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MODULE 2

LAW ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION

POLICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION


WITH POLICE PLANNING

I. MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION CONCEPTS

ORGANIZATION
- a group of persons working together for a common goal
or objectives
- a form of human association for the attainment of a
goal or objective
- the process of identifying and grouping the work to be
performed, defining and delegating responsibility and
authority, establishing relationships for the purpose
of enabling people work effectively

POLICE ORGANIZATION
- a group of trained personnel in the field of public
safety administration engaged in the achievement of
goals and objectives that promotes the maintenance of
peace and order, protection of life and property,
enforcement of the laws and the prevention of crimes

LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY


- pertains to an organization responsible for enforcing
the laws

ENFORCEMENT
- means to compel obedience to a law, regulation or
command

OBJECTIVES
- refer to the purpose by which the organization was
created
- refer to the goals of the organizations

PNP MISSION
“To enforce the law, to prevent and control crimes, to
maintain peace and order, and to ensure public safety and
internal security with the active support of the community”

ADMINISTRATION
- an organizational process concerned with the
implementation of objectives and plans and internal
operating efficiency
- connotes bureaucratic structure and behavior,
relatively routine decision-making and maintenance of
the internal order

POLICE
- a branch of the criminal justice system that has the
specific responsibility of maintaining law and order
and combating crime within the society

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POLICE/LAW ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION
- the process involved in ensuring strict compliance,
proper obedience of laws and related statutes
- focuses on the policing process or how law enforcement
agencies are organized and managed in order to achieve
the goals of law enforcement most effectively,
efficiently and productively

SUPERVISION
- means the act of watching over the work or tasks of
the members of the organization to ensure that desired
results are achieved

MANAGEMENT
- the process of directing and facilitating the work of
people organized in formal groups in order to achieve
objectives
- judicious or wise use of resources (manpower,
material, money, equipment, supplies, time etc)

AUTHORITY
- the right to command and control the behavior of
employees in lower positions within an organizational
hierarchy
- must be viewed in terms of prescribed roles rather
than of individuals
- a particular position within an organization carries
the same regardless of who occupies that position

HIERARCHY
- represents the formal relationship among superiors and
subordinates in any given organization
- serves as the framework for the flow of authority
downward, and obedience upward, through the department

MANAGEMENT OR ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS

1) PLANNING
- the determination in advance of how the objectives of
the organization will be attained
- the process of setting performance objectives and
identifying the actions needed to accomplish them
- working out in broad outline the things that need to
be done and the methods for doing them to accomplish
the purpose set for the enterprise

2) ORGANIZING
- involves the determination and allocation of the men
and women as well as the resource of an organization
to achieve pre-determined goals or objectives of the
organization
- the process of dividing the work to be done and
coordinating results to achieve a desired purpose
- establishment of the formal structure of authority
through which work subdivisions are arranged, defined
and coordinated for the desired objectives

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3) DIRECTING
- involves the overseeing and supervising of the human
resources and the various activities in an
organization to achieve through cooperative efforts
the pre-determined goals or objectives of the
organization
- also called leading, the process of directing and
coordinating the work efforts of other people to help
them accomplish important task
- task of making decisions and embodying them in
specific and general orders and instructions

4) CONTROLLING
- involves the checking or evaluation and measurement of
work performance and comparing it with planned goals
or objectives of the organization, and making the
necessary corrective actions so that work is
accomplished as planned
- the process of monitoring performance, comparing
results to objectives and taking corrective action as
necessary
- also called supervising

5) STAFFING
- the task of providing competent men to do the job and
choosing the right men for the right job
- involves good selection and processing of reliable and
well-trained personnel
- filling the organization with the right people in the
right position

6) REPORTING
- the making of detailed account of activities, work
progress, investigations and unusual in order to keep
every one informed or what is going on

7) BUDGETING
- the forecasting in detail of the results of an
officially recognized program of operations based on
the highest reasonable expectations of operating
efficiency

PRINCIPLES OF EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT

DIVISION OF WORK
- work specialization can increase efficiency with the
same amount of effort

AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY


- authority includes the right to command and the power
to require obedience
- one cannot have authority without responsibility

DISCIPLINE
- necessary for an organization to function effectively,
however, the state of the disciplinary process depends
upon the quality of its leaders

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UNITY OF COMMAND
- subordinate should receive orders from one superior
only

SCALAR CHAIN
- the hierarchy of authority is the order of ranks from
the highest to the lowest levels of the organization
- shows the vertical hierarchy of the organization which
defines an unbroken chain of units from top to bottom
describing explicitly the flow of authority

ORGANIZATIONAL UNITS IN THE POLICE ORGANIZATION


1) FUNCTIONAL UNITS
a) BUREAU
- the largest organic functional unit within a
large department; comprises of several
divisions
b) DIVISION
- a primary subdivision of a bureau
c) SECTION
- functional unit within a division that is
necessary for specialization
d) UNIT
- functional group within a section or the smallest
functional group within an organization

2) TERRITORIAL UNITS
a) POST
- a fixed point or location to which an officer is
assigned for duty, such as a designated desk
or office or an intersection or cross walk from
traffic duty
b) ROUTE
- a length of streets designated for patrol
purposes; also called line beat
c) BEAT
- an area assigned for patrol purposes, whether
foot or motorized
d) SECTOR
- an area containing two or more beats, routes or
posts
e) DISTRICT
- a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol
purposes, usually with its own station
f) AREA
- a section or territorial division of a large city
each comprised of designated districts

FUNCTIONS IN A POLICE ORGANIZATION


1) PRIMARY OR LINE FUNCTIONS
- functions that carry out the major purposes of the
organization, delivering the services and dealing
directly with the public
- the backbone of the police department
- examples of the line functions of the police are
patrolling, traffic duties, crime investigation

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2) STAFF/ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS
- functions that are designed to support the line
functions and assist in the performance of the line
functions
- examples of the staff functions of the police are
planning, research, budgeting and legal advice

3) AUXILIARY FUNCTIONS
- functions involving the logistical operations of the
organization
- examples are training, communication, maintenance,
records management, supplies and equipment management

ORGANIC UNITS IN A POLICE ORGANIZATION


1) OPERATIONAL UNITS
- those that perform primary or line functions
- examples are patrol, traffic, investigation and vice
control,

2) ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS
- those that perform the administrative functions
examples are personnel, finance, planning and training

3) SERVICE UNITS
- those that perform auxiliary functions
- examples are communication, records management,
supplies

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
- the systematic arrangement of the relationship of the
members, positions, departments and functions or work
of the organization
- it is comprised of functions, relationships,
responsibilities and authorities of individuals within
the organization

KINDS OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES


1) LINE
- the oldest and simplest kind; also called military
- defined by its clear chain of command from the highest
to the lowest and vice versa
- depicts the line functions of the organization
- orders or commands must come from the higher level of
authority before it can be carried out
- involves few departments

2) FUNCTIONAL
- structure according to functions and specialized units
- depicts staff functions of the organization
- responsibilities are divided among authorities who are
all accountable to the authority above

3) LINE AND STAFF


- a combination of the line and functional kind

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- combines the flow of information from the line
structure with the staff departments that service,
advise, and support them
- generally more formal in nature and has many
departments

The Philippine National Police follows the line


and staff kind of organizational structure.

ORGANIZATIONAL CHART
- an illustration in the form of a chart which
represents the organizational structure
- the mechanical means of depicting, by an arrangement
of symbols, the relationships that exist between
individuals, groups and functional relationships
between groups and individuals clearly defined to
ensure accountability and compliance

ORGANIZATIONAL PRINCIPLES

FOUR PRIMAL CONDITIONS OF AN ORGANIZATION


1) AUTHORITY
- the supreme source of government for any particular
organization
- the right to exercise, to decide and to command by
virtue of rank and position

2) MUTUAL COOPERATION
- an organization exists because it serves a purpose

3) DOCTRINE
- provides for the organization’s objectives
- provides the various actions, hence, policies,
procedures, rules and regulations of the organization
are based on the statement of doctrines

4) DISCIPLINE
- comprising behavioral regulations

ELEMENTS OF POLICE ORGANIZATION


1) UNITY OF COMMAND
- dictates that there should only be ONE MAN commanding
the unit to ensure uniformity in the execution of
orders

2) SPAN OF CONTROL
- the maximum number of subordinates that a superior can
effectively supervise

Factors affecting the span of control:


a) Leadership qualities of the supervisors
b) Nature of the job and work conditions
c) Complexity of task
d) Education and skill of the employees

3) DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
- conferring of an amount of authority by a superior
position to a lower-level position

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4) HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY
- the relationship between superiors and subordinates
- serves as the framework for the flow of authority
downward and obedience upward through the department

HIERARCHY
- represents the formal relationship among superiors and
subordinates in any given organization

5) SPECIALIZATION
- the assignment of particular personnel to particular
tasks

SPECIALIZATION OF JOBS (AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION)


- the designation of certain activities or tasks as ones
that must be performed in a highly technological,
scientific or precise manner
- areas of police specialization include undercover
works, crime scene operations, legal advising,
computer work, SWAT operations and others

SPECIALIZATION OF PEOPLE (SPECIALISTS)


- the designation of particular persons as having
expertise in a specific area of work
- signifies the adaptation of an individual to the
requirements through extensive training

6) CHAIN OF COMMAND
- the arrangement of officers from top to bottom on the
basis of rank or position and authority

7) COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY
- dictates that immediate commanders shall be
responsible for the effective supervision and control
of their personnel and unit

II. EVOLUTION OF THE POLICING SYSTEM

ORIGIN OF THE WORD “POLICE”

POLITEIA – Greek word which means government of the city

POLITIA – Roman word which means condition of the state or


government

POLICE – French word which was later adopted by the English


language

THEORIES OF POLICE SERVICE


1) HOME RULE THEORY
- policemen are regarded as servants of the
community, who rely for the efficiency of their
functions upon the express needs of the people
- policemen are civil servants whose key duty is the
preservation of public peace and security

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2) CONTINENTAL THEORY
- policemen are regarded as state or servants of the
higher authorities
- the people have no share or have little participation
with the duties nor connection with the police
organization

CONCEPTS OF POLICE SERVICE


1) OLD CONCEPT
- police service gives the impression of being merely a
suppressive machinery
- this philosophy advocates that the measurement of
police competence is the increasing number of arrests,
throwing offenders in detention facilities rather than
trying to prevent them from committing crimes

2) MODERN CONCEPT
- regards police as the first line of defense of the
criminal justice system, an organ of crime prevention
- police efficiency is measured by the decreasing number
of crimes
- broadens police activities to cater to social services
and has for its mission the welfare of the individual
as well as that of the community in general

EARLY POLICING SYSTEM


1) KIN POLICING
- the family of the offended individual was expected to
assume responsibility for justice
- the family of the victim was allowed to exact
vengeance

2) EGYPT
- ancient rulers had elite unit to protect them
- created the MEDJAYS, a form of police force whose
duties include guarding of the tombs and apprehending
thieves
- introduced the use of dogs as guards and protectors

3) ROME
- created the first organized police force called
VIGILES OF ROME, or VIGILES URBANI (watchmen of the
city), which had the primary task of firefighting and
policing
- the Vigiles acted as night watch, apprehendinng
thieves, keeping an eye out for burglars and hunting
down runaway slaves, and were on occasion used to
maintain order in the streets
- the Vigiles dealt primarily with petty crimes and
looked for disturbances of the peace while they
patrolled the streets
- created a special unit called PRAETORIAN GUARDS, a
special force of guards used by Roman Emperors as the
Emperors' personal guards
- as personal guards of the Emperor, their primary duty
was to protect the Emperor from assassination and
other forms of attack against the Emperor

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4) ENGLAND
a) FRANKPLEDGE SYSTEM/MUTUAL PLEDGE SYSTEM
- required all males aged 12 and above to join a group
of nine to form a TYTHING
- members of the tything are called a TYTHINGMEN
- a CONSTABLE served as a leader of ten tythings
- the primary task of the things was to protect their
village from thieves and animals
- tythings were later organized into SHIRES
- a shire was headed by a leader called SHIRE REEVE,
which is the origin of the word “sheriff”
- their duty was to apprehend offenders

b) PARISH CONSTABLES
- a parish official charged with controlling crimes
- appointed to serve for one year
- duties included organizing watchmen to guard the gates
- during trouble, the watchman would raise a “HUE AND
CRY”, a call to arms where the rest of the parish
would stop what they were doing and come to the aid of
the constable

MODERN POLICING SYSTEM

1) ENGLAND
a) BOWSTREET RUNNERS
- a group of men organized to arrest offenders
- organized by Henry Fielding, a magistrate in London,
in 1749 in London, England
- the name was adopted from the name of the street where
the office of Henry Fielding was located
- when Henry Fielding retired as magistrate, he was
replaced by his blind brother, John Fielding
b) METROPOLITAN POLICE OF ACT 1829
- the law that created the first modern police force in
London England, called the Metropolitan Police Service
- this law was passed through the initiative of Sir
Robert Peel, a member of the Parliament
- the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service is
the Scotland Yard, now known as the New Scotland Yard

SIR ROBERT PEEL


- recognized as the father of modern policing system

2) UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


a) NEW YORK POLICE DEPARTMENT
- created in 1845 in New York, USA
- recognized as the first modern style police department
in the US
- the largest police force in the world
- modeled after the Metropolitan Police Service of
London

b) BOSTON POLICE DEPARTMENT


- the oldest police department in the US
- the first night watch was established in Boston in
1631

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- formally founded in May, 1854

AUGUST VOLLMER
- recognized as the Father of Modern Law Enforcement for
his contributions in the development of the field of
criminal justice in the US
- author of the book, Police Administration, which
served as the basic guide in the administration of the
police organization in the US
- was the first police chief of Berkeley, California

III. BRIEF HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINE POLICING SYSTEM

The institution of police in the Philippines formally


started during the Spanish period. The establishment of
the police force was not entirely intended for crime
prevention nor peacekeeping. Rather, it was created as an
extension of the colonial military establishment.

Ancient Roots

The forerunner of the contemporary police system was


the practice of barangay chieftains to select able-bodied
young men to protect their barangay during the night and
were not required to work in the fields during daytime.
Among the duties of those selected were to protect the
properties of the people in the barangay and protect their
crops and livestock from wild animals.

Spanish Period

Carabineros de Seguridad Publica – organized in 1712 for


the purpose of carrying the regulations of the Department
of State; this was armed and considered as the mounted
police; years after, this kind of police organization
discharged the duties of a port, harbor and river police

Guardrilleros/Cuardillo – this was a body of rural police


organized in each town and established by the Royal Decree
of 18 January 1836; this decree provided that 5% of the
able-bodied male inhabitants of each province were to be
enlisted in this police organization for three years

Guardia Civil – this was created by a Royal Decree issued


by the Crown on 12 February 1852 to partially relieve the
Spanish Peninsular troops of their work in policing towns;
it consisted of a body of Filipino policemen organized
originally in each of the provincial capitals of the
central provinces of Luzon under the Alcalde Mayor

American Period

The Americans established the United States Philippine


Commission headed by General Howard Taft as its first
governor-general. On January 9, 1901, the Metropolitan
Police Force of Manila was organized pursuant to Act No 70

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of the Taft Commission. This has become the basis for the
celebration of the anniversary of the Manila’s Finest every
January 9th.

ACT NO 175 – entitled “An Act Providing for the


Organization and Government of an Insular Constabulary”,
enacted on July 18, 1901

CAPT HENRY ALLEN


- the first chief of the Philippine Constabulary in
1901

ACT NO 183 - created the Manila Police Department, enacted


on July 31, 1901

CAPT GEORGE CURRY,


- the first chief of police of the Manila Police
Department in 1901

Act No 255 – the act that renamed the Insular Constabulary


into Philippine Constabulary, enacted on October 3, 1901

Executive Order 389 – ordered that the Philippine


Constabulary be one of the four services of the Armed
Forces of the Philippines, enacted on December 23, 1940
Post-American Period

RA 4864 – otherwise known as the Police Professionalization


Act of 1966, enacted on September 8, 1966; created the
Police Commission (POLCOM) as a supervisory agency to
oversee the training and professionalization of the local
police forces under the Office of the President; later
POLCOM was renamed into National Police Commission
(NAPOLCOM)

Martial Law Period

PD 765 – otherwise known as the Integration Act of 1975,


enacted on August 8, 1975; established the Integrated
National Police (INP) composed of the Philippine
Constabulary (PC) as the nucleus and the integrated local
police forces as components, under the Ministry of National
Defense
- transferred the NAPOLCOM from the Office of the
President to the Ministry of National Defense

Post Martial Law Regime

Executive Order No 1012 – transferred to the city and


municipal government the operational supervision and
direction over all INP units assigned within their
locality; issued on July 10, 1985

Executive Order No 1040 – transferred the administrative


control and supervision of the INP from the Ministry of
National Defense to the National Police Commission

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RA 6975 – otherwise known as the Department of the Interior
and Local Government Act of 1990, enacted on December 13,
1990; reorganized the DILG and established the Philippine
National Police, Bureau of Fire Protection, Bureau of Jail
Management and Penology and the Philippine Public Safety
College

RA 8551 – otherwise known as the Philippine National Police


Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998, enacted on February
25, 1998; this law amended certain provisions of RA 6975

RA 9708 - law amending the provisions of RA 6975 and RA


8551 on the minimum educational qualification for
appointment to the PNP and adjusting the promotion system;
approved on 12 August 2009

“AN ACT EXTENDING FOR FIVE (5) YEARS THE REGLEMENTARY


PERIOD FOR COMPLYING WITH THE MINIMUM EDUCATIONAL
QUALIFICATION FOR APPOINTMENT TO THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL
POLICE (PNP) AND ADJUSTING THE PROMOTION SYSTEM THEREOF,
AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE PERTINENT PROVISIONS OF REPUBLIC
ACT NO. 6975 AND REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8551 AND FOR OTHER
PURPOSES”

IMPORTANT FILIPINO PERSONALITIES IN THE EVOLUTION OF


PHILIPPINE POLICING

BRIG GEN RAFAEL CRAME


- the first Filipino chief of the Philippine
Constabulary in 1917

COL ANTONIO TORRES


- the first Filipino chief of police of the Manila
Police Department in 1935

COL LAMBERTO JAVALERA


- the first chief of police of the Manila Police
Department after the Philippine Independence from
the United States of America in 1946

P/DIR GEN CESAR NAZARENO


- the first chief of the Philippine National Police

IV. HIGHLIGHTS OF RA 6975 – THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR


AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT OF 1990, RA 8551 – THE PHILIPPINE
NATIONAL POLICE REFORM AND REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1998 and
RA 9708

A. THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT


(DILG)
- formerly Department of Local Government (DLG)
- reorganized under RA 6975

ORGANIZATION:
- consist of:
a) the Department proper
b) existing bureaus and offices of the DLG

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c) local government units (LGU)
1) provincial governors
2) city and municipal mayors
d) the National Police Commission
e) the Philippine Public Safety College
f) Philippine National Police
g) Bureau of Fire Protection
h) Bureau of Jail Management and Penology

- the PPSC, PNP, BFP and BJMP were created under RA


6975
- headed by the Secretary to be appointed by the
President and who shall serve at the pleasure of the
President
- the Secretary shall be assisted by two (2)
Undersecretaries and three (3) Assistant Secretaries
a) Undersecretary for Local Government
b) Undersecretary for Peace and Order
- No retired or resigned military officer or police
official may be appointed as Secretary within one
(1) year from date of retirement or resignation
- the Secretary is also the ex officio chairman of the
National Police Commission
- refer to the organizational chart of DILG
-
POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE DILG
1) Assist the President in the exercise of general
supervision over local governments;
2) Advise the President in the promulgation of policies,
rules, regulations and other issuances on the general
supervision over local governments and on public order
and safety;
3) Establish and prescribe rules, regulations and other
issuances implementing laws on public order and
safety, the general supervision over local governments
and the promotion of local autonomy and community
empowerment and monitor compliance thereof;
4) Provide assistance towards legislation regarding local
governments, law enforcement and public safety;
Establish and prescribe plans, policies, programs and
projects to promote peace and order, ensure public
safety and further strengthen the administrative,
technical and fiscal capabilities of local government
offices and personnel;
5) Formulate plans, policies and programs which will meet
local emergencies arising from natural and man-made
disasters;
Establish a system of coordination and cooperation
among the citizenry, local executives and the
Department, to ensure effective and efficient delivery
of basic services to the public;
6) Organize, train and equip primarily for the
performance of police functions, a police force that
is national in scope and civilian in character.
7)
RELATIONSHIP OF THE DILG WITH THE DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL
DEFENSE (DND)

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- under RA 6975, the Armed Forces of the Philippines
(AFP) was in charge with external security while the
DILG was in charge with internal security
- under RA 8551, the Armed Forces of the Philippines
is now in charge with both internal and external
security with the PNP as support through information
gathering and performance of ordinary police
functions

B. NATIONAL POLICE COMMISSION


- an agency attached to the DILG for policy
coordination
- shall exercise administrative control and
operational supervision over the PNP

VISION OF THE NAPOLCOM


"We envision the National Police Commission as a
highly dynamic, committed and responsive administering and
controlling body, actively and effectively facilitating the
evolvement of a highly professional, competent,
disciplined, credible and trustworthy PNP"

MISSION OF THE NAPOLCOM


"To administer and control the Philippine National
Police with the end in view of maintaining a highly
professional, competent, disciplined, credible and
trustworthy PNP”

POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE NAPOLCOM


A. Exercise administrative control and operational
supervision over the Philippine National Police (PNP) which
shall mean the power to:
1. Develop policies and promulgate a police manual
prescribing rules and regulations for efficient
organization, administration, and operation, including
criteria for manpower allocation distribution and
deployment, recruitment, selection, promotion, and
retirement of personnel and the conduct of qualifying
entrance and promotional examinations for uniformed members;
2. Examine and audit, and thereafter establish standards
for such purposes on a continuing basis, the performance,
activities, and facilities of all police agencies
throughout the country;
3. Establish a system of uniform crime reporting;
4. Conduct annual self-report surveys and compile
statistical data for accurate assessment of the crime
situation and the proper evaluation of the efficiency and
effectiveness of all police units in the country;
5. Approve or modify plans and programs on education and
training, logistical requirements, communications, records,
information systems, crime laboratory, crime prevention and
crime reporting;
6. Affirm, reverse or modify, through the National
Appellate Board, personnel administrative actions involving
the demotion or dismissal from the service imposed upon
members of the Philippine National Police by the Chief of
the Philippine National Police;

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7. Exercise appellate jurisdiction through the Regional
Appellate Boards, over administrative cases against
policemen and over decisions on claims for police benefits;
8. Prescribe minimum standards for arms, equipment, and
uniforms and, after consultation with the Philippine
Heraldry Commission, for insignia of ranks, awards, medals
of honor;
9. Issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum in matters
pertaining to the discharge of its own powers and duties,
and designate who among its personnel can issue processes
and administer oaths in connection therewith;
10. Inspect and assess the compliance of the PNP on the
established criteria for manpower allocation, distribution
and deployment and their impact on the community and the
crime situation, and thereafter formulate appropriate
guidelines for maximization of resources and effective
utilization of the PNP personnel;
11. Monitor the performance of the local chief executives
as deputies of the Commission; and
12. Monitor and investigate police anomalies and
irregularities.
B. Advise the President on all matters involving police
functions and administration;
C. Render to the President and to Congress an annual report
of its activities and accomplishments during the thirty
(30)days after the end of the calendar year, which shall
include an appraisal of the conditions obtaining in the
organization and administration of police agencies in the
municipalities, cities and provinces throughout the
country, and recommendations for appropriate remedial
legislations;
D. Recommend to the President, through the Secretary,
within sixty (60) days before the commencement of each
calendar year, a crime prevention program; and
E. Perform such other functions necessary to carry out the
provisions of R.A. 6975, as amended, other existing laws
and Presidential issuances, and as the President may
direct.

COMPOSITION:
- consist of a Chairperson, four (4) regular
Commissioners and the Chief of PNP as ex officio
member
- shall serve a term of office of six (6) years
without reappointment or extension
- three of the four regular commissioners shall come
from civilian sector and not former members of the
police or military
- the fourth regular commissioner shall come from the
law enforcement sector either active or retired
- at least one (1) of the four regular commissioners
shall be a woman
- from among the three regular commissioners from the
civilian sector, the Vice Chairperson shall be
chosen
- the Vice Chairperson shall act as the Executive
Officer of the Commission

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- refer to the organizational structure of the
NAPOLCOM

QUALIFICATIONS OF THE REGULAR COMMISSIONERS


- citizens of the Philippines
- lawyers with at least five (5) years experience in
handling criminal or human rights cases; or
- holders of a master’s degree in public
administration, sociology, criminology, criminal
justice, law enforcement and other related
disciplines

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
- composed of:
a) Commission Proper
b) Staff Services
1) Planning and Research
2) Legal Affairs
3) Crime Prevention and Coordination
4) Personnel and Administrative Service
5) Inspection, Monitoring and Investigation
6) Installations and Logistics
7) Financial Service
c) Disciplinary Appellate Boards
1) National Appellate Board
 shall decide cases on appeal from the
decisions rendered by the Chief, PNP

2) Regional Appellate Board


 shall decide cases on appeal from decisions
rendered by the mayor, PLEB, and PNP
officers other than the Chief, PNP

C. PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE


- organized pursuant to RA 6975, as amended by RA 8551
- a law enforcement agency under the operational
control of the Department of the Interior and Local
Government and administrative supervision of the
National Police Commission
- it is an organization that is national in scope and
civilian in character, as provided by Section 6,
Article 16 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution:
“The state shall establish and maintain one police
force which shall be national in scope and civilian
in character…”
- headed by the Chief, PNP, with the rank of Director
General, appointed by the President and who shall
serve a term of office of four (4) years
-

NATIONAL IN SCOPE
- means that the PNP is a nationwide government
organization whose jurisdiction covers the entire
breadth of the Philippine archipelago
- all uniformed and non-uniformed personnel of the PNP
are national government employees

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CIVILIAN IN CHARACTER
- means that that the PNP is not a part of the
military, although it retains some military
attributes such as discipline

POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PNP


1) Enforce all laws and ordinances relative to the
protection of lives and properties;
2) Maintain peace and order and take all necessary steps
to ensure public safety;
3) Investigate and prevent crimes, effect the arrest of
criminal offenders, bring offenders to justice and
assist in their prosecution;
4) Exercise the general powers to make arrest, search and
seizure in accordance with the Constitution and
pertinent laws;
5) Detain an arrested person for a period not beyond what
is prescribed by law, informing the person so detained
of all his rights under the Constitution;
6) Issue licenses for the possession of firearms and
explosives in accordance with law;
7) Supervise and control the training and operations of
security agencies and issue licenses to operate
security agencies and to security guards and private
detectives, for the purpose of their professions.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF A POLICE OFFICER


1) He shall be ready at all times to perform his duties
and obey the lawful orders of his superior officers or
higher authority;
2) He shall be responsible for the efficient performance
of his duties and adequate coverage of his beat or
post;
3) He shall cooperate and coordinate with the other
members of his relief, district or other division
segments so that their teamwork may ensure continuity
of purpose and maximum achievement of the objectives
of the department;
4) He shall be available for duty at all times in case of
special needs or emergencies;
5) He shall respond readily and report punctually to all
assignments;
6) He shall execute the service program within his area
of responsibility providing for prevention of crime,
protection of life and property, apprehension and
prosecution of offenders, preservation of peace and
enforcement of regulatory measures;
7) He shall familiarize himself with administrative ad
operational policies of the department;
8) He shall be in prescribed attire and have the required
equipment when reporting for duty;
9) He shall be attentive to instruction and record
information given during the briefing or roll-call
training and shall likewise record his activities
during his tour of duty;
10) He shall supervise and inspect all public and
licensed places within his area of responsibility.

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ORGANIZATION and COMPOSITION OF THE PNP
- shall be headed by a Chief who shall be assisted by
two (2) deputy chiefs:
1) Deputy Chief for Administration
2) Deputy Chief for Operations
- the Chief PNP and the two (2) deputy chiefs shall be
appointed by the President
- no officer who is retirable within six (6) months
shall be appointed Chief
- the PNP shall be composed of a national office,
regional offices, provincial offices, district
offices, and city or municipal stations
- refer to the organizational structure of the
Philippine National Police

CAMP RAFAEL CRAME


- the national headquarters of the Philippine National
Police, located in Quezon City
- houses the offices of the following:
a) Chief, PNP
b) two (2) deputy chiefs
c) Chief, Directorial Staff
d) ten (10) directorial staff
e) nine administrative units
f) ten operational units

POLICE REGIONAL OFFICES


- the PNP is divided into seventeen (17) police
regional offices (PRO), each headed by a Regional
Director:
National Capital Region Police Office (NCRO)
PRO 1 to PRO 13
Cordillera Autonomous Region (CAR)
Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)

PROVINCIAL POLICE OFFICES


- for every region, there are provincial offices, each
headed by a Provincial Director
- in large provinces, police districts may be
established to be headed by a District Director
- at the city or municipal levels or stations, each is
headed by a Chief of Police

DISTRICT OFFICES
- NCRPO is divided into five (5) districts, each
headed by a District Director:
Manila Police District (formerly Western Police
District)- Manila
Eastern Police District (EPD) – San Juan,
Mandaluyong, Pasig
Northern Police District (NPD) – Caloocan, Malabon,
Valenzuela
Central Police District (CPD) – Quezon City
Southern Police District (SPD) – Pasay and Makati

PNP ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT UNITS

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1) CRIME LABORATORY
- shall provide scientific and technical investigate aid
and support to the PNP and other government
investigative agencies

2) LOGISTICS UNIT
- headed by a Director with the rank of CHIEF
SUPERINTENDENT
- shall be responsible for the procurement, distribution
and management of all the logistical requirements of
the PNP including firearms and ammunition

3) COMMUNICATIONS UNIT
- shall be responsible for establishing an effective
police communications network

4) COMPUTER CENTER
- shall be responsible for the design, implementation
and maintenance of a database system for the PNP

5) FINANCE CENTER
- shall be responsible for providing finance services to
the PNP

6) CIVIL SECURITY UNIT


- shall provide administrative services and general
supervision over the organization, business operation
and activities of all organized private detectives,
watchmen, security guard agencies and company guard
forces

OPERATIONAL SUPPORT UNITS


1) MARITIME POLICE UNIT
- shall perform all police functions over Philippine
territorial waters and rivers

2) POLICE INTELLIGENCE UNIT


- shall serve as the intelligence and
counterintelligence operating unit of the PNP

3) POLICE SECURITY UNIT


- shall provide security for government officials,
visiting dignitaries and private individuals
authorized to be given protection

4) CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION UNIT


- Shall undertake the monitoring, investigation and
prosecution of all crimes involving economic
sabotage, and other crimes of such magnitude and
extent as to indicate their commission by highly
placed or professional criminal syndicates and
organizations

5) SPECIAL ACTION FORCE


- shall function as a mobile strike force or reaction
unit to augment regional, provincial, municipal and
city police forces for civil disturbance control,

Page 19 of 40
counterinsurgency, hostage-taking rescue operations
and other special operations

6) NARCOTICS UNIT
- shall enforce all laws relative to the protection of
the citizenry against dangerous and other prohibited
drugs and substances

7) AVIATION SECURITY UNIT


- shall secure all the country’s airports against
offensive and terroristic acts that threaten civil
aviation, exercise operational control and supervision
over all agencies involved in airport security
operation, and enforce all laws and regulations
relative to air travel protection and safety

8) TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT UNIT


- shall enforce traffic laws and regulations

9) MEDICAL AND DENTAL CENTERS


- shall be responsible for providing medical and dental
services for the PNP

10) CIVIL RELATIONS UNIT


- shall implement plans and programs that will promote
community and citizen’s participation in the
maintenance of peace and order and public safety

POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE CHIEF PNP

The command and direction of the PNP shall be vested


in the Chief, PNP who shall have the power to:
1) direct and control tactical as well as strategic
movements, deployment, placement, utilization of the
PNP or any of its units and personnel, including its
equipment, facilities and other resources;
2) issue detailed implementing policies and instructions
regarding personnel, funds, properties, records,
correspondence, and such other matters as may be
necessary;
3) dismiss police officers…

MANNING LEVELS (POLICE-TO-POPULATION RATIO)


1:500 – nationwide average
1:1000 – minimum police-to-population ratio

RANK CLASSIFICATION AND ITS COUNTERPART IN THE MILITARY

DIRECTOR GENERAL GENERAL


DEPUTY DIRECTOR GENERAL LIEUTENANT GENERAL
DIRECTOR MAJOR GENERAL
CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT BRIGADIER GENERAL
SENIOR SUPERINTENDENT COLONEL
SUPERINTENDENT LIEUTENANT COLONEL

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CHIEF INSPECTOR MAJOR
SENIOR INSPECTOR CAPTAIN
INSPECTOR LIEUTENANT
SENIOR POLICE OFFICER 4 MASTER SERGEANT
SENIOR POLICE OFFICER 3 TECHNICAL SERGEANT
SENIOR POLICE OFFICER 2 STAFF SERGEANT
SENIOR POLICE OFFICER 1 SERGEANT
POLICE OFFICER 3 CORPORAL
POLICE OFFICER 2 PRIVATE 1ST CLASS
POLICE OFFICER 1 PRIVATE

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICER RANKS (NCO)


- PO1 to SPO4

COMMISSIONED OFFICER RANKS (CO)


- INSPECTOR TO DIRECTOR GENERAL

KEY POSITIONS and their CORRESPONDING RANKS IN THE PNP

CHIEF – highest position in the PNP, with the rank of


DIRECTOR GENERAL

DEPUTY CHIEF FOR ADMINISTRATION – the second-in command,


with the rank of DEPUTY DIRECTOR GENERAL

DEPUTY CHIEF FOR OPERATIONS – the third-in-command, with


the rank of DEPUTY DIRECTOR GENERAL

NCR DIRECTOR – with the rank of DIRECTOR

REGIONAL DIRECTOR - with the rank of CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT

PROVINCIAL DIRECTOR - with the rank of SENIOR


SUPERINTENDENT

NCR DISTRICT DIRECTOR - with the rank of CHIEF


SUPERINTENDENT

CHIEF OF POLICE – with the rank of CHIEF INSPECTOR

STATUS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE PNP


- police officers are employees of the national
government and shall draw their salaries from the
national budget
- they shall have the same salary grade level as that
of public school teachers police officers assigned
in Metro Manila, chartered cities and first class
municipalities may be paid financial incentives by
the local government unit concerned subject to
availability of funds

GENERAL QUALIFICATIONS FOR APPOINTMENT TO THE PNP (RA 6975,


as amended by RA 8551 and RA 9708)
a) A citizen of the Philippines;
b) A person of good moral conduct;
c) Must have passed the psychiatric/psychological, drug
and physical tests to be administered by the PNP or by

Page 21 of 40
any NAPOLCOM accredited government hospital for the
purpose of determining physical and mental health;
d) Must possess a formal baccalaureate degree from a
recognized institution of learning;
- graduate of any four-year course
e) Must be eligible in accordance with the standards set
by the Commission;
- Must have passed the board examination given by the
Profession Regulation Commission (PRC) or the
NAPOLCOM Police Entrance Examination
f) Must not have been dishonorably discharged from
military employment or dismissed for cause from any
civilian position in the Government;
g) Must not have been convicted by final judgment of an
offense or crime involving moral turpitude;
h) Must be at least one meter and sixty-two centimeters
(1.62 m) in height for male and one meter and fifty-
seven (1.57 m) for female;
i) Must weigh not more or less than five kilograms (5kgs)
from the standard weight corresponding to his or her
height, age and sex; and
j) For a new applicant, must not be less than twenty-one
(21) nor more than thirty (30) years of age

Pursuant to RA 9708, “…PNP members who are


already in the service upon the effectivity of
Republic Act No. 8551 shall be given five (5) years to
obtain the minimum educational qualification
preferably in law enforcement related courses, to be
reckoned from the date of the effectivity of this
amendatory Act: Provided, furthermore, That for
concerned PNP members rendering more than fifteen (15)
years of service and who have exhibited exemplary
performance as determined by the Commission, shall no
longer be required to comply with the aforementioned
minimum educational requirement.”

EXAMINATION AND ELIGIBILITY

The National Police Commission shall administer the


entrance and promotional examinations for police officers
on the basis of the standards set by the Commission (as
amended by RA 8551).

POLICE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION – taken by applicants of the


PNP

POLICE PROMOTIONAL EXAMINATIONS – taken by in-service


police officers as part of the mandatory requirements for
promotion

POLICE OFFICER EXAMINATION


SENIOR POLICE OFFICER EXAMINATION
INSPECTOR EXAMINATION
SUPERINTENDENT EXAMINATION

Police officers, who are LICENSED CRIMINOLOGISTS, no


longer need to take the Police Promotional Examinations as

Page 22 of 40
part of the requirements for promotion. As PRC BOARD
PASSERS, they have already complied with the eligibility
requirement.

APPOINTMENT OF UNIFORMED PNP PERSONNEL


PO1 TO SPO4 – appointed by the Regional Director for
regional personnel or by the Chief, PNP for the national
headquarters
INSP TO SUPT – appointed by the Chief, PNP
SR SUPT TO DEPUTY DIR GEN – appointed by the President upon
recommendation of the Chief, PNP, subject to confirmation
by the Commission on Appointments
DIRECTOR GENERAL – appointed by the President from among
the senior officers down to the rank of CSupt, subject to
the confirmation of the Commission on Appointments

KINDS OF APPOINTMENT

1) PERMANENT – when an applicant possesses the upgraded


general qualifications for appointment in the PNP
2) TEMPORARY – when the appointment of an applicant is
under the waiver program due to weight requirements
pending satisfaction of the requirement waived

LATERAL ENTRY OF OFFICERS


- admission to the PNP with the initial rank of
Inspector or Senior Inspector of qualified
applicants belonging to certain professions

INSPECTOR RANK:
- dentists, optometrists, nurses, engineers, graduates
of forensic sciences, graduates of the Philippine
National Police Academy and licensed criminologists

SENIOR INSPECTOR RANK:


- chaplains, members of the bar and doctors of
medicine

WAIVERS FOR INITIAL APPOINTMENT TO THE PNP (RA 8551)

The age, height, weight and educational requirements


for initial appointment to the PNP may be waived only when
the number of qualified applicants falls below the minimum
annual quota, provided:

1) That an applicant shall not be below twenty (20) nor


over thirty-five (35) years of age; and
2) That any applicant not meeting the weight requirement
shall be given reasonable time but not to exceed six
(6) months within which to comply with the said
requirement;
3) That the waiver for height requirement shall be
automatically granted to applicants belonging to the
cultural minorities

Page 23 of 40
SELECTION CRITERIA UNDER THE WAIVER PROGRAM
1) Applicants who possess the least disqualification
shall take precedence over those who possess more
disqualification;
2) The requirement shall be waived in the following
order: age, height, weight and education.

PROMOTION
- the upgrading of ranks and/or advancement to a
position of leadership

KINDS OF PROMOTION

1. REGULAR – promotion granted to police officers meeting


the mandatory requirements for promotion
2. SPECIAL – promotion granted to police officers who has
exhibited acts of conspicuous courage and gallantry at
the risk of his/her life above and beyond the call of
duty

CONSPICUOUS COURAGE
- courage that is clearly distinguished above others
in the performance of one’s duty

MANDATORY REQUIREMENTS FOR PROMOTION

1. Educational attainment – applicable in promotion in


position

2. Completion of appropriate training/schooling, such as:


Masteral Degree - Chief Superintendent and above
Officers Senior Executive Course (OSEC) – Supt to Sr
Supt
Officers Advance Course (OAC) – Chief Insp
Officers Basic Course (OBC) – Sr Insp
Officers Candidate Course (OCC) – SPO4
Senior Leadership Course (SLC) – SPO3 to SPO4
Junior Leadership Course (JLC) – PO3 to SPO1

3. Time-in Grade – the number of years required for a


police officer to hold a certain rank before he can be
promoted to the next higher rank
1 year – from Sr Supt to Deputy Director General
3 years – from Supt to Sr Supt
5 years – Chief Insp to Supt
5 years – Sr Insp to Chief Insp
3 years – Insp to Sr Insp
3 years – SPO4 to Insp
2 years – SPO3 to SPO4
2 years – SPO2 to SPO3
2 years – SPO1 to SPO2
2 years – PO3 to SPO1
1 year – PO2 to PO3
5 years – PO1 to PO2

Page 24 of 40
4. Appropriate eligibility – the required promotional
examinations
POLICE OFFICER PROMOTIONAL EXAMINATION
SENIOR POLICE OFFICER PROMOTIONAL EXAMINATION
POLICE INSPECTOR PROMOTIONAL EXAMINATION
POLICE SUPERINTENDENT PROMOTIONAL EXAMINATION
Exemptions:
Bar and PRC board examination passers (RA 1080)
LICENSED CRIMINOLOGISTS (RA 6506)
Honor Graduates (PD 907)

Except for the Chief, PNP, no PNP member who has less
than one (1) year of service before reaching the compulsory
retirement age shall be promoted to a higher rank or
appointed to any other position.

Pursuant to RA 9708, “…In addition, the institution of


a criminal action or complaint against a police officer
shall not be a bar to promotion: Provided, however, That
upon finding of probable cause, notwithstanding any
challenge that may be raised against that finding
thereafter, the concerned police officer shall be
ineligible for promotion: Provided, further, That if the
case remains unresolved after two (2) years from the
aforementioned determination of probable cause, he or she
shall be considered for promotion. In the event he or she
is held guilty of the crime by final judgment, said
promotion shall be recalled without prejudice to the
imposition of the appropriate penalties under applicable
laws, rules and regulations: Provided, furthermore, That if
the complaint filed against the police officer is for a
crime including, but not limited to, a violation of human
rights, punishable by reclusion perpetua or life
imprisonment, and the court has determined that the
evidence of guilt is strong, said police officer shall be
completely ineligible for promotion during the pendency of
the said criminal case.”

ATTRITION (RA 8551)


- the downsizing of personnel in the PNP on the basis
provided by law.

MODES OF ATTRITION
1) ATTRITION BY ATTAINMENT OF MAXIMUM TENURE
- those who have reached the prescribed maximum tenure
corresponding to their position shall be retired
from the service
Chief 4 years
Deputy Chief 4 years
Director of Staff Services 4 years
Regional Directors 6 years
Provincial/District Directors 9 years
other positions higher than
Provincial Director 6 years

2) ATTRITION BY RELIEF

Page 25 of 40
- those who have been relieved for just cause and have
not been given an assignment within TWO (2) YEARS
after such relief shall be retired or separated

3) ATTRITION BY DEMOTION IN POSITION OR RANK


- those who are relieved and assigned to a position
lower than what is established for his or her grade
in the PNP staffing pattern and who shall not be
assigned to a position commensurate to his or her
grade within EIGHTEEN (18) MONTHS after such
demotion shall be retired or separated

4) ATTRITION BY NON-PROMOTION
- those who have not been promoted for a continuous
period of TEN (10) YEARS shall be retired or
separated

5) ATTRITION BY OTHER MEANS


- those who have at least five (5) years of active
service shall be separated based on any of the
following:
a) inefficiency based on poor performance during the
last two (2) successive annual rating periods;
b) inefficiency based on poor performance for three
(3) cumulative annual rating periods;
c) physical and/or mental incapacity to perform
police functions and duties; or
d) failure to pass the required entrance
examinations twice and/or finish the required
career courses except for justifiable reasons

RETIREMENT
- the separation of the police personnel from the
service by reason of reaching the age of retirement
provided by law, or upon completion of certain
number of years in active service

A PNP uniformed personnel shall retire to the next


higher rank for purposes of retirement pay.

ACTIVE SERVICE
- shall refer to services rendered as an officer and
non-officer, cadet, trainee or draftee in the PNP

KINDS OF RETIREMENT
1) COMPULSORY – upon reaching the age FIFTY-SIX (56), the
age of retirement
2) OPTIONAL – upon completion of TWENTY (20) YEARS of
active service

RETIREMENT BENEFITS

Monthly retirement pay shall be FIFTY PERCENT (50%) of


the base pay in case of twenty years of active service,
increasing by TWO AND ONE-HALF PERCENT (2.5%) for every
year of active service rendered beyond twenty years.

Page 26 of 40
RETIREMENT DUE TO PERMANENT PHYSICAL DISABILITY

A PNP uniformed personnel who is permanently and


totally disabled as a result of injuries suffered or
sickness contracted in the performance of his duty shall be
entitled to ONE YEAR’S SALARY and to a LIFETIME PENSION
equivalent to EIGHTY PERCENT (80%) of his last salary, in
addition to other benefits.

Should such PNP personnel die within FIVE (5) YEARS


from his retirement due to physical disability, his legal
spouse or legitimate children shall be entitled to receive
the pension for the remainder of the five year-period.

ABSENCE WITHOUT OFFICIAL LEAVE (AWOL)


- failure to report for duty without official notice
for a period of THIRTY (30) DAYS

MISSING IN ACTION (MIA)


- any PNP personnel who, while in the performance of
duty or by reason of his being an officer or member
of the PNP, is officially confirmed missing in
action, kidnapped or captured by lawless elements
shall be entitled to receive or to have credited to
his account the same pay and allowances to which
such officer or uniformed member was entitled at the
time of the incident

CREATION OF WOMEN’S DESK


- provided by RA 8551
- women’s desk in all police stations shall administer
and attend to cases involving crimes against
chastity, sexual harassment, abuses committed
against women and children and other similar
offenses
- the PNP shall reserve TEN PERCENT (10%) of its
annual recruitment, training and education quota for
women
- policewomen shall enjoy the same opportunities in
terms of assignment, promotion and other benefits
and privileges extended to all police officers

PARTICIPATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT EXECUTIVES IN THE


ADMINISTRATION OF PNP

OPERATIONAL SUPERVISION
- shall mean the power to direct, superintend and
oversee the day-to-day functions of police
investigation of crime, crime prevention activities
and traffic control
- shall also include the power to direct the
employment and deployment of units or elements of
the PNP, through the station commander, to ensure
public safety and effective maintenance of peace and
order within the locality

EMPLOYMENT

Page 27 of 40
- refers to utilization of units or elements of the
PNP for purposes of protection of lives and
properties, enforcement of laws, maintenance of
peace and order, prevention of crimes, arrest of
criminal offenders and bringing the offenders to
justice and ensuring public safety, particularly in
the suppression of disorders, riots, lawlessness,
violence, rebellious and seditious conspiracy,
insurgency, subversion or other related activities

DEPLOYMENT
- shall mean the orderly and organized physical
movement of elements or units of the PNP within the
province, city or municipality for purposes of
employment

POWER OF THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNOR


- he has the power to choose his PROVINCIAL DIRECTOR
from a list of three (3) eligibles recommended by
the PNP Regional Director

POWER OF THE CITY AND MUNICIPAL MAYOR


- he has the power to choose his CHIEF OF POLICE from
a list of five (5) eligibles recommended by the
provincial police director
- he has the authority to recommend to the provincial
director the transfer, reassignment or detail of PNP
members outside of their respective city or town
- the control and supervision of anti-gambling
operations shall be within the jurisdiction of local
government executives

DISCIPLINARY MECHANISMS OF THE PNP

INTERNAL AFFAIRS SERVICE (IAS)


- created by RA 8551

FUNCTIONS OF THE IAS


1) pro-actively conduct inspections and audits on PNP
personnel and units;
2) investigate complaints and gather evidence in support
of an open investigation;
3) conduct summary hearings on PNP members facing
administrative charges;
4) submit a periodic report on the assessment, analysis,
and evaluation of the character and behavior of PNP
personnel and units to the Chief PNP and the
Commission;
5) file appropriate criminal cases against PNP members
before the court as evidence warrants and assists in
the prosecution of the case;
6) provide assistance to the Office of the Ombudsman in
cases involving the personnel of the PNP;

Page 28 of 40
The IAS shall also conduct, motu propio (on its own
initiative), automatic investigation of the following
cases:

1) incidents where a police personnel discharges a


firearm;
2) incidents where death, serious physical injury, or any
violation of human rights occurred in the conduct of a
police operation;
3) incidents where evidence was compromised, tampered
with, obliterated, or lost while in the custody of
police personnel;
4) incidents where a suspect in the custody of the police
was seriously injured; and
5) incidents where the established rules of engagement
have been violated.

The IAS shall recommend promotion of the members of the


PNP or the assignment of PNP personnel to any key position.

ORGANIZATION OF IAS
- headed by the INSPECTOR GENERAL who is a CIVILIAN
and appointed by the President upon the
recommendation of the Director General (Chief, PNP)
- the Inspector General shall be assisted by a Deputy
Inspector General
- there shall be national, regional and provincial
offices
- the national office shall be headed by the Inspector
General, the regional offices by a Director, and the
provincial offices by a Superintendent

ENTRY QUALIFICATIONS TO IAS


1) entry shall be voluntary
2) PNP personnel with at least five (5) years experience
in law enforcement
3) with no derogatory service record
4) members of the bar may enter the service laterally

CAREER DEVELOPMENT AND INCENTIVES


- IAS personnel shall be granted occupational
specialty pay which shall not exceed FIFTY PERCENT
(50%) of his base pay
- IAS personnel shall also have priorities in the
quota allocation for training and education

DISCIPLINARY RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE IAS


- any PNP personnel found guilty of any of the cases
mentioned and any immediate superior found negligent
shall be recommended automatically for dismissal or
demotion
- recommendation by the IAS, once final, cannot be
revised, set-aside or unduly delayed without just
cause
- decisions rendered by the provincial inspectors
shall be forwarded to the regional office for review
within ten (10) days

Page 29 of 40
- decisions of the regional office may be appealed to
the national office
- decisions rendered by the national IAS shall be
appealed to the National Appellate Board

PEOPLE’S LAW ENFORCEMENT BOARD (PLEB)


- a body created pursuant to RA 6975
- one of the disciplinary authorities of the PNP
authorized to handle and investigate citizen’s
complaint
- the central receiving entity for any citizen’s
complaint against the PNP members
- shall be created by the sangguniang
panlungssod/bayan in every city and municipality as
may be necessary
- there shall be at least one (1) PLEB for every five
hundred (500) city or municipal police personnel
- membership in the PLEB is a civic duty

COMPOSITION OF PLEB
- PLEB shall be composed of five (5) members who shall
be as follows:
any member of the sangguniang panlungsod/bayan
any barangay chairman of the locality concerned
three other members to be chosen by the local peace
and order council from among the members of the
community
- for the three other members, the following
conditions must be met:
one must be a woman
one must be a lawyer, or a college graduate, or the
principal of an elementary school in the locality
- the CHAIRMAN of the PLEB shall be elected from among
its members
- the term of office of the members of the PLEB is
THREE (3) YEARS

PROCEDURE IN THE PLEB


- the procedure shall be summary in nature, conducted
in accordance with due process but without strict
regard to technical rules of evidence
- cases handled by PLEB shall be decided by majority
votes of its members
- each case shall be decided within SIXTY (60) DAYS
from the time it has been filed with the PLEB
- the decision of the PLEB shall become final and
executory, except for decisions involving demotion
or dismissal from the service
- decisions involving demotion or dismissal from the
service may be appealed with the REGIONAL APPELLATE
BOARD within TEN (10) DAYS from receipt of the copy
of the decision

ADMINISTRATIVE DISCIPLINARY MACHINERIES IN THE PNP

A) CITIZEN’S COMPLAINTS

Page 30 of 40
- pertains to any complaint initiated by a private
citizen or his duly authorized representative on
account of an injury, damage or disturbance
sustained due to an irregular or illegal act
committed by a member of the PNP

DISCIPLINARY AUTHORITIES FOR CITIZEN’S COMPLAINTS

1) CHIEF OF POLICE
- where the offense is punishable by withholding of
privileges, restriction to specified limits,
suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any
combination thereof, for a period not exceeding
FIFTEEN (15) DAYS

2) CITY/MUNICIPAL MAYORS
- where the offense is punishable by withholding of
privileges, restriction to specified limits,
suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any
combination thereof, for a period not less than
SIXTEEN but not exceeding THIRTY (30) DAYS

3) PEOPLE’S LAW ENFORCEMENT BOARD (PLEB)


- where the offense is punishable by withholding of
privileges, restriction to specified limits,
suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any
combination thereof, for a period exceeding THIRTY
(30) DAYS, or by DISMISSAL

B) BREACH OF INTERNAL DISCIPLINE


- refers to any offense committed by a member of the
PNP involving and affecting order and discipline
within the police organization

MINOR OFFENSE
- shall refer to an act or omission not involving
moral turpitude but affecting the internal
discipline of the PNP, and shall include but not be
limited to:
a) simple misconduct or negligence
b) insubordination
c) frequent absences or tardiness
d) habitual drunkenness
e) gambling prohibited by law

DISCIPLINARY AUTHORITIES FOR BREACH OF INTERNAL


DISCIPLINE

1) CHIEF OF POLICE
- may impose the administrative punishment of
admonition or reprimand; restriction to specified
limits; withholding of privileges; forfeiture of
salary or suspension; or any combination of the
foregoing for a period NOT EXCEEDING FIFTEEN (15)
DAYS

2) PROVINCIAL DIRECTORS

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- may impose the administrative punishment of
admonition or reprimand; restriction to specified
limits; withholding of privileges; forfeiture of
salary or suspension; or any combination of the
foregoing for a period NOT EXCEEDING THIRTY (30)
DAYS

3) REGIONAL DIRECTORS
- may impose the administrative punishment of
admonition or reprimand; restriction to specified
limits; withholding of privileges; forfeiture of
salary or suspension; demotion; or any combination
of the foregoing for a period NOT EXCEEDING SIXTY
(60) DAYS

4) CHIEF OF THE PNP


- shall have the power to impose the disciplinary
punishment of dismissal from the service; suspension
or forfeiture of salary; demotion; or any
combination of the foregoing for a period NOT
EXCEEDING ONE HUNDRED EIGHTY (180) DAYS

SUMMARY DISMISSAL POWERS


- the NAPOLCOM, PNP Chief and Regional Directors have
summary dismissal powers in any of the following
cases:
1) when the charge is serious and the evidence of
guilt is strong
2) when the respondent is a recidivist or has been
repeatedly charged and there are reasonable
grounds to believe that he is guilty of the
charges; and
3) when the respondent is guilty of a serious
offense involving conduct unbecoming of a police
officer

DISCIPLINARY APPELATE BOARDS


- formal administrative disciplinary appellate
machinery of the National Police Commission
- tasked to hear cases on appeal from the different
disciplinary authorities in the PNP
- composed of the following:
1) NATIONAL APPELLATE BOARD
o shall decide cases on appeal from decisions
rendered by the PNP Chief and the National
Internal Affairs Service
o shall be composed of the four (4) regular
commissioners and shall be chaired by the
executive officer
2) REGIONAL APPELLATE BOARD
o shall decide cases on appeal from decisions
rendered by the Regional Director, Provincial
Director, Chief of Police, the city or municipal
mayor and the PLEB
o there shall be at least one (1) regional
appellate board per administrative region

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D. BUREAU OF FIRE PROTECTION (BFP)
- created by virtue of RA 6975
- initially composed of the officers and uniformed
members of the fire service of the former Integrated
National Police

POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE BFP


1) shall be responsible for the prevention and
suppression of all destructive fires on buildings,
houses and other structures, forests, land
transportation vehicles and equipment, ships or
vessels docked at piers or wharves or anchored in
major seaports, petroleum industry installations,
plane crashes and other similar incidents
2) shall be responsible for the enforcement of the Fire
Code of the Philippines and other similar laws
3) shall have the power to investigate all causes of
fires, and if necessary, file the proper complaints
with the city or provincial prosecutor who has
jurisdiction over the case

0RGANIZATION AND COMPOSITION


- shall be headed by a CHIEF, with the rank of
DIRECTOR, to be assisted by a DEPUTY CHIEF with the
rank of CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT
- shall be composed of provincial offices, district
offices and city or municipal fire stations
- at the provincial level, there shall be an OFFICE OF
THE PROVINCIAL FIRE MARSHALL
- in case of large provinces, there shall be DISTRICT
OFFICES to be headed by a DISTRICT FIRE MARSHALL
- at the city or municipal level, there shall be a
FIRE STATION each headed by a CITY OR MUNICIPAL FIRE
MARSHALL

RANK CLASSIFICATION

DIRECTOR
CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT
SENIOR SUPERINTENDENT
SUPERINTENDENT
CHIEF INSPECTOR
SENIOR INSPECTOR
INSP
SENIOR FIRE OFFICER 4
SENIOR FIRE OFFICER 3
SENIOR FIRE OFFICER 2
SENIOR FIRE OFFICER 1
FIRE OFFICER 3
FIRE OFFICER 2
FIRE OFFICER 1

E. BUREAU OF JAIL MANAGEMENT AND PENOLOGY (BJMP)


- created by virtue of RA 6975
- initially composed by the officers and uniformed
members of the former Jail Management and Penology
Service

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POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE BJMP
- shall exercise supervision and control over all city
and municipal jails; however, the provincial jails
shall be supervised and controlled by the provincial
governor within his jurisdiction

ORGANIZATION AND COMPOSITION


- shall be headed by a CHIEF with the rank of
DIRECTOR, to be assisted by a DEPUTY CHIEF with the
rank of CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT
- shall be composed of city and municipal jails each
headed by a city or municipal jail warden

RANK CLASSIFICATION

DIRECTOR
CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT
SENIOR SUPERINTENDENT
SUPERINTENDENT
CHIEF INSPECTOR
SENIOR INSPECTOR
INSP
SENIOR JAIL OFFICER 4
SENIOR JAIL OFFICER 3
SENIOR JAIL OFFICER 2
SENIOR JAIL OFFICER 1
JAIL OFFICER 3
JAIL OFFICER 2
JAIL OFFICER 1

RA 9263 - Bureau of Fire Protection and Bureau of Jail


Management and Penology Professionalization Act of 2004
- approved on 10 March 2004
- provided for the professionalization of the BFP
and BJMP

RA 9592 – amendatory law to RA 9263


- approved on 8 May 2009
- amended the provision on the minimum educational
qualification

F. PHILIPPINE PUBLIC SAFETY COLLEGE (PPSC)


- created by virtue of RA 6975

FUNCTION OF THE PPSC


- shall be the premier educational institution for the
training, human resource development and continuing
education of all personnel of the PNP, BFP and BJMP

ORGANIZATION AND COMPOSITION


- shall be under the direct supervision of a Board of
Trustees composed of the Secretary of the DILG and
the three (3) bureau heads (PNP, BFP and BJMP)
- shall consist of the Philippine National Police
Academy, the National Police College, the Philippine

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National Training Institute and other training
centers as may be created

POWERS AND FUNCTIONS


1) formulate and implement training programs for the
personnel of the Department;
2) establish and maintain adequate physical training
facilities;
3) develop and implement research and development to
support educational training programs;
4) conduct an assessment of the training needs of the
bureaus;
5) perform such other related functions as may be
prescribed by the Secretary

G. PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE ACADEMY (PNPA)


- created pursuant to Section 13 of Presidential Decree
No 1184
- a primary component of the Philippine Public Safety
College (PPSC)
- the premier educational institution for future
officers of the Philippine National Police (PNP),
Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) and Bureau of Jail
Management and Penology (BJMP)
- upon completion of training, graduates will be
conferred the degree of Bachelor of Science in Public
Safety (BSPS) and appointed as Police/Fire/Jail
Inspector

VI. POLICE PLANNING

PLAN
- an organized schedule or sequence by methodical
activities intended to attain a goal or objectives for
the accomplishments of mission or assignment
- a method or way of doing something in order to attain
objectives and provides answers to the 5Ws and 1H

PLANNING
- the determination in advance of how the objectives
of the organization will be attained; involves the
determination of a course of action to take in
performing a particular function or activity
- the process of developing methods or procedures, or
an arrangement of parts intended to facilitate the
accomplishment of a definite objective
- a management function concerned with visualizing
future situation, making estimates concerning them,
identifying issues, needs and potential danger
points, analyzing and evaluating the alternative
ways and means of reaching desired goals according
to a certain schedule, estimating the necessary
funds and resources to do the work and initiating
action in time to prepare what may be needed to cope
with changing conditions and contingent events

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- the process of deciding in advance what is to be
done and how it is to be done

POLICE PLANNING
- an attempt by police administrators in trying to
allocate anticipated resources to meet anticipated
service demands
- the systematic and orderly determination of facts and
events as basis for policy formulation and decision-
making affecting law enforcement management

OPERATIONAL PLANNING
- the use of a rational design or pattern for all
departmental undertakings rather than relying on
chance in an operational environment
- the preparation and development of procedures and
techniques in accomplishing each of the primary
tasks and functions of an organization

POLICE OPERATIONAL PLANNING


- the act of determining policies and guidelines for
police activities and operations and providing
controls and safeguards for such activities and
operations in the department
- involves strategies or tactics, procedures, policies
or guidelines

STRATEGY
- a broad design or method; or a plan to attain a stated
goal or objectives

TACTICS
- are specific design, method or course of action to
attain a particular objective in consonance with
strategy

PROCEDURES
- are sequences of activities to reach a point or to
attain what is desired

POLICY
- a course of action which could be a program of actions
adopted by an individual, group, organization or
government, or the set of principles on which they
are based

GUIDELINES IN PLANNING
1) WHAT TO DO – mission/objective
2) WHY – reason/philosophy
3) WHEN – date/time
4) WHERE – place
5) WHO – people involved
6) HOW – strategy/methods

CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD PLAN


1) with clearly defined goals or objectives

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2) simplicity, directness and clarity
3) flexibility
4) possibility of attainment
5) must provide standards of operation
6) economy in terms of resources needed for
implementation

CLASSIFICATION OF POLICE PLANS


1) According to Coverage:
a) Local Plans – within police precincts, sub-
stations and stations
b) Regional Plans
c) National Plans
2) According to Time:
a) Strategic or Long Range Plan
- relates to plans which are strategic or long
range in application
b) Intermediate or Medium Range Plan (MASTER PLANS)
- relates to plans which determine quantity and
quality efforts and accomplishments
- example is the 6 Master Plans of the PNP
c) Operational or Short Range Plan (OPLANS)
- refers to the production of plans which determine
the schedule of special activity and are
applicable from one week or less than a year
duration
- plans that address immediate need which are
specific and how it can be accomplished on time
with available allocated resources

TYPES OF PLANS
1) PROCEDURAL PLAN OR POLICY PLANS
- deal with procedures that have been outlined and
officially adopted by all members of the unit under
specified circumstances
- guidelines for actions to be taken
- include all STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP)

POLICY
- general plan of action that serves as a guide in the
operation of the organization or unit
- codes of procedures

EXAMPLES OF PROCEDURAL PLANS/POLICY PLANS

a) FIELD PROCEDURES
- procedures intended to be used in all situations
of all kinds shall be outlined as guide to
officers and men in the field, such as:
procedures that relate to reporting, to raids,
arrests, stopping suspicious persons, receiving
complaints, investigation, etc

b) HEADQUARTERS PROCEDURES
- include the procedures to be followed in the
headquarters, usually reflected in the duty
manual

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c) STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP)
- procedures intended for specific operations to
ensure uniformity of action

2)OPERATIONAL PLANS
- often called work plan
- the work program of the field units
- describe specific actions to be taken
- the work to be done is estimated, manpower and
equipment is allocated, proper objectives are defined
and methods of accomplishment are developed
- statistical analysis is widely used

3) TACTICAL PLANS
- plans that concern methods of action to be taken at a
designated location and under specific circumstances
- generally emergency type plans that can be put into
effect on the sudden occurrence of a condition
requiring their use
- planning for emergencies of a specific nature at known
locations
- developed for specific situations as they arise
- examples are: planning for major accidents; calamities
or disasters; special events; hostage-taking
situations, etc

4) ADMINISTRATIVE or MANAGEMENT PLANS


- those plans that relate to staffing, equipping,
supplying and organizing
- include the structuring of functions, authority and
responsibilities, the allocation of resources,
personnel management, budgeting and other concerns
administrative in nature
- examples are: assignment and training of personnel;
recruitment; equipment and supply procedures, etc

5) EXTRA-DEPARTMENTAL PLANS
- those which require actions or assistance from persons
or agencies outside of the department
- involve coordination with other agencies
- examples are: exchange of information on wanted
persons, known drug syndicates, known organized crime
groups, stolen vehicles, etc

SYPNOTIC PLANNING
- also called rational-comprehensive approach
- the dominant tradition in planning
- especially appropriate for police agencies as it is
based on the problem-oriented approach of planning
- relies heavily on the problem identification and
analysis phase of the planning process and can assist
police administrators in formulating goals and
priorities in terms that are focused on specific
problems and solutions that often confront law
enforcers

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- consists of ELEVEN PROGRESSIVE STEPS, and each step is
designed to provide the police manager with a logical
course of action:

1) PREPARE FOR PLANNING


a) what actions are necessary?
b) when must they take place?
c) who is to be involved in each action and for
how long?
d) how will the various actions interlock with
one another?

2) DESCRIBE THE PRESENT SITUATION


a) evaluate the present situation: what is the
present situation?
b) compare the present situation to the ideal
situation: what is the ideal situation?

3) DEVELOP PROJECTIONS
a) what are the desired outcomes?
b) what are the desired results?

4) CONSIDER ALTERNATIVE FUTURE STATE


a) what will possibly happen in the future?
b) what are the possible changes that can
happen in the future?

5) IDENTIFY AND ANALYZE PROBLEMS


a) what is the problem?
b) what are the areas that need attention?
c) what are the causes of the problem?
d) how serious is the problem?

6) SET GOALS
a) what are the objectives?

7) IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTIONS


a) what are the possible policies, possible
strategies or possible specific actions
that are aimed at eliminating the problem?
b) what are the different possible procedures
to be followed?

8) SELECT PREFERRED ALTERNATIVES


a) what are the selected policies, strategies
and specific actions to be followed and
undertaken?
b) what are the established procedures to be
followed?

9) PLANS FOR IMPLEMENTATION


a) how are the policies, strategies and
specific courses of actions going to be
implemented or executed?

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b) who are the persons responsible for the
implementation?

10) IMPLEMENT PLANS


- actual execution of the plans that fulfill
the objectives or goals

11) MONITOR AND EVALUATE PROGRESS


- the final step of the synoptic planning
- important step to determine if the plan was
a success or not
- necessary in order to compare the goals with
the results
a) were the objectives or goals achieved?
b) were the problems resolved?
c) what were the strengths and the weaknesses
of the plans?

- end –

Last updated:
March 2011

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