MUHAMAD IKHWAN AZIZIE

CONTENT
NO 1. 2. TITLE Introduction Topic 1: Modular Construction Process  Why Implement Modular Construction  How To Implement Modular Construction 3. Topic 2: Lean Shipbuilding Process  Why Implement Lean Shipbuilding Process  How To Implement Lean Shipbuilding Process 4. Conclusion
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INTRODUCTION
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights, follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history. Shipbuilding and ship repairs, both commercial and military, are referred to as the naval engineer. The construction of boats is a similar activity called boat building. The dismantling of ships is called ship breaking. Nowadays, there are many process created by shipbuilders in order to save cost and money. In this assignment, the modular construction and lean shipbuilding process had been chosen to be our topic. Below, the topic was explained in details in what, why and how the shipbuilding process implemented in order to save both cost and time consumption.

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TOPIC 1: Modular Construction Process
The reason why modular construction process become popular in ship building industry is because there is no other method available that allows you to start and finish a project in a more-timely manner than modular.

Modular construction process is one of the popular method uses in shipbuilding industry. Modular construction, or prefabricated construction, is a process that uses a prefabricated building process that is assembled on-site to produce a permanent or temporary prefab building. Mod Space takes full advantage of a controlled production environment combined with the design flexibility of traditional building methods to produce high-quality permanent or temporary prefabricated structures for any demand. The result is a prefabricated modular building product that is faster, more affordable and environmentally-friendly, with the all the same architectural aesthetics you would expect from traditional building methods.

Picture 1 and 2: Pictures of modular construction in progress of a naval ship

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WHY IMPLEMENT MODULAR CONSTRUCTION

Traditional construction versus modular construction time Advantages of modular construction process are:

Short build times Typically 50-60% less than traditional on-site Construction, leading to an earlier return on Investment and saving in preliminaries. Superior quality Achieved by factory-based quality control and Pre-design of similar modules. Environmentally less sensitive Efficient factory production techniques are

Low weight Compared to site construction, modular construction is about 30% of the weight of Conventional masonry construction. Economy of scale Repetition of prefabricated units leads to considerable economy of scale in production. Reduced site labor requirement The erection and finishing teams, which

Much less wasteful and installation is less install and complete modular buildings, disruptive on site. Involve fewer workers on site than traditional buildings. Safer construction Modular construction sites have proved to be significantly safer than traditional on-site Building. Reduced professional fees Standardized design details for modular Buildings simplify and reduce the need for specialist design input. Services and bathrooms Service modules can be used, even in traditional formed buildings.

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Less than 5% of the markets previously defined as conventional currently utilize modular construction concepts. Given these numerous advantages, it’s only a matter of time before modular becomes the convention method.

Ship divided into segment

HOW TO IMPLEMENT MODULAR CONSTRUCTION
MODULAR CONSTRUCTION PROCESS In sequence: 1. Stockyard Plates and sections were stored in the shipyard stockyard, ideally undercover.

2. Preparation To prepare plates and section before being weld, cut, mark and other.

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3. Sub assembly Sub assemblies include fitting, welding, fairing and many other sub assembly process

4. Assembly This shop takes the products from the panel fabrication area and assembles them to favricate the unit.

5. Fabrication Including marking, cutting, bending This shop is designed to fabricate the parts from the parts making area. These includes:       

Deep transverse frames Watertight bulkheads Longitudinal bulkheads Shellpanels Longitudinal double bottom panels Transverse double bottom panels Major and minor foundations.

6. Erection Berth (Modular Sectional Area) This shop takes units from the unit’s assembly area to fabricate into modules

7. Basin/Afloat By launching ship on a slipway to ensure ship able to float correctly.

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TOPIC 2: LEAN SHIPBUILDING PROCESS
Definition of lean shipbuilding process is a strategy for achieving significant continuous improvement in performance through the elimination of all waste of resources and time in the total shipbuilding process.

Lean Shipbuilding Concept    A concept between lean manufacturing and lean construction A completely new production concept Inspired by a number of sources: Shingo, Toyota, Goldratt, Womack, and IGLC.

In addition, lean shipbuilding derived from the concept of lean production is lean production theory in ship Industry, first proposed by the U.S. shipbuilding industry, shipbuilding contract, that contract from the beginning to the delivery of the ship completed the construction of the entire process, through motivation and mobilization of all employees to continuously improve and perfect the process of shipbuilding, ship construction to reduce all the waste, to reduce the shipbuilding cycle, reduce shipbuilding costs and improve shipbuilding quality.

Value Adding Activity - An activity that transform shapes or converts raw material to meet customer requirements.

Non-Value Adding (Waste) - Those activities that take time, resources, or space, but do not add value.

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WHY IMPLEMENT LEAN SHIPBUILDING PROCESS
There are many reasons why shipbuilding process lean was implemented in shipbuilding industry. Some of the factors included below:

1. Faced with an environment characterized by low build rates. 2. Rising costs for such things as materials and workers’ medical care. 3. Rising cost of building and repairing ships

There are 7 Non-Value Adding that have been recognized which slow the process in shipbuilding industry and which leads to rising in terms of cost and time consumption. It includes:

Overproduction

Producing faster than the rate of consumption and make more product more than the materials needed for the shipbuilding.

Inventory Motion

Unnecessary materials, cause the inventory in storage is to be full. When workers are not efficient because have to walk or moving in order to do their jobs. For example, workers have to walk to get a tool or piece of material.

Waiting

Workers being idle between operations, waiting for a machine to cycle or waiting for the preceding operator to finish their work.

Over Processing

Having to perform more operations than are Necessary. Example, painting prior to welding.

Correction Conveyance

Scrap, rework, sort, & repair add unnecessary costs. Unnecessary transportation can also increase money consumption.

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HOW TO IMPLEMENT LEAN SHIPBUILDING PROCESS
LEAN VS TRADITIONAL SHIPBUILDING

PPM: Production Preparation Process The above diagram shows how different traditional shipbuilding and lean shipbuilding process. In the research made by Toyota, it majorly affects those 5 fields which are quality, productivity, maintenance, employees and simplicity.

Lean shipbuilding process can be implemented in methods by:  Producing a return on investment by reducing waste and improving quality in several processes on and above the shop floor.   Cutting costs and/or cycle times as much as 40 percent in some shops. In all cases, implementing lean processes has mitigated a trend of growing ship construction and repair costs that is driven by external factors.

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There are 3 principles of lean    One-Piece Flow AKT Time Pull Systems

In this technical report, we emphasis on push and pull system. Production Schedules (Push) Issue production schedules to all of the processes, Using the parts from one process to drive the work at the next process. Stagger schedules so that parts are ready ahead of need. Keep Direct Labor busy at all costs. Pull Systems (KanBan) Let an operation or process “withdraw” parts from a preceding process - Pull the parts through. Preceding Process replenishes.

   

 

 

Eliminate Delays and Waste in the Product Flow Improve the Flow of Purchased Materials

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CONCLUSION
From what we had learned from both of the topics, which is modular construction process and lean shipbuilding process, it is obvious that both process are new in the world of shipbuilding and is gaining popularity in shipbuilding construction. The benefits of modular constructions have demonstrated it abilities to be cost effective against traditional method, and has led to financial savings and reduced disruption on site. While the benefit of lean shipbuilding process shows us that it could help to reduce the time usage to built ship, rather than using traditional ways of constructing ship and thus, eliminate unnecessary waste of time and money.

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