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# Example: Now to balances:steady-state, no generation,

consumption or accumulation.

## An aqueous potassium nitrate (KNO3) IN = OUT

solution containing 60wt% KNO3 at 80oC
is fed to a crystalliser where the
KNO3 : 0.60 × 100 = Cr + P (kg)
t
temperature
t is
i reduced
d d to t 40oC.
C Wh
Whatt % off H 2O : 0.40 × 100 = W (kg)
the KNO3 in the feed forms crystals ?
3 equations and
Data: solubility of KNO3 in H2O at 40oC = other relations : 3 unknowns
63 kg KNO3 /100kg H2O.
63 P
solubility =
100 W
Draw a diagram:
Solving equations:
W = 40 kg
Feed Sat’d From 3: P = 63x40/100 = 25.2 kg
Crystalliser
BASIS: solution From 1: Cr = 60-25.2 = 34.8 kg
100 kg feed % of entering KNO3 in the crystals =
KNO3 in crystals/KNO3 entering x 100%
crystals
(34.8 ÷ 60) x 100 = 58%

Solution:
Example:

## i) Define our components - we have 3

Strawberries contain about 15 wt% solids and 85 materials:
wt% water. To make jam, strawberries and sugar
are mixed in the ratio 45:55 by mass, and the Strawberry solids (St)
mixture is heated to evaporate water until the Water ( )
(W)
residue (jam) contains 1/3 of water by mass.
Sugar (Su)
What amount of strawberries produces 1 kg of
jam? ii) Draw a flowchart:

## Draw a diagram: Sugar Water

1 4
Strawberries 3 Jam

2 5
Crusher Evaporator

Define a BASIS:

1
∴ Input = output (steady-state)
Now, equations about system:

JAM PROCESS

TOTAL : Su + St = W + 1 (kg)
1
H 2O : 0.85 × St = W + × 1 (kg)
3
Solids : 0.15 × St = xsolids × 1 (kg)
iv) Write your equations with simplifying
assumptions: other relations :
Assumptions: No components are generated, strawberries 45 St
consumed or accumulate in any unit operation: = =
sugar 55 Su
∴ Generation = accumulation
4 equations and 4 unknowns: solvable!!!
= consumption = 0

Another Example

## From 4: Su = 55St/45 Wet air containing 4.0 mole % water vapor is

passed through a column of calcium chloride
Sub into 1: St + 55St/45 = W +1 pellets. The pellets absorb 97.0% of the water
Rearrange: W = 2.222St – 1 and none of the other constituents of air. The
column packing was initially dry and had a
Sub into 2: 0.85St = 2.222St – 1 + 1/3 mass of 3.40 kg. Following 5.0 hours of
operation, the pellets are reweighed and found
Solve for St = 0.4859 kg
to have a mass of 3.54 kg.

## Calculate the molar flow rate of the feed gas

and the mole fraction of water vapor in the
There is no need to solve for the other
product gas.
amounts as we have answered the question!!

required !!

2
Solution:

## i) Our components in this case are water (w)

and bone dry air (BDA). Note: in this problem we will take a
ii) Draw a diagram: BASIS: 5 hours of operation.

## Wet Air: Dried Air:

iii) Mole balances over the system:
stream 1 stream 2
Dryer For the bone dry air: IN = OUT

## Dry Air: nBDA, 1 = nBDA, 2 (mole) …. Eq.1

Water
For the water, there is accumulation
accumulates
over time in the dryer (call this nacc) :
i hi this
within hi
system ACCUMULATION = IN - OUT
Labeling stream variables:
nBDA,i = no of moles of bone dry air in stream ‘i’
nw,i = number of moles of water in stream ‘i’ H2O: nacc = nw, 1- nw,2 (mole)…. Eq.2
So far 5 unknowns and only 2 equations:
need 3 more

## Other relations: From equation 2

8.02 = 7.78 + nw,2
nw,1
= 0.04 ....Eq. 3 ⇒ nw,2 = 0.24 mol
nw,1 + nBDA,1
From equation 3
nacc = 0.97 nw,1 (mole) ....Eq. 4
8.02
= 0.04
nacc = (3.54 - 3.40 )
1000
(mole) ....Eq.5 8.02 + nBDA,1
18
⇒ 0.04 n BDA,1 = (1 - 0.04) × 8.02
= 7.78 mol
⇒ n BDA,1 = 192.5 mol
∴ From a basis of 5 hours
Now to the solution n BDA,2 = 192.5 mol

## (5 equations and 5 unknowns) ∴ Molar feed rate of ggas pper hour is

192.5 + 8.02
= 40.1 mol/hr
5
7.78
subbing into 4 : nw,1 = Water composition of outlet stream
0.97 0.24
= 8.02 mol = × 100 = 0.12%
0.24 + 192.5

3
DEGREES OF FREEDOM How is it possible to know whether all the
information is there to solve our material
balances?
In all these problems we had to have
the same number of independent Degrees of Freedom (DOF)
equations as unknowns
Simple maths

2x + y = 5 ______ 1
To date - Material balances performed x - y =1 ______ 2
on one or two unit operations
with only a few components.
- Enough information is Two unknown variables (x,y) with two
provided to solve problems. independent equations ( 1 , 2 ). Solving
I reall industries
In i d t i andd the
th environment
i t gives:
x = 2, y = 1. This is the only solution to the
- Tens, hundreds, even thousands equations.
of unit operations and different
components. We say DOF = 0
[same number of equations as unknowns]

## z + 3x + y = 9 ________ 1 z +3x+y= 9 ________ 1

2z + 4x - y = 11 ________ 2 2z + 4x – y = 11 ________ 2
z = 2 3z + 7x = 20 ________ 3

## 3 variables (x, y, z) Three variables

Th i bl (x,
( y, z)) only
l two
independent equations
2 independent equations ( 1 , 2 ) (equation 3 = 2 + 1 )
1 specified variable (z).
Must have independent equations
Solving gives: z = 2, x = 2, y = 1
DOF = 0;; x,, y, z are unique
q ∴We cannot obtain an explicit unique
solution for x, y, z. However, if 1 extra
independent equation were available, or if
one of x, y, z were specified, then we
could solve:
∴ DOF = 1

4
Another Example: In summary:
2x + y = 5 ______ 1
x - y =1 ______ 2 DOF = Nv – Ne
x=1 Nv = Number of unknown variables

2 ,x=1⇒ y=0

## Not possible – this problem is over specified. If DOF > 0

Need either:
We need to find either:

## x not specified extra equations or

or extra variables

DOF = -1

## iii) Mole balance equations:

Look at last example: Absorption of water
in a dryer nBDA, 1 = nBDA, 2 _____ 1
i) Components: Water (w) and bone dry air nw, 1 = nacc + nw,2 _____ 2
(BDA).
ii) Flow chart
iv) Other equations:
Water
nw,1
accumulates = 0.04 ____ 3
1 2 nw,1 + nBDA,1
Wet Air Dryer Air n acc = 0.97 n w,1 ____ 4
Dryer
n acc = 0.14 (kg) ____ 5
iii) Variables:
n BDA, i = moles of bone dry in stream ' i' Total number of independent equations = 5
n w, i = moles of water in stream ' i'
n acc,w = moles of water that accumulate in bed

## Total number of variables = 5 Therefore: DOF = 5 - 5 = 0

(nBDA,1, nBDA,2, nw,1, nw,2, nacc)

5
Another Example: A mixture of propane in air containing
4.03% C3H8 (fuel gas) is in the feed to a
If the percentage of fuel in a fuel/air combustion furnace. If there is a problem
mixture falls below the lower in the furnace, a stream of pure
flammability limit (LFL) then the mixture air(dilution air) is added to the fuel
cannot ignite. mixture to make sure that ignition is not
For example,
example the LFL for propane (C3H8) possible. If propane flows at a rate of 150
is 2.05 mole % C3H8 mol C3H8/s in the fuel gas, what is the
minimum molar flow rate of the dilution
air?
If the % of propane in the propane/air mix
is greater than 2.05% then the mixture can
be ignited. If the % is less than 2.05%
propane than the mixture cannot be
ignited.
g ted.

## Flow Diagram Will perform material balances using

equations 1 and 3.

## Fuel Gas Diluted gas Other relations:

Mixer 3
1
4.03% C3H8 2.05% C3H8 nC3H8 , 1 = 0.0403 nTot, 1 ____ 4
nC3H8 , 3 = 0.0205 nTot, 3 ____ 5
2
nC3H8 , 1 = 150 mol / s ____ 6
Dilution Air

## Material Balance Equations (mole): ∴ Number of variables is

2(stream 1) + 1(stream 2) + 2(stream 3) = 5 = Nv
nC3H8 , 1 = nC3H8 , 3 ____ 1 Number of independent
p equations
q
nair, 1 + nair, 2 = nair, 3 ____ 2 Ne = Eq’ns 1 , 3 , 4 , 5, 6 = 5
nTot, 1 + nair, 2 = nTot, 3 ____ 3
DoF = 5-5 = 0 Problem can be solved !!!
Note : Only 2 are independent equations

## No. components = no. independent equations

6
Degrees of Freedom – Another example
Solution
A liquid mixture containing 30.0 mole %
benzene (B), 25.0 mole % toluene (T) and
from 1
the balance xylene (X) is fed to a distillation
150 + 0 = n C3H8 , 3 column.
The bottoms
Th b tt product
d t contains
t i 98.0
98 0 mole%
l %
n C3H8 , 3 = 150 mol/s
‘X’ and no ‘B’.
from 4
96.0% of the ‘X’ in the feed is recovered in
150 this the bottoms product.
n Tot, 1 = = 3720 mol/s
0.0403 The overhead product is fed to a second
from 5 column. The overhead product from the
150 second column contains 94% ‘B’ and the
T 3 =
n Tot, = 7320 mol/s balance ‘T’
T.
0.0205
97% of ‘B’ entering the second column is
from 3
recovered in the overhead of the second
n Tot, 2 = 7317 - 3722 column.
= 3600 mol/s dilution air Perform the DOF analysis to see whether
this problem can be solved ??

## 4 Stream 1 Stream 2 Stream 3 Stream 4 Stream 5

0.94 B
0.06 T Total Total Total Total Total
B, T, X Tower flow1 flow2 flow3 flow4 flow5
2
3 xB,1 xB,2 xB,3 xB,4 xB,5
0.30 B Tower
0.25 T 1 B, T, X xT,1 xT,2 xT,3 xT,4 xT,5
0.45 X 5
1 2
0.98 X xx,1 xx,2 xx,3 xx,4 xx,5
0.02 T

## But we know some of these already: 9 are known

Unknown variables = 20 - 9 = 11

7
What are the equations ?? : A few more relations we haven’t used yet:

## Unit Mass balance Equations

[96.0% of the ‘X’ in the feed is recovered in this the
Tower 1 3 equations bottoms product].
Tower 2 3 equations 0.96 x Total flow1 x Xx,1 = Total flow2 x Xx,2

## Sum of the mole fractions in the

unknown streams= 1 [97% of ‘B’ entering the second column is recovered
in the overhead of the second column]
3 3
∑ xi ,3 = 1 ∑ xi ,5 = 1 0.97 x Total flow3 x XB,3 = Total flow4 x XB,4
i =1 i =1
∴ 2 more equations ∴ 2 more equations

Total no.
no Equations = 6+2+2 = 10
Total no. unknown Variables = 11
DoF = 1 ∴ we must specify one more variable