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INTRODUCTION

In these days of technology parity, it does not take long to duplicates. Moreover, with the
availability of increasing number of brands, the consumers has little patience or the wit to
swift through and judge the uniqueness of features claimed by each of the brands. So, how
does one ensure that one is seen and heard in overcrowded market place? The answer lies in
brand positioning, one of the most powerful concepts in the marketing world, which enables
the seller to win the marketing battles by influencing the consumer’s mind set.

Did you know?

• Dental caries according to WHO is still a major health problem in most industrialized
countries as it affects 60%-90% of school-aged children and the vast majority of
adults*
• Around 63% of the Indonesian population suffer from serious caries problem,
averaging to 189 caries per person (Source : Susana’s 1998 and SKRT 1995)*
• About 1.3% of the Indonesian population have dental problems every month reaching
an average of school or office disturbances of 386 daily (Source : National Research
& Development Institute, MOH RI; Perception & Motivation from Dental Care
Community - National Economic & Social Survey 1998)*

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Brand Positioning

Positioning a brand in the consumer's mind is critical to brand success. In an age sameness, a
brand must tout a variety of product or brand features and benefits, by drawing attention to
them and promoting their value to the consumer.The act of developing certain Brand
characteristics and promoting themis one of the few ways a brand can be differentiated. Your
own market is probably saturated with products that all look similar and offer thesame
benefits. Since most products or brands have a variety of features, such as speed, accuracy,
size, functionality, cost, style, specs, and more, each of these can be emphasized if they are
truly critical to a segment of the consumer market. If you want your brand to be known for a
subset of positioning the product brand in consumer's minds as being about those attributes.
You position a brand in order to establish your product as a superior choice to competitors.
What’s important to know is that many of your competitors will position their products and
brands the same way you intend to. That's when brand credibility comes into play. If you can
communicate your brand positioning better, then consumer's will view yours as the most
attractive or most credible. The credibility factor might only be delivered via the style of your
brand communication At this level of brand strategy where products are very similar, it takes
experience and expertise to fashion a strategy that gives you an advantage. At Brand Identity
Guru, we analyze your brand assets and determine which features and benefits need to be in
your brand or products value proposition to the customer. We'll use and describe these assets
in a way that makes them more attractive and compelling than your competitors. Where there
is no discernible brand advantage, we'll find one or create one and get your product
effectively differentiated and promoted.

Positioning has 4 components:

The 1st component is the product class or product category in which the brand is to operate.
To give a specific name to such a category is not always easy since boundaries are fluid e.g A
moisturizing lotion may decide to position itself in the cold cream market .The 2nd component
is consumer segmentation. It is impossible to think for a brand without , at the same time,
considering the segment forwhich it offers benefits that other brands don’t. Positioning and

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segmentation are like two sides of a coin, inseparable and integrated.The 3rdcomponent is
perceptual mapping, an essential tool to measure where brands are located in the perceptual
space of target consumer.Brand benefits and attributes make up the 4th component of
positioning, a consumer can allot a position in his mind only to a brand whose benefits are
meaningful to him. He compares and places bands in relation to these desirable benefits. The
concept of perceptual space forms the theoretical basis for brand positioning. The consumer’s
mind is regarded as the geometric perceptual space, with product categories and brands
occupying different points in that space. The search for vacant positions in the market be
conducted with reference to the preferred benefits and the preferred importance of such
benefits. These preferences are portrayed in the form of preference maps.The 1st purpose of
Preference Mapping is to measure the gap if any between the position of the brands as
actually perceived and the preferred or ideal position of its target segment.The 2nd purpose is
to discover holes or vacant positions in the market because they represent opportunities for
new products.Positioning is the pursuit of differential advantage. It is placing your product in
a certain distinct and preferably unique ways in the consumers mind. Strategy is how to get to
that positioning.

Brand Image

Brand image describes a products personality beyond its physical characteristics and
positioning in building brand image. Like brand personality, brand image is not something
you have or you don't! A brand is unlikely to have one brand image, but several, though one
ortwo may predominate. The key in brand image research is to identify ordevelop the most
powerful images and reinforce them through subsequent brand communications. The term
"brand image" gained popularity as evidence began to grow that the feelings and images
associated with a brand were powerful purchase influencers, though brand recognition, recall
and brand identity. It is based on the proposition that consumers buy not only a product
(commodity), but also the image associations of the product, such as power, wealth,
sophistication, and most importantly identification and association with other users of the
brand. In a consumer led world, people tend to define themselves and their Jungian "persona"
by their possessions. According to Sigmund Freud, the ego and superego control to a large
extent the image and personality that people would like others to have of them.Good brand
images are instantly evoked, are positive, and are almost always unique among competitive

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brands.Brand image can be reinforced by brand communications such as packaging,
advertising, promotion, and customer service, word-of-mouth and other aspects of the brand
experience. Brand images are usually evoked by asking consumers the first words/images
that come to their mind when a certain brand is mentioned (sometimes called "top of mind").
When responses are highly variable, non-forthcoming, or refer to non-image attributes such
as cost, it is an indicator of a weak brand image.

SNAPSHOT OF TOOTH PASTE BRANDS

Today’s companies are operating in macro environment forces. They are facing the toughest
competition ever. So, all the companies are involved in winning customers and out
performing competition. Indian tooth paste industry is one of the country largest market. The
Indian tooth paste market is very big. Large numbers of manufacturers are present. They are
trying to go at top most position.

Hindustan Lever Limited

Hindustan Lever Limited (HLL) is India's largest fast moving consumer goods company with
leadership in Home & Personal Care Products and Foods & Beverages. HLL's brands spread
across 20 distinct consumer categories, touch the lives of two out of three Indians. If
Hindustan Lever straddles the Indian corporate world, it is because of being single-minded in
identifying itself with Indian aspirations and needs in every walk of life.

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Close-up, a HLL product is the original youth brand in India – the first brand targeting youth
in the oral care market. Ever since its launch in 1975, Close-up has broken every rule in the
book on how toothpastes should behave! Close-up was the first gel toothpaste to be launched
in India and has led the gel toothpaste segment ever since. In 2004, Close-up was relaunched
with a bang. And this time it was packed with the power of Vitamin Fluoride System – a
powerful mix of Vitamins, Fluoride, Mouthwash and Micro whiteners, the perfect
combination of ingredients for fresher breath and stronger, whiter teeth. Close-up is now the
first Gel toothpaste with Fluoride in the Indian Market! Close-up also includes toothbrushes.

Pepsodent, a HLL product launched in 1993, was the first toothpaste with a unique anti-
bacterial agent to address the consumer need of checking germs even hours after brushing.

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Pepsodent packs included a Germ Indicator in February-May 2002, which allowed consumers
to see the efficacy in fighting germs for themselves. As a follow-up, in October 2002,
Pepsodent offered Dental Insurance to all its consumers to demonstrate the confidence the
company has in the technical superiority of the product. Pepsodent connects directly with
kids and their parents. Pepsodent has always worked in the direction of an overall awareness
of dental health. The relaunch campaign in October 2003 widened the context to "sweet and
sticky" food and leveraged the truth that children do not rinse their mouths every time they
eat, demonstrating that this makes their teeth vulnerable to germ attack. Pepsodent's most
recent campaign aims at educating consumers on the need for germ protection through the
night. Pepsodent also includes a range of toothbrushes.

INTERNATIONAL DENTAL HEALTH FOUNDATION also approves it.

COLGATE is the product of Colgate-Palmolive ( India ) ltd. Its product line includes Colgate
Gel, Colgate Calciguard, Colgate Total, Colgate Sensation, Colgate Simple and others.
Colgate Calciguard being shown as an effectively decay premitive, dentifrice and Colgate
double protection, which is scientifically proven, provides better protection against plaque
and gum disease. Its key ingredients are Calcium carbonate, Silica, and Triclosan. Indian
Dental Association also approves it.

Acc. To I.D.A - Colgate dental cream is an effective decay preventive dentifrice that can be
of significant value when used as directed in a conscientiously applied program of oral
hygiene and regular professional care as directed by registered dental surgeons.

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Review of Literature

Six Levels of Brand’s Meanings

Attributes : Features associates with a brand.

Benefits : Functional and emotional benefits associated with


brands.

Values : Producer’s values that gets associated with


brands.

Culture : Represents the culture values of the place from


where the brand originates.

Personality : Image of the brand as perceived by the user.

User : Kind of consumer who buys or uses the product.

Given the six levels of a brand’s meanings, marketers must decide at which level(s) to
deeply anchor the brand’s identity. The most enduring meaning of a brand is its values,
culture and personality. They define the brand’s eases
Brand varies in the amount of power and value they have in the market place. At
one extreme are brands that are not known by most buyers in the market place. Then there are
brands for which buyers have a fairly high degree of BRAND AWARENESS. Beyond this
are brands with high degree of BRAND ACCEPTABILITY i.e. brands that most customers
would not resist buying. Then there are brands that enjoy a high degree of BRANd
PREFERENCE.These are the brands that are selected over the other. Finally there are
brands that command a high degree of BRAND LOYALITY. This is where the acid test for
a brand lies.

Brand becomes known through the products they create and bring on to the market.
Whenever a brand innovates, it generates “me-too-ism”. The role of brand name is to protect
the innovation – it creates a mental patent. The brand name makes the innovation exclusive
and protects it against imitations.

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The sources of a brand’s identity include: The product, the name, brand characters and
symbols, Geographic and Historic roots of the brand and the content and form of advertising
used for the brand. Based on all these factors, a brand’s identity evolves over a period of
time.

The brand identity platform has four components:

1. The product class in which the brand is to operate.

2. The targeted consumer segment.

3. Brand location in the perceptual space of the target consumer.

4. Benefits and Attributes with the brand by the consumer.

As brands tend become physically similar, the brand manages falls back more and more on
Non-functional factors to distinguish his brands. This is called Brand Positioning. A brand
manager has various strategies available to himself. These strategies revolve around four
aspects of the brand, which can be expressed as four questions.

WHO AM I ?_____ This question deals with the origins of the brand, its parentage. A
brand can be positioned with reference to its corporate identity or as an extension of a well
established brand.

WHAT AM I ?____ This question relates to the capabilities of the brand and can be
further broken up as:

(a) Category related positioning: By choosing the product category in which the
position our brand, we are defining its composition. Similar brands can be
differentiated by positioning them in different categories.

(b) Benefit related Positioning: That particular benefit is selected, which will give the
brand the greatest competitive advantage. We get the flexibility in differentiating a
functionally similar product by emphasizing a benefit which the competitor has not
exploited.
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(c) Positioning by usage occasion: This strategy enables us to dominate a particular
usage. It also enables us to distinguish similar products by identifying our brand with
one or two usages that competition has neglected.

(d) Price-Quality Positioning: The consumer looks at the products in a category at


different levels of price, offering different standing of quality and decides which
price cum-quality level is most suitable for a given need.

FOR WHOM AM I ?____ This is the strategy of positioning a brand for a carefully
chosen target segment, where it is the best fit and has competitive advantage. Such segments
can be divided in the basis of Demographic, Behavioral, Benefit seeking and Psychographic
factors.

WHY ME ?____ All the above strategies enables a marketer to create a distinct and
persuasive perception of the brand. Aggressive marketing companies try to add to their brand
a clinic ling advantage through some unique features. It gives consumer a reason to why he or
she should select one brand in preference to another. Positioning by competitors and
positioning by a unique attribute can be the two strategies in this case.So much consumer
loyalty and goodwill surrounds a successful brand name that it is seen as the direct source of
much of the owner company’s profit. This is what is brand equity i.e. the incremental value
of a business above the value of its physical assets due to the market position achieved by its
brand and the extension potential of the brand. Drawing upon this concept of brand equity,
marketers have extended the names of successful brands to several new products in several
categories.But the extension need not be a trap. They can be effectively managed by
matching three criteria.

1st, the category chosen for the brand extension must be compatible with the nature of the
parent brand and the expertise it represents. There must be a fit.

2nd, for successful brand extension, one should ensure that there is consistency in the value
perception of the brand in the new category as compared to its parent brand.

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3rd , the brand name should have some in built advantage that gives it competitive strength
against established brands in the new category.

Techniques for Perceptual Mapping

1. Image Profile Analysis

This is probably the oldest and most widely used technique for measuring consumer
perception of competitive brands, services or companies. The starting point for this
analysis is the measurement of perceptions of each brand on a 5 or 7 points scale against a
series of pre-selected functional and psychological attributes. The individual scores are
then average obtains a composite mean score for each brand on different attributes.
An examination of the chart provides a profile of competitive brands and
their perceived strength and weakness. A further improvement on this chart could be
achieved by superimposing the profile of the ideal brand for each attribute. An
observation of this type of chart provides useful insights about which brand is competing
against whom, and on what attribute or attributes, and to what extent they are close to or
away from the ideal image.

However, image-profile analysis has its limitations. It is difficult to plot all the brands
in a single chart when the number of competitive brands is large. Moreover, all the
attributes consider for image perceptions may not be equally important or independent of
each other. In other words, some of the attributes may be highly correlated and thereby
represents basically the same dimension ( or factors ).

2. Factor Analysis

The brand image data may be collected on all variables, which could possibly have some
relevance to the objective of the study. Initially, a large set of variables (attributes) is
considered. Its prime objective is to reduce the initial set of variables and express them as
a linear combination of the smallest set of independent “ factors “ or dimensions. The
input data in all factors analysis procedures are the correlation coefficients between all
possible pairs of original variables. A satisfactory solution is the one, which will yield the

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minimum number of factors” that conveys all the essential information contained in the
original set of variables. Statistically speaking, the objective becomes:

1. To reproduce as best as possible the observed correlations

2. among the Original variables; and

3. To extract the maximum variation.

The factors thus derived will be uncorrelated to each other, hence independent. Moreover,
since all variables can be expressed as linear combinations of extracted factors, the
coefficients of various factors are called Factor Loading. From this, the analysis
ultimately aims to determine the weights associated with each factor. This enables us not
only to calculate the importance of each factor but also to determine the Factor Axes
corresponding to clusters of points including the positions of individual brands.

3. Cluster Analysis

The objective behind this procedure is to separate brands into groups such that each
brand in a group is more like the other brands in its group falling outside the group
In any cluster analysis procedure a measure of inter-object (between brands or objects)
similarity or dissimilarity has to be used.

RESEARCH WORK

Indian tooth paste industry is one of the country largest consumer market. The Indian tooth
paste market is psuedo-mature. It is amazingly complex being segmented not only on the
basis of prices and benefits but even range of emotions with in that outlining framework.
With in over 10-15 brands in the market, this segment of the consumer product offers a
tremendous to study the concept of brand positioning, specially when tooth paste is a fairly
intimate product and consumer prefers a brand which reflects his self image or fits in with
this fantasies. The focus of this study about tooth paste is consumer perception of the
various brand are available.

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MOST DEMANDING BRANDS & THEIR COMPARISION

 COLGATE:-

Colgate, an oral hygiene product line and one of the namesake brands of the Colgate-
Palmolive Company, is a manufacturer of a wide range of toothpastes, toothbrushes, and
mouthwashes.

Colgate Ribbon Dental Cream was the first toothpaste in a collapsible tube, introduced in
1896. It had previously been sold in glass jars since 1873.

 PEPSODENT:-

Pepsodent is the oldest and most well-known toothpaste in Indonesia, since the beginning
of its existence has always provided more than just basic efficacy.

Pepsodent was the first toothpaste in Indonesia that launches fluoridated paste back in
1980s and the only paste in Indonesia that actively educates and promotes proper habit of
brushing through school program and free dental check up service. Pepsodent has
completed its range product from basic cleaning to complete benefit paste ever since.

HOW IT WORK?

Colgate and Pepsodent continues to work even after I eat or drink Colgate and Pepsodent
contains a unique combination of ingredients that attaches to your teeth and gums and

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does not get washed away even when you eat or drink - so your whole mouth is protected
for up to 12 hours.

Colgate and Pepsodent works for up to 12 hours


Triclosan (an ingredient that fights germs) is held in place by Gantrez (a copolymer) that
attaches to teeth protecting them for up to 12 hours.

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TYPE OF PRODUCTS

COLGATE PEPSODENT

Colgate Total Advanced Pepsodent Complete + Gum Care

Colgate Total Complete 12

Colgate Max Fresh Pepsodent Herbal

Colgate Sensitive Pepsodent Milk Teeth Orange

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Colgate Cavity Protection Pepsodent Milk Teeth Strawberry

Colgate Tartar Protection Pepsodent Sensitive

Colgate Luminous Pepsodent Whitening

Colgate Sparkling White Pepsodent Cavity Prevention

RETAIL SHELVES

Brands SKU Range MRP (In Rs)

Colgate Dental Cream 100, 150, 200 & 300 gm 28, 42, 54 & 82
Colgate Cibaca 200 gm 27
Colgate Total 12 75 & 150 gm 33 & 62
Colgate Sensitive 50 & 100 gm 35 & 58
Colgate Active Salt 100 & 200 gm 29 & 54
Colgate Advanced Whitening 75 & 150 gm 26 & 50
Colgate Herbal 100 & 200 gm 30 & 55
Colgate Fresh Energy Gel 80-150 & 200 gm 30, 50 & 63
Colgate Max 80 & 150 gm 29 & 50
Colgate Kids Pink, Blue 40 gm 24, 22
Colgate 200 gm 38
Colgate Sensitive 100 ml 40
Pepsodent 2 In 1 80 & 150 gm 30 & 50
Pepsodent Complete 80, 175 & 255 gm 25, 53 & 69

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Pepsodent G 150 gm 60
Pepsodent Decay Protection 40, 80 & 175 gm 12, 23 & 46
Pepsodent Sensitive 100 gm 55
Pepsodent Whitening 80, 175 gm 30 & 50
Pepsodent Superman 80 gm 45
Pepsodent Barbie 80 gm 45
Pepsodent Tom & Jerry 80 gm 45

ADVERTISMENT

 COLGATE:-

Colgate has a toothpaste and toothbrush mascot for children's entertainment, "Dr. Rabbit",
which has also been used in three tapes that teach about dental health and advertise
Colgate toothpaste.

"Gardol" was actually their trademark for the ingredient Sodium lauroylsarcosinate (and
identified as such on the package and in their advertising), which today is an ingredient in
Arm & Hammer's "Advance White" toothpaste, minus the "Gardol" identification.

 PEPSODENT:-

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Marketing efforts to sell Pepsodent toothpaste were very successful, and sales
skyrocketed thanks to a well-known slogan of, "You'll wonder where the yellow went
when you brush your teeth with Pepsodent." Entertainers also helped give the toothpaste a
boost. It was referred to in a popular 1949 musical called "South Pacific." Singer Cole
Porter also mentioned the tasty paste several times in his recordings, and Pepsodent was
the sponsor of the famous 1929 radio show "Amos and Andy."

COMPARISON OF BRANDS (IN %) AS PER DEMAND

Brands Demand Demand

Colgate 33%
Colgate
Pepsodent 26% Pepsodent
Close up
Dabur/Babool
Close up 20% Anchor

Dabur/Babool 12%

Anchor 9%

COMPARISON OF BRANDS (IN%) FOR CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

Brands Satisfaction

Colgate 30%

Pepsodent 25%

Close up 22%

Dabur/Babool 14%

Anchor 9%
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Satisfaction

Colgate
Pepsodent
Close up
Dabur/Babool
Anchor

CUSTOMER RESPONSE

Which is better? Colgate or Pepsodent? And how many times do you brush
daily?

1. Well, what I would suggest here is, Colgate has always been the best among all, the
rest have come up now, but Colgate is a very old toothpaste manufacturing company
since British ruled India, so old is always gold for sure, one should always have or
make a habit to brush twice, once in the morning & then after dinner before going to
sleep for sure.

2. There are different types of toothpastes under one brand name. I tend to rely on
Colgate, however. Dentists highly recommend brushing in the morning and before
you go to bed. Also, if possible, you should brush after each meal if you want ultimate
oral health. Brushing at least twice a day also greatly decreases the chances of
obtaining bad breath.

3. You need familiarize yourself with the contents of toothpaste. Fluoride does more
harm than it does good. I am not suggesting that you stop brushing your teeth;
however, I am suggesting that you begin to familiarize yourself with the chemicals
that you poison your body almost religiously.

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4. I have never tried those. I use only Crest. But.....Tooth brushing is necessary at least
twice a day: once in the morning before breakfast and once in the evening, after
dinner. The main goal is the complete removal of the bacterial plaque and not the
number of brushings.
5. Brushing once a day does get rid of left over food in your mouth that causes odors,
plague and bad breath. Food gets lodged in between your teeth thus causing stinky
breath.

6. I use Pepsodent. I do use Colgate on occasions, but i have found that Pepsodent works
better. For instance, i needed to whiten my teeth because they were not looking too
good. Then, i put on a glob of pep. Toothpaste on my toothbrush and my teeth were
white. (make sure u floss and use mouth wash)

7. Colgate is better then Pepsodent according to my experience. Brush twice daily, once
in the morning n once b4 sleeping. Have healthy teeth.

8. Personally I prefer Colgate. And u should ideally brush after every meal.

9. I think Colgate. And it’s better if you brush after every meal. Or at least twice a day as
in day and night.

10. Dear I am not using Colgate I am using Pepsodent and daily I twice use it.

11. Pepsodent for me Because I used it too Regularly I brush my tooth twice a day After I
wake up n before I sleep...

Some possible product improvisations


• Attached straight tongue cleaner cased in the toothbrush handle.

• Cartoons character printed on the handle to attract kids.

• Padding on the handle end to massage the gums.

• Casing the toothbrush (for kids) in a toy form.

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• Neck with adjustable handle.

⇒ Get a certificate by the Indian Dental Association (IDA) for the toothbrush, like the
Colgate Calciguard Toothpaste.

⇒ Segregate the toothbrush types for different age groups, e.g.,

Children - Thicker handle for better grip, bright colours and cartoons printed on the handle.

Young People of Teenager - more trendy colours and designs, like stripes or polka dotted,
more vibrant colours.

Adults - Simple designs and sober and decent colours.

For the new entrant

⇒ Introduce the product with the offer of one free toothbrush with the purchase of a brush
which will help in blocking and prepointing the purchase of the buyer.

⇒ As the target segment is the premium segment therefore, premium pricing of the product
is necessary.

⇒ Price the product at Rs. 251 -* or at Rs. 301- and not at Rs. 361 or Rs. 221- because the
shopkeepers face a problem in returning small changes of Rs. 31 or Rs. 31- and Rs. 11 so
they sometimes avoid the product as confessed by the shopkeeper.

⇒ Add value to the product by giving tips on taking good oral care, in the back side of the
package or a free pamphlet with the purchase of a brush, like brushing twice a day,
flossing, polishing, regular dental check-up by your dentist, this shows a caring and
concerned attitude by the company.

⇒ With the purchase of a toothbrush, give a free coupons which is to be filled in by the
consumer and can be used by him or her for getting a free dental check-up as when and
where specified in the advertisement in the newspaper. This kind of scheme can be
implemented by the company once in two three months.

However, these suggestions can be used by the big players in the market or the new entrant,
who has to be a big player because a large investment is needed for such heavy sales
promotion and also an attempt should be made to convert this low involvement product into

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a high involvement as it is concerned with personal card and hygiene and a product of daily
use.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A goal is achieved through a clear-cut method. Research methodology is nothing but a


system of methods and principles for doing the research.
Research methodology is used to collect primary data through survey technique, which is
intended to secure the information from a sample of respondents where in the sample
respondents are selected through the process of Random sampling. The information from
the respondents is being recorded on a form known as “Questionnaire”. The respondents are
asked to answer the questions in the Questionnaire and that answers are used for the purpose
of the study.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

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THE REASON FOR WIDE USE OF SURVEY TECHNIQUE

 It could serve both quantitative as well as qualitative information directly from the
respondents.
 It was quite flexible in terms of data to be assembled method of collection or timing
of research.

Apart from it was presumed that respondent


 Know the answer to the question
Formulation of Research
Formulation
 Have authority to answer ResearchObjectives
to theseofquestions Objectives
 Were willing to co-operate in answering these questions in the best manner.

Developing
DevelopingResearch
ResearchPlan
Plan
The study was carried in Bangalore city with the total sample size 50 the respondent were
contacted at their offices, service, centers, residence, colleges, bus stops, shops during their
Mode
ModeofofData
leisure time and the interview spanned Datacollection
between 10 to 20 minutes per respondents.
collection
The other factor is the revenue that the brand would earn in the position. The revenue
depends on the number of consumers in the preference segment, their average purchase rate,
Sampling Plan
Sampling
the number end strength at competitions Plan
in that segment and the price change by the brands in
the segment.
Survey
PROCESS OF COLLECTING DATA
Survey
The following chart shows the process of collecting necessary information:

Data
DataCompilation
Compilation
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Reporting
ReportingofofData
Data
SOURCES OF DATA

One of the important tools for conducting marketing research is the availability of necessary
and useful data. Data collection is in many ways more of an art that a finds. Sometimes the
data are available readily in one form or the other and sometimes they are to be collected a
fresh. In the case of marketing research, the data collection may occupy only a minor part or
sometimes it may be most expensive and time consuming affair. Mainly data can be collected
using two methods. These are: -

i. Primary data

ii. Secondary data

PRIMARY DATA: The data which is collected directly from the consumer by communicating
with them. It helps to know the attitudes and opinions of people, awareness and knowledge,
behavior etc. Contacting the sample members and then getting the required information by
using observation and communication collects this data. There are some data collecting
instruments.

These are:

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a. Survey Method

b. Observation Method

c. Experience Method.

SURVEY METHOD- Survey is most commonly used method of primary data collection in
marketing research. This method has been used because of its extreme flexibility. Survey
research is the systematic gathering of data from respondents through questionnaire. The
purpose of survey is to facilitate understanding or enable prediction of some aspects of
behavior of the population being surveyed. A questionnaire is a formal list of questions to be
answered in the survey. In the survey method for collecting primary data three techniques
can be used.

 Personal Interview

 Telephone Interview

 Mail Interview

SECONDARY DATA: These are data which can be collected from internal and external sources
apart from the information collected from the field. Secondary data can be collected from the
following sources:-

 GOVERNMENT- Records, Generals, Books, Magazines etc.

 COMMERCIAL- Market research companies, Add agencies and private data collection
agencies.

 MISCELLANEOUS SOURCES- These are other sources like old Projects, Public articles,
Files and Books.

 INTERNAL SOURCES- Company resources, Catalogs and Brochures etc.

In this project to get proper data primary and secondary data were taken. Primary data was
obtained through questionnaire to customers and interviewing employees of the organization.
Secondary data are obtained from company information, some brochures and from internet.

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RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

QUETIONNAIRE:
The questionnaire included closed ended questions and multi choice. Answers are to be
chosen by the respondents. The buyer of Toothpaste footwear filled the questionnaire, giving
the opinion without a prompting on my part.

TABLES: This study tables to represent the data collected from the various customers, they
are represented in both, numbers of samples and percentages.

GRAPHS: This table study is also employed graphs to represent the data on the table to give
better interpretation of percentage in the table. The graph used is column, pie and bar and
percentage analysis etc.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES:
The sampling techniques were followed was judgment sampling method where Toothpaste
are selected.

SAMPLING SIZE:
50 Customers of toothpaste users only. Response of the majority of the customer was good.

STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES:
Simple statistical technique such as drawing of percentage for generalizing tables for
analyzing and graphs for pictorial understanding were used on this study.

CONTACT METHOD:
In the survey, respondents were personally contacted and asked to fill the questionnaire that
is in most of the Toothpaste showroom in NCR. The customer of Toothpaste were selected
for the consumer satisfaction, the whole study is concentrated on the function area i.e. is
customer satisfaction towards Toothpaste brand footwear.

25
PLAN OF ANALYSIS
Since the structured questionnaire was used, data classified was done easily. This readily
revealed the buying behavior of the despondent towards Toothpaste. Tables were used for
tabulating, analysis was drawn from the table and interference .This leads to conclusion and
recommendation.

Research Project Descriptive


Data Source Primary data, Secondary data
Research Approach Survey method, Observation method, Experience
method
Research Instrument Questionnaire
Sample Plane  Sampling unit –Customers of Bangalore city

 Sample size – toothpaste


 Sample Type – Random sampling.

Contact Method Personal interview/ Scheduling

There are two main research instruments in collecting primary data those are:

 Questionnaire
 Mechanical Instruments

QUESTIONNAIRE:
The questionnaire is the common instrument in collecting primary data. This consists of a set
of questions presented to respondents for their answers. In questionnaire the researcher has
used both closed and open-ended questions.
A) CLOSED-END QUESTIONS:
Pre-specific all the possible answers and respondents make a choice among them. In closed
and questions the researcher has used dichotomous as well as multiple-choice questions.

26
B) OPEN-END QUESTIONS:
Answers are not pre-specified any answer can be a source of information. A sample
questionnaire has been attached at the end of the Report.

MECHANICAL INSTRUMENTS:
Mechanical devices are occasionally used in the research. Galvanometer measures the
interest emotion aroused by exposure to a specific situation or problem.
In this survey questionnaire was use as research instrument and no mechanical instruments
were used.

CONTACT METHOD:
Information may be collected by mail, telephone or by personal interviews. The personal
interviewing method was adopted in this research work.

MAIL CONTACT METHOD:


Printed questionnaire is used to be send by the post to the customers and the answers of the
respondents are obtained.

PERSONAL INTERVIEW:
The investigator obtains answer to his questions in person from the respondents. The
individuals may be contacted at homes or at the work place.

TELEPHONE INTERVIEW:
In this the customers are contacted by telephone and answers from the respondents are
obtained.
ONLINE INTERVIEW:
A company can include a questionnaire at its web page and offer an incentive to answer the
questionnaire.

27
In this study, the survey was also carried out by personal interviews with the potential retail
customers to explain the need of survey and to extract the real opinions from them for
obtaining desired information.
SAMPLING PROCEDURE

Sampling procedure refers to “How should be respondents to be chosen”. In this survey the
researcher has used the probability random Sampling to these respondents. In this study, the
survey was also carried out by personal interviews with the potential customers to explain the
need of survey and to extract the real opinions from them for obtaining desired information.

SATISTICAL REPRESENTATION
The statistical information generated can be communicated visually by graphic
representations. Such graphic summarizations are especially useful for communicating
quantitative information to individuals who may not have an understanding of mathematical
forms. Graphical methods are also used in many research applications, instead of a statistical
description, to emphasize and dramatize various features of quantitative information. The
statistical representation for this research is tabulated and presented graphically with
inference in the next chapter.

INTERPRETATION
Interpretation in our usage of this world, means to bring out the meaning of data or one might
say to convert mere data into information. The climax of the research process is approached
as one prepares to draw conclusions from the data analyzed the whole investigation
culminates and reaches fruition drawing inferences that leads to conclusions as to the cause of
action or problem solution. This phase calls for a high degree of interpretive skill, both
quantitative and logical.

Objectives: -

1. To know about brand awareness.


2. To know about brand preference.
3. To know about the product/alternatives which consumers might
4. prefer to brush their teeth other than a tooth paste.

28
5. To know about the factors that influence the consumers decision to
6. buy a particular brand of tooth paste.
7. To know about the attributes that a consumers look for in a tooth
8. pate brand, when he buys for himself.
9. To know about the possibility reasons that lead to brand switch
10. over.
11. Image profile analysis of important tooth paste brands.

 Limitation:

 Time limitation.

 Research has been done only at Dehradoon.

 Some of the persons were not so responsive.

 Possibility of error in data collection.

 Possibility of error in analysis of data due to small sample size.

Scope

1. Wide scope in know about market share of toothpaste company


2. It provide information about consumer choice and preferences
3. it have scope in advertising aple for change preferences
4. it can help to increase market share of toothpaste company

29
DATA COLLECTION

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

For this project I have more emphasized on the secondary data in comparison of the primary
data. I have interacted with the industry people, which helped me to understand the nitty-
gritty’s of mutual funds. I have used the secondary data extensively for this project, as it was
not possible to collect the whole data on my own.

30
Data sources:
Research is totally based on primary data. Secondary data can be used only for the reference.
Research has been done by primary data collection, and primary data has been collected by
interacting with various people. The secondary data has been collected through various
journals and websites .

Primary Data Collection

• By interacting with the people


• By analyzing the data

Advantages

• High accuracy level


• Better understanding
• Good conclusion

Disadvantages

• It is time consuming
• Sometimes accuracy is not there because of lack of data
• Sometimes accuracy is not there because of the responsive error

Secondary Data Collection Methods

• Internet
• Various magazines
• Brochures

Advantages

• Helps in identifying the research problem


• Helps in generation of new ideas which can be authenticated by primary research
• Helps in gaining better insight into the project
• Helps in understanding the concept better

31
Disadvantages

• May not always answer the specific questions pertaining to your study
• Lack of availability
• Inaccurate, adulterated and outdated data
• Lack of relevance
• Insufficient data

Sampling:

 Sampling procedure:

The sample is selected in a random way, irrespective of them being investor or not or
availing the services or not. It was collected through mails and personal visits to the
known persons, by formal and informal talks and through filling up the questionnaire
prepared. The data has been analyzed by using the measures of central tendencies like
mean, median, mode. The group has been selected and the analysis has been done on
the basis statistical tools available.

 Sample size:

The sample size of my project is limited to toothpaste only. Out of which only
toothpaste people attempted all the questions. Other 65 not attempted questions.

 Sample design:

Data has been presented with the help of bar graph, pie charts, line graphs etc.
 Limitation:

 Time limitation.

 Research has been done only at Dehradoon.

 Some of the persons were not so responsive.

 Possibility of error in data collection.

32
 Possibility of error in analysis of data due to small sample size.:

Administering a questionnaire on toothpaste customers residing collected the data in and


around faridabad, to know about consumers preferences and perception regarding various
aspects related a tooth paste such as factor which influence the consumers most when he
bought tooth paste, attribute that he look for while buying a tooth paste, reasons for brands
switch over etc. This data was then tabulated to make calculations on analysis, which from
the basis of the results, and findings of the study. A copy of questionnaire is given in
appendices.

SAMPLE SIZE : 50
SAMPLE PROFILE

CONSUMER QUESTIONNAIRE

1. AGE : ¹ 15-30 Years ¹ 30-40 Years ¹ 40-toothpaste years


¹ Above 50 years

2. SEX : ¹ Male ¹ Female

3. OCCUPATION :
¹ Govt. Service ¹ Self-employed ¹ Corporate Executive
¹ Student ¹ Others (specify __________________)

4. MARITAL STATUS : ¹ Single ¹ Married with children


¹ Married without children

5. AVERAGE MONTHLY INCOME/ALLOWANCE


¹ <Rs. 3000 ¹Rs. 3000-6000 ¹Rs. 6000-10000
¹Rs. 10000 - 20000 ¹>Rs. 20000

6. Which toothbrush do you generally use?

7. Name any other five toothbrushes that you can recall


1 2 3 4 5

33
8. Who purchases your toothbrush?
¹ Myself ¹ A family member ¹ A Subordinate

9. Do you ask for a toothbrush by name? ¹ Yes ¹ No

10. How much are you ready to spend on a toothbrush?


¹Rs. 5-10 ¹Rs. 10-15 ¹Rs. 15-20 ¹>Rs. 20

11. What prompted you to purchase your current toothbrush?


¹ Dentist’s advice
¹Impressed with the advertisement
¹ Shopkeeper gave it to me
¹ A well-wisher recommended it to me
¹ Just bought it no specific reason.

12. How often do you replace your toothbrush?


¹0-1 month ¹ 1-2 months ¹ 2-3 months ¹ 3-4 months
¹> 4 months

13. How often do you brush your teeth a day?


¹ Once ¹ Twice ¹ After every meal ¹ Not particular

RETAILER QUESTIONNAIRE

1. Location of the store :

2. Selling toothpaste since

3. Brands stocked
¹ Colgate Plus ¹Cibaca Supreme ¹ Aqua Fresh ¹ Oral-B
¹Pepsodent ¹ Promise ¹ Classic

4. Which are the top three toothpaste in terms of exist sales?


1.Colgate Plus 2.Pepsodent 3.¹ Aqua Fresh

5. In case not covered above. What is the status of:


1. Aquafresh ¹ Good ¹ Picking up Moderate ¹ Poor
2. Colgate Plus ¹ Good ¹ Picking up Moderate ¹ Poor

34
6. How do consumers ask for a toothpaste? (Rank them)
(a) Ask by brand name (b) Ask for a cheap paste
(c) Specify a price range (d) Go for an expensive paste
(e) Keep trying newer ones

7. Which of these two companies make it a point to:


(a) Get a regular feedback
Pepsodent Yes No
Colgate Plus Yes No
(b) Maintain regular supply
Pepsodent Yes No
Colgate Plus Yes No

8. Rank your profit margin for the following brands:


1. Cibaca Supreme 2. Colgate Plus
3. Oral-B 4. Aqua Fresh
5. Pepsodent

9. What is your a) Highest Margin


b) Lowest Margin

10. If the consumer does not ask for a specific toothbrush then which one would you
offer him? Why?

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

1. Gender Wise :-

Male 30

Female 20

35
2. Age Wise :-

Age Male Female Total

Up to 25 14 10 24

26 – 35 7 3 10

Above 35 9 7 16

3. Status Wise :-

Students 23

Professionals 14

House wives 8

Businessmen 5

Agewise and Gender Distribution of Samples

36
Pie Chart

Status Wise Distribution of Sample

37
.

Pie Chart

RESEARCH METHDOLOGY

Image Profile Analysis

1. Which Tooth paste do you like most?

Close up : 21

Pepsodent : 12

Colgate : 17

38
.

Methodology

The respondents were asked to list the name of Tooth Paste that they like most. After
research it was found that 42% people like Close-up, 24% Pepsodent, 34% Colgate.
The main reason behind the liking of Close-up is that the young generation mostly
likes the advertisement featuring various models ,flavours , colours and long lasting
freshness.

2. Number of tooth pastes used by people in a month?

No. of tooth paste No. of Families


1 : 9
2 : 30
3 : 11

39
.

After survey it was found that most of the families used 2 tooth pastes on a average basis per
month. Some big joint families used 3 tooth pastes per month.

3 Which are the factors that influence you the most when you buy a tooth paste?

Price 367

Colour 385

Advertisement 310

Packing 230

Scheme 256

Availability 326

Taste 417

Liking 326

Methodology

After survey it was found that most of the people preferred that tooth paste whose taste they
liked. Colour stood second in their preference.Price was third. There was a tie between
Availability & Liking. Advertisement stood sixth. Scheme ranked seventh and last but not the
least was packing. All the points given to factors that influence customers to buy tooth paste
are based on Rank System. It was a combined survey of both males & females.

40
Procedure of Ranking.

Rank - Points
1 - 10
2 - 9
3 - 8
4 - 7
5 - 6
6 - 5
7 - 4
8 - 3

4. Which attribute do look for when you buy a tooth paste?

Healthy Tooth and Gums - 199

Long lasting Freshness - 216

Prevention of Tooth Decay - 135

Whiteness - 70

Use of Natural Herbs - 189

Good Foam - 140

Methodology

It was found out that the people preferred that tooth paste the most which provided them with
Long Lasting Freshness. The tooth paste giving the quality of Healthy tooth & gums was
ranked second. Third in the race was tooth paste with Natural herbs. The fourth ranking was
given to tooth paste giving Whiteness to their teeth. Fifth ranking goes to paste providing
Good Foam and the least preferred was the paste which boasted of prevention of tooth decay.
All the points given to attributes that influence customers to buy tooth paste are based on
Rank System.

41
It was a combined survey of both males & females.

Procedure of Ranking

Rank - Points
1 - 6
2 - 5
3 - 4
4 - 3
5 - 2
6 - 1

5. The tooth paste advertisement that they like most of:

F M T

Close-up - 11 12 23

Pepsodent - 5 7 12

Colgate - 4 11 15

42
6. I would switch to another brand, possibility for one or more of the following reasons:

Price rise of my current brand 19

Better packaging of another brand 6

Scheme with another brand 15

Advertisement impact 14

When my brand is not available 28

To try new option 23

Influence by others 5

Methodology
The main reason behind brand switch over was when the preferred brand of people choice
was not available. People strongly agreed to try new option just for the sake of exploring and
tasting the new brands available in the market. Price rise was also a major factor for brand
switch over. Schemes with other brands also shifted loyalty of people from their preferred
brands. Advertisements with attractive models were also one of the reasons for brand switch
over. Few people also preferred packaging of other brands and influence by others. It was a
combined survey on both males & females.

43
7. Which brand do you like most?

HLL - 32

50

40

30

20

10

0
Rs. 5-10 Rs. 10-15 Rs. 15-20 > Rs. 20

COLGATE-PALMOLIVE - 18

Methodology

Most of the people preferred the HLL brand, which includes Close-up andPepsodent. Thirty-
two people preferred HLL brand, which targets the youth segment, and eighteen people
preferred Colgate-Palmolive brand. It was a joint survey of both males & females.Ratings
given to these brands are out of fifty.

44
CONSUMER PREFERENSES TOWARDS VARIOUS TOOTHPASTE
RESPONSE MALES (%) FEMALES (%) TOTAL (%)

Ask by brand name 57.6 70.8 62.8

bought it in person 73.3 75.0 70.4

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Ask by brand bought it in person
name

eagerness to spend

s. 5-10 29.0 0.0 22.5

Rs. 10-15 41.9 29.2 40.0

Rs. 15-20 25.8 45.8 30.0

>Rs. 20 3.0 25.0 7.5

ASCRIBED TO

No specific reason 59.4 33.3 50.0

word of mouth 15.6 16.7 19.1

impressed with 9.3 20.8 11.9


advt.

shopkeeper insisted 15.6 20.8 14.3

dentists advice 6.3 8.3 4.8

45
60

50

40

30

20

10

0
No specific word of impressed shopkeeper dentists
reason mouth with advt. insisted advice

REPLACEMENT
FREQUENCY

0-1 MONTHS 23.5 12.5 17.4

1-2 MONTHS 26.5 29.2 28.3

2-3 MONTHS 23.5 29.2 30.4

3-4 MONTHS 23.5 16.7 19.6

> 4 MONTHS 2.9 16.7 4.3

46
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0-1 MONTHS 2-3 MONTHS > 4 MONTHS

FREQ. OF
BRUSHING

Once (per day) 50.0 28.0 46.7

Twice 44.2 68.0 46.8

after every meal 2.9 4.0 2.2

Not very particular 2.9 0.0 2.2

47
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
M A LE (% ) F E M A LE (% )T O TA L (% )

pressed with
Advertisement

YES 11.1 22.2 12.9

NO 88.9 78.0 87.1

90
80
70
60
50 YES
40
NO
30
20
10
0
MALE FEMALE TOTAL

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF ATTRIBUTES

48
MALES FEMALES TOTAL RANK

PRICE 62.7 57.3 61.2 5

PACKAGING 40.2 49.3 44.6 8

DURABILITY 74.5 74.7 75.4 2

LONG HANDLE 51.9 60.0 57.0 6

FLEXIBLE NECK 52.9 60.0 57.1 6

COMFY. ANGLE 68.6 78.7 73.7 3

SOFT BRISTLES 78.4 86.7 82.9 1

LOOKS 46.1 40.0 44. 9

DIAMOND HEAD 36.3 41.3 38.9 10

GRIP 58.8 68.0 63.4 4

INDICATOR 28.4 41.3 34.3 11

49
RANK

TOTAL

FEMALES

MALES

0 20 40 60 80 100

COLGATE PLUS USERS RESPONSE


Males Females Total

v. God Can’t v. God Can’t v. God Can’t


Good say Good say Good say

Quality 17 73 10 40 60 - 21.5 65.5 13

Access 90 10 - 97.5 - 2.5 95.5 - 4.5

Value/pric 42 50 8 60 23 7 51 32 17
e

Loyalty Yes-3 No- Yes-3 No- - Yes No -97 -


97 97 -3

50
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Quality Ac cess Value/price Loyalty

BRANDS PERCENTAGE

COLGATE PLUS 30.96

CIBACA 14.28

ORAL-B 16.66

CLOSE-UP 9.52

PEPSODENT POPULAR 7.14

JORDAN 9.52

OTHERS 11.90

51
BRAND RECALL

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
BRANDS ORAL-B JORDAN

BRANDS PERCENTAGE

COLGATE PLUS 20.47

PEPSODENT POPULAR 11.02

CIBACA 10.24

ORAL-B 9.54

AQUA-FRESH 7.59

AJANTA 7.09

OTHERS 28.35

52
Only about 5% of the respondents could not remember which toothbrush they were presently

30 BRANDS

COLGATE
25
PLUS
PEPSODENT
20 POPULAR
CIBACA
15
ORAL- B
10
AQUA- FRESH
5
AJ ANTA
0
OTHERS

using which were excluded from the above computing.

Chart 1

Duration of purchase

2 weeks
8 weeks 14%
30%
2 week s
4 weeks 4 week s
22% 6 week s
8 week s

6 wee ks
34%

We have found that nearly half of our sample is highly aware as Colgate as their
Toothpaste Brand with Pepsodent as Brand awareness is 25% with Close up at 20%
and Amar and babool at 6% and 4% respectively

53
Chart 2

Product Awareness
radio
2%
Others
8%
Print
12% Television
Print
Others
radio
Television
78%

We have found that more than 75% of our sample is aware of their toothpaste brand
due to television commercials whereas Product awareness by Print Media is 12%
followed by others (Posters @ Retail Stores) is 8% and awareness via Radio is 2%

54
Chart 3

Duration of purchase

2 weeks
8 weeks 14%
30%
2 weeks
4 weeks 4 weeks
22% 6 weeks
8 weeks

6 weeks
34%

More than 60% of our respondents purchase their toothpaste after 6 weeks.
Respondents who purchase toothpaste after 4 weeks are the ones who are brushing
teeth twice a day and respondents who purchase every 2 week are the ones who buy
smaller packs.

55
Chart 4

Brand Loyal

No
34%
Yes
Yes No
66%

More than 65% of our sample is Brand Loyal, remaining sample size are satisfied with
Any given brand of toothpaste

56
Chart 5

Price

Very Low
4%
Very High
Low 18%
8% Very High
High
High
Neutral
16%
Low
Very Low
Neutral
54%

We have found that more than half of our sample doesn’t pay a great attention to the
price as a factor while purchasing Crest Toothpaste.

57
Chart 6

Whiteness of teeth

Very Low
7%
Low Very High
33% Very High
14%
High
Neutral
Neutral Low
20% Very Low
High
26%

The respondents have evaluated Crest toothpaste as very high concerning its ability to
whiten their teeth, however more than 50% of respondents highly rated Crest for
whitening their teeth

58
Chart 7

Taste

Very High
Very Low
12%
22%
Very High
High High
Concerning Crest toothpaste taste 50% of the respondents agreed that they dislike
22% its
Neutral
taste, and are not satisfied with its taste, on the other hand they preferred Close-up
Low
toothpaste taste as it provides different kind of toothpaste tastes that it satisfies the
Low Very Low
needs of maximum respondents Neutral
30%
14%

59
Chart 8

Fresh Breath
Very Low
2%
Low
8%
Neutral Very High
Very High
18% 42% High
Neutral
Low
Very Low
High
30%

A great percentage of our sample (72%) has been satisfied with Crest toothpaste ability
to give them a fresh breath

60
Chart 9

Cavity & gum protection


Very Low
2%
Low
4%
Neutral
18% Very High
Very High High
46% Neutral
Low
Very Low
High
30%

More than 70% of the respondents very highly agreed that Crest toothpaste helps in
cavity & gum protection

61
Chart 10

Sensitivity

Babool
10%
Crest
6%
Colgate Colgate
Amar 40% Pepsodent
14% Amar
Crest
Babool
Pepsodent
30%

The majority of respondents agreed that Crest toothpaste does not help in maintaining
of sensitive teeth. Colgate is most preferred toothpaste with 40% respondents
whereas Pepsodent is preferred with 30% of respondents with Amar and Babool
with 14% and 10% respondents respectively

62
Chart 11

Majority respondents with 34% answered that they prefer Colgate toothpaste at 1st
place followed by Pepsodent’s preference at 22%, Crest-Close-up, Amar and Babool

B
63
Chart 12

Preferred Location

Supermarkets
30% Retailer Retailer
40%
Malls
Hypermarkets
Supermarkets
Hypermarkets Malls
20%
10%

Out of all respondents of our sample size, 40% of them preferred to buy toothpaste
from nearest retailer whereas 30% preferred to buy from supermarkets due to
availability of discount on MRP whereas 20% preferred to buy from Hypermarkets and
remaining 10% preferred from malls.

64
CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY TOWARDS
COLGATE V/s PEPSODENT

Q 1. Have you heard about any toothpaste producing company?


Ans (A) yes (B) No
If yes then name …………………………
Q 2. Which toothpaste you prefer?
Ans (A) Colgate (B) Pepsodent
(C) Close - up (D) Babool
Q 3. Which media make you aware about the tooth paste brand?
Ans (A) Television (B) Newspaper
(C) Relatives (D) Radio
Q 4. Which factor effects your choice towards tooth paste?
Ans (A) child (B) friends
(C) media (D) television

Q 5. Which characteristics influence you before buying toothpaste?


Ans (A) flavor (B) anti germ quality
(C) Freshness (D) price
(E) All
Q 6.Are you happy with your toothpaste brand?
Ans (A) Yes (B) No
If yes, than which quality is responsible for it.
……………………………………………….. …………………………..
If no, what do you want in your toothpaste?
……………………………………………...……………………………...
Q 7. Will you tell other to choose the brand which you prefer?
Ans (A) Yes (B) No
If yes, than which quality is responsible for it. …………………………..
If no, what do you want in your toothpaste. ……………………………...
Q 8. If you are ask for choosing a product between Colgate and Pepsodent. Which product
will you prefer and why?
Ans ……………………………………………………………………………
Q 9. How will you rating different toothpaste product?
65
Ans ……………………………………………………………………………
Q 10. If your toothpaste price decrease by 5 Rs. Then you will –
a. Increase Purchases
b. Decrease Purchase
c. Remain Unchanged
Q 11.If your toothpaste price Increases by 5 Rs. Then you will –
a. Increase Purchases
b. Decrease Purchase
c. Remain Unchanged

66
FINDINGS & ANALYSIS

• At colgate customers are highly satisfied with the range of product and
sufficient colour choice availability.

• Customers are highly satisfied with the way products are displayed to
them.

• Customers are satisfied with the kind of information provided to them


about different toothpaste brand

• Customers are satisfied with the kind of attention they get at pepsodent
retaler.

• Customers are satisfied with the type of test facility provided by company
and IDA.

• Customers are satisfied by the way all the documents and services are
explained to them.

• Customers are satisfied with the advertising appel used by Toothpaste


Company.

67
CONCLUSION
The present day brushing habits of the Indian society as a whole leaves a lot to be desired -
41 toothbrushes are sold for every 100 persons per year! Total units sold add u to a little over
400 million, growing at the rate of 10% p.a in volume terms and 25% in value terms
(difference explained by the shift to upper end of the market). This implies not much inroad
has been made into the rural and semi-urban market. Non-users constitute about 65% of total
population.

While the global brands try to create new markets and add new dimensions, there is much
greater latent demand.

Out of their stable of marketing strategies, advertising till now had been low priority for the
players (this was confirmed in our survey as 88.9% of respondents don’t recall the ads). This
indicates companies find it formidable to change the low involvement level psyche of
consumers and the route of aggressive sales promotion by way of price offs, POP displays,
tied sales and generous trade margins still hold the key to increasing off take of toothbrushes.

No one has made a serious attempt in the virgin territory of 65% non-users (CP’s Rural Van
Programme is a recent drive). The thought of doing a Nirma to the toothbrush market has
escaped everyone.

Despite packaging constituting a substantial (upto 40%) of the cost of a toothbrush it has
found to have influenced the purchasing decisions of the buyers. In our survey consumers
corroborated to this effect (refer to the survey findings). Companies could rethink their
strategy of increasing differentiability by packaging and instead invest in product
development for the same

The findings based on the data collected give a fairly good idea about the various
aspects of some important popular brands such as Pepsodent, Close-up and Colgate.

1. In terms of awareness, people are aware of both the brands. But they have their own
likings and disliking.

2. Most of the people like the advertisement of Close-up. The reason behind this is
that they target the youth segment by using young and attractive models.

68
3. People liked the HLL brand the most as compared to Colgate-Palmolive.

4. After survey it was found that most of the families used 2 tooth pastes on a
average basis per month. Some big joint families used 3 tooth pastes per month.

5. After research it was found that 42% people like Close-up, 24% Pepsodent, 34%
Colgate. The main reason behind the liking of Close-up is that the young generation
mostly likes the advertisement featuring various models ,flavours , colours and long
lasting freshness.

69
SUGGESTIONS

1) Colgate-Palmolive should try to target the youth segment by using Celebrities in their
advertisements. It is good thing that they mostly use Dentists to attract the customers
but as compared to HLL, they always use models and young people in their
advertisements. Celebrities attract today’s youth more.

2) Colgate-Palmolive should try to introduce a variety of attractive flavours in their tooth


pastes.

3) They should bring about some changes in their packaging & Labeling.

4) They should cut down their prices up to some extent because some tooth pastes of
Colgate are quite expensive as compared to Close-up &Pepsodent.

5) Close-up is less popular amongst senior citizens as compared to Colgate. Close


have already established a brand name in Youth segment but they should also
concentrate on targeting other classes of people.

6) Colgate stresses on Strong & Healthy teeth, Prevention of tooth decay, Use
a. of Natural herbs while HLL products believe in 24hrs protection from germs,
b. long lasting freshness and Whiteness of teeth’s.

2) In the Tooth Brush segment people prefer Colgate brushes more than HLL
toothbrushes because there is large variety and shapes of Colgate Tooth brushes
available in the market.

3) Both HLL and Colgate-Palmolive should try to explore the rural areas also because
both these brands are not very popular amongst the rural people.

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APPENDIX

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Business Today Library

2. A&M Issues of June ‘05, June ‘05, April ‘2006

3. CII Library

4. FORE Library

5. Kotler Philip (Principles of Marketing

6. Kotler, Philip (Marketing Management).

Journals and Magazines:

1. Business Today
2. Business India

SITE VISITED

 WWW.COLGATE.CO.IN
 WWW.PEPSODENT.CO.IN
 GOOGLE SEARCH

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QUESTIONNAIRE

1. Name ________________________________

2. Age ________ , Gender _______ , Contact No.


____________________

3. Which Tooth Paste do you like most?

Close up Pepsodent Colgate

4. Status: Student Professional House Wife Businessman

5. Number of Tooth Pastes used per month ______

6. Which Brand do you like most ?

HLL Colgate-Palmolive

7. Which are the factors that influence you the most when you buy a tooth paste?(Give
Ratings 1-8 )

a) Price b) Colour c) Advertisement d)


Packing

e) Scheme f) Availability g) Taste h) Liking

8. Which attribute do you look for, when you buy a tooth paste?
( Rank in order of preference from 1 - 6 , the brand which has these attributes )

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a) Healthy tooth& gums b) Long lasting freshness c) Prevention
of tooth decay

d) Whiteness e) Use of Natural herbs f) Good foam

9. The tooth paste advertisement that like most is of

-----------------------------------------------------------
--------------

RETAILER QUESTIONNAIRE
11. Location of the store :

12. Selling toothbrushes since

13. Brands stocked


¹ Colgate Plus ¹Cibaca Supreme ¹ Aqua Fresh
¹ Jordan ¹ Oral-B ¹ Royal
¹Pepsodent ¹ Promise ¹ Ajay
¹ Ajanta ¹ Classic

14. Which are the top three toothbrushes in terms of exist sales?
1. 2. 3. 4.

15. In case not covered above. What is the status of:


1. Aquafresh ¹ Good ¹ Picking up Moderate ¹ Poor
2. Colgate Plus ¹ Good ¹ Picking up Moderate ¹ Poor

16. How do consumers ask for a tooth brush? (Rank them)


(a) Ask by brand name (b) Ask for a cheap brush
(c) Specify a price range (d) Go for an expensive brush
(e) Keep trying newer ones

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17. Which of these two companies make it a point to:
(a) Get a regular feedback
Aquafresh ¹ Yes ¹ No
Colgate Plus ¹ Yes ¹ No
(b) Maintain regular supply
Aquafresh ¹ Yes ¹ No
Colgate Plus ¹ Yes ¹ No

18. Rank your profit margin for the following brands:


1. Cibaca Supreme 2. Colgate Plus
3. Oral-B 4. Aqua Fresh
5. Classic 6. Ajanta
7. Pepsodent 8. Jordan

19. What is your a) Highest Margin


b) Lowest Margin

20. If the consumer does not ask for a specific toothbrush then which one would you
offer him? Why?

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