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Samaila Consultant Limited

SAMAILA CONSULTANT LIMITED


Consulting Engineers & Planners
1c Collage Road
Kaduna

CULVERT No. CV 9 (2 x 2 Single Box Culvert)

LOCATION 15 + 548

DATE June.04

DESIGN CODES:

1. BS 8110 : Part 1, 1985

2. BS 5400 : Part 2, 1989

SOIL PARAMETER:

Allowable Bearing Capacity 200 kN/m2

DESIGN DATA:

Strength of Concrete, Fcu 25 N/mm2

Strength of Steel, Fy 410 N/mm2

Weight of Concrete gconc 24 kN/m3

Weight of Soil (Filling) gsoil 18 kN/m3

Weight of Asphalt gasph 23 kN/m3

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Samaila Consultant Limited

Ta= 100

f= 7200

d= 300

2300 .=h
H= 2000

b= 300

t= 300 2000 300

B= 2300

BS 5400:
Part 2 LOADINGS
Table 1
gf1 = 1.15 For Self Weight of Culvert

gf2 = 1.50 For Earthfill

gf3 = 1.50 For HA Vehicle

gf4 = 1.30 For HB Vehicle

gf5 = 1.00 For Asphalt

DEAD LOAD

1 For Top Slab .= gf1 (d gconc) .= 8.28 kN/m2

2 For Bottom Slab .= gf1 (b gconc) .= 8.28 kN/m2

3 For Walls .= gf1 (2 t Hgconc) .= 12.74 kN/m2

4 Weight of Fill .= gf2 (f gsoil) .= 194.40 kN/m2

5 Weight of Asphalt .= gf5 (Ta gasph) .= 2.30 kN/m2


Total Dead Load =
TOTAL =226.00 kN/m2 226 kN/m2

IMPOSED LOAD

BS 5400: 1 Stresses due to HA Vehicle, sHA


Part 2 P=100 kN
Clauses
6.2.5
6.2.6
and 2:1 340 7200
6.4.1.5

2300

2300

Contact Length = 7540 mm

sHA = P/ (Contact Area)


sHA =
.= 1.76 kN/m2 1.76 kN/m2

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Samaila Consultant Limited

BS 5400: 2 Stresses due to HB Vehicle, sHB


Part 2
Clauses
6.3.1
6.3.2 1.8m 6m 1.8m
and
6.3.3 A

7200 2:1 361

2300

2300

P P P P
1m 1m 1m

7200

2300

SECTION A-A

Assuming 45 Units HB Vehicle, then the Load Per Axle is 450 kN

Contact Width = 7561 mm

Contact Length = 10561 mm

BS 5400: sHB = 450 / (Contact Area)


Part 2 sHB =
Clause .= 5.64 kN/m2 5.64 kN/m2
6.2.7

HB Loading > HA Loading

Design Load = gf4 sHB


Design Load =
.= 7.33 kN/m2 7.33 kN/m2

EARTH PRESSURE ON WALLS


BS 5400:
Part 2 f= 30 deg
Clause
5.8.1 Ka = 1 - sinf
1 + sinf

.= 0.33

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Samaila Consultant Limited

H2 =
7200
q1
H1 =
9500
2300

q2

2300

At the Bottom of the Culvert

q2 = KaH1gsoilgf2
q2 =
.= 85.5 kN/m2 85.5 kN/m2

q1 = KaH2gsoilgf2
q1 =
.= 64.8 kN/m2 64.8 kN/m2

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

Pw = gw h = 20 kN/m2

SURCHARGE PRESSURE

H1 =
9500

q3

q3 = Ka(Load due to Vehicle + Fill)


q3 =
.= 67.24 kN/m2 ### kN/m2

CHECKING SOIL BEARING CAPACITY

Allowable Soil Bearing Capacity = 200 kN/m2

Total Load on the Soil = (Dead Load + Imposed Load)

.= 233.32 kN/m2

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Samaila Consultant Limited

ANALYSIS OF FORCES
Total Bending Pressure on Members

Top Slab = [ Slab Wt + Fill + Asphalt + HB] = 212.31 kN/m2

Bottom Slab = [ Top Slab Wt + Base Wt + Walls Wt] = 233.32 kN/m2

Side Walls, q1 = [ q1 + Surchage Pressure] = 132.04 kN/m2

q2 = [ q2 + Surchage Pressure] = 152.74 kN/m2

212.31

132.04 132.04
A B

D C
152.74 152.74

233.32

h= 2.3 m ts = 0.3 m
L= 2.3 m tw = 0.3 m

N = [h/L] [ts/tw]3 = 1

N1 = N + 1 = 2

N2 = N + 2 = 3

N3 = N + 3 = 4

N4 = 4N + 9 = 13

N5 = 2N + 3 = 5

N6 = N + 6 = 7

N7 = 2N + 7 = 9

N8 = 3N + 8 = 11

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Samaila Consultant Limited

Moments due to roof loads [q= 212.31 kN/m2]

MA = MB = MC = MD = [ -qL2/12N1] = -46.80 kNm

Moments due to weight of walls

q = [2G]/[1 + tw] = 22.15 kN/m2

MA = MB = [ +qL2N/12N1N3] = 1.22 kNm

MC = MD = [ -N5/N]MA = -6.10 kNm

Moments due to earth pressure [q= 85.50 kN/m2]

MA = MB = [ -qh2NN7/60N1N3] = -8.48 kNm

MC = MC = [N8/N7]MA = -10.37 kNm

Moments due to surcharge pressure[ q = 67.24 kN/m2]

MA = MB = MC = MD = [ -qh2N/12N1] = -14.82 kNm

Moments due to hydrostatic pressure[ q = 20.00 kN/m2]

MA = MB = q[h2NN7/60N1N3] = 1.98 kNm

MC = MD = [N8/N7]MA = 2.42 kNm

Moments due to excessive hydrostatic internal pressure[ q = 20 kN/m2]

MA = MB = q[h2NN3+L2N5]/[12N1N3] = 9.92 kNm

MC = MD = qN[h2N3-L2]/[12N1N3] = 4.35 kNm

SUMMATION OF MOMENTS

Case 1: culvert empty

MA = MB = -68.88 kNm

MC = MD = -78.09 kNm

Case 1: culvert empty

MA = MB = -58.96 kNm

MC = MD = -73.73 kNm

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Samaila Consultant Limited

Moments At The Spans

(i) Spans AB
212.31

A B
68.88 2.3 68.88

RA = 244.15 kN

RB = 244.15 kN

x= 1.15 m

Mmax = 71.51 kNm

(Ii) Spans CD
233.32

C D
78.09 2.3 78.09

RC = 268.32 kN

RD = 268.32 kN

x= 1.15 m

Mmax = 76.20 kNm

(iii) Spans AD & BC

20.7 9x
132.04

D,C A,B
73.73 2.3 68.88

y= 9
RA = 161.89 kN

RF = 165.61 kN

x= 0.64 m (From C)

Mmax = 7.38 kNm

Bending Moment Diagram

68.88

68.88

71.51

7.38 7.38

76.20
78.09

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Samaila Consultant Limited

DESIGN OF WINGWALLS

C
1400

1900 F
300
300 C h/3

300 5700
L= 6000 q

Force due to Earth Pressure on the Walls is given by:

F = gf[0.5Kagsoil h2] = 23.81 kN

This Force is acting at h/3 from the base of the wall

Design Moment, M is given by M = F(h/3) =

18.25 kNm

K= 0.01 z= 237.5 mm

As = 215.43

Provide R16 @ 200mm c/c (1005mm2)

Base Slabs of Wing Walls

The upward Pressure at the base slab is:

q = (self wt of the slab) = 7.2 kN/m2

Midspan Moment = ql2/8 = 32.4 kNm

K= 0.02 z= 237.5 mm

As = 382.45

Provide R16 @ 200mm c/c (1005mm2)

DESIGN OF REINFORCEMENT cover = 40 mm


d= 250 mm
TOP SLAB REINFORCEMENT
Support Midspan

Moment M, (kNm) 68.88 71.51

K 0.04 0.05

Z 237.50 237.50

AS 813.03 844.12

R20 @ 200mm R20 @ 200mm


(1571mm2) (1571mm2)

BOTTOM SLAB REINFORCEMENT

Support Midspan

Moment M, (kNm) 78.09 76.20

K 0.05 0.05

Z 237.50 237.50

AS 921.74 899.47

R20 @ 200mm R20 @ 200mm


(1571mm2) (1571mm2)
Distribution Bars

Area of steel required, As = 0.13%bh = 390 mm2

Provide R16 @ 200mm c/c