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Class 2nd Year Pakistan Studies Notes

Important Questions:
Section B: (Short Answer Questions)
1. State three objective of all India Muslim League?
2. State three lines on ideology of Pakistan and its importance?
3. State the names of the cash crops of Pakistan?
4. When and where was the case be kept on Mulana Muhammad Ali Johar?
5. Who was viceroy when Bengal partition and when annulled partition?
6. State the lines on Laknow pack?
7. Name the SAARC countries?
8. State the location of Pakistan with longitude and latitude?
9. State three lines on importance of Urdu?
10. When was Mulana Muhammad Ali Johar died and where he burried?
11. State three Islamic features of the constitution of 1973?
12. State three lines on Khilafat Movement?
13. Name the three poets of Sindh?
14. Name three historical building of Pakistan?
15. When and where did the Pakistan 1st atomic blast?
16. State three lines on the Objective resolution?
17. When and who presented Pakistan Resolution?
18. Give two statements of Quaid-e-Azam on two nation theory?
19. Who was the chief of the boundaries commission and which Muslim areas are
included in India?
20. Who dissolved the first constitution of the geographic location of Pakistan?
21. Name the main cast of Hindu Society?
22. State the name of present Prime Minister, President, Governers and Chief
Ministers of Pakistan?
23. When and why Crips and Cabinet Mission come to India?
24. Statethree lines on India Basin Treaty pact?
25. Who recommended the name of Pakistan?
26. Write the full form of UNICEF and UNESCO and give theire functions?
27. State the objectives of round table conference?
28. State three lines on out comes of Simla conference of 1945?
29. State three lines on the role of Ali Brothers in Khilafat Movement?
30. State the name of regional language of Pakistan?
Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &
M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
31. Describe shortly agriculture resources of Pakistan?
32. State three lines on RCD?
33. When and where was Quaid-e-Azam OR Allama Iqbal born?
34. When was UNO established and name the main organization of UNO?
Section C: (Detailed Answer Questions)
1. Explain political, educational and social services of Sir Syed ahmed Khan for
the Muslim of South Asia?
2. Describe the guiding role of Quaid-e-Azam in Pakistan movement?
3. Explain the ideology of Pakistan with the statement of Quaid-e-Azam and
Allama Muhammad Iqbal?
4. Define culture and describe the important features of culture of Pakistan?
5. Explain the guiding principles of the foreign policy of Pakistan?
6. Give detail about initial problems of Pakistan after its establishment?
7. Explain the geographica importance of Pakistan in South Asia?
8. Define Two Nation Theory? And describe the role of Two Nation theory in
establishment of Pakistan?
9. Define constitution? Explain the Islamic Features of constituion of 1973?
10. Write the important political events from 1905 to 1949?
11. Describe the role of Urdu in unity of Pakistan?
12. Important Notes:
• Agriculture problems and its solutions
• Fourteen points of Quaid-eAzam
• SAARC countries
• Luknow Pact
• Pakistan Resolution
• Objective Resolution
• Allahabad Address
• Pak-India Relationship

Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &

M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
Pakistan Studies Fill in the Blanks
1. The last viceroy of united India was _______.(Lord Mount Batten)
2. ______ is known as Bab-ul-Islam.(Sindh)
3. The first O.I.C summit was held in ___________ in _______. (Rabat,Morocco)(1969)
4. The second O.I.C summit was held in ________ in _________.(Lahore,Pakistan)(1974)
5. The third O.I.C summit was held in _______ and ________
6. in________.(Makkah)(Taif,Saudia Arabia)(1981)
7. The fourth O.I.C summit was held in ________ in ______.(Casablanca,Morocco)(1984)
8. 7.The fifth O.I.C summit was held in _______ in _______.(Kuwait)(1987)
9. The sixth O.I.C summit was held in ________ in ______.(Dakar,Senegal)(1991)
10. The seventh O.I.C summit was held in _______ in _______.(Casablanca)(1994)
11. The eight O.I.C summit was held in ___________ in _______.(Tehran,Iran)(1997)
12. The highway linking China and Pakistan is called
13. Pakistan became the member of U.N on ____________and ___________ Opposed
it.(30th December 1947)(Afghanistan)
14. _____________ are the two most important food crops of Pakistan.(Wheat and Rice)
15. The Objective Resolution was put forwarded by ___________ in________.(Liaqat Ali
16. ._________ and ________ are two famous Pushto poets.(Khushal Khan
Khatak)(Rehman Baba)
17. The State Bank was inaugurated by _________ in __________.(Quaid-e-Azam)(July
18. The first constitution of Pakistan came into force on __________ and cancelled in
_______.(23rd March 1956)(1958)
19. The second constitution of Pakistan was promulgated on __________.(1st March 1962)
20. The third constitution of Pakistan was promulgated on _________.(14th August 1973)
21. Pakistan's second Governer General and 2nd Prime Minister was _______.(Khawaja
22. The Government of Pakistan imposed the system of Zakat in the year _____ and it is
collected at ______.(1980)(1/3 %)
23. Quaid-e-Azam joined Muslim League in the year _____.(1913)
24. The Simla delegation was headed by ___________.(Sir Agha Khan)
25. Pakistan's largest heavy engineering complex is situated at _______ ,Built with the help
of ____.(Texila)(China)

Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &

M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
26. The highest peak of Pakistan is _____.(K-2)
27. Sui gas was found in the year _____.(1952)
28. _________ was the chairman of boundary commission.(Sir Red Cliff)
29. The growth rate of Pakistan is _____.(3%)
30. The Lucknow Pact was signed between Muslim League and _______ in the year ____.
31. The first President of All India Muslim League was _______.(Sir Agha Khan)
32. Quaid-e-Azam proposed his 14 points in the year _____.(1929)
33. The United Nations was founded in _________.(24th October 1945)
34. The first meeting of the Muslim League took place in the year ____ at _______.(1908)
35. The Cripps Mission visited India in______.(1942)
36. ___________ Was the first Governer General of Pakistan.(Quaid-e-Azam)
37. The Cabinet Mission came to India in the year ______ A.D and had ___ members.
38. R.C.D (Regional Co-operation for development )was established in______.(1964)
39. Quaid-e-Azam Gave his 14 points in reply to ________.(Nehru Report)
40. Mount Batten announced his plan on _________.(3rd June 1947)
41. The first independent ruler of Muslim India was ________.(Qutub uddin Aibak)
42. Allama Iqbal gave his historical address in the year _____ A.D at _____ .(1930)
43. Quaid-e-Azam appealed on _________ to observe day of Deliverance or Yaum-e-Nijat
Tashakkur.(22th december 1939)
44. ___________ has 4 divisions.(Sindh)
45. __________ was the first President of Pakistan.(Iskander Mirza)
46. Participation of Bengal took place in the year ______A.d And cancelled in _____ A.D.
47. The two biggest hydraulic dams of Pakistan are _______ and ______.(Tarbela)
48. Pakistan was recognized as a republic in the year _____.(1956)
49. _____________ Translated the Holly Quran in Persian.(Hazrat Shah Wali Ullah)
50. Moen jo Daro was built _______ years ago through a thought plan.(4000)
@import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense.css";
51. The Muslim League was founded in _______ at _____ due to the movement of
_______ .(1906) (Dhaka) ( Nawab Saleem Ullah Khan)

Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &

M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
52. All India Congress was founded by ____________ in the year _________ A.d.(Allan
53. The first Prime Minister of Pakistan was ___________.(Liaqat Ali Khan)
54. The First World War started in _______.(1914)
55. The second World War ended in ______. (1945)
56. Urdu is a Persian word it means ______.(Camp)
57. First Muslim General _____________ invaded Sindh.(Mohammad Bin Qasim)
58. The highest court of Pakistan is __________.(Supreme Court)
59. The Aligarh Movement was started by ________.(Sir Syed Ahmed Khan)
60. Quaid-e-Azam remained member of both Muslim League and Congress for __ years.(9)
61. Badshahi Mosque was built by __________ at Lahore.(Aurangzeb Alamgir)
62. Sindh was separated from Bombay presidency in the year _____A.D.(1936)
63. First Round Table Conference took place in London in _______ A.D.(1930)
64. Second Round Table Conference took place in London in ______ A.D.(1931)
65. General Zia Ul Haq took office in ____ A.D.(1977)
66. Quaid-e-Azam was born on ___________.(25th December 1876)
67. ___________ and ____________ are the two building found in Pakistan that were built
by Mughal Empire.(Badshahi Mosque)(Shahi Qila)
68. Pakistan's two important agricultural crops are _____ and _____.(Cotton)(Rice)
69. Allama Iqbal was born at ________.(Sialkot)(1877)
70. The last Mughal Emperor of India was _________.(Bahadur Shah Zafar)
71. Pakistan's largest steel mill is at ________ formed by the cooperation of ________.
72. There are ___ natural regions of Pakistan.(4)
73. The Mosque built by ________ is at Thatta.(Shah Jahan)
74. The duration sixth five -years plan is ______.(1985-1990)
75. According to the 1972 census the literacy rate in Pakistan was _____ which grew to
_____ in 1981.(21.7%)(26.2%)
76. The true name of Hazrat Mujaddid Alif Sane was _______.(Shaikh Ahmed)
77. In the 1945 Muslim League won ____ Muslims seats in the central Assembly.(30)
78. The British Parliament passed the Indian Independence law in _________ or made the
Indian participation plan into a law.(July 1947)
79. The script of All Pakistani languages is similar and it is based on ______ (Quranic
80. Sind Madarsa-ul-Islam was founded by ___________.(Hasan Ali Afandi)
81. Pakistan earns its biggest share of foreign exchange from _____.(Cotton)
Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &
M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
82. In _______ ,________ helped Pakistan in making arrangements to hold the Islamic
Summit Conference.(1974)(Shah Faisal)
83. The first General elections of Pakistan were held in the year______.(1971)
84. SAARC abbreviates for __________ .(South Asian Assocition for Regional
85. ________ founded Muslim League's braneli at London in _____.(Syed Ameor Ali)
86. All Pakistani languages contain lots of words of ______ and _______.(Arabic)(Persian)
87. Immediately after Independence from the British India forcefully annexed _______.
88. _______ and ________ occupied a large territory of Kashmir.(Dakkan)(Junagarh) ‘
89. The _____ nuclear exploitation showed the true face of Indian agression.(1974)
90. Congress started "Leave India Movement" in the year ______.(1942)
91. In_____,________ defeated the Marhatas at the battle field of Pani Patt.(1761)(Ahmed
Shah Abdali)
92. The first Mughal Emperor was _____.(Babar)
93. The Mughal Emperor Akbar introduced the _________.(Deen-e-Elahi)
94. Pakistani languages are greatly influenced from _______.(Arabic)
95. _________ and _________ are two important Sindhi poets.(Shah Abdul Latif)(Sachal
96. Two palces famous for wooden crafts are ______ and ______ in Pakistan.(Hala)
97. The Indus Basin Treaty was signed between Pakistan and India in the year ____.(1960)
98. Sindh Muslim League passed a resolution in _______.(1938)
99. Nizam-e-Mustafa movement was carried in the year ____.(1977)
100. The Hindu Society is divided in ___ casts.(4)
101. Pakistan's _____ population live in rural areas.(70%)
102. The first Muslim League Government was formed in Sindh in ______.(1943)
103. Masjid Mahabat Khan is situated at _________.(Peshawar)
104. Masjid Wazir Khan is situated at ________.(Lahore)
105. Simla Delegation met _______ in 1945.(Lord Wevell)
106. In year ____ the Simla delegation headed by Sir Agha Khan met ______.(1906) (Lord
107. Liaqat Ali Khan born in ______ and become the secretary general of Muslim in _____.
108. Waris Shah wrote _________.(Heer Ranjha)
Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &
M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
109. The total area of Pakistan is _________ and total population according to 1981
census is _____________ million/crores.(796096)(83782000)
110. Pakistan exploded its first atomic bomb at _______ in the year ______.(Chaghi)(May
111. Moen-jo-Daro is the province of ______.( Sindh).
112. The period of first five year plan was _________.(1955-1960)
113. Pakistan joined the non -Aligned Movement in in the year ______.(1979)
114. The first conferences of NAM was held at ______ in _______ and the second at
115. The fort of Lahore (Shahi Qila) was built by ________.(Jehangir)
116. Sind was conquired by Mohammad bin Qasim in the year ______.(712)
117. .The head of the state is called _______ and head of the Government is called _______.
(President)(Prime Minister)
118. The Secretariate of O.I.C is at ________ (Saudi Arabia) and RCD at ________.(Jeddah)
119. RCD is called now ________ .(R.E.C (Regional Economic Council) .
120. The desert land of Sindh is called _______ and that Bahawalpur is called ________.
121. The first Saint to came South Asia ______________ is most important of all.(Hazrat
Ali Hajveri)
122. Hazrat Amman Marvandi is known as _________.(Lal Shahbaz Qalandar)
123. In ______ Cripps mission was presented.(1942)
124. In 1945-1946 elections Muslim League won ____ seats in central and _______ in
provincial assembly.(all)(90%)
125. In ______ Lord Wavell proposed the formation of a temperary government consisting
of the political parties of United India.(1945)
126. According to 3rd June 1947 plan plebiscite was held in __________ and ________.
127. In the North of Kabul river Khyber Pass is situated which is _____ km long.(53)
128. In the 1973 constitution ________ was recognized as state religion.(Islam)
129. In Pakistan ____ languages are spoken.(30)
130. __________ is the sufi poet of Pushto poetry.(Rehman Baba)
131. _________ is considered as first poet of Pushto.(Ameer Karoro)
132. For a developing country like Pakistan ____________ is very important.(Nuclear
133. U.N has _______ members.(159)
Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &
M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
134. The five principles passed by the Non-Aligned countries are called _______.(Punj
135. The members of R.C.D are _________,________, and ________.(Pakistan)(Iran)
136. In __________ separate elections principle was accepted.(1909)
137. Sir Syed founded scientific society in ________.(1862)
138. The Khilafat conference meeting held at Karachi in ______.(1921)
139. The fundamental principle of our foreign policy is ________________.(friendship with
the nations of the world)
140. Sir Syed brought out the digest "Tehzib-ul-Akhlaq" in _______.(1870)
141. The first central office of Muslim League was established at ________.(Aligarh)
142. The word Pakistan was proposed by ______________ in a pamphlet named _______ .
(Choudri Rehmat Ali)(No and Never)
143. The first constituent assembly of Pakistan was dissolved in the year ______ and
_______ was its speaker.(1954)(Mir Maulvi Tamizuddin)
144. Under the constitution of 1973 the National Assembly consists of ______ Muslim
members and the Senate consist of ____ members.(207)(87)

Short Questions and Answers

1. Who was the first president of Islamic Republic of Pakistan?
Ans. The first President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was Iskandar Mirza.
2. Of which organization is UNICEF the the abbreviated forms?
Ans. UNICEF is one of the specialized agencies of United Nations and dis the abbreviated
form of "United Nations International Children Emergency Fund."
3. Which Institution was inaugurated by Quaid-e-Azam in July 1948?
Ans. The State Bank of Pakistan was inaugurated by Quaid-e-Azam in July 1948.
4. Name the rivers on which the Mangla Dam and the Tarbela Dam are built.
Ans. Tarbela Dam is built on River Indus and Mangla Dam is built on River Jhelum.
5. Name two famous poets of Pushto language.
Ans. The famous and popular poets of Pushto language are:
(i) Kazim Khan Shaida (ii) Rehman Baba
6. Who are the famous poets of Sindhi language?
Ans. The famous and popular poets of Sindhi language are:
(i) Syed Abdul Karim Mohammad Hashim (ii) Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai
(iii) Sachal Sarmast (iv) Pir Mohammad (v) Makhdoom Noah

Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &

M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
(vi) Makhdoom Ahmed Bhitai
7. Who are the famous poets of Punjabi language?
Ans. The names of famous poets of punjabi language are given below:
(i) Sultan Bahu (ii) Bullah Shah (iii) Shah Hussain
(iv) Waris Shah (v) Madho Lal Hussain (vi) Ghulam Farid
8. Was the constitution of 1962 of presidential or parliamentary type?
Ans. The constitution of 1962 introduced the presidential form of Government.
9. Name the natural regions of Pakistan.
Ans. Pakistan is divided into six natural regions.
(i) Northern Mountain Range (ii) Mountains of Western Frontier
(iii) Plateau of Potowar and Salt Range (iv) The Plateau of Baluchistan
(v) Upper Indus Plain (vi) Lower Indus Plain
10. Write the objectives of U.N.O.
Ans. The main aims and objectives of United Nations (UNO) are:
(i) The first and foremost aim of U.N.O is to prevent war and mantain peace in the
world through collective efforts.
(ii) To create good will among the nation of the world through economics,
social,political dn humanitarism means.
(iii) To eraclicate the evils of caste,colour and creed by means of education.
(iv) Cultivation of friendly relations among the people on the basis of equality and the
principle of self-determination.
(v) Preservation of human rights and fundamental freedom all over the world.
11. Of which organization is R.C.D the abbreviated from?What is it new name?
Ans. R.C.D is the abbreviated form of "Regional cooperation Developement".The new
name is E.C.O (Economic Cooperation Organization).
12. Describe briefly the causes that led to the creation of All Muslim League?
Ans. Following are the causes of the formation of All India Muslim League:
(i) Congress-A Hindu Organisation:
Hume laid the foundation of Indian National Congress in 1885,But Congress by its
policy and propaganda proved itself a Hindu Organisation.
(ii) UnHappy Events of partition of Bengal:
Hindu's attitude towards Muslim intrest and the partition of bengal had exposed
Hindu feelings beyond any doubt.
(iii) Safeguard for Urdu:
Urdu-Hindi controversy was one of the causes of the creation of Muslim League.
(iv) Propaganda against Islam:
Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &
M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
Some Hindu leaders had raised the slogan "India is for Hindus only".They started
propaganda against Islam and Muslims.
13. Way where and with whom did the members of the Simla Delegation go to meet?
Ans. On 1st Oct.1906 ,a Muslim deputation consisting of 35 representative met the Viceroy
Lord Minto at simla and presented some demands of Muslims.The viceroy gave a
patient hearing to the demands of the Muslims presented by the Simla Delegation and
he promised to give athetic consideration to the demands of Muslims and assured
them that the intrests of the Muslims would be safeguard.
14. When and why was the Khilafat Movement started?Who were the leaders of the
Ans. After the first world war ,the fate of Ottoman Turkish Empire (Khalifa) was
sealed.The Turkish Sultans had claimed to the Caliphs of the Muslim World.The
general impression among the Muslims was that the Western Powers were waging a
war against Islam to rob it of all its powers.Muslims of South India took up courage
and started "Khilafat Movement in 1919,its aim was to:
(i) To save Khilafat (ii) To protect Holy Cities from non-Muslim control
The leaders of Khilafat Movement were:
(i) Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar (ii) Maulana Shaukat Ali
(iii) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
15. What do you know about the regional languages of Pakistan?
Ans. The general elections for the central lagisleture Assembly were held in India in
December ,1945.The Muslim League won 86.6% of the total Muslim seats.Out of
total 102 seats in the central Assaembly ,the Muslim league won 30 seats.
17. Write names of the member countries of the SAARC organization.
Ans. The following are the member countries of SAARC:
(i) India (ii) Pakistan (iii) Bangladesh (iv) Sri Lanka
(v) Nepal (vi) Bhutan (vii) Maldives
18. When and which treaty was signed between India and Pakistan with respect to
canal water dispute?
Ans. The water dispute had its origin in the partiton of Punjab.It came to light on April
1,1948,when India cut off the flow of canal water to West Punjab in Pakistan,causing
a great threat of famine and loss of corps in West Punjab.
With the Intervention of World Bank,On September 19,1960,an agreement was
concluded between the countries which is known as "Indus Basin Treaty".The treaty
was signed by President Ayub Khan from Pakistan side and by Pandit Jawahar Lal
Nehru from India in 1961.According to this agreement the Chenab,Jhelum and the
Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &
M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
Indus rivers were allocated to Pakistan and three Eastern rivers Sutluj,Bias and Ravi
were given to India.
19. When and where as the first session of the All India Muslim League held?
Ans. The first session of the All India Muslim League was held at Karachi on 29th and 30th
December, 1907.
20. When and Who dissolved the first constituent Assembly of Pakistan?
Ans. The first constituent Assembly of Pakistan was dismissed by then the Governor
General Ghulam Mohammad on Oct. 24th,1954.
21. When and Where was Allama Iqbal born?
Ans. Allam Iqbal was born on 9th November 1877 in Sialkot.
22. Name any two cash crops of Pakistan?
Ans. Cash crops supply raw material to industries,Foriegn exchange is also earned through
export of these corps.The cash-crops of Pakistan are:
(i) Cotton (ii) Sugar-Cane
23. How many administrative divisions are there in Sindh?
Ans. There are four administrative divisions in Sindh.
24. Name the main Industries of Pakistan?
Ans. The main Industries of Pakistan are:
(i) Textile Industries (ii) Cement Industries (iii) Paper Industries
(iv) Sugar Industries (v) Steel Industries (vi) Fertilizer's Factories
25. On what date was the day of deliverance observed as announced by the Quaid-e-
Azam ?
Ans. When the Congress ministers,resigned in October,1939,the Quaid-e-Azam appealed to
the Muslims of India to observe a "Deliverance Day" On Dec. 22,1939 and expressed
their relief at the terminatio of Congress rule which had been too hostile during the
last two years.He also appealed that the Day should be observed peacefully.The
Deliverance Day was observed peacefully throughout the country.
26. When was the Zakat System introduced in Pakistan?
Ans. The Zakat System was introduced in the country through the Zakat and Ushr
Ordinance on June 20,1980.According to this ordinance,zakat fund would be
established to collect these sorts of gifts and it was compulsory for every sahib-e-
nisab Muslim whetehr male or female to pay zakat by deducting it from his or her
account in the bank.
27. Name the first casts of Hindu Society?
Ans. The Hindu Society was divided into the following four casts:
(i) Brahman (ii) Khatri (iii) Vaish (iv) Shooder
Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &
M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
28. Which caste is respected the most in the Hindu Society?
Ans. The Brahman's are considered the most superior in the Hindu society.
29. What are the works given to the Khatris?
Ans. The occupation of Khatris was to fight and defend the country.
30. What is the occupation of Vaish?
Ans. The people of the Vaish caste are farmerstraders ,industrialist and artisans.
31. What was the occupation of Shooder?
Ans. The people of Shooder caste were considered the lowest of other casts.They had to
serve the other castes,i.e they were slaved.
32. How did Urdu language came into being?
Ans. The Mughal army consisted of people belonging to different communities of India
and speaking different languages .By intermingling of these people,a new language by
the name of Urdu came into existance.
33. Name the Sufi's who worked for the spread of Islam in South Asia?
Ans. The Sufi's and Saints who worked for the spreading of Islam in South Asia are:
(i) Hazrat Data Ganj Baksh (ii) Khuwaja Moeenuddin Chishti
(iii) Hazrat Mujaddid Alif Sani (iv) Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalander
(v) Hazrat BahaUddin Zakaria
34. What do you mean by "Ideology of Pakistan"?
Ans. Pakistan came into existence of the basis of one ideology and this ideology refers that
Islam is the religion of all the Muslims and this Islamic ideology is the idiology of
35. Which province did not have any constitution during the British rule?
Ans. The British had made North West Frontier Province as "Non-Constitutional Land".
36. When did Partition of Bengal take place and benefited from it?When and had
did the annulment of partition took place?
Ans. The Partition of Bengal took place in 1905 and this was the first right step taken by
the British towards the intrests of Muslims,but the narrow-minded Hindus could not
bear this and due to thier opposition the annulment of partition took place in 1911.
37. Why did the Muslims not accept the Nehru Report?
Ans. In the Nehru Report,the Hindus did no respect the rights and intrests of Muslims and
not fulfilled the promises made by them.Therefore,the Muslims did not accept the
Nehru Report.
38. Why didQuaid-e-Azam presented his fourteen points?
Ans. Quaid-e-Azam presented his fourteen points in reply to the Nehru Report.
39. Why did the round table conference failed?
Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &
M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
Ans. The Round Table Conference failed due to the narrow-mindedness and negative
attitude of the Hindus.
40. Write down the points of the Indian Independence Act of 1947?
Ans. The important points of Indian Independence Act are:
(i) The legislative supremacy of the two dominions.
(ii) The legislatures of the two Dominions were given full powers to make laws
having extra-territorial jurisdication.
(iii) The British Government was to have no control over the affairs of the
Dominions.Provinces or any part of the Dominions after 15th August,1947.
41. What were the important points of third June Plan?
Ans. The important points of third June Plan was are as follows:
(i) India was to be divided into Hindustan And Pakistan.
(ii) Pakistan was to comprise the Muslim majority areas with a right to secede from
the rest of India.
(iii) The Muslims majority areas would be demarcated by a Joint Boundary
(iv) Bengal would be partitioned into Muslim and Hindu majority areas.
42. Which party formed the Government of Britain when the sub-continent was
Ans. The Labour Party ruled the Government of Britain when India was partitioned.
43. Write the name of some Muslim Leaders who worked during the Pakistan
Ans. (i) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (ii) Nawab Salim Ullah (iii) Nawab Mohsin-ul-
Mulk (iv) Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk (v) Sir Agha Khan (vi) Allama Iqbal
(vii) Quaid-e-Azam
44. During the World War II,what promise did the British Government made
towards the people of sub-continent?
Ans. The British Government promised the people of sub-continent that India will be
partitioned after the end of the Second World War.
45. How many Resolutions did the U.N passed regarding Kashmir problem?
Ans. The Security Council of United Nations passed two Resolutins on 17th August,1948
and 5th January,1949.
46. What did Quaid-e-Azam said about Radcliff Commission?'
Ans. The Quaid-e-Azam remarked about Radcliff Commission or Radcliff award:
"The award was a parting Kick of the British Government."

Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &

M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
47. What was the percentage of Muslims in Jammu and Kashmir according to the
census of 1941?
Ans. According to the census of 1941,the Muslim population in Kashmir was 96% and in
Jammu,it was 70%.
48. What do you know about Mohammad Ali Bogra Formula?
Ans. In the period of third Prime Minister,Mr.Mohammad Ali Bogra,great efforts were
made for the preparation of the constitution in the light of the recommendations of the
committee he was able to prepare a draft bill of the constitution which is known as
"Mohammad Ali Bogra's Formula".In this formula,it was suggested to give equal
representation to East and West Pakistan.
49. When was the objective resolution passed?
Ans. The objective resolution was passed on 12th March,1949 in the Constituent Assembly.
50. Which event took place in the history of constitution making of Pakistan 1955?
Ans .It was hoped that after Mohammad Ali Bogra Formula,a constitution would be made
in the country but in 1954,the Governer General dismissed the Constituent Assembly
and in 1955,a new constituent Assembly was elected which started the work of
constitution making.
51. How long did the 1956 constitution last?
Ans. The constitution of 1956 lasted for only two and a half years.On 7th October,1958,the
army took over the Government.
52. According to the constitution of 1962,name the council that was established to
point out the non-Islamic things.
Ans. The Council which was established to point out the non-Islamic things is known as
"Islamic Ideology Council".
53. How long did the constitution of 1962 last?
Ans. This constituted lasted for 7 years.On 25th March,1969,Ayub Khan resigned and gave
the power to the army.General Yahya Khan dismissed the 1962 constitution and
enforceed Martial Law in the country.
54. When was the legal frame work Order issue?
Ans. The legal frame work Order was issued on March 30th,1970.The said order contained
the fundamental principles of the constitution to be framed by the elected assembly as
well as the number of seats in National and Provincial Assembly for the General
Elections to be held.
55. When were the Shariat Courts formed and where is its head office?
Ans. Shariat Courts were established in 1979 and its head office is at Islamabad.
56. When was the intrest-free banking system introduced in the country?
Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &
M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
Ans. On 1st January,1981,an intrest-free banking system was introduced in the
country.According to this system ,the account holder was made a partner with the bak
in its profit or loss by sharing it according to his investments in the bank.
57. Under what circumstances did General Zia-ul-Haq took control of power on 5th
July 1977.
Ans. The elections held in the country were not fair.The people started the Nizam-e-
Mustafa Movement.The Government held discussion but no results were obtained.As
a result,the army on 5th July 1977 took control of the power.
58. Give the location of Pakistan.
Ans. Pakistan is geographically located between 23.45 to 36.45 North Latitude and about
61 to 75.5 East longitude in South Asia .The country is sorrounded by Bharat in
East,Afghanistan in the North West,Iran in the West and the Arabian Sea in the South.
59. How much is the area of Pakistan?
Ans. The total area of Pakistan is 796096 square kilometers.
60. What does the word "Doab" mean?
Ans. The land or space between two rivers is known as "Doab".
61. Give a brief account of the seasons in Pakistan?
Ans. There are four seasons in Pakistan:
(i) Summer-From May till September (ii) Winter-From November till February
(iii) Spring-The season of March and April (iv) Autumn-September and October
62. Write down the names of some important departments of Government of
Ans. The important departments of Government of Pakistan are as follows:
(i) Foreign Office (ii) Defence Department (iii) Interior Ministry
(iv) Finance Department (v) Education Department (vi) Health Department
(vii) Communication Department
63. How does the Government controll the affairs of F.A.T.A (Federally
Administered Tribal Areas)?
Ans. The Federal Government through its appointed agent keeps in touch with the leaders
of Tribal Areas and Controls the system of these areas.The shol are comes under the
control of jirgah.This is a council comprising of the religions and experienced people
of these tribes.
64. What do you mean by Culture?
Ans. Culture is the history of the society and reflects its social past.Culture means
behaviour peculiar to its human beings.Culture consists of

Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &

M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
65. From which areas did civilized life begin?
Ans. Human civilization started from those areas where water,air and other geographics
conditions were in much condition for life.Therefore,fertile valley of rivers include
Dajla Dafrat(iraq) ,valley of Nite (Egypt) and Indus valley (Pakistan).The evolution of
population started from these areas and civilised life began.
66. The land of Pakistan is famous of which civilizations?
Ans. The lanf of Pakistan is proud to have the birth of the historical civilization of the
valley of Indus.This civilization was at its peak about four or five thousand years ago.
67. Which land do you mean by Indus Valley?
Ans. Indus Valley means those areas which are situated near the River Indus and its
neighbouring Rivers.Its present name is Pakistan.
68. What do you mean by Gandhara Art?
Ans. The areas of Punjab and N.W.F.P which at present situated near Rawalpindi and
Peshawar were in the old days given the name of Gandhara Civilization.About two
and half thousand years ago,this civilization was at its peak whose art and culture
especially art of painting and stone carving are famous.
69. Write down the names of certain important buildings of Muslim Era.
Ans. (i) The fort of Agra (ii) Taj Mahal,Agra (iii) Shahi Qila,Delhi
(iv) The tomb of Jehangir,Lahore (v) Badshahi Masjid ,Lahore
(vi) Masjid Wazir Khan ,Lahore (vii) Jamia Masjid,Thatta
70. What do you mean by imperialist system?
Ans. The Britishers brought an imperialist system.The Imperialist system means that local
cultural and social agencies should be so bound by a political structure that they loose
their identification.
71. When did the Muslims invade South Asia?
Ans. Muslims invaded South Asia in 712 A.D.When Mohammad bin Qasim defeated the
army of Raja Dahir and established an Islamic Welfare State.
72. Which artist did Humayun brought back from Iran?
Ans. Humayun brought back to artist Mir Syed Ali Tabrezi and Khawaja Abdul Samad
from Iran.
73. Which type of painting flourished during the era of Jehangir?
Ans. Jehangir had great intrest in the art of painting.He claimed that he can identify a
painter by seeing his paintings in this era,this art was at its peak beautiful pictures of

Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &

M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
flowers ,paints,animals,birds and natural scenes were made.The pictures of war
fighting are magnifitient examples of realistic art.
74. Who was the first musician of the Muslim era?
Ans. Amir Khusro was the first musician of the Muslim era.He invented many rags in
75. What did the extremist Hundu Movements wanted to do against the Muslims?
Ans. Hindu extremist Movement such as Shoodhi,Shungthan and Arya Samaj wanted to
convert Muslims to Hindus and wanted diminish the separate identity and culture of
the Muslims so that the Muslims could leave India.
76. What message did the Allama Iqbal gave to the Muslims of the sub-continent?
Ans. Allama Iqbal gave the message to the Muslims of India that they should develop the
feeling of Islamic brotherhood and Jihad so that they could become independent.
77. What did Quiad-e-Azam said about the objective for the creation for Pakistan?
Ans. Quaid-e-Azam described the main objective of the creation of Pakistan in the
following words:
"We have not demanded Pakistan only to get a piece of land,but our aim was to get a
laboratory where we could practise the principles of Islam."
78. Pakistani culture is a mixed culture. Comment.
Ans. Pakistani culture is a mixed culture .There is still some impact of foreign traditions in
our society. We have adopted Western music and their style of living.Although
majority of the people are Muslims ther is a mixed culture of Hindus,Britishers and
79. The basis of Pakistani culture is on Islam.Comment.
Ans. Pakistan was established so that the Muslims could lead their lives according to the
teachings and principles of Islam.Pakistani culture is predominantly an Islamic
culture.Pakistan inspite of the differences of religion,language and customs
commonly follow the religion of Islam.
80. What are the Pakistani arts?
Ans. Pakistani arts include the following:
(i) Stone Carving (ii) Carpet Making (iii) Embriodery
81. How many languages are spoken in Pakistan?
Ans. In Pakistan, about 30 small and big languages are spoken.These include
Urdu,Sindhi,Pushto,Punjabi,Baluchi,Kashmiri and Brahvi.
82. What were the different names of Urdu in its different periods?
Ans. In the beginning Urdu was given the name Hindavi,Hindi and Hindustani.Later on,it
was given the name Urdu-e-Moalla and Rekhta.And now it is given the name Urdu.
Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &
M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
83. When did Pushto language begin?
Ans. Pushto is a language of N.W.F.P .The people speaking these languages are called
Pukhtoon or pushtoon.This language started about 5000 years in Afghanistan.Bakhtar
or Bakht.Due to this it was given the name Bakhto which later became Pukhto or
84. Whom began Sindhi language in Arabic script?
Ans. Abul-Hasan Sindhi began Sindhi language in Arabic script.
85. Which things are distinct in Punjabi literature?
Ans. Folk tales are very popular in Punjabi literature.The poets gave these tales into poetic
forms.These tales incude romances like Hir Raanjha,Sassi Panhu and Sohni Mahiwal.
86. Write down the names of famous Baluchi tales?
Ans. The famous tales of Baluchi language are:
(i) Chakar Khan (ii) Hamal Rando –Hanaz (iii) Berang-o-Grahan
(iv) Nazshah Hured Dahanni
87. Name three classical poets of Urdu.
Ans. The three classical poets of Urdu are:
(i) Mir Taqi Mir (ii) Mirza Ghalib (iii) Mir Dard
88. Who is considered as the first poet of Pushto?
Ans. Amir Karore is considered the first poet of Pushto.
89. Which languages influence Sindhi language?
Ans. Sindhi language is influenced by Darawdi,Sanskrit,Greek,Turkish,Pushto and other
90. 'Shah -jo-Risalo' is the poetic collection of which poet?
Ans. Shah -jo-Risalo is poetic collection of famous Sindhi poet Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai.
91. Which Civilization does Punjabi language has a link?
Ans. Punjabi has its links with Hadmai or Draudi civilization.
92. Name the different styles of of speech of Punjabi?
Ans. The different style of speech of Punjabi language are
Mulsani,Saraiki,Shahpure,Potohari etc.
93. Name three classical poets of Punjabi.
Ans. Three classical poets of Punjabi are:
(i) Shah Hussain (ii) Bulleh Shah (iii) Sultan Bahu
94. Who wrote Heer Ranjha?
Ans. Hir Ranjha was written by Waris Shah.
95. Which is the famous book of Hashim Shah?
Ans. The famous tale of Hashim Shah is Sassi Panhu.
Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &
M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
96. Which language does Baluchi link to?
Ans. Baluchi languages has its link with Aryan Languages.
97. Write down the different style of speeches of Baluchi?
Ans. The two styles of speeches of Baluchi are:
(i) Mehrani (ii) Sulemani
98. Name the ascents of Kashmiri?
Ans. Kashmiri has many ascents.These are Sulemani,Hindki,Gandro and Gami but Gandro
leads all the ascents.
99. Write down the salient features of the foreign policy of Pakistan.
Ans. The following are the fundamental principles of Pakistan's foreign policy.
(i) Protection of freedom and sovereignty. (ii) Close relations with Muslim
countries. (iii) Keeping away from big power politics. (iv) Support for self-
determination. (v) Implementation of United Nations Charter. (vi) Promotion of Peace
and Friendship.(vii) Non-Alignment.
100.Pakistan is the member of how many international organizations?
Ans. Pakistan is the active member of the following international organizations:
(i) United Nations Organizations. (ii) Non-Aligned Movement(N.A.M)
(iii) Organization of Islamic Conference (O.I.C)
(iv) Economic Cooperation Organization (E.C.O)
101. When was the foundation of United Nations Laid?
Ans. The foundation of United Nations(U.N.O) was laid on 24th Oct.1945.
102.Name the organs of U.N.O?
Ans. The organs of U.N.O are:
(i) General Assembly (ii) Security Council (iii) Economic and Social Council
(iv) Trustee-Ship Council (v) Secretariat (vi) International Court of Justice
103.Name the agencies of U.N.
Ans. Ther are several specialized bodies are:
(i) UNICEF-United Nations Internation Children Emergency Fund.
(ii) UNESCO-United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organisations
(iii) FAO-Food and Agricultural Organisation
(iv) WHO-World Health Organisation
(v) ILO-International Labour Organisation.
(vi) WB-World Bank.
104.What is the objective of Non-Aligned Movement?
Ans. The main objective of Non-Aligned Movement was not to join any of the big powers
and to keep away from big power politics.
Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &
M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
105.When was the foundation of R.C.D laid?
Ans. In July 1964, Iran, Pakistan and Turky with mutual understanding laid the foundation
of R.C.D (Regional Cooperation of Development).Now, Its new name is Economic
Cooperation Organization (E.C.O).

Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &

M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
Allama Iqbals Presidential Address-1930
On December 30,1930 the annual meeting of the All India Muslim League was held at
Allahabad.Allama Iqbal presided over the meeting .On this occation he delivered his famouse
historical aadress which proved to be a milestone in the proceeding to make a demand for an
independent Muslim State.


1.N.W.F.P Sind,Punjab and Baluchistan should be combined in one state.
2.The Muslims are entirely a different nation from Hindus .Their way of living and social manners are
totally different from the Hindus.Their religion is entirely different in nature from other relations.Thus
the Muslims should get a state of their own in the area of Muslim majority where they may be able to
cultivate their own religious and moral traditions.


Iqbal's speech at the League session created a mild flutter but generally it was not taken
seriously.Though he had,in detail explained the basis leading to demand a separate homeland.He
mentioned that Islam was not simply the name of a few creeds,the oral recognization of which would
make our ideal Muslim.It had given its followers,the concept of a particular and unique political society
which covered all the phases of their life.
Even though the Muslims of South Asia were disorganized and lay scattered in different parts of the
region,yet their central position was the same.They had the same culture,the same history and same
civilization.These elements gave similarity and agreement to all the Muslims of the Sub Continent on
the one hand and made them quite distinct from the Hindus on the other.
In his Presidential address ,Allama Iqbal said:
"I would like to see the Punjab,North west frontier province,Sind and Baluchistan
amalgamated into a single state.Self government within the British empire without the British
empire,the formation of a consolidated North West Indian Muslim State appears to me to be
the final destiny of the Muslims at least of north west India."

It is on his Allahabad ddress that Allama Iqbal is known as the dreamer of Pakistan.His address
proved to be a milestone in the history of the Sub Continent and the creation of Pakistan.

Cultural Heritage of Pakistan

Cultural Heritage of Pakistan
In the developement of any nation.Its cultural heritage and its glorious past plays a vital role and
serves as a source of inspiration and pride for t=its people.Our country Pakistan is accordingly proud
of its cultural heritage.


Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &

M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
Culture may be defined as behaviour peculiar to human beings,together with material objects
used.Culture consists of languge ,ideas,beliefs,customs,codes,institution,tools,techniques,works of
arts,ceremonies and so on.According to Allama Iqbal:
"Culture encompasses all the mental,spiritual and physical activities of a nation.It includes the
basic beliefs and faith,values and literature,art and architecture,music and mode of
dress,manners and customs prevalent in a given society."


Pakistan is an Ideologic Islamic State.Its very existence is due to Islam,so the Pakistani culture is
primarily based on the Islamic way of life.All other ingredients of culture are inspired by
Islam.Pakistani culture is highlighted by its grandeure ,simplicity,firm convictions and noble deeds and

Pakistan has been the cradle of civilization that dates back more than five millenium.Over the
centuries,through successive waves of migrations from the North West,as well as by internal
migrations across the Sub Continent,Aryans,Persians,Greeks,Arabs and Mughals came and settled in
the region and have left behind the archaelogical sites in Pakistan which is now being preserved.A
brief review of the different civilizations which flourished and then perished with the passage of time is
as under:

Moen- jo- Daro

Moen-jo-Daro is situated at a distance of some kilometers from Larkana.A civilization fourished there
some 4000 years ago.It was discovered by Sir John Marshall in 1922.Moen jo Daro stands as most
spectacular of all the excavate cities of the Indus valley civilization.It is strange that at its glory,it was a
beautiful city with brick walled houses,pillared halls,markets,baths,lanes,streets and public
places.Every house had walls,drains and bathrooms inside it.

Harappa is situated in the city o Sahiwal.Scientist and archaelogists believe that Harappa also
belongs to the Indus valley civilization.Remains of this city were excavated in the 1920.

It is comparratively a new civilization,the regions comprising Northern Punjab,Peshawar valley and
Eastern Afghanistan was known as Gandhara.For a long time it remained the meeting place of
various ancient cultures,as it was rule by many rulers.A distinctive art which is known as Gandhara Art
took place from here and flourished during the 2nd and 3rd century of Christian era.Thousand
monastries and stupas were widely built here Buddha's figures,shapes and monastries all made
prominent features of Gandhara Arts.

Buddhist Remains
The Buddhist era ushered in some 500 years B.C.The Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi is in
N.W.F.P .It dates 2-5 century old.Some mounds were also found near Peshawar which represent
Kanishka's mighty Pakistan.An impressive complex of Chapels,Stupas,quadrangles and monk's cells

Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &

M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
are also found.The great Buddhist civilization now forming the heritage of the present Pakistan

It was excavated in recent times near Rawalpindi.Taxila is the most popular name in history.It came
into prominence during the Persian occupation.At its zenith,the city was the nucleus of religious and
cultural activities.

The main town of Thatta is famous for specimens of Indo-Muslim architecture in the Sub
Continent.Noteable among them is the great mosque built by Shah-Jahan.The principle monuments
of Thatta are located on the Makli Hill.

Lahore Fort
It is also known as Shahi Qila.It was built by Akbar.The main structure inside the fort are the Moti
Masjid,Diwan-e-Aam,Maktab Khana,the Shish Mahal and Nawlakha.The Hathi and Alamgir gates are
also remarkable constructions.

Badshahi Mosque
It was built by Aurangzeb.Its architecture is similar to the Jamia Masjid Delhi.The mosque has been
built with red stones while the domes are in marble.

Jahangir Tomb
This tomb wasbuiltby Shsh Jahan.It is known as a fine building of Lahore.

Shalimar Garden
It is situated on the Grand Trunk Road and is a magnificent remnant of Mughal Grandeur.The garden
constitutes of three terraces,one above the other.Besides there is an elobrate and beautiful
reservoir,water channels and fountains.

Masjid Wazir Khan

It is situated in Kashmir Baazar inside the walls of the old city.It was built by Nawab Wazir Khan who
was a viceroy of Punjab under Shah Jahan.

Golden Mosque
It is situated near the Masjid Wazir Khan .It was built during the rule of Mohammad Shah and it is also
a very beautifull piece of architecture.

Mahabat Khan Mosque

This Mosque was built by a Government of Peshawar.Mahabat Khan,duringShah Jahan's region.It
has afine massive structured with lofty minarets.

The Fort of Bala Hasar

This fort was built on raised plateform 92 feet from the ground level.There are two gardens near the

Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &

M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad
The art of painting has developed slowly in the Muslim of South Asia.In the beginning decorative
paintings and embroidery were made on the walls and ceilings of buildings.The Mughal rulers were
very fond of paintings.The traditional art of painting occupies a prominent place in the people of
Pakistan.Abdul Rehman Chughtai,Haji Mohammad Sharif,Jamil Nagshare are the most distinguished

The Muslim took a keen intrest in the promotion of calligraphy.Its main reason is their deep love with
Holy Quran.During this period many kinds of calligraphy progressesd.The mosques constructed
during early and medieval periods of Islam were decorated with masterpieces of calligraphy.

The Mughal contributed a great deal to the promotion of music and Pakistan has inherited musical
traditios that go far back in history.Ameer Khusro and Tansain are famous musicians of the historical

Architecture and Sculpture

The Muslim art of architecture was unique in every aspects.The architecture and all the miniature arts
including carving,sculpture,mosaic works,tile works and paintings were called upon to build new
mosques and places.

In the developement of Pakistan society,its cultural heritage has played a vital role.Pakistani nation is
justly proud of the historical period which brings with nearly 4th century B.C and continued with the
advent of Islam in Sub Continent in 8th century A.D.
"Our cultural heritage expresses courage ,patients and hard life.They all are in connection with
life which is a fundamental part of Islamic teachings."

Notes: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Ramzan Mughal, M.A History &

M.A Political Science
Lecturer Political Science F.G. Post Graduate College H-8, Islamabad