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Topic 7 & 8

05 March 2011
13:40 Allows the cartilage to
absorb shock and not
break but also to allow
BONE
movement of the bone
TENDON by being flexible
The tendon does - Strong
not stretch meaning - Inelastic
that the muscle - Muscle to the bone
CARTILAGE
works on the bone
- Hard
and not on
- Flexible
stretching the
tendon.

LIGAMENTS SYNOVIAL FLUID


The ligaments - Elastic - Lubricant
stretch to allow the - Bone to bone - Absorbs shock
bone to move and
keep the bones in
place SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE

Muscle movement

Muscle move in ANTAGONISTIC pairs around joints because muscles are only able to contract
and pull on a bone.
The muscle that CONTRACTS to cause the EXTENSION of the muscle is called the EXSTENSOR
muscle
The corresponding muscle is called the FLEXOR muscle

Respiration

THERE ARE 4 STAGES:


- Glycolysis
- The Link Reaction
- The Krebs Cycle
- The Electron Transport Chain

GLYCOLYSIS
The splitting of glucose

Glucose (6-Carbon)

The glucose is phosphorylated to make it


2 x ATP more reactive as glucose is highly
unreactive

2x ADP

2 x 3 Carbon Intermediate Compound


GYLCOLYSIS
This ATP is formed by substrate
level phosphorylation this is
2 x NAD 4 x ADP + Pi because glucose is at a higher
energy level than it's substrate.
The energy given off allows ATP
to form
2 x Reduced NAD 4 x ATP

Unit 5 Page 1
to form
2 x Reduced NAD 4 x ATP

2 x Pyruvate (3-Carbon)

NAD

The LINK REACTION When hydrogen is releases it is


taken up by the co-enzyme NAD
CO2 Reduced NAD which is then carried by the
electron transport chain

2 x Acetyl Co-enzyme A (2-Carbon)

The removal of CO2 is decarboxylation


6 carbon compound

4C compound CO2
FAD
The KREBS CYCLE NAD 2 x NAD
The NAD is formed when the
2 x Reduced NAD compound is dehydrogenated and the
Reduced FAD 5C 2 x Reduced NAD NAD accepts the H atom or ion
CO2 compound

ATP

ATP is formed by
oxidative
phosphorylation

The Electron Transport Chain

1. Reduced NAD/FAD carry H atoms to transport chain on the inner


mitochondrial membrane
2. The H+ and electron is released, the e- is accepted by the electron carrier
molecule and passed in a series of redox reactions
3. The H+ ions move across the membrane creating a high concentration of
H+ ions. The energy is provided from the redox reactions
4. The H+ ions diffuse down the electrochemical gradient
5. This stimulates the activation of the ATPase enzyme to catalyse the
production of ATP

Unit 5 Page 2