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( EEE 230 )



To obtain the B – H curve for a single – phase transformer.
To obtain result for total magnetic flux.

single phase variac 20V (164)
2A a.c ammeter
300V Voltmeter (x3)
Laminated core transformer 800/400, 50 Hz

Part A: Magnetic Circuit

A magnetic field exist around a conductor of electric current. The magnetic field is called a
magnetizing force (H), and it can be concentrated by winding the conductor into loops. The
magnetic flux per unit area of a magnetic field at right angles to the magnetic force. Magnetic
flux density (B), also known as the magnetic induction. B and H are related as follows:

B = μH

μ = μoμr is permeability of the material; and
μo = 4n x 10^-7H/m and μr is the relative permeability of the material.

The relative for non-magnetic material is 1. the relative permeability of common transformer
grade steel lamination, on the other hand, is in the order of thousands. For a transformer
having its primary winding excited with a current, I,its secondary winding open circuited, the
relation between the peak magnetic field intensity, Hm and the exciting rms current, I is as

HmL = N√2 I

The magnetic core of the transformer is assumed to have a uniform cross-section are and
effective length of L. N1 is the number of turns of the primary winding. Hence,

Hm α I

The value of electromotive force (e.m.f) induced in the secondary winding N2 is

V2 = 4.44 fABmN2
The V2 is the secondary e.m.f in r.m.s, where f is the frquency, and B m is the magnetic flux
density in the coil's core.

By relating the V-I from the experiment, the B-H curve can be determined. The plotted graph
obtained from the experiment can be further studied to clarify the relationship between V and


1. The transformer is examined and the value of number of turns N1, N2 and the length of
the transformer's core is measured and recorded, and the lenght L is measured and its
area A is calculated.
2. The magnetic circuit is set up by following the instruction of the circuit diagram.
3. By setting the variac reading into zero, the variac is switched on.
4. The input primary voltage is started up with a low input ( started with 100V ), and the
primary current, I1 and the open-circuited secondary voltage, V2 values are recorded
and tabulated.
5. The step 4 are steadily reapeted by increasing the primary voltage with averagely 10V
in difference starting from 100V until 220V.
6. The information obtained from the experiment is used to obtain the B-H curve, where
the Bm versus Hm graph and μr versus Hm graph are plotted.