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MATHEMATICS FORM 4

PROBABILITY I
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LEARNING OUTCOMES
TOPIC
TUTORIAL
LEARNING OUTCOMES
 At the end of the class, students should be
able to:
1. Determine whether an outcomes is a possible
outcome of an experiment.
2. Determine the sample space of an experiment.
3. Write the sample by using set notation.
4. Identify the elements of a sample space which satisfy
given condition.
5. Find the ratio of the number of times an event occurs
to the number of trials.

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PROBABILITY I

SAMPLE SPACE

EVENT

PROBABILITY OF EVENT

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PROBABILITY I
7.1 SAMPLE SPACE

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SAMPLE SPACE
 Anexperiment is a process or an
operation with an outcomes.

Toss a balanced die once and observe its


uppermost face.

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SAMPLE SPACE
 When toss the coin, we can get only 2
results:

 Head
 Tail

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SAMPLE SPACE
 The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment is
called the sample space.
space It usually denoted by S.

 Example 1:

En. Adam has a fruit stall that sells bananas, apples,


watermelons, papayas and durians. Students of
class 4KP are asked to select their favorite fruit from
the fruits at En. Adam’s stall.

S = { banana, apple, watermelon, papaya, durian}

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SAMPLE SPACE
 Example 2:

A month is randomly selected from a year.


Describe the sample space of this
experiment by using set notation.

S= { January, February, March, April,


May, June, July, August, September,
October, November, December}

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PROBABILITY I
7.2 EVENT

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EVENT
 Is a subset of the sample space.
 Is an outcome or a set of outcomes
that satisfies certain condition.
 Denoted by a capital letter.

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EVENT
 Example 1:
A box contains five cards written  J is known
with 1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively. A as an event
card is picked randomly from the of the
box. experiment.

 The number
 S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. of outcome
 If we define J as ‘the card with of an event
an even number’, the outcome n(P)=2
of J in set notation will be
J = { 2, 4 }.

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EVENT
 Example 2:

A letter is randomly selected from the word ‘COMPUTER’.


Determine the number of possible outcomes of the event
that the selected letter is
i. A vowel
ii. A consonant

 Solution
vi. Let A = event that the selected letter is vowel = {O, U, E}
Therefore n (A) = 3

 Let B = event that the selected letter is consonant = {C, M,


P, T, R} Therefore n (B) = 5

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PROBABILITY I
7.3 PROBABILITY OF AN
EVENT

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PROBABILITY OF AN EVENT

 Probability of an event E,

P(E) = number of outcomes of the event


number of outcomes of the sample space

 P(E) = n (E)
n (S)

 0 ≤ P(E) ≤ 1

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PROBABILITY OF AN EVENT

 P(E)= 0 means that it is impossible for


the event to happen.

 P(E)=1 means that the event is certain


to happen.

 The closer the probability of a given event


is to 1, the more likely it is to happen.

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PROBABILITY OF AN EVENT
 Example

A bag contains 3 red balls and 4 white ones. If Rashid puts


his hand in the bag and picks a ball, what is the probability
that the ball he picked is white?

 Solution:

S = {R1,R2,R3,W1,W2,W3,W4}
n(S)= 7

Let E is the event of drawing a white ball


E = {W1,W2,W3,W4}
n(E)=4

Therefore, the probability of drawing a white ball is 4


7
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PROBABILITY I
TUTORIAL

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EXERCISE 1

 A number from 1 to 11 is chosen at


random. What is the probability of
choosing an odd number?
A. 1/11
B. 5/11
C. 6/11
D. None of above

TUTORIAL
EXERCISE 2
 A bag consists of 3 green, 1 white and 1
purple chips. Two chips are drawn from
the bag. Which of the following outcomes
are possible?
A. (green, red)
B. (green, green)
C. (purple, purple)
D. (white, white)

TUTORIAL
EXERCISE 3
 A dice is rolled 420 times. How many
times will a number greater than 4
occur?
A. 70
B. 140
C. 210
D. 360

TUTORIAL
EXERCISE 4
 There are 45 boys and girls in a class.
Given the probability that a boy is
chosen is 4/15. the number of girls is
A. 8
B. 12
C. 25
D. 33

TUTORIAL
EXERCISE 5
 Out of 5000 applicants, only 275 are
chosen. If Hazni is one of the applicants,
what is the probability that he is chosen?
A. 11/200
B. 200/11
C. 189/200
D. 200/189

TUTORIAL
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