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Encyclopedia of the OPERA BL CLRE CL CECE CECE DETERRENT Encyclopedia of the OPERA DAVID EWEN » A. WYN, INC., NEW Preface DESL OER COCR CECE DEDEDE RE RE REE OOE The ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE OPERA is the first book of its kind in any language. The Editor has attempted to make it a comprehensive source book about opera and opera performance. It is not exclusively a book of opera plots; or a book of biographies of composers and performers; or a history of opera. The opera lover will find within this volume the following ma- terials: Storms OF Operas. The most significant operas (over a hun- dred) are treated in detail, act by act, scene by scene, with descrip- tions of the principal arias and other important excerpts and informa- tion about the composition and the performance history. Several hundred other operas are treated more succinctly with brief capsule plots and citations of the musical highlights, The operas included in the encyclopedia embrace all works that are frequently performed and most of the works that make an inter- mittent appearance on the opera stages of the world; operas that have special historic importance or interest; operas with unusual technical approaches (atonal operas, quartertone operas, monodramas, and so on); operas that were once highly successful and have gone into discard, and operas that have been discarded but which have recently been revived. The attempt, in short, has been to provide basic infor- mation about any opera in which the operagoer might be interested for one reason or another. Some of the operas are listed in their original foreign titles; others in titles translated into English. The general practice, in order to make the encyclopedia more functional, has been to use the names most familiar to Americans. Since The Jewels of the Madonna is better known to Americans than I gioielli della Madonna that vii PREPACE opera is listed under the English title; and since /I trovatore is more familiar than The Troubadour, the original Italian title is used, The capitalization of foreign titles has been followed in the foreign form. The music lover consulting this encyclopedia should, however, have no difficulty in locating the opera he wants since there are ample cross references to guide him. CHARACTERS OF OPERAS. There will be found here an alphabetical listing of all the characters of a hundred or so major operas, and of the principal characters of several hundred other operas, This, the Editor believes, is the most complete “who's who” of opera characters to be found anywhere. Characters with titles are listed not under the title but under their name: Count Ceprano or Don Basilio appears not under “Count” or “Don” but under “Ceprano” and “Basilio.” EXCERPTS FROM OPERAS. The most important excerpts from particular operas—arias, duets, ensemble numbers, choruses, orches~ tral passages—are not only found in the discussion of the operas themselves, but are listed separately, in the proper alphabetical order, together with the source. An opera lover curious about the origin of a favorite aria or duet can now easily trace its source, Biocraputes. The major figures in every facet of operatic com- position and performance are given succinct biographical treatment, These figures embrace: composers; librettists; singers; conductors; stage directors; impresarios; teachers; critics; musicologists; and so on, History or Opera. The history of opera—its origin, evolution, and development in all the major countries of the world—is discussed in a special article, But there are also additional listings for, and brief explanations of, every form of opera (Masque, Ballad Opera, Singspiel, Opera Buffa, Music Drama, and so forth) together with explanations of every major trend and style in opera. OPERA IN PERFORMANCE, The history of every major opera house of the world, and of every important festival emphasizing opera, is to be found here, along with General articles on the history of opera performances in Europe and America, and articles on opera over tadio, television, and in the recordings. viii a PREFACE LITERARY SouRcEs. Listings are made of all the major authors of the world, from Aeschylus to Eugene O'Neill, whose writings have been a source for opera texts; there are also listings of many of the great classics of literature and the operas derived from them. SPECIAL ARTICLES. Specific subjects of operatic interest are dis- cussed in special articles. The varied material thus treated includes the Aria, the Overture, Marionette Opera, Children’s Opera, Ballet in Opera, Claque, Castrato, etc. TERMS IN Opera. All the important technical terms found in opera are defined. PRONUNCIATION GUIDE. A special section in the back of the volume is devoted to pronunciation of the names of operas, arias, composers, and performers. Pronunciations are given for all of the foreign names and titles which appear as main entries in the book, and for English names as well when their Pronunciation is difficult or doubtful. It is hoped that the veteran operagoer and the musician will find this volume a convenient source for any information they may seek about the opera. But this volume has also been designed with an eye on the new audience of opera lovers springing up throughout Amer- ica. Through radio, television, motion Pictures, and recordings, opera is now available to millions. Besides, grassroot opera companies are springing up in all parts of the country, bringing live performances to places where formerly opera had been only a word. It seemed to this Editor that these new audiences, whose ranks are continually swelling, required a reference book providing them with the basic information needed for a maturer understanding of this great art form. It is hoped that this book will answer all the questions which will inevitably arise as these new audiences penetrate ever deeper into the fabulous world of the opera. The Editor would like to express his indebtedness to several per- sons, the importance of whose co-operation would be difficult to overestimate: to Leon Wilson, for his painstaking copy editing; to Hedy D. Jellinek, for her meticulous proofreading; to Esther Gelatt for rewarding advice, criticism, and suggestions; to Reason A. Good- win, for the preparation of the Pronunciation Guide; and finally to ix PARPACR George Jellinek and Nicolas Slonimshy, whose scholarship combed the pages of this book for inaccuracies, inconsistencies, and misstate- ments. Nicolas Slonimsky often provided the Editor with care. fully documented information which enabled him to correct some of the errors in dates and place names that appear in many other refer. ence books. Davw Ewen Encyclopedia of the OPERA DERSLER CE CDEC CE DEDEDE OLE REO manager, Leopolt Damronch Sone years latey, Irom 189) to 1896, Atbey thated the managoement of the Metec: politan with Wabward Schwttel ated Maurice Cirau, thie time with better re: wulte Me died 4 momih betore the oper: ing performance of the 1896 140? eat Abbott, Umea, de armatic wopeama torn Chicago, Decomber 9, 1850, shied Salt Lake City, lemuasy 9. 1691 After studying with Achille erent ia New York, aud Mathitde Marches, Antonio Sangicovneed and Basico frethe Neskie iss Varope, ahe mache her opoers chotest at Covent Garden ta 1876 in The Dough: tor ot the Regimens A your latet oho mache bert feet appearance im America, im the sate opera, af the Academy of Min: im New York She enartied Ragone Wethorstt in 1878 and hebpest him organise the Kenma Abtwtt Bing: feb Ceand Opers Company, whist he managed and in which che appeared in Principal serpean eoten Dwapite a lies: André) Promitre Burgtheater, Vienna, July 16, 1782 Anwrican promigre German Opera Houw, Brooklyn, New Yor, Petevary 16, 1860. Chasactor: Constanza (ewoprane); Blonde, her maid (oprane), Helmonte, Spaniah noblemen temoe), Pedrille, his servant (tomar). Seti Pasha (peaking fale), Onin, hin overeer (baw); a fete, clover, guarde The action takes place in Turkey in the atatewnth contury Act 1 A square before the Paaha’s palace There eo brwt overture is ey Tutkiah otyhe Conetansa and Blonds have been Ridsaped by pirates, hevght to Turkey, anet wht to te Pasha Hel monte, Comtansa’s hover, hae tottorwesd het Ble eapeesnos the hanes of a terenine ("Hhiee eotl ich dish dens when”) MMe some upon Ovmin. the tet overeer, who eapdomes «cynical attitnte howard all women ("Wer cin Lictchen hat getumion”) and tofu to help fel. monte The imminent arrival of the Paha amd Contanse Billy Belmonte