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Difference in American and Japanese management style. Ans.

It is widely recognized that Japanese and American styles of business
management practice differ broadly across the range of supervisory style, decisionmaking, communications, management controls, and interdepartmental relations

Japanese 1) Japanese follows paternalism, which has sometimes been characterized as giving rise to "industrial feudalism," 2) Japanese managers tend to stay with one company for their entire work career.

American 1) American follows individualism, which might more accurately be characterized as personalism 2) American managers, on the other hand, often use their overseas experience as basis for moving to another company that is looking to strengthen its international position. 3) American managers tend to have stronger loyalty to themselves than to the firm, and if a better job comes along they will take it.

3) Another interesting contrast is loyalty to the firm. Many Japanese managers stay with the firm because they believe it is wrong to accept a position with anyone else. They feel a strong bond of commitment to the company 4) The job security is the biggest difference. Japanese managers, in the main, are looked after by the firm. Their job are ensured, their salaries and benefits are guaranteed 5) If business does slow down Japanese firm typically use this

4) on the other hand,Americans are more likely to be let go if the firm starts running into trouble

5) In contrast, American firms cut back on training during poor

reality testing. economic times.time to train their employees and prepare them for the expected economic upturn. Collective rationalization ± Members discount warnings and do not reconsider their assumptions. 2. Belief in inherent morality ± Members believes in the rightness of their cause and therefore ignores the ethical or moral consequences of their decisions. American firms cut back on training during poor economic times. 6) Mangers experiences are limited they only know how their firm works. 3. but the managers also gain a solid understanding of the inner workings of the firm s international operations. In contrast. when the group is insulated from outside opinions. Stereotyped views of out-groups ± Negative views of ³enemy´ make effective responses to conflict seem unnecessary. and moral judgment´ . 2) Group think: Groupthink. A group is especially vulnerable to groupthink when its members are similar in background. Janis has documented eight symptoms of groupthink: 1. and when there are no clear rules for decision making. . occurs when a group makes faulty decisions because group pressures lead to a deterioration of ³mental efficiency. 4. 6) Mangers often use their overseas experience as basis for moving to another company that is looking to strengthen its international position. a term coined by social psychologist Irving Janis (1972). Groups affected by groupthink ignore alternatives and tend to take irrational actions that dehumanize other groups. Illusion of invulnerability ±Creates excessive optimism that encourages taking extreme risks.

When pressures for unanimity seem overwhelming. increasing my felt risk and leading me to seek lower-risk decisions. based on beliefs and concern for the group. What appears to be happening here is that critical change is occurring in the personal perception of the transfer of risk. if I feel that I am are sharing my personal risk with others (and hence lessening my personal risk-taking) then I will be more inclined to take . When the above symptoms exist in a group that is trying to make a decision. view. 6. I thus might personally take on the risk of others. there is a reasonable chance that groupthink will happen. yet what actually happens is that we assess risk based on perception more than reality. This is surprising as one might reasonably expect some kind of average collective risk being taken. Self-censorship ± Doubts and deviations from the perceived group consensus are not expressed. Illusion of unanimity ± The majority view and judgments are assumed to be unanimous. 7. Self-appointed µmind guards¶ ± Members protect the group and the leader from information that is problematic or contradictory to the group¶s cohesiveness. On the other hand. These group pressures lead to carelessness and irrational thinking since groups experiencing groupthink fail to consider all alternatives and seek to maintain unanimity. 3)Risky shift: There is an interesting phenomenon that occurs in groups and teams called 'risky shift'. Direct pressure on dissenters ± Members are under pressure not to express arguments against any of the group¶s views. If I care about others in the group and seek to sustain group cohesion then I may feel responsible for the risk taken by other group members. What this means is that the the group collectively takes either higher. although it is not necessarily so. Decisions shaped by groupthink have low probability of achieving successful outcomes. If influential people or the majority of group members feel this way then group decisions will be less risky. and/or decisions.5. Groupthink occurs when groups are highly cohesive and when they are under considerable pressure to make a quality decision. 8. members are less motivated to realistically appraise the alternative courses of action available to them. which means that the actual risk we may take on might vary significantly.or lower-risk decisions than its members would individually take. Risk homeostasis says that we each have a preferred level of risk and will hence be relatively consistent in our risk-taking.

Again. such as when working on a team task. yet better at complex tasks when they are in the presence of others. the extent to which this happens will depend on the dynamic of influence within the group. when we are working in a group. This appears to be a direct contradiction to Social Facilitation. This can also be an attraction of being an acknowledge expert or in a position of authority: although it may take time to climb the mountain. truly transferring the risk to the subordinate. However. which they share out with their subordinates. This principle may also explain a similar phenomenon that occurs in hierarchical management situations. or otherwise act to reduce the risk in some way. then by all means find work where nobody can point at you and say you are not pulling your weight. This is the tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks. But what happens to the perceived risk? For the manager to sustain their personal risk limit they have to either let go of the perception. Managers are responsible for a wider scope of activity than individuals. each member of the group contributes less than they would if they were individually responsible. resulting in what may be considered as poor management So how can managers avoid these dilemmas? The first step is to recognize when they are happening. such as men and Western societies in general. The key here is that the loafer is not worried about being evaluated. with different responses outside preferred risk boundaries. Because all members of the group are pooling their effort to achieve a common goal. make sure everyone in a group knows that they can easily be evaluated by others. 3)Social loafing: Social loafing describes the tendency of individuals to put forth less effort when they are part of a group. If you are a social loafer. Understand also how individuals and groups (including yourself) behave around risk. but can be explained by the differing circumstances in which it occurs. we will work hard to ensure nobody can criticize us for not pulling our weight. To avoid social loafing. it can be easier to conceal laziness when working in a group of people who are working together.gung-ho high-risk decisions. Both of these approaches can become dysfunctional. when we are being evaluated. . you may be able to relax once you have got there. People who have less concern for groups are more likely to be social loafers. Real and perceived risks should be carefully differentiated. In particular.

ancestry. The accelerated pace of change has transformed how work is performed by employees in diverse organizations. These tensions present opportunities as well as threats. genders. flat. they will result in dysfunctional and dire organizational outcomes at the end of any change process Workplace Diversity The dimensions of workplace diversity include. Several emerging trends are impacting organizational life. These five emerging trends create tensions for organizational leaders and employees as they go through waves of changes in their organizations. ethnicity. Organizations have entered a new era characterized by rapid. The challenge and problems faced of workplace diversity can be turned into a strategic organizational asset if an organization is able to capitalize on this melting pot of diverse talents. and work experience. With the mixture of talents of diverse cultural backgrounds. Ans. but are not limited to: age. diversity. ages and lifestyles. gender. sexual orientation. More importantly. The Challenges of Workplace Diversity The future success of any organizations relies on the ability to manage a diverse body of talent that can bring innovative ideas. an organization can respond to business opportunities more rapidly and creatively. parental status. and if these tensions are not managed well. and networks. geographic location. perspectives and views to their work. Change has truly become an inherent and integral part of organizational life. marital status. .Why has it become imperative to learn to manage work-place diversity?What are the threats and challenges that it poses for the management in the current scenario. which must be one of the important organisational goals to be attained. military experience. five will be examined: globalization. dramatic and turbulent changes. flexibility. physical abilities/qualities. religious beliefs. race. Of these emerging trends. especially in the global arena . educational background.QUE no 3. income.

With a population / the nation's strive towards high technology and knowledge-based economy. In the real world.if the organizational environment does not support diversity broadly.One of the best ways to handle workplace . diversity cannot be easily categorized and those organizations that respond to human complexity by leveraging the talents of a broad workforce will be the most effective in growing their businesses and their customer base. In many ways. a HR Manager needs to change from an ethnocentric view ("our way is the best way") to a culturally relative perspective ("let's take the best of a variety of ways"). leading and controlling of organizational resources. who have operations on a global scale and employ people of different countries. Furthermore. Act Local' approach in most circumstances. the professional must assure the local professionals that these foreign talents are not a threat to their career advancement . many local HR managers have to undergo cultural-based Human Resource Management training to further their abilities to motivate a group of professional that are highly qualified but culturally diverse. one risks losing talent to competitors. They are: Planning a Mentoring Program . organizing. The Management of Workplace Diversity In order to effectively manage workplace diversity. Thus. a HR manager needs to be mindful and may employ a 'Think Global. This is especially true for multinational companies . ethical and cultural backgrounds. placing them in a different silo based on their diversity profile . One of the main reasons for ineffective workplace diversity management is the predisposition to pigeonhole employees. Thus. the effectiveness of workplace diversity management is dependent on the skilful balancing act of the HR manager. foreign talents are lured to share their expertise in these areas. This shift in philosophy has to be ingrained in the managerial framework of the HR Manager in his/her planning. There are several best practices that a HR manager can adopt in ensuring effective management of workplace diversity in order to attain organizational goals.

As more and more companies are going global in their market expansions either physically or virtually (for example. there is a necessity to employ diverse talents to understand the various niches of the market. Leading the Talk . Organizing Talents Strategically . Ecommerce-related companies).A HR Manager needs to advocate a diverse workforce by . With this trend in place. For example. An organization that sees the existence of a diverse workforce as an organizational asset rather than a liability would indirectly help the organization to positively take in its stride some of the less positive aspects of workforce diversity. a HR Manager must be able to organize the pool of diverse talents strategically for the organization. the Chinese companies (such as China's electronic giants such as Haier) were seeking the marketing expertise of Singaporeans. such a program will encourage organization's members to air their opinions and learn how to resolve conflicts due to their diversity.diversity issues is through initiating a Diversity Mentoring Program. the purpose of a Diversity Mentoring Program seeks to encourage members to move beyond their own cultural frame of reference to recognize and take full advantage of the productivity potential inherent in a diverse population. Usually. More importantly. This is because Singapore's marketing talents were able to understand the local China markets relatively well (almost 75% of Singaporeans are of Chinese descent) and as well as being attuned to the markets in the West due to Singapore's open economic policies and English language abilities. In order for the program to run successfully. it is wise to provide practical training for these managers or seek help from consultants and experts in this field. He/She must consider how a diverse workforce can enable the company to attain new markets and other organizational goals in order to harness the full potential of workplace diversity. when China was opening up its markets and exporting their products globally in the late 1980s. This could entail involving different departmental managers in a mentoring program to coach and provide feedback to employees who are different from them.Many companies are now realizing the advantages of a diverse workplace.

o PM processes are becoming more complex. without resolving any real problems that may surface due to workplace diversity. benefits. some of these diversity initiatives may just fizzle out. some employees will quickly conclude that there is no future for them in the company. As the HR Manager. Threats and challenges occurs in management are following o Acceleration of processes (faster reporting. . it is pertinent to show respect for diversity issues and promote clear and positive responses to them. work environment. an organization must be able to utilize different motivational tools to encourage their employees to put in the required effort and increase productivity for the company. Control and Measure Results . Without proper control and evaluation. shorter planning cycles.A HR Manager must conduct regular organizational assessments on issues like pay. management and promotional opportunities to assess the progress over the long term. As these needs vary from person to person. Otherwise. fast close) across all existing PM processes is the major improvement priority.making diversity evident at all organizational levels. He/She must also show a high level of commitment and be able to resolve issues of workplace diversity in an ethical and responsible manner. Motivational Approaches Workplace motivation can be defined as the influence that makes us do things to achieve organizational goals: this is a result of our individual needs being satisfied (or met) so that we are motivated to complete organizational tasks effectively. o Creation of better links between strategy management and other PM processes is the major integration priority. with more people involved and an in-creasing number of tools used. There is also a need to develop appropriate measuring tools to measure the impact of diversity initiatives at the organization through organization-wide feedback surveys and other methods.

controlling their actions. and people-in the interests of economic ends. 2. And some time we work according to your dreams and passion if i am passionate about any company then i try my level best to join that group. and modifying their behavior to fit the needs of the organization. Theory X and theory Y McGregor argued that the conventional approach to managing was based on three major propositions.? Ans i. 1. equipment. v. I will get experience of the real wolrd. which he called Theory X: 1. motivating them.if i join my family business then less exposure will be given. ii. There is an increasing need for integrated technology platforms that allow companies to manage performance across the different PM processes. In my family member will give me spoon feeding but in other group I will do work on my own. as opposed to using basic spreadsheet tools such as Excel. It is important to better align IT and business so they share a common vision of performance management. With respect to people. iv. materials. And I want to join my family business after some experience so that I will not be a fresher for them and I am able to give opinion. o Companies do increasingly use more specialized software tools to automate their PM processes. this is a process of directing their efforts. . iii.o This requires careful management. Other group gives me more freedom to grow than my family. Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise-money. Question no 1) Give reasons as to why you joined a favorite group other than your family.

They must therefore be persuaded.3. Additionally. people would be passiveeven resistant-to organizational needs. Finally. thus. The hard style of management led to restriction of output. only unmet needs are motivational. and self-actualization needs. . Their activities must be directed. ego. McGregor called the second style of management "soft" and identified its methods as permissiveness and need satisfaction. rewarded. these tenets of management are based on less explicit assumptions about human nature. Maslow had proposed that man's needs are arranged in levels. individuals are assumed to put their individual concerns above that of the organization for which they work and to resist change. with physical and safety needs at the bottom of the needs hierarchy and social. McGregor argued that most employees already had their physical and safety needs met and that the motivational emphasis had shifted to the social. punished. human beings are assumed to be easily manipulated and controlled. Maslow's basic point was that once a need is met. tight controls. and controlled. valuing security more than other considerations at work. McGregor suggested that the soft style of management often led to managers' failure to perform their managerial role. ego. According to McGregor. and self-actualization needs at upper levels of the hierarchy. McGregor contended that both the classical and human relations approaches to management depended this same set of assumptions. unionism. Management's task was thus simply getting things done through other people. it no longer motivates behavior. A further assumption is that human beings do not want responsibility and desire explicit direction. and coercion. and even sabotage. mutual distrust. He also pointed out that employees often take advantage of an overly permissive manager by demanding more but performing at lower levels. He called the first style of management "hard" and identified its methods as close supervision. McGregor drew upon the work of Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) to explain why Theory X assumptions led to ineffective management. The first of these assumptions is that individuals do not like to work and will avoid it if possible. Without this active intervention by management.

Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise-money. by redesigning jobs to make them more challenging. or by emphasizing good work group relations. and readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals are all present in people-management does not put them there. The motivation. It is a responsibility of management to make it possible for people to recognize and develop these human characteristics for themselves.Therefore. According to McGregor. It also assumes that close supervision and the threat of punishment are not the only means or even the best means for inducing employees to exert productive effort. Such opportunities could be provided by allowing employees to participate in decision making. 3. materials. 2. potential for development. capacity for assuming responsibility. The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operation so that people can achieve their own goals by directing their efforts toward organizational objectives. The major propositions of Theory Y include the following: 1. Instead. Thus. management had to provide opportunities for these upper-level needs to be met in the workplace. among other things. equipment. and people in the interests of economic ends. which he believed could lead to more effective management of people in the organization. under the rubric of Theory Y. Theory Y has at its core the assumption that the physical and mental effort involved in work is natural and that individuals actively seek to engage in work. People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs. employees will display self-motivation to put . They have become so as a result of experience in organizations. neither the hard style of management based on the classical school nor the soft style of management inspired by the human relations movement were sufficient to motivate employees. he proposed a different set of assumptions about human nature as it pertains to the workplace. 4. Thus. McGregor put forth these assumptions. if given the opportunity. or employees would not be satisfied or motivated in their jobs.

for this they (2) require high degree of support in the form of secure employment and facilities for development of multiple skills through training and job rotation. (3) they value family life. implicit control mechanism. and (5) they can make collective decisions through consensus. avoiding responsibility is not an inherent quality of human nature. individuals will actually seek it out under the proper conditions. (4) they have well-developed sense of dedication. job enlargement. delegation. Job enrichment programs that began in the 1960s and 1970s also were consistent with the assumptions of Theory Y. and wholistic concern (building a complete relationship between . moral obligations. Introduced by the author William Ouchi (born 1943) in his book 'Theory Z. collective decision making.' He identifies seven major characteristics of Japanese organizations: lifetime employment. rather than a small segment of the population. slow evaluation and promotion of employees. and other employees in the firm. Theory Y also assumes that the ability to be innovative and creative exists among a large. he did believe that Theory Y assumptions would lead to more effective management. non-specialized career paths. and social institutions as much as material success. These included decentralization of decision-making authority. and participative management. collective responsibility. Thus.forth the effort necessary to achieve the organization's goals. culture and traditions. individuals desire rewards that satisfy their selfesteem and self-actualization needs. He identified several approaches to management that he felt were consistent with the precepts of Theory Y. Theory Z Japanese consensus management style based on the assumptions that (1) employees want to build cooperative relationships with their employers. peers. Finally. it assumes that rather than valuing security above all other rewards associated with work. Although McGregor did not believe that it was possible to create a completely Theory Y-type organization in the 1950s. and self-discipline.

.employer and employee. and government to develop industrial strategy. his research methodology has been criticized because of his small sample size and limited interviews and observations. In his later book. He argues that integrated planning at the societal level is responsible for Japanese success. Although Ouchi's Theory Z has become very popular. Ouchi (1984) elaborates on harmonious relationships in Japan among financial institutions. industrial organizations. including concerning with employee's non-work. personal and family. He asserts that these characteristics are not true of a typical American organization. The M-Form Society. labor. matters).