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A PROJECT REPORT

ON

CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS


COSMETIC INDUSTRY IN
GHAZIABAD
(IN CONTEXT TO MEN’S FAIRNESS CREAM)

SUBMITTED BY
SWEETA TIWARI

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.No. Topic PageNo.


1 Objective 3
2 Introduction 4-6
3 Research Methodology 7-8
4 Engel-Kollat-Blackwell 8-12
Model
5 Data Analysis 13-29
6 Findings 30
7 Conclusion 31-32
8 Limitation 33
9 Annexure 34-36

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OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

• To study the consumer perception on the basis of attribute based perceptual map
using discriminant analysis.
• To find the Servqual score towards different attributes of fairness cream in
accordance to kano’s model.
• To determine the characteristics of targeted population which affect their choice of
brand through Factor Analysis.
• To determine the statistical significance of the choice of Brand with its Popularity
and Expectation from it.

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An introduction to the Men’s Fairness Cream Market in India:

Men's fairness cream market in 1999: Did not exist. Men's fairness cream market in 2009: Rs
100 crore.Men’s fairness cream market in India is still a fairly small segment - just Rs 186
crore (Rs 1.86 billion) out of the total Rs 2,200 crore (Rs 22 billion) plus fairness cream
market, according to Nielsen (2010 figures)- but one that is growing at a fast clip of 31 per
cent.
Till the last decade it was almost unimaginable that there would be a fairness
cream for men among male grooming products. As it turned out, men contributed
significantly to consumption of fairness product. That shouldn't be surprising as we live in a
society which is obsessed with fair skin. This phenomenon was not restricted to women and,
unknown to marketers, had influenced Indian man as well. The size of Indian skincare
market including creams, moisturisers and cleanser is estimated at Rs 4,750 crore. Of the
total skincare market, the fairness cream market in India is estimated at Rs 2,200 crore plus.
According to a Nielsen survey conducted amongst 1,000 SEC A and B men in Mumbai,
Delhi, Kolkata and Hyderabad on male grooming, every second man has a monthly date with
a salon. "The importance of male grooming is clear, with the market worth Rs 695 crore and
growing at 11 per cent. While some brands tried to build on the premise of letting go of
women's products and opting for male-centric products for social reasons, others pointed out
how men's facial skin is much different from women and thus, they need products to suit
their skin type.
In the past few years, the men's grooming market has grown exponentially
with brands launching not just the run-of-the-mill shaving gels and foams, but fairness
creams, moisturisers, talcs, face washes and other grooming products targeted specifically at
men, with fairness creams leading the pack.
One of the major reasons behind this is that over the years, Indian male became more and
more conscious of his looks, not just in the business world but also in society. A lot
depended on how he presented himself. Men didn't want to run the risk of being seen as
irresponsible and negligent due to their looks. Celebrities, too, became more vocal about
their grooming habits, sharing self-grooming details in TV and print interviews. Also,
following global trends entered the metrosexual male - the man who has strong concern for
his appearance and styling. Leveraging the fact that there were no products to meet their
growing needs at least not of international quality, brands pooled in energy and resources to

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target these men. The grooming fad was not limited to men in the corporate field - it spread
to collegians and other youngsters too, growing the market further.

To secure early leads, marketers are expanding their portfolio beyond creams and straddling
different price-points with various ranges. Differentiation, for now, seems to have been
relegated in favor of endorsements by filmstars and cricketers A-listers for their
communication. But the star endorsement by every brand is slowly eroding the
differentiation. Garnier Marketing Manager Richa Singh says, "John Abraham's positive
energy and the will to be active helped us portray him in a way that was real to both him and
our brand. It appeared genuine." HUL Skin Care General Manager Govind Rajan feels, "It is
always better to start with the young who are more amenable to change. Hence, Shahid
Kapur".On its part, Nivea has associated with India cricket captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni.
The first mover, Emami's Fair and Handsome has Shahrukh Khan as its endorser.
Kolkata-based Emami first saw the need for a men's fairness product, beating
bigger players. Research had showed that the country's leading women's fairness cream, Fair
and Lovely, had then owed over 30 per cent of its sale to men users. Emami's Fair and
Handsome, launched in 2005, was followed by HUL, the makers of Fair and Lovely, which
launched Fair and Lovely Menz Active in 2006. Beiersdorf AG, the German parent of Nivea,
entered next with its Nivea for Men product. Heavy advertisers such as HUL and Garnier
are now looking to expand the skincare category beyond vanilla fairness creams with face
washes and sunscreens, though experts question the efficacy of these products. Marketers
admit that fairness is the foremost concern of users but insists that it only points to the
underlying need for a healthy skin. Whitening emerges as the prime need of the customer
segment of men’s fairness creams. Since Indian men spend a lot of time outdoors, they desire
to reverse the effect of the aggressive factors and hence use whitening creams. The other big
need is also of oil control. The product should address the need for a clear and glowing skin,
albeit without a tan and dark spots.

The brands are banking on the halo effect of the names under which they launch their men's
fairness products, apart from the star pull. One differentiator can be fusing nature with
technology and developing the credibility to create a habit of skincare regime.

Brands are also straddling different price points, either through different product ranges or
through packaging. Garnier launched satchets of its cream early this year. Its parent, L'oreal

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also has a range for men's whitening cream priced much higher. HUL covers the mass
market with its Fair and Lovely Menz Active. Emami, still lording it over the market with its
Rs 125 crore (Rs 1.25 billion) brand, is far from embattled as it is one thing to have a brand
and quite another to focus on it. Emami gets 20 per cent of revenues going into advertising
and Fair and Handsome remains a focus brand. HUL, does not intend to extend its Fair and
Lovely Menz Active, but wants to concentrate on Vaseline Men.

Major Players of Men’s fairness cream Segment considered in our study:-

1) Emami’s Fair and Handsome


2) Garnier Men Power Lite
3) Unilever’s Fair and Lovely Menz Active
4) Nivea for Men-Advanced Whitening Cream
TABLE 1
Players Market Share Year of Inception
1. Emami Fair and 62% 2005
Handsome

2. Fair and Lovely Menz 20% 2006


Active

3. Nivea for Men 9% 2007

4. Garnier Power Lite 9% 2009

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:-

All the findings and conclusions are based on the survey done in the
working area within time limit. It has been tried to select a sample
representative of the whole group. The data has been collected from
100 respondents for studying the consumer perception towards Men’s
Fairness Creams.

RESEARCH DESIGN:
The research applied in the project is Descriptive Research as the major objective of research
is to describe the buying behavior of the customers towards Men’s Fairness Cream. This is
done by studying customer feedback collected through questionnaire.

DEVELOPING THE RESEARCH PLAN

The data for this research project has been collected through self-
administration. Due to time limitation and other constraints direct
personal interview method is used. A structured questionnaire was
framed as it is less time consuming, generates specific and to the point
information, easier to tabulate and interpret. Moreover respondents
prefer to give direct answers. In questionnaires closed ended types of
questions has been used.

COLLECTION OF DATA
Primary data: Individual respondents were personally visited and interviewed. They were the
main source of Primary data. The method of collection of primary data was direct personal
interview through a structured questionnaire.

SAMPLING PLAN
Since it is not possible to study whole population, it is necessary to obtain representative
samples from the population to understand its characteristics.

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•Target Population: College Students and Upcoming Professionals.
• Sampling Units: Malls.
• Sample Element: Men.
•Sample Technique: Convenience Sampling.
• Research Instrument: Structured Questionnaire.

SAMPLE SIZE:
The sample size taken is 100.

DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT


The mode of collection of data is based on Survey Method and Field Activity. Primary data
collected using structured questionnaire. The questionnaire has been prepared taken into
consideration the variables of the Elgen Kollet Blackwell Model.

RESEARCH LIMITATIONS
• The research is confined to Ghaziabad and does not necessarily show a
pattern applicable to all parts of the country.

• Some respondents were reluctant to divulge personal information which


can affect the validity of all responses.

• In a rapidly changing industry, analysis on one day or in one segment


can change very quickly. The environmental changes are vital to be
considered in order to assimilate the findings.

ENGEL-KOLLAT-BLACKWELL MODEL
This model was created to describe the increasing, fast-growing body of knowledge
concerning consumer behavior. The purchase of fairness creams shows the habitual
buying behaviour of the customer. This model consists also of four stages:

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First stage: Decision-Process stages
The central focus of the model is on five basic decision-process stages: Problem
recognition, search for alternatives, alternate evaluation, purchase, and outcomes.
1. Problem recognition: Need for the fairness cream for men, which gives
them more confidence and recognition among people.
2. Alternate evaluation: The person / men will search for the different
alternatives which are available in the market. Here in this case different alternatives
are:

• Emami fair & handsome: fairness cream


• Hul fair and lovely: menz active fairness cream
• Garnier men powerlight: fairness moisturizer
• Nivea for men: whitening repair and protect and whitening oil-control
moisturizer
• Hul vaseline men: antispots whitening face cream
• Others: Such as Elder Healthcare's Fairone Man etc.
3. Purchase : He will purchase the product if he get satisfied by the search process
and choose the best cream.
4. Outcomes: The outcomes may lead to satisfaction or dissatisfaction of customer
about the product. For example if the customer has chosen the product Emami fair &
Handsome then he may get satisfied or dissatisfied from the product.

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The Engel-Kollat-Blackwell Model of Consumer Behavior.

Information Variables Influencing


Input Decision Process
Processing Decision Process
Problem
Recognition
Exposure Individual
Characteristis:
Internal Motives
search Search Values
Lifestyle
Personality
Beliefs
Attention
M
Stimuli:
Marketer- E
Dominated, Alternative Social
Attitude
other M evaluation Influences
:
Comprehension O Culture
Perception Reference
R Intention group

Y Family
Yielding/
Acceptance Purchase
Situational
Influences

Retention

Outcomes
External
search

Dissatisfaction Satisfaction

Source: Engel , Blackwell, and Miniard,(1995) page No 95

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Second stage: Information input
At this stage the consumer gets information from marketing and non-marketing
sources, which also influence the problem recognition stage of the decision-making
process. The consumer may get the information from different sources like print
media, TV commercials etc. in this case the consumer will get the information about
all the fairness creams through the TV commercials and the consumer still does not
arrive to a specific decision, the search for external information will be activated in
order to arrive to a choice or in some cases if the consumer experience dissonance
because the selected alternative is less satisfactory than expected.

Third stage: information processing


This stage consists of the consumer’s exposure, attention, perception, acceptance, and
retention of incoming information. The consumer must first be exposed to the
message, allocate space for this information, interpret the stimuli, and retain the
message by transferring the input to long-term memory. Here in this case the
consumer first see the advertisement of the product in electronic or print media and
focus on the advertisement which is of his requirement or his need i.e he gives
attention to the fairness cream for men advertisement, then he interpret the information
from that advertisement and finally he retain the message and keep this message in his
mind for the purchase intention.

Fourth stage: variables influencing the decision process


This stage consists of individual and environmental influences that affect all five
stages of the decision process. Individual characteristics include motives, values,
lifestyle, and personality; the social influences are culture, reference groups, and
family. Situational influences, such as a consumer’s financial condition, also influence
the decision process.
Individual characteristics:
Motives: to look more fairer and confident
Value: it includes both terminal and instrumental values, from being capable,
independent, and intellectual to having a sense of accomplishment, social recognition
and happiness.
Lifestyle: the lifestyle is outdoor oriented.

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Personality: the cream is for the one who wants to be recognized and wants success in
their life.

Situational factors:
Consumer financial condition: His financial condition determines for which fairness
cream he will to go. Eg: If he belongs to the upper class he will go for the high price
and high quality cream like Garnier for men power light or Nivea: menz lightening
cream, if he wants value for money he will go for emami fair and handsome.

Evaluation criteria:
He will evaluate the product on the basis of different criteria like prize, fairness, UV
protection, availability, brand endorser, and packaging.

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DATA ANALYSIS

Demographics of the study


Graph showing percentage of People in different age groups:-

(Here no of persons belonging to the age group 16-21=20, 22-26=45, 27-31=25, 32-37=10)

Graph showing percentage of people in different income groups:-

(Here no of persons having income<12000=5, 12000-22000=10, 22001-32000=25, 32001-


42000=35, 42001-52000=15, above52000=10)

Factor Analysis
It is a general name denoting a class of procedures primarily used for data reduction
and summarization. In marketing research, there may be a large number of variables,
which are correlated and must be reduced to a manageable level. Relationships among
sets of many inter- related variables are examined and represented in terms of few

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terms.
TABLE 2
KMO and Bartlett's Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .593
Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 204.285
df 36
Sig. .000

TABLE 3
Communalities
Initial Extraction
Fairness 1.000 .527
UVProtection 1.000 .586
Price 1.000 .708
Availability 1.000 .690
BrandEndorsor 1.000 .352
Packaging 1.000 .624
Expectations 1.000 .632
Brandloyal 1.000 .433
Popularity 1.000 .765
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

TABLE 4

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Total Variance Explained
Component Rotation Sums of Squared
Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Loadings
%

o
f
V
a
r
i
a
n
c
Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total e Cumulative %
1 2.736 30.399 30.399 2.736 30.399 30.399 2.683 2 29.807
9
.
8
0
7
2 1.410 15.661 46.060 1.410 15.661 46.060 1.396 1 45.320
5
.
5
1
dime 3
nsio 3 1.172 13.019 59.079 1.172 13.019 59.079 1.238 1 59.079
n0 3
.
7
5
9
4 .972 10.799 69.878
5 .923 10.255 80.132
6 .716 7.954 88.087
7 .502 5.581 93.668
8 .317 3.518 97.185
9 .253 2.815 100.000
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

TABLE 5

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Component Matrixa
Component
1 2 3
Fairness .423 -.503 -.309
UVProtection .529 -.493 .253
Price .131 .737 -.383
Availability -.075 .283 .777
BrandEndorsor .276 .401 .338
Packaging .698 .319 -.188
Expectations .767 .139 -.157
Brandloyal .594 -.088 .270
Popularity .866 .013 .119
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
a. 3 components extracted.
TABLE 6

Rotated Component Matrixa


Component
1 2 3
Fairness .330 .347 -.546
UVProtection .411 .643 -.064
Price .288 -.790 .033
Availability -.051 .141 .817
BrandEndorsor .334 -.114 .476
Packaging .754 -.231 -.045
Expectations .785 -.051 -.114
Brandloyal .553 .323 .150
Popularity .846 .214 .054
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.

a. Rotation converged in 4 iterations.

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TABLE 7
Component Transformation Matrix
Component 1 2 3
dimensio 1 .980 .189 -.063
2 .195 -.841 .504
n0 3 -.042 .506 .861
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.

Interpretation:

Factor-1 Factor-2 Factor-3


- Fairness -
- U V Protection -
Price - -
- - Availability
- - Brand Endorsement
Packaging - -
Expectation - -
Brand loyalty - -
Popularity - -
Brand Oriented Value oriented Convenience

From the above table we can divide the targeted population into three factors. The first
ones are those who are Brand Oriented these people have high expectations from their
brand they go by the popularity of the product in the market and are price conscious. The
second category people are Value oriented their choice of product depends upon the
actual benefits they get from the product. The third category people goes by the
availability of the product i.e. they look for convenience and also they are celebrity
influenced people whose buying decision depends upon the Brand Ambassador.

Chi- Square Test:


The square of a standard normal variable is called chi- square Variate with 1 degree of
freedom. It is used when the total frequency should be reasonably large (N>50) sample
observations should be independent. The constraints on the cell frequencies should be linear.
Each theoretical frequency should be larger than 10 but in any case not less than 5.

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H0- The Choice of Brand is independent of its Popularity
H1- The Choice of Brand is dependent upon its Popularity
RECODE Popularity (1 thru 3=1) (4 thru 5=2) INTO popul.

Case Processing Summary


Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Brand * popul 100 100.0% 0 .0% 100 100.0%

Brand * popul Crosstabulation


popul
1.00 2.00 Total
Brand Fair and Handsom Count 5 20 25
% within Brand 20.0% 80.0% 100.0%
Fair and lovely mens Count 25 0 25
active % within Brand 100.0% .0% 100.0%
Garnier men Count 25 0 25
% within Brand 100.0% .0% 100.0%
Nivea Count 25 0 25
% within Brand 100.0% .0% 100.0%
Total Count 80 20 100
% within Brand 80.0% 20.0% 100.0%

Chi-Square Tests
Asymp. Sig. (2-
Value df sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 75.000a 3 .000
Likelihood Ratio 75.060 3 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 44.550 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 100


a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 5.00.

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Interpretation: Here H0 is rejected since the expected significance value is less than 5% .
So we can interpret that the choice of brand is dependent upon the popularity of the product
in the market. This can be seen from the above graph where people have opted for emamies
Fair and Handsome based on its market share and popularity amongst the masses.

Chi square test-Between Brand and Expectations from it.


RECODE Expectations (1 thru 3=1) (4 thru 5=2) INTO expect.
Ho- The Expectations with brand is independent of choice of brand.
H1- The Expectations from brand is dependent upon the choice of brand.

Case Processing Summary


Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Brand * expect 100 100.0% 0 .0% 100 100.0%

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Brand * expect Crosstabulation
expect
1.00 2.00 Total
Brand Fair and Handsom Count 0 25 25
% within Brand .0% 100.0% 100.0%
Fair and lovely mens Count 15 10 25
active % within Brand 60.0% 40.0% 100.0%
Garnier men Count 16 9 25
% within Brand 64.0% 36.0% 100.0%
Nivea Count 13 12 25
% within Brand 52.0% 48.0% 100.0%
Total Count 44 56 100
% within Brand 44.0% 56.0% 100.0%

Chi-Square Tests
Asymp. Sig. (2-
Value df sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 26.948a 3 .000
Likelihood Ratio 36.247 3 .000
Linear-by-Linear 12.857 1 .000
Association
N of Valid Cases 100
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum
expected count is 11.00.

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Interpretation: Here Ho is rejected that means that Expectations from the brand depends
upon the choice of brand. That means that the expectations from the selected brand is very
high here the most preferred brand is Fair and Handsome so the expectations from it are very
high.

Attribute-Based Discriminant Analysis


It tells us how the brand is perceived in relation to other competing brands. Another benefit
of discriminant analysis is that it includes the attributes in the map. Unlike the MDS and FA
techniques, which only position brands relative to other brands, discriminant analysis shows
brands and attributes. The ratings of the respondents for 6 attributes of 4 brands that we have
taken can be depicted by the perceptual map using the attribute-based approach. We have
taken 4 brands in the product category viz. Emami, HUL, Garnier and Nivea. The brands are
positioned in the space as points (as they are in the two techniques above), and the attributes
are represented as vectors emanating from the origin of the map. This is sometimes called a
point and vector solution. Therefore, Discriminant Analysis illustrates the relationship
between attributes (their correlation to other attributes), how much each brand is seen as
embodying each attribute, and how similar competing brands are perceived to be. The
figures below show an example point and vector perceptual map from discriminant analysis.

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The relationship between attributes is determined by how nearly parallel the attributes are to
each other. Vectors with heads in opposite directions are perceived by respondents as
opposites. It is not perceived that a brand can do well on both. Vectors that are at right
angles are seen as independent. Vectors that head in basically the same direction are
positively correlated i.e. they are seen as embodying the same feature or quality by the
respondent. The relationship between brands is determined by their proximity. The nearer
the brands in the map, the more they are perceived to be similar. The relationship between
brands and attributes is a function of the position of a brand in the direction of the vector.
The relationship between brands and attributes is a function of the position of a brand in the
direction of the vector. The interpretation of brand associations are not based upon a brand's
proximity to the vector, but its directional relationship along the vector. To interpret these
brand associations (compare brands on an attribute), simply draw a line perpendicular to the
attribute that intersects the brand point. Doing this for all the brands provides an accurate
rank order of respondents' perception of all brands on that attribute.

Table 1:
Wilks' Lambda
Test of Function(s) Wilks' Lambda Chi-square df Sig.
1 through 3 .248 131.185 18 .000
2 through 3
dimensio n0

.620 44.897 10 .000


3 .920 7.884 4 .096

Table 2
Standardized Canonical Discriminant Function
Coefficients
Function
1 2 3
Fairness .077 .147 .600
UVProtection .845 .165 -.030
Price .044 .230 -.631
Availability -.071 -.363 .365
Brand Endorser .788 -.655 -.204
Packaging .327 .563 .004

Table 3
Functions at Group Centroids
Brand Function

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1 2 3
1 1.471 0.41 0.309
2 0.801 -0.141 -0.459
3 -0.695 -1.037 0.17
dimensio n0
4 -1.577 0.768 -0.02
Unstandardized canonical discriminant functions evaluated at group
means

Interpretation:
Discriminant analysis revealed significant differences among the 4 brands of available men’s
fairness cream. Wilks’ Lambda value should lie between 0 to 1 and a low value is
significant. We have used 4 brands of fairness creams viz. Emami, HUL, Garnier, and Nivea
and 6 attributes viz. Fairness, UV Protection, Price, Availability, brand endorser and
packaging. The output of the SPSS gives 3 discriminant functions of which the first was
statistically significant i.e. 0.248. These functions produced are plotted using standardized
discriminant function coefficients of each attribute on each function and centroids for each
brand or group viz. function 1 vs. function 2, function 2 vs. function 3 and function 1 vs.
function 3. The second and third functions were not significant. From the standardized
discriminant function coefficients, it appears UV Protection and Brand endorser are loading
high in function 1 and fairness and price on function3 and Brand Endorser and Packaging on
function 2. But these are not significant statistically and therefore should be treated with
caution. Hence, we could conclude that the difference between different fairness creams is a
multidimensional construct consisting of various factors together. Together these may be
named as basic fairness cream elements on which fairness cream seem to differ significantly.
Positioning of the four fairness cream brands through Discriminant analysis: A
perceptual map is drawn using functions 1 and 3, the relative positions of the four brands of
fairness cream derived from centroid table. The perceptual map shows that Emami’s Fair and
Handsome and HUL’s Fair and Lovely men’s active are positioned together. Garnier for
Men and Nivea for Men are positioned far away from each other. The horizontal axis
represents function 1 and the vertical axis, function 3. The 6 attributes are mapped across the
perceptual space.

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FUNC
TION
3

FUNCTION 1
Figure 1 Graph: Perceptual Map of Four Fairness Creams in India based on Perceived
Quality
Figure 1

FUNC
TION
3

FUNCTION 3
Figure 2

2
FUNC
TION
1

FUNCTION 2
Figure 3

The graph 1 function1 vs. function 3 shows that the Brand 1(Emami) is perceived to
be high on almost all the factors fairness, UV protection, availability and Brand Endorser
except the price and Packaging which are considered to be irrelevant while buying Brand1.
Brand 2 (HUL) is perceived to be high on Price and UV protection. Whereas the brand 3 and
4 i.e. Garnier and Nivea are closer to each other and hence percieved to be similar on the
attributes. The brand 3(Garnier) is perceived well on fairness and availability. The graph 2 of
function 3 vs. function 2 also shows Brand 1 is percieved to be high on fairness, UV
protection and availability whereas price, brand endorser are irrelevant and Brand 2 on Price
and UV Protection and Brand 3 on brand endorser and fairness and Brand 4 on price and
fairness. The graph 3 of function 1 vs. function 2 shows brand 1 and 2 high on fairness, UV
protection respectively and Brand1 and Brand 2 are perceived to be similar. Here Price and
availability are in opposite direction i.e. a brand cannot do well on both the parameters.
Thus we can see that Brand 1 i.e. Emami and Brand 2 i.e. HUL are perceived to be
high on fairness, UV protection, Brand Endorser whereas Brand 3 and Brand 4 are not
percieved well by the customers.

SERVQUAL
The Service Quality model, popularly known as SERVQUAL is a widely used Model for
evaluating Service or the Product quality. Service quality was defined as the gap between

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expected service and perceived service. It is a concise multiple-item scale with good
reliability and validity that can be used to better understand the service expectations and
perceptions of consumers. Organizations can use this model to measure and improve their
customer service.
The benefits of SERVQUAL in the study can be summarized as follows:
• It is able to alert management to consider the perception of both management and
customers.
• SERVQUAL is able to identify specific areas of excellence and weaknesses.
• It provides benchmarking analysis for organizations in the same industry.
• SERVQUAL can trace the trend of customer relative importance, expectation,
and perception, if applied periodically.

Kano’s Model
Kano's model is an effective tool to categorize product/service attributes according to the
amount of satisfaction that each is able to provide (Kano et al., 1984). According to Kano the
attributes of a product can be categorized as:
• The Must-be or Basic Needs: For these needs, customers become dissatisfied
when performance of the product attribute is low. However, customer satisfaction
does not rise above neutral even with a high performance of the product attribute.
• The one-dimensional or performance needs: For these needs, customer
satisfaction is a linear function of the performance of the product
attribute.
High attribute performance leads to high customer satisfaction.
• The attractive or excitement needs: For these needs, customer satisfaction
increases super-linearly with increasing attribute performance.
There is, however, no corresponding decrease in customer satisfaction with a
decrease in attribute performance. For instance, a cosmetics customer may not be
dissatisfied if there is no free bonus, but may be more satisfied if a bonus is
provided.
• Kano's model promotes understanding of product/service requirements. The
attributes that have the greatest influence on customer satisfaction can
be identified.
• It provides valuable guidance in the following trade-off situation. If two product

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attributes cannot be promoted simultaneously due to technical or
financial reasons, the attribute that has greater influence on customer
satisfaction, can be determined.
• The use of Kano's model can lead to developing a wide range of product/service
differentiation by examining the attractive attributes. The attractive
attributes are the key to beating the competition in the market
place

The integrated approach: Integrating Kano’s model into SERVQUAL

Introducing the Kano categories into SERVQUAL can counter the linearity Problem.
Furthermore, the prioritization for improvement of the weak attributes can be based on which
Kano category each attribute falls into. Logically, the weak Attributes in the attractive

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category should receive attention first. Weak attributes in the one-dimensional and then the
must-be categories should receive succeeding lower Priorities. Kano’s model can also help
address the innovation issue against SERVQUAL. Because attractive attributes are a source
of customer delight, this is one area where Efforts for improvement should be targeted. The
integrated approach would improve the utility of either method used separately. Kano’s
model does not evaluate attribute performance. Integrating it with SERVQUAL will better
characterize the product-attribute/ customer-need relationship. It might also illuminate the
pattern of predicted and perceived service as well as the time-dependent relationship between
attribute performance and customer satisfaction.
The illustration of how Kano’s model can be integrated into SERVQUAL.
• The first step involves identification of the service attributes.
• Next is the gathering of customer satisfaction data. This is commonly achieved
through surveys where customers are asked to rate their prediction and perception
of each service attribute.
• SERVQUAL score is calculated by the gap between predicted service and
perceived service.

This information is gathered via a Kano questionnaire where the attributes are categorized as
must-be, one-dimensional, attractive, indifferent, questionable, or reverse.

The proposed integrated approach should result in a classification of the organizations’


strengths and weaknesses into the various Kano categories.
• Utilize the strong attractive attributes as inputs into innovativeness.
• Maintain performance of the strong must-be and one-dimensional attributes.
• Create customer fulfillment on as many as possible of the weak must-be
attributes, or be at least equal to the best-in- class competitors.
• Be competitive on the weak one-dimensional attributes.
• Avoid allocating resources to improving the weak indifferent attributes, as
customer satisfaction is unlikely to improve here.

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FINDINGS:
1. Attribute-based perceptual map using Discriminant Analysis reveals that Brand 1 i.e.
Emami’s Fair and handsome and Brand 2 i.e. HUL’s Fair and Lovely Men’s Active
are perceived to be high on fairness, UV protection, Brand Endorser whereas Brand
3(Garnier for Men) and Brand 4(Nivea for Men) are not percieved well by the
customers. Customers use Emami and HUL since they are pioneer in Men’s fairness
cream and are most advertertised and provides them value for money.
2. In our study no of persons belonging to the age group 16-21=20, 22-26=45, 27-
31=25, 32-37=10). This shows that maximum no of persons preferring Men’s
fairness cream belongs to the age group 20-30. Which includes college going students
and young upcoming professionals.
3. In this study the no of persons having income<12000=5, 12000-22000=10, 22001-
32000=25, 32001-42000=35, 42001-52000=15, above52000=10. This shows that
most people prefer Emami because it is economical.
4. From the Factor Analysis we can divide the targeted population into three factors.

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The first ones are those who are Brand Oriented these people have high expectations
from their brand they go by the popularity of the product in the market and are price
conscious. The second category people are Value oriented their choice of product
depends upon the actual benefits they get from the product. The third category people
goes by the availability of the product i.e. they look for convenience and also they are
celebrity influenced people whose buying decision depends upon the Brand
Ambassador.
5. We can interpret on the basis of chi-square test that the choice of brand is dependent
upon the popularity of the product in the market.
6. We can also interpret that the Expectations from the brand depends upon the choice
of brand. That means that the expectations from the selected brand are very high. In
our study the most preferred brand is fair and Handsome so the expectations from it
are very high.
7. From Servqual score , it can be said that in an average, the perceived value for radiant
fairness , Protection against UV rays, Anti bacterial activity is less than the expected
value. Whereas the perceived value for non-oily look and works throughout the day is
more than what they expect from their fairness creams.

CONCLUSION-
India has a strong economic performance and youthful demographic structure, ensuring a
great future for this Industry. All that retailers need to do to be successful, is price their
products well and position them efficiently and intelligently.
The future prospects for this industry seem to be very good. With increasing
awareness, more disposable incomes and the low price capita spend on the cosmetic in the
country, the Industry will surely soar in the time to come .As the Indian cosmetic industry is
still small, compared to the international markets, it points that there is a greater growth
potential.
There has been a strong obsession for fair skin among the Indians although majority of
Indians are not fair. Recently with Obama getting elected to the White house, Indians have
been vocal about ‘black is beautiful’. But this thought is not reciprocated by the ever
growing fairness cream market in India especially the men’s fairness cream segment. With
the concept of the ‘metrosexual’ man setting in globally, the Indian market has witnessed a
strong demand for personal grooming men products. Over the last decade Indian men have
become more conscious of how they look and present themselves. Be it a college-goer or a

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corporate person, none have been left untouched by this grooming fad with a keen desire to
look fair. Indian cosmetic companies and marketers have strongly hooked on to this
opportunity.
Surveys and reports have suggested that many men were using fairness creams,which were
primarily manufactured, advertised and targeted towards young women. Gradually the
cosmetic companies took note of this trend and came out with men’s fairness products and
altogether created a separate category. Today Indian male constitute close to 30% of the
fairness cream market contributing close to USD 40 million.
In 2005 Emami forayed into the market with its brand ‘Fair & Handsome’ which advertised
its product by encouraging men not to use women fairness creams clandestinely. Owing to
Emami’s success Hindustan Lever Limited introduced ‘Fair & Lovely Menz Active’ banking
on the success of its super brand ‘Fair & Lovely’. Beiersdorf AG soon followed with a
premium range in the category branded as ‘Nivea Whitening Moisturizer and Facial Foam’.
Nivea tried to position its brand towards the urban progressive youth by evolving the fairness
cream into a whitening moisturizer. Emami on the other hand tried to generate mass appeal
by roping in bollywood superstar Shahrukh Khan for the promotions. Besides these strong
brands CavinKare has its own brand ‘Fairever’ and Shahnaz Hussain’s ‘Fair One Man’.
Recently global giants like L’Oreal have shown interest in the segment by introducing
brands such as ‘Garnier MEN Powerlight’.
The perennial debate on whether marketing skin whitening or fairness cream is ethical or not
can rest till the Indian male consumer continues to have a suppressed desire for white skin.
Till then long live ‘The Fair Indian Man’.

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LIMITATIONS-
1.The study is conducted in Ghaziabad and Delhi, so customers’ tastes and preferences can
vary according to geographical locations; so overall study is affected by geographical
limitations.
2.For cosmetic creams, there is huge potential in Urban areas , but according to few studies ,
consumers’ perception can vary from rural to urban.
3.Media vehicles and opinion leaders have huge influence on consumers’ buying behavior,
but effectiveness of media is dependent on the independent variables such as the media
habits of customers which again vary according to geography, education etc.
4. For this study, time and resources were in constraint that’s why selected sample size is
100, is actually very less in comparison to the size of Men’s cosmetic market.

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ANNEXURE:

Section A: Fairness Cream Preferences


Please specify the fairness cream, which you prefer to buy-
1.Emami Fair and Handsome
2.Fair and lovely Men’s Active
3.Nivea Men’s whitening
4.Garnier’s Men
Section B: Personal Information
Please select one answer for each question by marking (X) the appropriate answer.
1. What is your age group?
( ) 16-21 ( ) 22-26 ( ) 27-31 ( ) 32-37

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2. What is your occupation?
( ) Executive/ Managerial ( ) Self-employed/ Own Company
( ) Professional (doctor, lawyer, etc.) ( ) Unemployed, looking for a job
( ) Academic/Educator
( ) Student ( ) Others (Please specify) ___________________________
3. What is your average monthly income?
( ) Less than 12,000 Rupees ( ) 12,001-22,000 Rupees
( ) 22,001-32,000 Rupees ( ) 32,001-42,000 Rupees
( ) 42,001- 52,000 Rupees ( ) Over 52,001 Rupees

Section C: The perception towards decision to buy Fairness cream products


Please select the right option for each statement. Where-
1= Strongly Disagree
2= Disagree
3= Neither Agree Nor Disagree
4= Agree
5= Strongly Agree

The decision to buy Fairness Creams 1 2 3 4 5


1.Sometimes it is hard to choose which
brands to buy.
2.I am impulsive when purchasing fairness
Creams
3.I usually choose lower price fairness
creams.
4. I purchase the brand whichever is
available.
5.My standards and expectations for
fairness creams are very high.
6.It is fun and exciting to buy fairness
creams that I have never used.
7.Once I find a fairness Cream or brand, I
stick with it.
8.The higher the price of a product, the
better is the quality.

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9. All the information I get on different
Fairness creams confuses me.
10.I make a special effort to choose the
very best quality fairness products.
11. I usually choose the products
advertised by celebrities.
12.The more expensive brands satisfy me.
13.I prefer to buy the best selling brands.
14.The product also gives me UV
protection.
15.The packaging of the product attracts
me to buy the product

Section D:
Please Rate the Expected Value of the features in Fairness cream:
1= Very High
2= High
3= Average
4= Low
5= Very Low

Features in a fairness cream 1 2 3 4 5


1.Radiant fairness
2.Non-oily Look
3.Works throughout the day
4.protection against UV rays
5.Anti bacterial activity

Please Rate the Perceived Value of the features in Fairness cream according to the
above scale:
Features in a fairness cream 1 2 3 4 5
1.Radiant fairness
2.Non-oily Look
3.Works throughout the day
4.protection against UV rays

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5.Anti bacterial activity

ANNEXURE-II
SERVQUAL TABLE SHOWING GAP ANALYSIS-

1 2 3 4 5

1 -2 3 -2 -2 3
2 -3 2 -1 -2 2
3 -1 1 2 -2 2
4 -1 2 -3 1 1
5 -2 1 1 -1 1
6 -3 -1 2 1 -2
7 -2 -2 -1 2 1
8 1 1 -2 -1 -2
9 -1 -1 1 -3 1
10 -1 1 1 1 2
11 -1 3 -2 1 2
12 -1 1 -1 -3 2
13 1 2 -3 1 1
14 -2 2 -1 1 1
15 -3 1 -2 -1 3
16 -2 -2 2 2 -2
17 -1 -1 1 1 -2
18 -1 -1 2 1 1
19 -3 1 1 -2 2
20 -2 1 1 1 1
21 -2 3 2 -2 3
22 -3 2 1 -2 2
23 -1 1 2 -2 2
24 -1 2 1 1 1
25 -2 1 1 -1 1
26 -3 1 2 1 -2
27 -2 -2 -2 2 1
28 1 -1 -1 -1 -2
29 -1 -1 2 -3 1
30 -1 1 -3 1 2
31 -2 1 1 1 2

3
32 -1 1 2 -3 2
33 -1 -1 -1 1 1
34 -1 -2 -2 1 1
35 -2 1 1 -1 3
36 -3 -1 1 2 -2
37 -3 1 -2 1 -2
38 1 3 -1 1 1
39 -3 1 -3 -2 2
40 -1 2 -1 1 1
41 -1 3 -2 -2 3
42 -2 2 -1 -2 2
43 -1 1 2 -2 2
44 -1 2 -3 1 1
45 -1 1 1 -1 1
46 -2 -1 2 1 -2
47 -3 -2 -1 2 1
48 -3 1 -2 -1 -2
49 1 -1 1 -3 1
50 -3 1 1 1 2

51 -2 3 -2 -2 3
52 -2 2 -1 -2 2
53 -3 1 2 -2 2
54 -1 2 -3 1 1
55 -1 1 1 -1 1
56 -2 -1 2 1 -2
57 -3 -2 -1 2 1
58 -2 1 -2 -1 -2
59 1 -1 1 -3 1
60 -2 1 1 1 2
61 -3 3 -2 1 2
62 -1 1 -1 -3 2
63 -1 2 -3 1 1
64 -2 2 -1 1 1
65 -3 1 -2 -1 3
66 -2 -2 2 2 -2
67 1 -1 1 1 -2
68 -1 -1 2 1 1
69 -1 1 1 -2 2
70 -1 1 1 1 1
71 -1 3 2 -2 3
72 1 2 1 -2 2
73 -2 1 2 -2 2
74 -3 2 1 1 1
75 -2 1 1 -1 1
76 -1 1 2 1 -2
77 -1 -2 -2 2 1
78 -3 -1 -1 -1 -2
79 -2 -1 2 -3 1
80 -2 1 -3 1 2
81 -2 1 1 1 2
82 -3 1 2 -3 2
83 -1 -1 -1 1 1

3
84 -1 -2 -2 1 1
85 -2 1 1 -1 3
86 -3 -1 1 2 -2
87 -2 1 -2 1 -2
88 1 3 -1 1 1
89 -1 1 -3 -2 2
90 -1 2 -1 1 1
91 -2 3 -2 1 2
92 -1 1 -1 -3 2
93 -1 2 -3 1 1
94 -1 2 -1 1 1
95 -2 1 -2 -1 3
96 -3 -2 2 2 -2
97 -3 -1 1 1 -2
98 1 -1 2 1 1
99 -3 1 1 -2 2
100 -1 1 1 1 1

TOTAL SRVQUAL SCORE -150 70 -20 -40 90


AVERAGE SERVQUAL SCORE -1.5 0.7 -0.2 -0.4 0.9