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Learning Outcornes:
o Identify the problems that could be faced by multicellular organisms in obtaining
their cellular requirements and getting rid of thejr waste products
o Suggest how these problems are overcome in multicellular organisms
Problems Faced by Multicellular Organisms in Obtaining Their Cellular Requirements
and Removing Their Waste Products

1. Big size - the total surface area to volume 2.Cells are often 19.S9.tS.-d.

(TSA/V ) is d.9.e.1.9.?.f.9........ far away from the external

Rate of diffusion of substances inio and out sudace of the body
of all body cells is 1.9.S.......

How multicellular organism overcome these problem?

1. Have sreg:.*1i:S.$..... structure to increase the s.Y.ff.9.9.9....... a.t9.9.... for the exchange of
respiration gases
2. Have t.r.-q.l$RSftsystem to get gases respiration in and out of tissue and to take excretory
waste/ urea from ihe liver to the kidney and skin
3. Have d.i.frQ.€.ty.gsystem to bring in food from surroundings into alimentary canal, digest and
absorb into small intestine. Digested food are then transported to the body cells through
blood and lymphatic system.

Unicellular organisms {Eg. Amoeba sp and Pararnecium sp)

'1, Have small size - the TSfuV is ni.9. Exchange of substances between organism ar

surrounding occurs easily

2. Body cells is directly in contact with surroundings. No need specific organ for gas
3. Transpori system not required as gases exchange can takes place by plasma
membrane. Excretory waste are directly eliminated from cells to the surroundings
through the cell membrane
4. Does not need digestive system because food is directly taken in from surrounding
through plasma membrane by pht-9.9SJt-o.-€.'S..., then digested by intracellular enzyme
in food vacuole

Sarnple Question 2 PaPer 3

The fate of gxqhqnge of SUbEtances in an organigm depends on the sr;face area that is
in contict with the surroundings. However, the amount of substances the organism
requires also depends on the volume of organism, The ability to meet these
iqqqlrgmqnts depends an the tqta! surtuce area tA vglume ratig.

Base on the above statement, design a laboratory experiment to investigate the effect of
total suface area to volume ratio on the rate of diffusion of substances.

Objective To investigate the effect of total sudace area to volume ratio on the rate of
diffusion of subtances.

Problem What is the effect of total surface area to volume (TSA/V) ratio on the rate of
of Statement diffu sion of substances?

Hypothesis The larger the total surface area to volume ratio, the higher the rate of diffi]sion
of substances.


Variables MV: size of potato cubes /total surface area to volume raUo (of the potato cube)

RV: rate of diffrrsion / percentage of coloured area

FV: time taken/ volume/concentration of coloured water

lsm aI

Material & Potatoes, cslored solution/liquid //red inV filter paper

Apparatus Beaker, white tile, knife, ruler and grid (transparency)lgraph paper, stop watch

Teehnique Measure and record area stain with colored solution by using grid
(transparen cy) lt calculate and record the rate of diffusion by using formula :

zyme Rate of diffrrsion = p€rc€ohge of colored area/ time taken(o/o min-1)


Procedure 1. Cut the potatoes into cubes with side 1cm, 2cm and 4cm respectively.
2. Immerse the three potato cubes into the beaker, of colored liquid for 30
3. After 30 minutes, remove the potato cubes from the beaker, the outer
surface of the cubes are dried with filter paper
4, Cut each potato cube into half
5. The colored area in each cube is estimated by using grid (transparency)
6. The percentage of eoloured area and the rate of diffi-tsion of each cube is
calculated and the results are recorded in the table.

Size Total Volume Total Percentage Rate of
of surface (cmt) surface of colored diffusion
cubes area area I area (o/o) (% min-l)
(cm) (c*') volume

Conclusion The larger the total surface area to volume raUo, the higher the rate of diffusion
of substances

ExCreise { (Rclating size to TSAM

Examine cuboid A and B. Calculate the TSAIV of both cuboids.
Assurne that the euboids ere two organisms. Whieh oFgaRisms
obtain their cellular requirement (O2 and nutrient) and removing
their waste produets {COzand urea) easily? Why?



Learning Outcomes:
o State what a circulatory system is
o State the three components of the circulatory system in human and animals
o State the medium of transport in humans and animals
o State the composition of human blood
o Explain the function of blood and haemolymph in transport
o Describe the structure of human blood vessels
o Explain how blood is propelled through the human circulatory system
o Explain briefly how blood pressure is regulated
o Compare and contrast the circulatory system in the following: human, fish
and amphibians
o Conceptualise the circulatory system in human

Circulatory System in Humans and Animals

1. Tlle circulatory system helps organism in:
a) delivering n.:*.fi9.S.{.. and oxJ9.311...... to cells
,b) carrying .9.9*..... andw.9ft9... p.f9SY9..+.f.. away from the cells
c) protecting the body from infections

2. The circulatory system includes three components:

Components of circulatory system

a) Medium of transport/ BL?.9.9...

1' .
A.'ti.r.tglf ..
(plasma, blood
. h.e.::l3.llPf.h. c.sPi*31i.?.*
Functions as a
m.Y.f.e.}J.9l. p..Y.$P
It creates the
V= 54 aodatubular heart p.t.9.:LT.19... that
cells and
platelets) forces the b.l.?3-d...
through the blood
haemolymph vessels throughout
the whole body of
the organism.


;l Learning Outcomes:
State what a circulatory system is
State the three components ol the circulatory system in human and animals
State the medium of transport in humans and animals
State the composition of human blood

":l o
Explain the function of blood and haemolymph in transport
Describe the structure of human blood vessels
Explain hbw blood is propelled through the human circulatory system
o Explain briefly how blood pressure is regulated
*'' o
Compare and contrast the circulatory system in the following: human, fish
and amphibians
Conceptualise the circulatory system in human

Circulatory System in Humans and Animals

i 1. Ttle circulatory system helps organism in:
a) delivering n.nt f.i?.S.{.. and o}fl9.3!?...... to cells
.b) carrying .S.g:s.....!.9... p.*$:t9.-+.f.. awayfrom the cells
I c) protecting the body from infections

2. The circulatory system includes three components:

_l Components of circulatory system

3 a) Medium of transport/ B!.?.9S... b) Blood vessels

1' .
A nr lflQlS

rsma, blood
. h.3.:.39.1rrr.b.
c arteries
. csPll\*li.?.f....
. veins
Functions as a

It creates the
!.. p. -u.$f

V= 54 aortatubular heart p.r.9.ff.1i.9... that

cellss ar
and capillaries
-2- platelet
:elets) forces the b.l.*S...
through the blood
haemolymph vessels throughout
the whole body of
the organism.

Composition of Human Blood D

. Blood is a kind connective tissue that are composed of.

Human Blood

Celiular components 45% p.139.113.... ssz Le.{s.e}ls:

. .
Platelets are
fragments of large cells /--\ n
Nutrients (e.g: glucose, amino
. lr,rinir"ut salts (eg .+S].,..lLpi.l.
from the bone marrow.
. They have no nucleus \.-/ U .cl \
'..' '.. .... '..,
. .

. They are . Dissolved qases (o*J.99lt

an d.931'.P9.-3. 9: g::,ii$
the orocess of b19.9*..
c.letti.h9. . Hormones (eg: insulin)
V---,tr -+
. Waste products (eg: urea and
(: q,,\/ | o= z-r
p. uric acids)
. Antibody
\u$ I . Plasma protein eq: albumin,
g.t g.b.:l.{in.., fibrin"ogen a nd

Granulocytes (70%) Ae.f.g !Tr.1 99.e,.1S1 3 0 % )

G !:9.0.!l l3!:.. cyto plasm Clear cytoplasm Lr

Lobed nuclei!9.1.. are not lobed g

Eosinophils * Neutrophils - Monocytes Lgtl.Pt'9.9J.+.9:
-controll - most -Origin from -produce
allergic abundant bone marrow antibodies
WBC -neutralize
r.- *:

Notes: . Phagocytes ='cell eater' mobile

8a- Sca'tz
Differentiate Red Blood Cells and White Blood Cells
. Complete the table below:

Characteristic RBC wBc'

1. Shape a)Eryth rocytes are b.lSSl.9g.Y.* discs, Leucocytes have nll.-c.t9.Y.1. uut oo
SETVES not have h s.9IP.qP.!9.f.1. f h"/"r"
.lncrease s!t#9.9.-e... a.trg-.S. to volume larger than erythrocytes and do

ratio for diffusion of gases across its not have fixed shape.

plasma membrane.

b) Erythrocytes have no n.Y.9!.9.11S. to

gives space for great quantities of

2. Function . Has haemoglobin that contains iron Le,v999Vtes

for the
atom and is the site of o.LH.9S.?... and d.9f:.?.:.-e...... of orga nisms against
carbon binding. diseases.

o Haemoglobin will combine with

oxygen or carbon dioxide depend on
their partial pressure and carry those
gases during respiration.

3. Diameter 8pm 10-15 pm

4. Number of
blood cell/mm3 5 million/ mm3 6000-'10000/ mm3
5. Lifespan 120 days A few days

B.q19... m.9.L1.9.H... Bone marrow (granulocytes), but

7. Manufactured
in may migrate to the thymus gland or
lymph nodes for their growth and
development stages.
. L,9!P.P.l.q.* scg.t.gP. (agranulocytes)

8. Destroyed in liver and spleen By phagocytosis process

Ratio: 1 WBC:700 RBC

Functions of Blood in Transport

1 )Transport of oX9.9.9n..... 4)Transport.of excretory waste products

. T rans port oxyg e n f rom l.9.DSf .ial.Y.99.l.Yl . D93.T!.:.9f.-o.?. of excess amino acids occurs
to all parts of the body/ cells. in the 1.1Y.91"... to form urea.
r ln the lung, oxygen combines with
h99f9.-e.l.q.htn. in tne erythrocytes to form . From liver urea is transported by blood to
oxyhaemoglobin. Erythrocytes is then the ki.9lSif... to be excreted.
pumped to the body tissue.
. I n tiss u e, o.r.v. h.-q. 3 :L9.s. J.9I i3. d s soci ates

into haemoglobin and oxygen, and 5)Tra n sport of h.9.1.T,?.t).9f.....

oxyqen is thereby supplied for c3ll.l.J.1l.

r Blood transports hormones produced by the
e.qC.9.91i.1.9.. g.l.?.1.S.1.... to the target organs.
r.s.*rt3]l9?.. Lung
Hb + Oz -----+ HbO .
hffiv.eEn For example, insulin and g.1.T.9.-a.9Sl'1.. are
carried by blood from the pancreas to the
2)Transport of water to tissues
r Water is transportqd by blood to prwide re)Tt
'n.99-u.l9l9body temperalure by distributing heat, especially
a m ed u m fo r b l:9.9h.9.T iS9. :.... r.e..9.!*9Ll.
|. I

I from muscle & liver to other oarts of the bodv I

3) Transport of carbon dioxide 7) Transpoft of absorbed food materials
. Cel u la r resoi
ration releases c.-q.L9.-o.?...... . Soluble digested tood, v.itgfil.Jano mineral
dr:e.?:{S.9..... are absorbed into the c.3fi.ll:.ll9f. of the villi
in the small intestine. For examples:
Glucose + Oz ----> Energy + COz + water
o stl*tl3.... s.YgS.l.. e.g glucose
. Carbon dioxide is transported from cells o amino acids
to the lungs/alveolus in the form of o water soluble vitamins ie ..Y.i*..P..
o hd.9.{99.9.?.. c.9.qh9391:.. ions in o mineral salts
plasma . Thgy are transported by the hgf$t.*. p9ltgl
o'll.::ghs.s.n99lghiliin RBC) frorn slR-q.!I. i.T'.*.*ilg to the liver and
o Dissolves directly in the blood then to the heart.
plasma . Other food materials are absorbed into the
. When the blood reaches the lungs, the 1.99.t331+..... in the villi. For examples:
carbon dioxide is released and. diffuses o fattyg ceFol acids
out of the blood into the aLy.igli....... rrl
^v Y.....r...'...1r
o vitamins A, D, E and K( fat soluble
What is transported? r They are then transported by the l.{.{lPh. into
From where? the blood circulatory system via the left
subclavian vein.
To where?
For what?

Fulnction of Haemolymph in Transport

' lr insects, the h9glng.lH.TPh. is a circulating main blood

blood-like nutritive fluid which fills the entire

bcdy cavity called haemocoel.
2. A circulating system in insects is called oFS.?'
ci.r:.g..t].9if.t9... slr:.*3.P... because the digestive
haemolymph haernolymph
flows into haemocoel
. is not confined to vessels onlY.
. bathes the tissues and internal organs directly
Nutrients from di.9.-e.f.t-e.9.. f.9.9.{.+ and h9..ll}-o..*S. diffuse from the haemotymph into the cells.
Waste products diffuse out from the cells into the haemolymph.
The haemolymph does not transport respiratory gases. Respiratory gases are transported
via the tracheal system.

I Bio-brain

Complete the table below to show where certain substances enter and leave
the blood

Substance Carried from Carried to

Amino acids lle qrtl Liver



Endocrine gland Target organs

I l--
Structure of Human Blood Vessels
There are three types of human blood vessels: artery, c.g.Pi]].SLy... and vern

Human Blood Vessels

A.n*g19...... c.-q.P.l.lSLY.., vg.i.t...

. Blood vessels that . Sites for the efS.\9!'t9..-e. ot Veins transport
carry oi1).9:nL:.9... respiratory gdQes, nutrients and : d.g.g.)P.91-q.-r.3.1
bL-o.9.3.. away from the wastes between blood and body b1.99.9...... from all
h.9.9f1... to all parts of cells. parts of the b.*J back
the body except . Capillary is the smallest blood to the heart except
pulmonary artery. vessel which joints artery and vein. pulmonary vein.

Capillary Venule
Arteriole I

r* I


deoxygenated biood

Different types of blood vessels

Endothelium Connective tissue

Lumen Smooth muscle

Elastic tissue

Cross section of typical blood vessel

. Artery branch out into smaller vessels called arterioles
r Afierioles branch to form capillaries.
. Capillary ioin with one another to form venules.
. Venules join together to form vein

ttlle;.-s, ".
3. The differences between arteries, capillaries and veins

Characteristic Arteries Capillaries Veins

Collagen fibre Endothelium

(connective tissue)


Single layer of

Elastic fibre
muscle muscle

Direction of blood Transport blood away Connect Transport blood from the
flow from ihe h.egLt.. to the a.r*9ri9l.ff to tissues to the heart
tissuesicells venules

Blood content Transport oxygenated Act as the sites for Transport

blood except the eI3h9.t].9S.... of d eoxgg8 no'te{;, tso{
pulmonary artery substances with the except the pulmonary
cell vein

Wall Th.i.".S..... muscular wall One cell in T!:'1.'l1Sf ...... wall

thickness (thinnest

Lumen size Small V.-e.|J.... s. ! Large

Valve No valve (except aorta at No v.9.1Y9... Valyes present along of

the base of aoda and the vessel to prevent
pulmonary artery)'' back flow of blood

* L9.::l'.... than arteries

Blood pressure H.i9h.... (with pulses) Lower than arteries
but higher than (No pulse)
veins (No pulse)

- Pulse '. The wave oTpressure on artery due to pumping action of the heart


How Blood is Propelled Through the Human Circulatory System? E

1. A heart, is an organ that generates the p.L9.8..{.9.f9'. to pump the blood

2. The basic structure of the human heart

Pulmonary- -
superior Pulmonary
vena cava vein
Right atrium
Left atrium W*Ii
neill'litiT Ii,F

Bicuspid valve
F-il'qtlt r:
inferior *
Chordae tendinae -:i- -
vena cava
Right ventricle Left ventricle

*Chordae tendinae control the

closing of the valve and prevent the dr
\li*-.t=. -
bi/tricuspid valve from turning inside
out during systole ventricle*

a) The human heart has four chambers:

. A.f*5;:-q. .. (singular, atrium) (upper chambers right and left) which receive blood
returning to the heafi.
. V.?.tlLlig.q:..... (lower chambers right and left) which pump blood out of the heart.
b) The s.eP.tY.T...... separates the right chambers from the left chambers.
c) The valves in the heart ensure that blood flows only in o.Q,9.. di.19.9.'1i.9f.. There are iq

three types of valves:

. S.g.Til-u.?.11.. wlye- the valves at the base of the aorta and pulmonary artery
o Bicuspid valve - the valve between the 19f.1...'.ig.*. and v.9f1.'.'.SJ'9.'..
. v.9,r,Y.9..... - the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle. il,

c) The heart is made up of c.9.fii.9.9. muscles. lt is said to be m,Y9.99L19.... because the

heart muscles able to contract and relax automatically (auto rhythm) throughout life and
are not controlled by the nervous system. E*:a:
d) The r.r.9Jtt. p.9.TP....... forces deoxygenated blood to the lungs. The left pump forces /hnrswr

o.T.999.L9.t-€.9... b.19.9.9...... to other parts of the body of ilrl,e

--e p;mping of the heart

b) Systole Atrium {0.1

- bicrispid'&

l valves opened
- semilunar
valves closed

c) Systole Ventricle (0.3

- bicuspid'& tricuspid
- semilunar valve
a) Position of SAN and


I ffihsr an'e SAN and AVN? Mark the position of SAN and AVN on the diagram (a) above.

tne sin9..-., 1Snf.f 1 is a specialised bundle of tissue, located in the ri9h.t.....

a*.r.iS1......... wall, near the entrance of the anterior v-9.L9...' c'lL9-...'.'..
i" It acts as p5.99.T:19.f...... which generate a wave of e)t9.i.t9l9I-v. irnPl.Y-s.9i... tne
)d impuls is then spread to atria, causing them to c.q.?IL9.tJ..... simultaneously. Hence,
blood is then forced into the v.S.$.f 1.9.}-e.f......'. (right and left)-
rt. Further more, the impulse is then stimulates the second node atTl'.9..-.L9'lJIl9.Y!:f.'?9-d.e
(AVN) lying at the base of the ri.9.\.t..... a'i.l'r.Y.f.'........'.
tre lmpulses from the AVN are conducted by specialised muscle fibres called b.q.rl9.1:... .9f.
.!1f .{.... and p.\.111}1.:. fi.qf.9.f..... to the ventricular walls. This causes the

cgf,.t!S.9t9.L....... of both ventricles to pump the blood out of the heart.

The r.i9.h.t ventricle pumps the blood into the pulmonary artery, which forces the
blood to the l.$$3:.............
l|l The 1.9.f*...... ventricle which is thicker and more mtlP.9.YlSL... than the right ventricle,
the pumps the blood into the aorta which forces the blood to the whole parts of the body.


E*r ain vihy the left ventricle is thickdr and more muscular than the wall of the right ventricles?
les Answer: The left ventricle needs tb generate grelater p.r..e.f.).19,.1o pump blood to all. p9rti
d the bgC.V. white the right ventricle pumps blood to the l.Y.l.$f ... only. '

141 6@'>c444

4. What is cardiac cycle?

Cardiac cycle is the series of events that occur during one complete heartbeat, rncluding ihe
go.n+IEelb.{systole) and r.?.13.L:tt:9.?... (diastole) of both the atria and the ventricles.
1 systole and 1 diastole equal to t hearlbeat (0.8 sec)
Therefore, the heartbeat is 75X per minute
5. How does the blood in the veins flow back to the heart?
. The pumping of the heart generates sufficient f.-o.19..9..... to move the blood through the
at.t9.ll.S., arterioles and capillaries. However, when the blood reaches the v.9i.?S..., the
pf9ff.'lf.e.. produced by the heart is i$.e:t$ to force it back into the hear1.

. When the body moves, the s.t3l9l9]. m$f .9.1f. around the veins contract and press on the
veins. The veins cCn**.. and the blood pressure increases, to open the valves and
push the blood towards the heart.

Upper valve

Blood flow
towards the

a) Muscles relaxed, b) Muscles coRtract, c) Muscles relaxed, upper

. valves closed. upper valves open valves closed, lower valve
and . b.lood is forcqd opens as a result of muscle
upwards, lower valve contraction elsewhere and
remain closed. blood,flows forwards. "

6. The node can initiate the heartbeat on its own. But the heart rate may be

modified by certain external factors. The sJ.$f91.!.9.1J:. nerve carrying impulse to the hear
can increase the heart rate and the parasympathetic nerve can sJ.9.f... it down.
7. The heart rate increase when:
(a) an increase in the secretion of hormone (e.g aC.l9L9.llL9....l while a person is e.L9.it3*..,
(b) an increase in partial pressure ot c3199.?..... d1.9.T.1.9S.. in the blood. ,,tE :
(c) body 1.9.'1f9.q9.t5.? is elevated.

6.0- >cd4e
grriatory Mechanism of Blood Pressure
E,E,r€i pressure'(bp) is the f.o..r199.. of the blood exerted on the of the arterial blood
ing the *p-s.s€lS. Normal bp for an adult is 120/80 mmHg.
r;:ei'ial blood pressure is highest during ventricular s5ff.9J.9. (120 mmHg), and lowest during
dt*?.'l-4.!:. (80 mmHg) ie resting phase at the heart.
rr-e biood pressure is regulated by b9.T.9.I9.*l!9!swhich is located in the walls of the asl.t9
a,-J cg.lStl'.9. arteries branch out from the aorta to the head"
rgh the Ssnematic diagram for regulatory mechanism of blood pressure:
i..., the
'e Blood pressure stretches b.9'I9!::::ffTs
(stretch-sensitive recePtors)
; on the
r lmpulses are sent to the cardiovascular
es and
control centre in the m.9.9.Y!J.9 o.hl.?.1.9.?.1'9

. From that impulses are then sent via the

parasympathetic nerve,9.fe3rt and
bloodvessel ,:.::.j.
ncrease . Decrease the heart rate
o Dilate the diameter of arteries hence
reduce the resistance

Normal blood Normal blood

er pressure
VE (120/80 mm Hg) (120/80 mq Hg)
o Baroreceptor are inhibited
. rn9.q91*9.:.. stt.*s!.9.11.:l'ot the sA
node by the sYmPathetic nerve
o This increases the contraction of the
may be

,he hean a) csr.9.'.9.9 mT.SlSS. hence increase

in heart rate
b) s,lll9.9.fh.. mil.{.S.|9S. of the arteries,
,eifed hence decrease. the diameter

de: Blood pressure can increase because of increase in heart beat, resistance of blood
lmel, viscosity of blood and stress.


Gircuiatory SYstems in lnsects, Fish, Amphibians and Humans

. The circulatory system of large muliicellular organisms can be divided as follows: !ar,'1rr
I l*llrl i
Circulatory system . *,,: :i'

Open circulatory sYstem c.l9s..#. circulatory system

e.g rnsecl
r ,,i':
t"* -
e.g flsh

I i'
Complete t.q'.s9P.el.9f9
e.g human e.g amphibian

*,,&/1. I

Girculatory Systems in: Diagram

lnsects - Open circulatorY system

. One or more h99.ftS pump the hg.9ll|9!'l.Pf!l through the
vessels into the body cavity called h3'-€'.T9''c'9':l

. Here, materials are exchange directly between the

haemolymph and the body cells through diffusion' illil,arnr
> l/: l:
e When the hearts relax, the haemolymph is drawn through ,r - *l-
pores called of.*.J.9. (singular, ostium)back into the hearts' flows into haemocoel

Fish - Single closed circulatory system ) r 'a

. Heart consists of two separate chambers, an a*'T''l-o'T anO I Gill
i-capillarie 'i-+
a v.gntf.i9L9 )
. The d9.9.f.9S"e.1P.!$ut9.9.9"., enters the atrium and then the
ventricle. bloo

. The ventricle pumps the blood to the!l::'19'{ in the

gills where gaseous exchange occurs'

r The oxygenated blood leaves the gLt'I.{.' and flows directly

to the b495., il.+S.1{9.s....

. ln the systemic capillaries, ox,99'9.Q. diffuses into the I roo,

tt:99.J.9.f.. while cgl.Lg.?. utg.*'i$.9"... diffuses out of the Deoxygenated J
tissues and into the caPillaries. Te
. The deoxygenated blood then flows back to the h'9'9ft"" i
. The blood flows through the heart only o'!"c'9' in a t

complete cYcle.

ll ll&i"-
Girculatory SYstems in Diagram

hr*chihians - lncomplete double closed

; *:u atory sYstem
, -::: ;onsists of thr.99' chambers with two airia
;*: :^3 ventricle.
, l-:: , genated blood from the body is carried into

:.- = r'"i.9t.1. al.ri.'l.T while oiiJ.99.L 3l*l u'e:$.. from the

,--s ts sent to the left atrium.

r I,*r3iated blood is miXgC'. with deoxygenated
: ::: in the ventrtcle.
.--z ventricle then pumps the blood through a Body capillaries

-- ftonq.r-s.... cif:.'llSil.9.D s.99.t9t1..' and systemic

E '..'r.rrrr'

: -:-lation sYstem.
| --: blood contains *ower,levels of oxygen but is
r heart : -- cient. to meet the cellular requirements - of

hla nr m als'- Gom plete dou ble closed ci rculatory
st'Stem ..

r --nans have a four:chambered heart: two at'tl'9"'
a - : two vgntl.i:i.9.{...
, --e four-chambered heart pt'-e'I.9.tlt.l.'.' the mixing of
::e oxygenated and deoxygenated blood'
, --rinans have a d9.9.q19.. clp.f.?.-d.

)xygenate ::nsisting of the pulrllonary and systemic circulatory

*: rstems.

. ' the pulmonary circulation system, deoxygenated

: ood in the r.i9hL..-'9:' is pumped into the
p.:r.l$.9.ffiIJ. af.f9.1.'.9.s- to the l''lng.L' and oLJ'9'9'?9191'

b.i9.?:1... from the l.9nP:.' returns to the l9f!"

r r the systemic circulation, blood is barried from the
h3.9.f.t. to the other parts of the body except the
l..l,?.?.:... and transported back to the heart'

. rhe blood enters the heart twice during one

:omplete cYcle.

I l---
Figure shows schematic diagram of the circulal.-,ry sysiem in human. C.:flnr
a) Draw Pulmonary circulatory system with
Systemic circulatory system with --€
b) Draw Oxygenated blood as V':il]//.4|11

Deoxygenated blood as
Jugular veln Carotidartery
Head and neck

Sub-clavian Sub-clavian
vein bheiY

Pulmonary artery

Pulmonary veins

% HePatic artery
Left veniricle


Small intestine

Renal vein Renal artery

5ao- >co4a
Gmnnpanison between the Circulatory System in Fish, Amphibian
and Human



0rganisms Fish Amphibian Human

.i. .,.j!.

D,ragram of closed
;rculatory sYstem

lncomplete Complete

Type of circulatorY Single D.o..9.b.1S.... i Double


C1.999S... circulatorY Closed circulatory I Closed circulatory

system system I sYstem

Three F.9.-.'.f.
Number of heart Two

Two Two
Number of atria o.t.-e..

One on.e.. Two

D"lumber of

zollsi"-sr ".


Learning Oulcomes:
o Explain the necessity for blood ciotting at the site of damaged blood vessels.
o Explain lhe mechanism of blood clotting
o Predict the consequences of impaired blood clotting in an individual

Necessity for Blood Clotting

1. To prevent e1f99ff.1.Y.9...... bl.qgS... 1.9.9.-s.. from the body when there is a damage of the blood
2. Maintain bl993.. p.t9f.-s.9ll to ensure proper blood circulation.
3. Prevent the entr.y of mj.9.1.99f9:$:.T.1. and foreign particles into the body through the
4. Promote wound healing.
Blood Clotting Mechanism

lnjury in blood vessels

Platelets clump at the wound

Vitamin K

:. . Clot forms to stop further blood loss

Base on the diaqram above, describe the blood clottinq mechanism

When you get cut, blood vessels around the wound immediaiely constrict to reduce blood loss.
The platelets in the blood exposed to air become sticky and clump together to plug the wound.
Thrombokinase and other clotting factors are released by platelets.
ln the presence of c919i.Y.T. ions, thrombokinase converts prothrombin into thrombin. Prothrombin
is synthesized in the liver and requires
. Thrombin converts soluble plasma protein, f:.!.fi.?9991. into insoluble form a

meshwork of threads over the wound.

. As the blood flows out, erythrocytes and platelets are trapped in the fjbrin fibres and a blood clot
forms. lt dries to form scab.
r When ihe wound heals, new skin is formed and the scab peels off.

Consequences of an lmpaired Blood Clotting Mechanism
. problems related to blood clotting include haemophilia and thrombosis.


. Haemophitia is a h9!:9.-q.:.19.f.Y.. dl:€.9S.9.9.. due to the lack of certain gene for the
production of certain clotting factors (eg: factor Vlll)

e blooc . This is an i.rllP9,J9.S. cJ.?.tfnp... m.9,9!f.tP.T. which causes serious bleeding

particularly in the joints.
. The afflicted person may die as a result of excessive bleeding from even

rgh the minor cuts and bruises because blood clotting cannot take place.

. Sometimes a local blood clot (thrombus) is formed on the d-q:L9'9.S1'. or rough

inner wall of the artery, for example deposition of cholestrol. This may cause
blockage of the artery, a condition known as t.t't9.P.9'*.1.:.
. When the thrombus drslodges and is carried away by blood circulation, it is
known as an e:T.f9l.Y.{.... The embolus may be trapped in a small artery where
it btocks the blood flow. This condition is called e.11.\9!if.T....
. lf the thrombosis occurs in coronary artery ( vessel that carries blood to the
heart) the supply of o+.V.99.1...,. and nutrients to the heart muscles is cut off,
hence causes h,?.9:.1.. af!:9SI....

The figure shows a human heart.
a)complete the table to show whether the blood in vessels w, X, Y and
Z is oxygenated or deoxygenated, and under high or low pressure.

Blood oxygenated Blood under pressure

o*USeoqted H igh
Y ole - oxYgeogte d Low
de- ox39e oo+e sl His h
rrombin orggena+eq fli9h
state two substances in food that are believed to cause heart dis
e' eL9l9**'to!"4 "+' t':'t'l:'' "
r form a artery rather than an artery
suggest one advantage an{ one disadvantage of using the patient's own
transplanted from another person.
rod clot oo"".,"n".ls.f.".|':1s'?.1.. onfeny 4.9 ii hgs th;nner
i:il i: "-tr::i:f3ll) lirr:P:t rlel
;;";;;;;n"'qn*orlerJ' -a:
wqlls +hQn
Learning Outcomes:
o Describe the formation of interstltial fluid
o State the composition of interstitial fluid
o State the importance of interstitial fluid
o Describe the fate of interstitial fluid
o Describe the structure of the lymphatic system
o Explain how the lymphatic system complements the circulatory system
o Compare the contents of blood, interstitial fluid and lymph
o predict whatwill happen if the inter:stitjal fluid fail-s to return to the.circulatory system
o Conceptualise the relationship between the lymphatic system and the circulatory system

Formation of the lnterstitial Fluid and Lymph

. When the blood flows from arteries into . Once the fluid leaves the capillary

csp.tlqgti** there is higher tr.u9f.gS.t91lg.. walls, it is called i.?.t9!'.fiit'l:1....'

pressure at the.arterial end of the capillaries. or tisf 113... f.l.Y::9. rhe

. This high pressure forces some plS-".1?.9". interstitial fluid fills the spaces

to pass through the. capillary walls into the between the cells and constantlY

i nt S y.|.9.1. s p.S. 9.9f.. . .. between the cel|s. t bathes the cells.

(3). .
90% Qf the . lAok.of the interstitial fluid that
interstitial fluid has not been r.9.iF.fp.':b.9.{.... into
diffuses back into the bloodstream goes into the
blood capillary tp. PR!'...... c9.?i.rlsllsl once

. inside ,t[9, Jymp,,h capillaries, the

fluid is knowr as l.Y.TP.h -

rrTme{rs-iitlaI Fluid

Oomposition of the lnterstitial Fluid lmportarice of the lnterstitial Fluid

. --: composition of the lnterstitial " lnterstitial fluid is important because
'u C is similar to the blood Plasma o lt forms the illt*.fl?.?J eItYI.t-b.?-S'9'?.f'. of
axcept there is no erythrocYtes, the body
pr*1.9.19.-+.1. and plasma protein o lt, ba"thes the cells and supplies them

'inolecules (albumin, globulin and with o.'fH9..9P... and nutrients .which

'brinogen). diffuse from the b1.q99....... through the
o-eucocytes especially phagocytes intgLs*:i-".t,i*... into the cells.

can pass through the capillary wall o Excretory wflitS. p.*S.Y.9.ti (carbon

and can be present in the interstitial dioxide and ureq) o.-ql' of the
iuid. cells into the interstitial fluid.

lnterstitial Fluid

Fate of the lnterstitial Fluid

. Approximately 90o/o of the interstitial fluid ftows back into the v.-e.FP.Y.f...

capillary system where the hydrostatic pressure is low'

r The remaining 10% of the interstitial fluid enters the
called lsra.P.l'....,
o Lymphatic capillaries from all parts of the body converge to form lymphatlc vessel-
r lt is clear now thatlymph also originates from blood plasma. lt has almost the same
composition as the interstitial fluid which lack of erythroc$es, platelet and plasma

r lf excess interstitial fluids unable to return to the blood circulatory system, it

accumulate and cause tissue swelling known as o'9.*.9'T'9"".'"'

into I




Lymphatic System
a) Structure of the Lymphatic $ystem
. The lymphatic system is a oft€-w9.$. s,9S.t9{?... consisting of a

cstill.?.r., u$.p.1.9*i 1.. v.e.{f fl .1,.. a n d l.Y,*P h.., n.:i Pf ..

Lymphatic vessels I
\\ I}
. The lymph capillaries are bJr'.F.9...-en.9.9.d-
t.'tb.g.q.. located in the spaces between the

The interstitial fluid that l-tas been
reabsorbed into the bloodstream goes into 'l'il
the' ts.flPh. '69ni!l9l'.igf. Once inside the
lymph capillaries, the fluid is known as
lfmP.h... Lymph is the colourless fluid found
i n the I x:Tlr.b.:ll:9.... lr
I lJ
r Lymph capillaries converge into larger \
lymphatic vessels. t,^
'l i\;
r. I
Lymphatic vessels form two main lymphatic ,\t
/\ t,
ducf -right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct 1t
\]' t(
\ 'l t

r Located at intervals along the lymphatic
vessels are lymph nodes. The lymph nodes
produce lrnp.!'-g.s*r..19-s. tfrat involve in the body Enlargement of Lymph node
defence against infections.
r Hence lymph contains a higher number of
lymphocytes than blood.

o Within the lymphatic vessels are one-way
valves to ensure the c9'f1l:r.)l-c.-'1.9.. f.19.9 of the
lymph to prevent the b.9.95f J.9* of the lymph.
a one-way valves

8' - Seo'rz
! Tiie Relationship between the Lymphatic System aitd Circulatory System

: i-,,mph is returned to the circulatory system via the

r"h.9r.q.9i9 dl{9.tand the ri.ghL lJ.Pnh:i.l9 d'Y.g.t

r -:e vessels from the l9f.t sj'9.9.. of the body (the

a,mentary canal and the right slde of the lower part
crc I
:: the body) flow into the thoracic duct. The'thoraeic'
iuct is the largest lymphatic vessel in the body that
t Lymphatic
)clavian carries lymph to the l.gft s'Y.f.:1.-o.:11". v.-e.!'l.. back System
,nto the b1.9.o.i.{}f '?'9.m

Blood CirculatorY
. The right lymphatic duct transport lymph from the System
of the head and chest into the r.i9.b.f


. The movement of lymph along lymphatic vesselis aided by hydrostatic pressure, one
squeeze the
\i valve, contraction of surrounding skeleton muscles and respiratory movement

Complete the diagram below-

Blood capillaries Left subclavian vein Right subclavian vein

t nt-€.i$.tj.t-ql f t .,{.i9.

Lymph capillaries Lflf.Q.Ph. v9*iSll..

and circulatory system

Diagram shows the Relationship between the Lymphatic system

t F-.#
Role of the Lymphatic System iri Transport
. Coilects the i.r.,.t.9:fi.1:.1.. t.l:f J.i. and returns it to the blood circulatory system.

" F.9ii9 ,agiC..", g1999.191....... and fat-soluble vitamins are absorbedinte through 'mg
l.-q.99.?,|.{, in villus and transported to the blood circulatory system.
. The LYaPh n99.9.s.. produces phagocytes and lymphocytes.
(i) Phagocytes engulf and destroy foreign particles.
(ii) Lyrnphocytes produce anil..5.9$.i9f.. which aid in the destruction of pathogens
and the neutralization of toxins. Hence, lymph nodes filter out pathogens and the tu
foreign particles and protects our body from diseases.

Compare the contents of blood, interstitial fluid and lymph

B!.ood lnterstitialfluid


. P.lSf.lPS. and Plasma without . Plasma without

cellular component plasma protein, p1.3.f.s.9. p.qe.L?I1.,
(wBC, RBC,
platelets) and cellular erythrocytes and
component except p.ts.L9l?tl
WBC- . More fatty
substances and a
higher number of
produced by the
lymph nodes.

*WBC may escape frorn blood capillary and goes into intercellular space

due to flexible shape.


Learning Outcomes:
. stute another function of the circuiatory system besides transporl.
: Identify the the body's three lines of defence mechanisms'
: Describe the process of phagocytosis.
3ns :, State the meaning of antigeii and the antibdy.
iil'dI s Defence Mechanisms
ies oes transport function, our circulatory system also defends the body against disease abolition
:"' :*e disease-causing microorganisms or pathoqens.
: : -" aodies have three lines of defence against pathogens:
: First line of defence - prevention of pathogens entering the body'
:, Second line of defence - killing the pathogens that entered our body by action of
Phasocvtic white blood cells.
: Third line of defence - killing the pathogens by means of antibodv actions.

First Line of Defence

al Prevention of pathogens entering the body
Tears and Saliva
by mean of physical and chemical barriers
. Contain lvqozv-{nes
DJ A non-spesific defence, that is never
which protect the eYes
differentiate among various type of
pathogens. This includes:
and rnouth from
pathogen invasion.
n As a physicalbarrier, skin is made up Gastric juice in stomach
of a dead keratinised laYer, tough
" Contain hvdrochloric
enough for pathogens to penetrate. acid which dqstroYs
. lf thgre is a scratch or cut, the blood most pathogens in
clots to sealthe wound and avoids foods and drinks taken-
. Also acts as chemical barrier as it Mucous membranes
seeretes sweat whieh eontains salt. . Secrete mucus in nasal cavitY and
Sebaceous glands Produce sebum trachea to trap the dust particles and
whieh esntains aeid and oil. All these spores
substances are unfavourable for . The cilia in the respiratory track sweep
growth of microorganisms. the irapped particles to the pharynx and
Sweat also contains-.lysc@ which stimulates sneeze or cough to expel out
destroys Pathogens. the paihogens.

Second Line of Defence

(a) The killing action brought by some of the white blood cells like neutrophil and monocvte.
They are calted phaqocvtes and the process is phaqocytosis
(b) lt is also a non-specific defence.
(c) Phagocytosis occur when pathogens get through the first line of defence, Phagocytes move
the infected area due to the stimulation by chemicals released by damaged cells, example
(d) The steps involved in phagocytosis by a phagocyte e,g. Neutrophil

. Useful product of
digestion is then
absorhed and
assimilated by

Complete the diagram above.

(e) Sometimes the phagocytes are killed by toxins produced by the pathogens.
(f) Dead bacteria, tissue cells anci phagocyies may accumulate to form pus at the site of injury
Third Line of Defence
(a) The third line of defence in the body is antibodv.
(b) Antibody is a kind of protein released by lymphocyte in response to the presence of fore
substance, called antiqen in our body-
(c) Lymphocytes are white blood cells found in lvmph nodes and in the blood circulatory systr
There are two types of lymphocytes, Bjvmphocvte that secretes antibodies and Tlvmphoc,
that helps B-lymphocyte in antibody production.
(d) An antigen is a subtance (usually protein) normally found on the outer surface of pathog

Different types of pathogen act as different types of antigen.

---.::ci line of defence is a sF9.9.i.f:.9... O.g.f.g.1:9..... because when a specific antigeir
- .-:s the bociy, lymphocyte rs stimulated and produces specific antibody to destroy
-..= scecific antigens.
--: -esponse is known as i.T.P.Y.IS....... r.9i.P.911.f9.... because it resists ihe body from
-:jens or diseases.
: ; "-

--:-an rnfection, some lymphocytes remain in ihe body as m'9'T.9.|X"...-' c'9ll-{-'.. which
* ast for several months or years. This memory cells help to defend the body against
:es move
= "
-:,. infection by the same aniigen. During this period, someone is said to be
-T:1.!.9.9. .. for that particular disease.
--=-:fore, the word 'immunitl refers to the g|l.t'iY..9.t.:1..919.:.1:-"'T..t9..9.:tsl9'.t::tl
ae3 ! lt.{. ir.f
. .9.q1 i 9.1. .h .9 . .P.: i. f,.g.e.9.rls. ..

-ai is the mechanism used by antibodies to destroy antigen?

. Antibody,i9........ to the specific antigen binding site
. hence, i.aSStiY.g.t9.i.... antigen by several ways

Ways Explanation Diagram

. Antibody called antlj9Iit.'..

the bacierial toxin or viral

binding sites and neutralize it.


)isintegration Antibody called

binds to the antigen causing
antigen to rupture or disintegrate. -


rf injury. Agglutinins are antibodies that bind

to pathogens cause to clumP rnolecules
together and stoP their movement
and stimulate phagocYtosts.
of fore

Opsonins modifies antigen bY

tory systt
attaches itself to the bacteria
surface and thus stimulates
f pathog

= Antibody molecule
Learning Outcomes:
o State the meaning of immunit and immunization'
o Relate antigen and antibody to immunity to immunity'
o Name and give examples of various types of immunlty'

Types of lmmunitY
1. lmmunity is the body resistance to which cause a specific
production of anij.P.93jli.,.
2. lmmunity depends on the presence of lymphocytes and the
whjch give a specific immune response'
3. There are various tYPes of tmmunitY:


(a) Natural Active lmmunitY

. When a person is attacked by a kind of
pathogens, antigen of the pathogens
stim ulate an i lT.PlllS. . ... r.9. 9.P'?.1S.1.'.'

. L.9lLP.h9:.Y.tSs release antibodies into o lrlll

the blood stream to destroy pathogens' v,


r After the person recovers from the o

infection, some lymphocyte remain as +3
m.9.t119.t9.... c9!!1..... in the bodv ol:
. During second infection, this memory o-
cell initiate rapid immune response to O-o
produce more antibodies and the the $

person becomes i'11lT.Y.?.g.' to that

Time (weeks)
particular disease.
. E.g: Chicken pox virus, measles virus'

vlls,b- s,,,1
Types Graph

s,.t.''cial Active lmmunity

. l::ained after a person is given (orally

:- :y injection) a v.qPSi.A9.. before the Booster dose (2tu)
-::ction occur. stimulates a faster and
as longer lasting
c -i of making immunity by
process resp0nse.
-:'cducing a vaccine is called
lmmunity level
n.T.Y.ti.{lt:911.... 'o
r I ',,s661pg is a suspension of killed or r!tr 1" dose usually
induces a slow and
n,'. 9-a.t?.1S9. antigens (bacteria/viruses) 6S shorter lasting
"".rich is not harmful to the person. E6
dies . ."accine stimulates l.9P.P.l3S..).tSl in tne xo

::dy to produce antibodies that capable

:: destroy living antigens which causes +
1"t vaccination 2'd vaccination Time (weeks)
: sease.

=rerefore, for the coming invasion of the . Finally, we can say that the body has
:athogenic microorganisms, the body is acquired immunity throug h v.qS:j.qSJi9l.
: b e to d estroy them i.fl .T.9.1j:.L91.Y. ... ...
. Examples. BCG vaccine againsi

:ecause it already has the antibody. tuberculosis. Salk vaccine against

^P. oliorngel;+iS

\aturally Passive immunity o Early mother's milk or c.:l.9flLY*... also

munity . Obtained from the mother either across contain antibodies.

:he p.t9.9.9.?t9..... to the foetus or . All these antibodies protect the baby in the
ihrough the mother's milk to the infants. first few months after birth.
r ff foetus received several type of
. Examples . Antibodies to avoid pneumonia
maternal antibodies during pregnancy
and common cold.

-f----> Artificial Passive lmmunity

) . Obtained through injection of a F.?.f.Y.T..

wh ich co nta i ns s P.t9jf. iS. . .. a I)l!.9 9.L i 9.f.


This serum containing antibodies is

prepared from blood of human or other

animals, for example horse.

The ready made antibodies is given to d)

the person who needs the antibodies .=
urgently like t,t:g.'{-e.!!9L:.. or the patient :o
who are seriously ill. E.g: t,gtgll)l:...,. , c:

botulinum and s.QSF.9.... b.itgf..... o>

The injection gives a quick immunity but
cannot last longer because this foreign Xo
antibodies breakdown in the body and
are not r.9.Pt3.i.9.1

Examples: Anti-tetanus, rabies and


Differences between active and passive immunity

Aspect Atrificial Artificial

Active immunity Passive immunity

1. Type of injection V.9.9S.:n9..... contatning dead S.9.1.Y.T,..... containing specrfic

or weakened pathogen. antibodies.

2. Time of injection Before a person is infected At the time when a Person ls

with a disease. rnfected or high risk of getting
the disease.

3, Time taken to achieve Body needs time to synthesise Ready made antibodies give
lmmunity antibodies. i.l?.T91i: L?..... i.n.p.v. ril. H.. .

4. Duration of immunity L.?.t.9....,. lasting of immunity lasting of immunity

5. Necessity of booster Needed for certain diseases Normally not needed.

oose like hepatitis B because the First injection offers sufficien
I first injection usually induces a
slow and low level of antibody.

zzllg,a- s,*z
*ear-ning Outcomes:
Slate the effects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HiV) on the body's
c:lence mechanisn^s.
Describe the transmlssion of HIV'
: suggest ways to prevent the spread of Acquired Immune Deficiency
Syndrome (AIDS).


level -1, -:=-:, HIVvirus

HiV virus

The Effects of HIV Transmission Methods

f n' :rril;:{: :.e central nervous system

il'-r -::3r r..991!1., in the body's
. HIV only survive in body fluid such
such as s3.99.1......, blood and

: S,'Stem. v.9.?!n91.... fluid.

' -'q :,:- --cef fs are essential to activate . Therefore, HIV can be transmitted

! :€ '.. .. ', lymphocyte in antibody

Ix. through s.3.LY.?.1'.. intercourse, blood
-- ^n t.1.9.?.qf)'!.ii.qf...... or injection with
* * , -r3js B - 10 years of in9:tp'9.119.n contaminated needle used to inlect
I :e'ore the sYmPtom aPPears.
r',:- : drugs.
J Specli: * -": -*une system of infected person . HIV infected pregnant mother can
r, ":: -a ,l becomes weakened and pass HIV to her babY through
r'*'=-::ress against many pathogens' p.{9.99}.13.... or br.9.3.:t.T1If.. "'...
lerson -:

rf gettir; - : € cf.9.99.9f.. in function of central . HIV cannot be spread bY touching,

" : - : ,s system followed bY bodY sharing of food or through the use of
e 9.h1..... loss. public torlets.
lies gi',i '*
* :,i-i-?ily death occurs. The patient
,ni.t I Prevention
:,"== :rct die from AIDS itself but from
. Avoid i.U.9.9:1."...' s.91"'..'{31^.Y. infections such as
:rmunity . Using c.9!];d.9.T.1.. during copulation.
-onia and meningitis, tuberculosis, . Using only s9.1-".?19.9.. otooo in blood
infections or certain forms of
:ike Kaposi's sarcoma.
sufficieii . Educational programs for p.1Llit"""
ancsS!r,9.? c.|i1.1.f91....".



Learning Outcomes:
o Select and practice sultable ways to malntain a healthy cardiovascular system
Card iovascular disease
1. o.i:.erlsl ...ffiodcircutarorysystem
L. Examples: Hypertension, R.Q.91.1.9.,.., c.g.qg.q9fy...thL?.T.q:fi.l, nrtS.li9.:.:!:.1"
3. Risk factors: L..... s..........., age and family history





Cross-section blood artery iihuN

I Cardiovascular
Disorders The heart has to
pump harder

Blood clot may occur in

narrow coronary artery
(chest pain)

Severe "Heart attack

Notes :
Coronary artery is a (Miocardiai infarciion)
speciaiised blood vessel to supply
oxygen and nutrients to the heart.

6@- >c442

Learning Outcomes:
o slate the necesslty for transport of substances ln leaf'
o Identify the vascular tissue in the stem, root andof substances'
o state the role of vascular tissue in the transporl
o Describe the structure of vascular tissue'
o Relate the structure of xylem to transport'
€ nos;s o Relate the structure of phloem to transport
o Predlct the effect of removlng a ring of phloem tissues from a plant'

f,1il1,*.*:essity for Transport of Substances in Plants

, : a^is absorb wgfit..... and ml.?.9.1-a!...... i.9.?.:....... from the soil to all parts of the body'
: ,,3.3r- fleeded by ptants to carry out p.\919:.-5,?ti'.S.ll acts as a solvent and rSSgt3t'f" in
-; cell metabolisms'
t, and d.9.I'?-19t.T.9'f'1" ""'
"eral ions are,.required for healthy growth
,* n

ratio and a
r 3-all multicellular plants such as m9.S.{9f.,.. and liy'9'l:.qLtshave a large TSAA/
--l s ir.g,rL........ distance for diffusion of substances. Therefore, they do not
requtre transport

a i
:-. -r:em.

-:,,vever, in large flowering plants, conifers and ferns, they

have a s'P'9'l\ TSAJV

-:to and gf.9-qt9.f.-.... distance for a diffusion of substances. Hence, they require an
""1 -:ernal transport system in their body'


rscular Tissues in Plant
ransportation of substances in plant is carried out by v'9'eS'I!':'1""

il I
-here are two types.of vascular tissue: xJl9f..-... and p.b)'93T""""' tissues'
o.,item transports w.9L9!1...,.. and di.qf'?l'Y9-9... m!'lr.9l9'!"" s'?'t't'l"""' absorbed by roots
:: the upper parts of the plants. lt also gives s.Y.P.P.gtl'.-.' to the

I :hioem iransports o.f.93Iti9.....,. s.g.l:iS.lStl' synthesized by the leaves during

;-l p,f.9t9.{.Ytt}.9.ii:.. to other parts of the plants'

: I agram 1 shows the locations of vascular tissues in a dicotyledonous


(a) Cross-secticn of a Leaf

Cuticle " Wax substance to reduce
\^, qre.l. I oSS
Xylem ' Vascular bundle in vein.

. Contain vascular tissues that

are continuous with those in
the stem and root.

/ One-celled thick with cuticle

,/ Epidermis layer outside
( (b) Cross-section
Has l .?.11i.'.9Jlfor respi ration.
of a Stem
Consists of c.?ll:tSh9.T.9
cells in outer region and
p.9.'.9.1.?1. LT.9... cells in tnner
Provides support to the stem.
.r ench$rho
Consists of large P.9....
LUil5. i

F..9:1..... storage
Arranged in the
Vascular around the pith.
bundle Xylem and phloem separated
by c.?.TFI.YS...... tissue
(b) Cross-section
of a Root Root hair A specialised eP.i.*T.T3l, cell
lncrease the s.Y!T9,9S
a.f93..... for water absorption.
,tr Epidermis Does not have c.Y.{i.9.1.9........
t' Absorbs water and i9.?.f..........
t) from soil.
Endoderm Single layer of cells
ricycle Consists of sg.l.9.f.l.?l)lCItissue
which provide mechanical
support to the root
Consists of vascular tissue and
Xylem radiates from the centre
si.9f....... shape.
o Phloem fills the area between
Diagram 1

6.4- >c444
$1,r)",:;*-e of Vascular Tissue Related to the Transport

Sieve tubes
Companion cett
I Phloem
>s that
ose in
Also consists of 4 types of cells, i.e. sieve tube,
)I" :r' t.;.i.., parenchyma ano t.ih.1.9....... cs.q1P.Lli9.l.... c.3.\t...,, fibre and parenchyma.
cuticle jr :- ',,eSsel 1. Sieve tube

r f - ?iti vessels are long, hollow and . Cylindrical in shape, consisting of elongated
sJ,?.Y.9..... c.9.!1....., arranged end to end.
chg rn o : er.1i l.Y.?)'l:....... tubes.
. The end wall of each cell are perforated to form
r and . D F..q.9..... c.9J19...., no protoplasm
r inner si.9L9..... p.t:1S.... and allow food
: - :asier the flow of water.
substances such as s.:t9.Pf9.. and ani.1.9...
stem. r -3 ceil walls are strengthened by a.9.i9..... to pass from one cell to another.
ch$rno r,?.lll., deposited in various patterns . The sieve tube is a living cell but during

,- : gives m.g.eI-q.LiLll...... support. maturation, many organelle including nucleus

. *-: cell wall with numerous hole or disintegrates.
e.*,., to allow w.?.t€.T.. and mineral . There is a ihin layer of c.p.Lq.R.!9J.T.. lining the
cellulose wall of sieve tube.
laratec ::ss side way between the cells.

Companion cell
ll. cell
. Normal cellwith nucleus, cytoplasm and many
\6 r - sc dead cells and hollow but more mitochondria.
;il;; :nger and smaller than xYlem . They are adjacent and closely related to with
. ^^^^l /,\\
=55Ut. the sieve cell.
. tcrnted end and pitted.
ll,11 . lt provides ATP to help the food transPort in
LS of tracheid d) I:l$
the sieve tube. Sieve plate

.. Ll55UC
:::anchyma and fibres ffi
chanical . =arenchyma stores food. \/ Parenchyma and fibre. o

. =ibres provide support. . Parenchyma cells store food =

sue and
l'. I [,^.] l€
. Fibres provide support. .q
Xylem vessel
r centre Thin cytoplasm

(Patterns of
lignin deposited)
Pit spiral r! Companion cell

6c4- >c442

Learning Outcomes:
o State what translocation is,
o Explain the importance of translocation in plants'
o Describe the process of transpiration.
o Explain the importance of transpiration,
o Describe the pathway of waler from the soil to the leaves
o State external conditions affeciing transpiration
o Design experiments to study factors affecting the rate of transpiralion
o fxpliin the role of cohesion and adhesion of water in the movement of water in plants.
o Conceptualise the transport mechanism in plants'

Transport of Orga n ic Substances (Translocation)

1. Definition : Translocation is a transport of soluble o.q9?.Li9..... s-'l!.fJ:l*f' sucn as sucrose

anO a.!'li!.|9..... a.Si$...... from the leaves to other parts of the plants.

Translocation is a two directional transport, uf.Y-q.19.... and dsl.Y.L.*.919". ano occurs


ihe s.r1,P.Y.9,..., t.Yp.-e...." of the phloem tissue.

2. The importance of translocation : to enable the product of photosynthesis moves from the
leaves to the:
(a) G.q:.*.t.\.. region such as shoots, roots, and young fruits'
(b) Storage organs like t.'Y!.9.1.'...
(c) Other parts of the planis to be a raw materialfor cell r.9.Lfll3lP-l.'...
1.7 pS.15)
3. To show the role of phloem . Bark Ringing Experiment (Practical Book:Experiment
Method Result Explanation
(a) Choose a healthy small branch of a The tissue above (a) J he trssue removeo togelner

tree. the ring swell uP, wiih the bark is p.t:J.?.9.T......

(b) By using a knife, remove a whereas the one (b) This disrupts the flow of

complete ring of bark, about 2cm below the ring organic substances from the

length. withers. leaves down to the root.

(c) Leave it for one month. {c) Accumulation of these

substances causes a

s.Y.1.ll.'.?.9. above the ring.

(d) The leaves of small branch
do lot wilt because the
After one month x.H!.9.T..... has not been

removed. So, uPward flow of

water is not disruPted.

--ansport of Water and Mineral lons
' ::cm the soil, water enters the root by of.3.9.liL. whereas mineral ions by agliy9t.fq.l.f Pgfl
- -.,e presence of root hairs increase the siilflS.9.... a.f9.1...... for absorption.
-re movement of water from the root
(c) TranspirationalPull
:: the leaves is aided by three factors
. During the day, water eY93'?'tSI9':

from the
a) Root pressure
mesophyll cells into ihe intercellular space in
c) Capillarity ( capillary action )
the leaves.
c) Transpirationalpull . From here, the water vapour diffuses to the
surrounding air through the stoma.
]-EAVES . The loss of water from the leaves to the

iucrose atmosphere is called ..

. Transpiration in ihe leaves pull up the waier

from the soil, a force called t.t) p.y.l..
;curs in
(b) Capillary Action
r the . Capiltary action is a combination
no a *.h.e..ii-o.1,
force of c 9..hSti?.1 a

HzO which enable the water move uP

along the narrow xylem vessel.

. Cgh.9.lfiY.9. force is the attraction
Stonra of one molecule to other molecule
r[ET@t of water.
. Meanwhile, ad.b3.i1.Y.9... force is
the attraction between water
logether ROOT vessel molecules and the wall of xYlem
flow of Encloclent . Therefore, xylem vessel forms a

irom the continuous column of water from

rot. root through the stem to the
t----------.H leaves.
(a) Root Pressure
: rrng. . The surrounding soil water is h.9P.9.'13.t].*... to the cell sap of root hair because ii contains
I branch salt, s.9.99.1 and amino acid.
use the . Therefore, water diffuses into root hair by o.9.T.?.f.'t""
oi been The entry of water into root hair diiutes its cell sap to become hypotonic to the a$'9.9.91'tcells.
'd flow of The water moves again to the next cell untrl it crosses the c.9.f.t.9f ...... tissue by osmosis.

d. This water concentration gradient existed in the cortex creates a force called r,9'9'f".'."
p.{9.*.Y.1.1....... to push water into xyiem.

6@- >c442
1.9 Water Loss from the Plants (Transpiration)
1. Definition: The loss of water in the form of w9t9f ... v.9t99.f. from a plant to the atmosphere.
Atmost (99%) of the water taken by ptants is e.Y3 f 9.i9.n9.. by transpiration, only 1% is used
for p.ti9.tliy.lfl.q:.i:.. and io remain t"Y'l:J.1""""
2. About 90% of transpiration iakes place through the s.*1.?.t3. .....,|oh through the cllll3.l9
and 5% evapoiated from the 1.9.?:j'?.?,''{..... of the stem'

3. The importance of transpiration :

(a) Creates a tfg,?fP.iL:.1:L:]... p.:.11.....,. that sucks water and dissolved mineral salts
from the soil. Mineral salts are used for cell activities while the water is used for
photosynthesis and keeps the cells turgid to give support to the leaves-
(b) Maintains oS.T.9l,iL.... p.f9Li.Yl,9... in the cells due to elimination of excessive water
in.plant bodY.
(c) Gives c9.qli|r.?....... ef.f.9.9.t... due to absorption of latent heat by water to evaporate.

4. Measuring the rate of transpiration.

{a) The pulling force developed by transpiration can be demonstrated in an experiment by

usins p9i9.TS.tS!'..'
(b) This photometer can also be used to measure the rate of photosynthesis under
different envi ronmental condition.
(c) From the diagram shows, the rate of
water loss'is indicated by the speed
of which the air bubble moves along
the graduated capillary tube. (from X
to Y)

Rate of = DistanceXtoY(cm)
water loss time

(d) Notice that, the potometer does not

measure transpiration directly and
will give an accurate indication only if
the rate of water loss is PreciselY
equal to the rate of water uPtake.
However, for most purpose the estimated transpiration obtained from the experiment
is satisfactory.

6.4- >c442
:rr:irr-s Affecting the Rate of Transpiration
Explanation Graph
sed '' i, r-.3( vapour that diffuses out of stomata
a .9 3.'l.T .Yl.?.1 9:.. . .. arou nd the leaf surface.
- ','l--ving air carries water vapour away. This c)
c.[.93.t9.f.... the concentration gradient between t
-',aier vapour inside the leaf and outside the leaf.
'- Cg

-lence, the rate of transpiration is increased. c
rlts F
- -re rate of transpiration increases when the
Air movement
rcvement of air is increased.

Iter " {n increase in temperature, increases the rate

cf transpiration due to:
ate. . lncrease in water e.Y9.P.9.*Jl]9.?.... rate a)
. lncrease in d.iF.F.Y.9i,9.?.....,... rate C
. 'o-
D.9.9.f.9.::9..... in humidity of surrounding air a
lt by c
Temperature ( 'C)

' During the day, high light intensity stimulates

s.igP.g.t9... opening, so the rate of
trans pi rations i .-P 9. l'.9.9.f.9.9. .

:. Heat energy also increases evaporation of c)

water. c 0)
.a ,c
i. At night, stomata close and the rate of 'd
transpiration decrease.

0000 0600 12a0 1800 24aa

i. At the l.9.Yl. relative humidity (dry air) the

concentration gradient at water vapour between
the leaves and surrounding is high, so the rate c)
of transptration is i.?.:.L-e.?.9S3.....'..

lent 2. When the relative humidity is high, the air is 'o-

s*3tY.*L1.1... with water vapour. The water is F
unable to evaporate from the leaves' Relative humiditv
The Regulation of Transpiration by Stomata $riiilllll:-,i

1. Each stoma consists of a pair of kidney shapecl git9.*.. c9.l!.{ surrounding st.qt9'19 p.9f'9"

Unlike other celts, guai"d ceils are sP.3.9j3.1*93 epidermal cells with a thicker inner
2. rlll

and also contain c.h.lg.tSf '{3i'L:'

J. ln dicotyledonous leaves, stomata are found on the lgHgl ... epidermis while
monocotyledonous leaves have stomata on b9i'b.""'. lower and upper epidermis' l:l ,,,rll:: l

4. ln general, stomata oPPl.{..... during the day and c.\9j9-s"...' at night.

- ,,iil;

Opening Closing

E.Fi9:tT.3.'.... ;.ii* \\

v.:.9.q.9J.e....... d(<-

Thin outer cel! wall-fiF1t,U\ i, , i Jl');n,

Nucleus -r YV;r-
v..... n oF€

(a) t-* * *" tr"*t,r"tis "*r't a) ln the dark, photosynthesis does not
guard cells and produce
g.t'Y.n9.{9. occur. Sugar and amino acid are
translocated out of the guard cell !t

(b) K* ions are ap.t!y.9!J...... pumped from

surrounding epidermal cells into the guard (translocation)
(b) K+ ions move out of the guard cells into
(c) An accumulation of K+ ions and glucose the epidermal cells.
increases the of.T.$.f.1.. p'l9ll'Y.T" of
guard cells. (c) Therefore, osmotic pressure of guard cells
(d) Water from epidermal cells move into the d s.: r.q3:.f.f.....
g.'J.q.1.9..... cells by osmosis
(d) Water diffuses out into the epidermal cells
(e) The guard cells become t.''lt9i'9..'...'. and by osmosis.

curve outward, the stomata open' (e) The guard cells become fl.?.3.1i.1.".. and
the stomata closed.
(f) Hence, water vapour diffuses out from the
sub stomata air space to the surrounding' (f) Water vapour cannot diffuse out to the
surrounding. Transpiration stops.

6.4- >c442
dQuestion 1 paper 3
was carried out by a few Form Four students to investigate the effects of air movement
6l1i i;-anspiration in Hibiscus plant. The set up of the apparatus is shown in Diagram

mffapparaius is left on the laboratory table. The stopwatch is started when the fan speed as
ffifnm lmutiat air bubble position are set at 0 as in Diagram 1.1(b). The tirhe taken for
the air

ffim,mnove a distance of 10 cm, or PQ is recorded down.

experiment in Diagram 1.1(a) is repeated with the fan speeds set at 1,3 and 5 respectively-
1lll2(p) shows the result obtained from the experiment.

llibiscus plant

^K+ i

-\il bubble

(l:rpillalv tube
'50 cm

DIAGRAM 1 .1 (a)


!514131211109 8 7 6 5 4 3 21 Ocm fuu

*so T 5'D

Initiirl Position .N n
of irir bubble, krt 30 Ei
DTAGRAM 1.1(b)

conditions faced by the Hibiscus plant are:

Condition Fan speed Air movement

1 1 Slow
? Moderate
? tr Fast

Table 1.2(a)

Condition Fan speed Observation Time taken (min
so s\
4s ,P 15 3+
-4o ,/
1 1
20 -
kfr 30 21;l

{sa 60 s'\
'50 1oa

4s\ls a3
2 3
-49 \ eo_
\"lu 30 'tg

50 10

3 5
4s oliu le
40 20
Table 1.2(b)

1. (i) From Table 1 .2(b), state two different observations .

1. When the fan speed is ..1.,... the air bubble takes ..?.1.. minutes to move from P to Q
2. When the fan speed is ..f.....tne air bubble takes ...i?.... minutes to move from P to Q

(ii) State the inference which corresponds to the observation in 1 (i).

1. Speed fan 1 is a 1.9.*... speed, the water loss from the Hibiscus plant is s1.93.......
2. Speed fan 5 is a hi9.h... speed, the water loss from the Hibiscus plant is f.9.f1.......

2, Write down the time taken for the air bubble in the potometer to move a distance of PQ for the
differcnt fan speed respectively in table 1.2(b).


l:,-: ele Table 'i.3 based on this expertment

Variable Method to handle the variabie

: -;aied variable
Use d.r$e-q9.Lt.. tan speeds which are
:,::: : rding variable
M99S.Y.19.. and record the time taken
--e :.i.T.9..... taken for the air
for the air bubble to move a distance
: - :: 3 to move a o l.i t3?.99. ..,
from P to Q by using a sIffl.'H:*'i..
'::r:- = iO Q
- : -:'ciled variable
*-- F.H......the type of Plant that is
tJP9........ of plant
Hibiscus plant.
Table 1.3
4 i :r:: :'e hypothesis for this exPeriment.
Tth,* * J!9i.tfre fan speed, the sltg.r)fL the time taken for the air bubble to move from P to Q
g l.sed on Table 1.2(b), construct a table and record the results of the experiment which
r: -de the following asPects:
: -he fan speed
: r'-ne time taken for the air bubble to move from P to Q
- The rate of transpiration of Hibiscus plant (cm/nin)
Tqe pon sPeed 'lifne fqKen fon*h€ elr bubbt€ The Fote oF +naosPilo+ion
sam P lani ( /m;o)
*o move f rom P to q cmin)
of gol


I for the
le o.6J

r Fi-omthe table ln S(i) aOoue, Ora* tne g-rph of the rate of transpiration of Hibiscus
against the fan speed.

:-:m the table in 5(i) above, explain ihe relationship beiween the fan speed, the time
taken for
$ Hibiscus plant.
:-e air bubble to move from P to Q and the rate of transpiration of

*\,ren the fan speed is hi.?1t9.1,.., the time taken for the air bubble to move
from P to Q is
r.t:,.".i.ti.1., if..r" rat" of transpiration is h.LQlr.9.f...caused more water loss to the