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# Chapter 4: Failure Theories

4.0 Introduction
4.1 Macromechanical Failure Theories
4.1.1 Maximum Stress Theory
4.1.2 Maximum Strain Theory
4.1.3 Tsai-Hill Theory (Deviatoric energy theory)
4.1.4 Tsai-Wu Theory (Interactive tensor theory)

## 4.2 How to Apply a Failure Theory

4.3 Description of Failure Theories
4.3.1 Maximum Stress Theory
4.3.2 Maximum Strain Theory
4.3.3 Tsai-Hill Theory (Deviatoric energy theory)
4.3.4 Tsai-Wu Theory (Interactive tensor theory)

## 4.4 Comparison of Failure Theories

4.5 Application Structural Analysis
4.0 Introduction

## Failure: Every material has certain strength, expressed in terms of

stress or strain, beyond which it fractures or fails to carry

## Why Need Failure Theories?

(a) To design structural components and calculate margin of safety.
(b) To guide in materials development.
(c) To determine weak and strong directions.
Failure Theories for Isotropic Materials:
Strength and stiffness are independent of the direction.
Failure in metallic materials is characterized by Yield Strength.

σ ult
Stress
σ ys

ε ys ε ult Strain
Theories:
(a) Maximum principal stress theory.

## (c) Quadratic or Distortional Energy Theory.

4.1. Macromechanical Failure Theories in Composite Materials

## a. Maximum Stress Theory

b. Maximum Strain Theory
c. Tsai-Hill Theory (Deviatoric strain energy theory)
d. Tsai-Wu Theory (Interactive tensor polynomial theory)

## 4.2. Application of Failure Theory

First step is to calculate the stresses/strains in the material principal directions.
This can be done by transformation of stresses from the global coordinates to
local material coordinates of the ply.

Ply Stresses:
{σ } x − y = [Tσ ]{σ }1− 2 {σ }1− 2 = [Tσ ] {σ } x − y
−1
or

Ply strains:

## {ε }1− 2 = [Q]1− 2 {σ }1− 2

Now apply the failure criteria in the material coordinate system.
4.3.1 Maximum Stress Criterion
Failure occurs when at least one stress component along the
principal material axes exceeds the corresponding strength in that direction.
σ2

Tensile stresses: σ2 σ1 σ1
σ 1 ≥ F1t Fiber break
σ 2 ≥ F2t Matrix crack F 2t
σ2

## Compressive stresses: No failure σ1

F 1c
σ 1 ≤ F1c Fiber crushing F 1t
F 2c
σ 2 ≤ F2c Matrix yielding

Shear stresses:

σ 12 ≥ F6 or σ 6 ≥ F6 Shear crack

## Note there is no interaction between the stress components.

Failure of an Angle Ply Laminate

Material: E-Glass/Epoxy y x1
F1t = 1,080 MPa F1c = 620 MPa
F2t = 39 MPa F2c = 128 MPa
F6 = 89 MPa
ε1tu = 0.028 ε2tu = 0.005
ν12 = 0.28 ν21 = 0.06
σx σx
x2

## 1. Maximum Stress Theory x

F1t
σ 1 = σ x Cos 2θ @ failure σ 1 = F1t or σ x = ⇒ Longitudinal Tension
Cos 2θ
F
σ 2 = σ x Sin 2θ @ failure σ 2 = F2t or σ x = 22t ⇒ Transverse Tension
Sin θ

F1c
σ 1 = σ x Cos 2θ @ failure σ 1 = F1c or σ x = − ⇒ Longitudinal Compression
Cos 2θ
F
σ 2 = σ x Sin 2θ @ failure σ 2 = F2c or σ x = − 2c2 ⇒ Transverse Compression
Sin θ

F6
τ 6 = −σ x CosθSinθ @ failure τ 6 = F6 or σ x = ± ⇒ Shear
CosθSinθ
Uniaxial Strength of an Off-Axis Lamina
Maximum Stress Theory
y x1

1200 L-Tension
1000 σx σx
800 x2

600 Shear x

400
σx
MPa 200 T-tension
0
-200 Shear T-Compression
-400
-600 L-Compression

-800
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
θ , deg
4.3.2 Maximum Strain Theory:
Failure occurs when at least one of the strain components along the
principal material axis exceeds that of the ultimate strain in that direction.

Tensile strain:
ε 1 ≥ ε 1ut
ε 2 ≥ ε 2ut ε2

Compressive strain:
ε1 ≤ ε 1uc ε 2t u
ε1t u
ε1c u No failure ε1
ε2 ≤ ε 2uc
ε2c u

Shear strain:

γ 12 ≥ γ 6u or γ 6 ≥ γ 6u
Maximum Strain Theory Expressed in Stresses
ε 1 = (σ 1 − ν 12σ 2 ) / E1
Maximum strains:
ε 2 = (σ 2 − ν 21σ 1 ) / E2
γ 6 = τ 6 / G12

σ2
ε 1 = ε 1ut or - ε 1uc
@ Failure σ2 σ1 σ1
ε2 = ε 2ut or - ε 2uc
γ 6 = γ 6u σ 2 − ν 21σ 1 = F2t σ2

No failure
σ1

## Ultimate strains are calculated σ 2 − ν 21σ 1 = − F2c

from Uniaxial & Shear tests:
F1t F1c
ε 1ut = and ε 1uc =
E1 E1
F2t F2c
ε 2ut = and ε 2uc =
E2 E2
γ 6u = F6 / G12
Application of Maximum Strain Theory to Angle-ply Laminate

ε 1 = (σ 1 − ν 12σ 2 ) / E1
Strains
ε 2 = ( −ν 21σ 1 + σ 2 ) / E2 y x1
F1t
σx =
Cos 2θ − ν 12 Sin 2θ σx σx
F2t
σx = x2
Sin 2θ − ν 21Cos 2θ
x

F1c
σx = − ⇒ Longitudinal
Cos 2θ − ν 12 Sin 2θ
F2c
σx = − ⇒ Transverse
Sin 2θ − ν 21Cos 2θ

F6
σx = ± ⇒ Shear
CosθSinθ
Uniaxial Strength of an Off-Axis Lamina
Maximum Strain Theory
y x1

1200 L-Tension

1000 σx σx
800 x2
Shear
600 x

σx 400
MPa 200
T-tension
0
-200
T-Compression
-400 Shear

-600 L-Compression
-800
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
θ , deg
4.3.3 Tsai-Hill Theory
Hill extended the von Mises criterion for ductile anisotropic material.
Azzi-Tsai extended this equation to anisotropic fiber reinforced composites.
Failure occurs when the LHS of the following equation is
equal to or greater than one.

Aσ 12 + Bσ 22 + Cσ 1σ 2 + Dτ 62 = 1

## From longitudinal, transverse, and shear tests on a uniaxial laminate,

A, B, and D are determined.
1 1 1
A= 2
, B= 2
, and D=
F1 F2 F62
From Equal Biaxial test:
Failure occurs when the transverse stress (σ2) reaches F2.
C1=-1/F12

## Tsai-Hill failure criterion: σ 12 σ 22 σ 1σ 2 τ6

σ 12 σ 22 σ 1σ 2 τ 62 2 + 2 − 2 = 1−κ κ=
2

2
+ 2 − 2 + 2 =1 F1 F2 F1 F6
F1 F2 F1 F6

## Note: No distinction is made between tensile & compression strengths.

Application of Tsai-Hill Failure Criterion to Angle-Ply Laminate

## Substitute for σ1, σ2, and τ6 in y x1

terms of σx in:

σ 12 σ 22 σ 1σ 2 τ 62
2
+ 2 − 2 + 2 =1 σx σx
F1 F2 F1 F6
x2

x
We get the failure stress:

1 Cos 4θ Sin 4θ  1 1
= + +  −  Cos 2
θSin 2
θ For Tensile Stresses
σx2 2
F1t 2
F2t  F6 F1t 
2 2

1 Cos 4θ Sin 4θ  1 1
= + +  2 − 2
Cos 2θSin 2θ For Compressive Stresses
σx2 2
F1c 2
F2c  F6 F1c 
Uniaxial Strength of an Off-AxiLamina
Tsai-Hill & Tsai-Wu Theories
y x1
1200
1000
800 σx σx
600
Tsai-Hill x2
σx 400
Tsai-Wu x
MPa
200
0
-200
-400 Tsai-Hill
-600 Tsai-Wu
-800
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
θ, deg
4.3.4 Tsai-Wu Theory
Tsai-Wu theory is a simplification of GolÕdenblat and KapnovÕs generalized
failure theory for anisotropic materials. It is stated as

## fiσ i + fij σ iσ j = 1 I,j=1,2,3,4,5,6

For plane-stress condition:
f1σ 1 + f 2σ 2 + f6 τ 6 + f11σ 12 + f 22σ 22 + f66 τ 62 + +2 f12σ 1σ 2 + 2 f16 σ 1τ 6 + 2 f 26 σ 2τ 6 = 1

## Shear strength is independent of sign of the shear stress, therefore all

liner shear stress terms must vanish. Therefore we get

## Now we will evaluate all six constants for tests:

(a) Longitudinal tension & compression tests:
1 1 1
f1 = − and f11 =
F1t F1c F1t F1c

## (b) Transverse tension & compression tests:

1 1 1
f2 = − and f 22 =
F2t F2c F2t F2c

1
f66 =
F62

## (d) Interaction coefficient f12 is assumed as

1
f12 ≅ − 1
2 f11 f 22 or f12 = − 21
F1t F1c F2t F2c
Application of Tsai-Wu Failure Criterion to Angle-Ply Laminate

y x1

## Substituting for σ1, σ2, and τ6 in

σx in the above eqn. We get
σx σx
aσ x2 + bσ x − 1 = 0
x2
Where
x

## a = f11Cos 4θ + f 22 Sin 4θ + 2 f12 Cos 2θSin 2θ + f66 Cos 2θSin 2θ

b = f1Cos 2θ + f 2 Sin 2θ

Solution is:

− b ± b 2 + 4a
σx =
2a
Uniaxial Strength of an Off-AxiLamina
Tsai-Hill & Tsai-Wu Theories
y x1
1200
1000
800 σx σx
600
Tsai-Hill x2
σx 400
Tsai-Wu x
MPa
200
0
-200
-400 Tsai-Hill
-600 Tsai-Wu
-800
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
θ, deg
3.4 Comparison of Failure Theories
Operational Required operational
Theory Physical basis
convenience convenience

## Maximum Tensile behaviour Few parameters by

Inconvenient
stress of brittle material simple testing Conservative Design
σ2
Tensile behaviour Max. strain
Maximum strain of brittle material Inconvenient Few parameters by
F2t
Some stress simple testing
interaction -F1c
σ1
F1t

Ductile behavior of
anisotropic Can be programmed
Deviatoric Different functions Biaxial testing is
materials -F2c
strain energy required for tensile needed in addition to
"Curve fitting" for Max. stress
(Tsai-Hill) heterogeneous and compressive uniaxial testing
strenghts Interactive theory
brittle composites

## Mathematically Numerous parameters

Interactive consistent General and Comprehensive
tensor comprehensive;
Reliable "curve experimental program
polynomial operationally simple
fitting" needed