which the budget would too high a contractual power over the farmers) and produce to
be presented and approved by the plenary (sub-strategy 2). While the demand. A necessary partnership, for which dialogue has already
first two sub-strategies are of exclusive competence of the begun, is with the farmers of Roman Down. MoFA could provide
association, the third one would see the involvement of the assistance for the first part of the networking strategy (provide
Federation of The Urban Poor. This strategy is proposed because of information or facilitate communication with other associations), while
the importance of the funding issue as described by farmers. Past AshMA could be actively involved on promoting the second one.
attempts to implement a revolving fund have shown poor results with
high rates of default, while the model of saving groups of the FUP has

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REPORT BY
Sara Guy Salman Rassouli
Hauwa Usman
Andrea Demurtas

Ai Kaibu
Veronica Cheng

Sa’adatu Abatemi-Usman
Cassidi Kunvipusilkul

Robin Pratap

Rita Valencia (Supervisor)

Course Name: Environment & Sustainable Development


University: University College London (UCL)
Department: Developing Planning Unit (DPU)
Module Code: BENVGES3
Module Name: Environment & Sustainable Development in Practice
DPU Field Work 2010

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