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toan_cao_cap_t2_5732

toan_cao_cap_t2_5732

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VIEN cAC TRUONG CAO £)ANG

)

NHA XUAT BAN GIAO Dl)C

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w

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,

NGUY~N aiNH TRf (Chu.bien) L~ TRQNG VINH - DUONG THOV

vY

Giao trinh

18A'H HIC
,;
,

,',;

;";',

::

~1P.ft:~, '
~'

, ,.,'

" ,,' ",, 'J::

iii",}

-'
•••

~

',:"}
1

< ••••••••

T!P2
(Sach dung cho sinh vien cae truang Cao tieing)

NHA XUAT BAN GIAO OVC

Sinh vien mai vao nsm hoc tiur nhOt aic tnriJng EJ{liux: cao ding l thl1ifng glp kh6 khan do phuOng phdp d~y, phuong phep h9C d b~c h9C nay c6 nhieu di&u kiuic bi¢t so v8i d ~c Trung h9C. Tosn h9C cao cOp l~i la m(Jt mon h9C kh6 vai thiJi 1uf1ng Jan cua nsm thli nhsi d aic trlfimg EJ~ih9C/ Ow ding kf thu~t· nhAm ren luy¢n ttr duy khoa h9C, cung cOp cdng cp todn h9C dl sinh vien h9C cac mon khoe hoc kj thu~t khec va xOy dung tiem Iuc dl b~p nr hoc seu nay. tuc
&) giao trinh "roan hlJc ceo cap" nay duxrc bien sO{U1 can cli vao

chuang trinh khung d§ duuc ban Iuinh va tiurc b§"giang d~y h¢ ceo ding cua mot Sft truong f)~i h9C kj thu~t va can cti veo chU'dng trinh mon Toen hi¢n nay cua esc tnrang Trang h9C Phd thong; nhim gitip eho sinh vien h~ caD ding h9C t6t m6n h9C nay. Do y&u diu daD teo hien nay clia h¢ Cao din[? mot s6'phin clia Todn h9C caD cOp nhtr csu tnic d~i s6; diflIlg tosn phmmg; tich phsn ph~ thu(Jc tham s6; tich phOn ba lap/ tich phOn mIt chudi Fourier. ... kh6ng dur;tc dire vso giao trinh nay. Nhiing khai niem Toen h9C co Mn/ nhii'ng phuung phap ca bin nhiing k&t qua ca bdn clia cdc chuang d&u dltt;1c trinh bay d.i'y dd. M(Jt's6' dinh If kh6ng duoc chting minh. nhung f nghia cue nhiing dinh if quan trong duac giai thfch ro ran[? nhi&u vi du minh hoe duac dlta ra. Nhi&u ting dung cua If thuy&t vso tinh gin dling dUflc trinh bay J dOy. Ri&ng vdi nhilng Ja~n thiic vigiai tieh ma sinh vien dur;tchoc d Trang h9C phd' , thong. gilio trinh nay chi nhic J~i mot aich h¢ th6ng cic dilm chinh va trinh bay esc ki&n thtic n.ing cao. Phein csu hoi 6nt{J.p d cu6] m6i chuang' nhim gitip sinh vien h9C t{J.pva f1/ kilm tra k&t qua hoc t4P cua minh. Lam nhiing bai I4p dira d cu6J mdi chuang se gitip ngztiJi h9C hilu seu sic han cec khai niem Todn h9C/ ren luy~n ky nang tinh todn va kha nang v~ dung' cac khai niem Oy. Cdc bei t4p d6 se dzrr;tc gidi trong b(J bdi I4p kem theo bo giao trinh nay:, 3

a

Bt) giao trinh nay dU',?,c vi~t thtinh hai t#p va JJ c6ng trinh q1p thi cua ba nhe giao : Nguy~n Dinh Tri (chu bien), L~ T1'9ng Vinh va Duong ll1liy Vj. 6ng L~ Trang Vinh vi~t cdc chuting I, II, ~ v,- (Jng Duong Thuy Vj vi~t aic chuong IlL Vl VIII, IX; 6ng Nguytfn Dinh Tri vit§tcdc chuang VIl X Xl Khi xAy dlJ'l1g dt§'cU'dng cho ~ giao trinh nay ding nhtr khi bien SOf111 giao trinh, cluing toi d§ thamkheo kinh nghi¢m cua nhilu MJ giao dii giang d!1Ynhieu ndm mon Tom hoc ceo c.§p cho h~ 010 ding J cdc trtrang Dei hoc kj thuf1t. Cluing t6i xin ch.§n thJnh aim on cdc ben d6ng nghNp dii doc ben !1ufo va cho nhi~'u f ki~n quy NU. Bt) gIao trinh nay duoc VItJt Mn diu, chic kh6ng tninh khoi nhiing khi~in khuytJt. Chting Wi chsn thJnh cam on moi f ki~n dong gop cua bsn doc. Thtr gap f xin gUi v&' 6ng ty cdphin sach DijlihocC D'1-Y ngh&: 25 Hen Thuyen, Hs Nt)i.

cAe TAc GIA

4

Ml)C Ll)C

LOIN

,

6IDAU ,.,
Chutm~ VII

Trang 3

HAM 86 NHIEU BIEN 86
Khai niem rna dau Dao ham rieng, Vi phan toan phan ; Dao ham ella ham 56 hop. Dao ham ciia ham 56 Dao ham theo huong, Vecto gradien Cue tri Vai 1ing dung cua phep tfnh vi phan trong hlnh hQC Cau hoi Oil t~p Bai tap .: Dap so §1. §2. §3. §4. §5. §6.

an

44
59

7 18 28 32 38 50

52

ChutmgVIII

TiCH PHAN KEP § 1.
§2. §3. §4. §5. Bai toan dan den khru niern tfch phan kep : The tfch vat the hinh tru cong ~ Dinh nghia tfch phan kep Cac tfnh chat ella tich phan kep Cach tfnh tich phan kep trong he toa d¢ De-cac each tinh tfch phan kep trong h¢ toa d¢ cue 66 67 68 70 78 86 93 94

:

§6. Dng dung hlnh hoc cua tfch phan kep CAu hoi On tap

Bai tl\lp Dip 56 PHAN DOONG §.1. Bai toan dan den khai niem tfeh phan dirong :
§2. §3. COng cua mot hrc bien d6i Dinh nghia tfeh phan duong Cach tlnh tich phan duong

97

nca

ChutmglX

99 101 102

5

§4. §5.

Cong thirc Green Dieu kien de tich phan dirong khong phu thuoc duang eong H(y tieh phan : ;

107 109 114 116 118 119 123

§6. Ullg dung cua tich phan duang §7. rich phan duang trong khong gian Cau hoi on t~p Bai tap Dap s6
Chu01I~X

CHUar

Dai cirong vi! chu6i so Chu6i s6 duong Chu6i co so hang ym dau bat Chu6i Iuy thira CAu hoi 60 t4P Bai t~p Dap so

§ 1. §2. §3. §4.

ky

124 128 135 140 154 156 160

Chu01IgXI

PRWNG TRiNH VI PRAN
§ 1. §2. §3. Cau Dai cuong ve phuong trlnh vi phan Phuong trmh vi phan cap mot Phuong trlnh vi phan cap hai tuyen tfnh hoi on t~p 163 164 183 201 203 207 211

Bai t4P Dap so

TAl LI~U

THAM

KHAo

6

HAM cA1l#!;Ilah
yEu

s6 NHIEU

Chu'dng VII

BIEN

s6

C!du

- Trinh bay nhilng khai ni~m co ban k8t. qua co ban vg phep t.'inh vi tl ? h' ,( nh'~ b''( so : CA!n ng h- hi ,( ~'h tf Phan cua am so feu len fa am so nh'~ b,t< so. leu fen ,( miin xac djnh. each biiu dian hlnh hQC. gibi han

va

va tinh

lien tuc cua

ham s8 nhi8\u biin s8, d~o ham riSng va vi ph~n t.oan phgn,

d~o ham

cap cao, d~o ham thee hL1bng,cue tr] cua ham s8 nhi2'u biBn s8 va m$t. s80ng dl,lng cua phep tinh vi phan vao hlnh hoc.
tI' - 5,In h vien can h''( ro leu ,!),

~ kh~' ruem ...." nam vLlng cac k,("" qua +- " ~ ev ? al ," cren, .(, cren, hiiu dL1qcy nghTacua d~o ham ri8ng vi ph~n toan phgn. ca'n hru y
CZlC

va

din Sl,l khac bi~t. giUa ham

s8 m$t. bien s8 va ham s8 nhigu biin d~o ham

- Sinh vi8n d\n t'inh toan t.hanh thao ham

va ~i ph~n coa ham s8
dL1qe cue tr] eua

s5,

nhigu biin s8 eho dL1bicac d~ng khac nhau, tim

s8 nhigu biin s8. viet. phL10ngt.rinh eua tiip t.uyin, phap dj~n eua dL10ng eong t~j m$t di2m. phL10ngt.rlnh eua phap t.uyin. t.iep di~n cua m~t eong t~i m$t diim,

§1. IQiAI NleM Me. DAU
1.1. £)inh nghia ham so nhieu bien so
D la mot tap hop trong JR2, Ngiroi ta goi anh xa f : D -+ JR, tuc Ia mot quy tAc cho irng voi mOi c~p sO' thuc (x, y) E D mot sO' thuc duy nha-t z, ky hieu Ja f(x, y), la ham s6' hai bien s6. x va y la hai bien s6' d9C lap. Ta ky hieu D duoc goi Ia mien

xac dinh ciia ham sO'f T~p hop
f(D)

f: (x, y)

f-+

Z

= f(x, y),

= {z E JR I z = f(x, y), V(x, y) E D}

goi la mien gia tri cua ham sO'f.
Ham sO'0 bien sO' f(xl' xz, "., xn) diroc dinh nghia nrong tv. 7

.",;

,

1.2. Mien xae djnh
Neu ngiroi ta eho ham so hai bien s6 bOi.bieu thirc z :: f(x, y)ma khong noi gl ve mien xac dinh ella n6 thi mien xac dinh ella ham so do duoc hieu la t~p hop nhtmg cap (x, y) sao eho bieu tlurc f(x, y) co nghia. Neu xem (x, y) la toa d¢ ella diem M trong mat phang thl mien xac dinh cua ham so f(x, y) la t~p hop nhimg diem M sao cho bieu thtrc f(M) e6 nghia, Do thuong la mot tap hop D lien thong trong lR?, nrc la mot tap hopma hai diem MI, M2 bAt ky ella n6 luon co the nci voi nhau bbi mot dtrong eong lien tuc nam hoan toan trong D (hlnh 7.1). Trir tnrong hop mien xac dinh D :: lR?, D thuong diroc gici han bOi.mot dtrong eong L kin hay khong, Mien D duqc gQi la md neu nhUng diem cua bien L dell khong thuoc D, lit dong neu moi diem cua bien L deu thuoc D. Mien lien thong D diroc goi Ia dan lien neu no hi giOi han bOi. mot duong eong kin, da lien neu no bi gioi han boi nhieu dirong eong kin roi nhau timg doi mot. Vi du 1. Ham so z :: 2x 3y + 5 xac dinh Vex, y) E IR2, mien xac dinh ella nola toan bo mat phang,
2

Hlnh 7.1

Vi du 2. Ham so z ~I - x2 - y2 xac dinh khi 1 - x2 0 hay x+ 1. xac dinh Clm no la hinh tron d6ng, tarn 0, ban kinh 1 (hinh 7.2).

l ::; Mien

=

-l ~

Vi du 3. Ham sO z :: lo(x + y - 1) xac dinh khi x + y - 1 > 0 hay x + y > 1. Mien xac dinh ella n6 la OIIa m~t phang rna nam phfa tren duang thang x + y = 1 (hlnh 7.3).

a
y

y

x
x Hinh 7.2 Hinh 7.3

8

Sau nay cac khai niem se duoc trinh bay eho tnrong hop n 2 hay n 3. Cac khai niem a'y cling duqc rna rong cho tnrong hop n nguyen duang bAtky.

=

=

1.3. Biiu diin hinh hoc clia ham

so hai bien so
z

Gilt sir z f(x, y) Ia ham s6 xac dinh trong mien 0 ella mat phAng xOy. Qua diem M(x, y, 0) trong mien D, dung dirong thang song song va cung hu6ng vci true Oz va lay ditm P tren do sao cho MP = f(x, y) = z. Khi diem M bien thien trong mien D thl diem P bien thien trong IR3 va sinh ra mot mat S nao do, goi la d6 thi cua ham sO z = f(x, y). Ta noi rang z = f(x, y) la phirong trinh ciia mat S. Moi dirong thAng song song voi true Oz eiit m~t S a khong qua mot diem (hlnh 7.4).

=

y

Hl'nh7.4

z
C(O,O,3)

Vi du 4. Ham s6 z

=3-

3x - ~ y xac

dinh tren toan mat phang xOy, D6 thi cua n6 la m~t phang cat ba true toa d¢ theo thu tl,l a ba diem A(1, 0, 0), B(O, 2, 0), C(O, 0, 3). Phan cua d6 thi eita ham s6 d6 nam trong g6c phan tarn thu nhat (hlnh 7.5).

y

B(O,2,O)

x
Hinh 7.5

1.4. M,t b,c hai M~t bac hai la nhiing mat rna phirong trinh cua chong la bac hai d6i voi
x, y, z. 1.4.1. M4/ elipx6it Mat elipxoit la mat e6 pnuong trlnh

-+-+-=1 2 2 2
a
b

x2

y2

z2

e

(7.1)

trong do a, b, e lit nhiing s6 duong. VI x, y, z eo mat trong phuong trinh (7.1) voi s6 mli chan nen mat elipxoit nhan cac mat phang toa d¢ lam mat phang doi xung, nhan gee 0 lam tarn d6i ximg, 9

mat elipxoit hOi cac mat phang toa d¢ xOy, yOz, zOx, cac giao tuyen theo thu tg la cac dirong elip:
.x2

at

-+-=1 a2 b2
y2 z2

y2

z==
'

Il;

-+-=1 ' b2 c2
z2 x2 -+- 2 2

x=o·, y

c

a

=1

'

e

O,

Cat mat elipxoit bOi mat phang z = k, k Ia hang s6. giao tuyen co
phuong trlnh -+-=1--, a2 b2 c2

x2

y2

k2

z=k.

(7.2)

Neu k < -c hoac k > c, phuong trinh (7.2) vo nghiem, mat phAng z = k khong cat mat elipxoit,
Neu k

= ±c,

giao tuyen thu ve dic.~m 0, ± c). (0, z

Neu -c·< k < c, phirong trinh (7.2) c6 the viet

Do la phuong trinh cua dirong elip co
tam tai di~m (0.0, k), c6 cac ban true la

a

[k2 Vl - ;Z'

bI -

[k2

Khi k tang til den c, cac ban true nho dan tm 0. Khi k tang til -c den c, giao tuyen di chuyen va sinh fa mat elipxoit (hinh 7.6). a, b, c goi la cac ban true cua elipxoit,

°

V

2.

y

Hinh 7.6

Neu hai trong ba ban true bang nhau, chang han a
tron xoay, sinh boi dirong elip ;.. + ..;. = 1. z a
2 2

= b = c, mat elipxoit

a

tra thanh mat cau tarn 0 ban kfnh a.

b

=

°

= c, ta c6 mat elipxoit

quay quanh true Oz. Neu

10

1.4.2. M(it hypeb6lOit m9t tang Do la mat bac hai co phirong trinh (7.3) a b c ' trong do a, b, c 1ftnhUng hang s6 duong. M~t do nhan cac m~t ph!ng toa dQ lam m~t phang d6i ximg, nhan g6c toa de')lam tam d6i ximg. No cat mat phang toa d¢ xOy thee duemg elip = 1, z=O, b cat cac mat phAng toa de')yOz, zOx llin hrot thee cac duong hypebon : 2+2
x2 y2

-2 + - 2 - -2 = 1

x2

y2

z2

a

2-2

y2

z2
C
Z2

b

= 1, x=O,
= 1, y=O.

2-2 a c

x2

Giao tuyen cua m~t hypecboloit voi mat ph~ng z = k 1ftduemg elip

Khi

Ikl tang

tir

°

x2 y2 k2 2+2 = 1+2, z=k.
abc den
+00,

(7.4) z

cac ban true ella

elip do theo tha tu tang tiI a den +00 va tir b den +00. Khi k bien thien tu -00 den +co giao tuyen do dich chuyen va sinh fa mat hypeboloit mot tang (hlnh 7.7). Neu a

=

y

b, ta c6 mat hypeboloit mot

tang tron xoay, do hypebOn 2 - """2 a c y = quay quanh true Oz sinh ra.

x2

Z2

°

=

1
Hi'nh 7.7

1.4.3. M{i.thypeb6lOit hai tang Do la m~t bac hai co pmrong trinh

x2 y2 z2 -2 +- 2 - -2 a b c

=

-1

'

(7.5)

trong do a, b, c IIInhtrng hang s6 duong, No nhan cac m?t phang toa d¢ lam mat phang d6i xrmg, nhan g6c toa de')lam tarn d6i xirng. 11

Git

mat (7.5) bOi mat

ph&ng z

= k, giao tuyen

co phirong trinh

y2 k2 ~ + b2 = ~ - 1, z = k.
Neu

x2

·(7.6)
z

Ikl < c,
=

mat (7.5) khong cat mat phAng

z = k. Neu k ±e, mat phang z k tiep xuc v6i m~t (7.5) tai diem (0, 0, c) hoac (O, 0, -c). Neu

=

Ik! > e, giao
a

tuyen (7.6) la dUCmg elip co ban true

.

'b~2 va

1 2 -. Kh'1 e

Ikl tang tu -,

+00, cac ban true §y Ibn dan tir tai +00, giao tuyen (7.6) di chuyen va sinh ra mat hypeboloit hai tang (hlnh 7.8).

°

C

tm

,.
Hinh 7.8

Neu a

=

b, ta c6 mat hypeboloit

2 - """""2
a e

x2

y2

== -1 , z

= quay quanh true Oz sinh ra.

°

hai tang tron xoay,

do hypebon

1.4.4. Mi!t parab61iJit eliptic

Do Ia mat co phirong trlnh
-+-=2z,

x2

y2

p

q

(7.7)

trong

do p, q Ia cac hang s6 dirong. phAng yOz va zOx

Vi x, y tham gia vao phirong trinh (7.7) v6i s6 mii chan, nen mat (7.7)
nhan cac mat Oz lam true :

lam mat

phang d6i xtmg. duong parabon nhan

M~t (7.7) cat cac ml}t phang x

= 0 va y :: 0 thee cac

l =2qz, x =0;
X
2

= 2pz,y =0.

Giao tuyen cua true

J2Pk, J2qk

mat (7.7) voi mat ph4ng z = k Ia duong elip c6 cac ban

:
(7.8)

12

neu

k > 0, lit g6c toa d¢ neu k :::O. Khi k tang til 0 d€n +co cac ban true ciing tang tit 0 den +co, giao tuyen (7.8) di chuyen va sinh fa mat paraboloit eliptic (hlnh 7.9). Neu P = q, ta co m~l paraboloit tron xoay, do parabon x2 = 2pz, Y = 0 quay quanh true Oz sinh ra.
1.4.5. M(itparabo16it hypebolic Do lit mat co phirong trinh

z

Hinh 7.9

v

---=2z q P

x2

y2
,

(7.9)

trong do p, q la nhUng Mng so dtrong. No nh~n cac mat phang yOz va zOx lam m~t ph&ng d6i ximg. Cat no bOi mat phang zOx. giao tuyen lit ducng parabon

x2
parabon nay nhan Oz
cat m~t

lam true,

= 2pz, y :::0,
vm

(7.10)

(7.9) hOi m~t phc\ng x ::: k song song
Y

mat phAng yOz, ta
(7.11)

duqcduOng

2 = -2q (k2) 2p z-

• x::: k.

D6 lit dUOng parabon

song song vOi Oz, quay M lorn v~ phia z < 0, co dinh nam tren dUOng (7.10). Khi k bien thien tit -<t:J den +co, giao tuyen (7.11) di chuyen va sinh ra m~t paraboloit hypebolic (h1nh 7.1O). dUOng

co

tham s6 q, c6 true x

cat m~t (7.9) bfJi mat ph&ng z = k, ta duqc
-

Hinh 7.10

x2
P

--

y2
q

::: 2k, z

= k.

(7.12)

Neu k > 0, do la dubng hypebOn c6 true thuc nam trong mat ph~ng zOx

• va song song voi Ox, co

ban

true thuc

J2Pk. ban

true ao

M. Neu
13

k < 0, d6 la duong hypebon c6 tIl,IC thuc nam trong mi!ot phang yOz va song song vOi Oy, co ban true thuc .J-2qk, Neu k ban true ao ~-2pk.

= 0, phirong trlnh
--p
x2

(7.12)
y2

tra thanh
= 0 ia c~p duong
th~ng giao

q

= 0, z=o.

V~y giao tuyen cua mat (7.9) vro mat ph~g z nhau y = ± ~x \trong mat phang xOy.

1.4.6. Mijt tru b(lc hai Neu mot trong ba bien s6 khong co mat trong phuong trlnh cua mot mat nao d6 thi mat d6 la m(it tru. Chang han, mat co phuong trinh

2+2 = 1, a b
a, b Hl cac hang s6 duong, la mat tru elip. Neu diem (xo, Yo, 0) thuoc mat d6 thl moi diem (Xij, Yo' z') v6i z' ba't ky cling thuoc mat d6. V~y dubng sinh cua mat tru song song v6i true Oz (hlnh 7.11). COn phuong trlnh y = x2 bieu dien ' m~t tru parabon c6 dirong sinh song song v6i true Oz (hinh 7.12).
z

x2

y2

z

y

y x

Hinn 7.1 1

Hinh 7.12

1.4.7. Mijt non b(lc hai Xet mat c6 phuong trlnh

x2 y2 Z2 2+2=2"
abc 14

(7.13)

trong d6 a, b, c 13.cac hang s6 duong. No cat mat phAng xOy tai g6c toa d¢, cat mat phang yOz thee dubng

-b2 = -c2' x = 0
tuc

y2

z2

hay

z

= ± bY' x = 0,

c

Ia thee c~p duong thang giao nhau ~ong m~t phang yOz va d.t mat

phang zOx thee cap dUOng thAng giao nhau z Giao trinh

tuyen ciia m~t (7.13) vm m~t
~+~=I,z=k.
x2 y2

= ±~x, phang z = k, k ia hang

s6, co

pmrong
(7.14)

ak
c2

bk
c2 z

Giao tuyen do ak -,-. bk

la dirong elip co cac ban tI\1C

Khi1 k b':{ thoien tu -00 d:{ +00, " len en c giao tuyen do di chuyen va sinh ra ~t (7.13)

c

(hinh 7.13).

De nAm
dmmg

ki~m tra rang nell diem thAng OMo cling

Mo("o, Yo, ZQ)
y

tren mat (7.13), thl moi diem nam tren nam tren mat

(7.13), vi rnoi diem tren dubng thAng OMo dell co toa d¢ (AXo. AYo, ~). A la mot s6 nao do, V~y mi,it (7.13) Ia m()t mat non co dinh d g6c toa d¢. Nell a = b, ta duqc m"t m~t non tron xoay.

Hinh 7.13

1.5. Gidi han cua ham so hai bien so
Ta noi rang day diem Mn(Xn, Yn) dAn tm diem Mo(xo. Yo) trong ll~.zva viet

M, ---+ Mo (hay (xn, Yn) ---+ (Xo. Yo» kill
lim ~(Xn - xO)2 n~CJ) Cho ham s6 f(M)

n

---+ 00 nell

+ (Yn - YO)2

= 0,

= f(x, y) xac dinh trong mot mien D chua diem

Mo(xo, Yo), co the trlr diem

Mo. Ta

n6i rang L 13.gioi han ciia f(x. y) khi

15

diem M(x, y) dan

tm diem
n~CJJ

Mo m!u VOl moi day Mn(xn, Yn) (khac Mo) thuoc
=.L. hay lim f(M) = L.
y

mien D dan tai Mo ta deu co lim f(xn'Yn) f(x,y)

Ky hieu :

(x,y)~(xo,Y()

lim

=L

M~Mo

Tir dinh nghia tren su y fa rang neu khi day C1,
LI'~

M,

dan

c;

lm-

M, tren hai duong

khac nhau (hlnh 7.14) lim
f(x,y)

rna

day

If( xn• yn)} dAn toi
thi
(x,y)~(xo,Yo)

hai gioi han khac nhau khong ton~.
f(x,y), vOl Hinb 7.14

Vi du 5. Tinh

(x,y)~(O,O)

lim

f(x, y)

=

J x2xy+ y2 .
dinh tren
R2\(0.

Ham s6 f(x. y) xac

OJ. Vl

J x2Ixl y2 s 1. \f(x. y)" +
(0. 0). lim f

(0. 0)

nen
if(x.y)1 = Do do voi moi day V~y
(x,y)~(O,O)

J x2Ixl y2 IYI s Iyl. \f(x. y)" +
f(x,y)
=

I(xn'

Yn)} diD tm (0, 0), ta deu co

(ltn,Yn )~(O,O)

= O.

lim

O.

Vi du S. Tim

lim
(x,y)~(O,O)

g(x,y) v6'i g(x, y)

=

2 xy X

+Y

2'

Ham 56 g(x, y) xac dinh tren ]R2\ {(O, 0)). Vm day {(xn, YnH dAn tm (0, 0) teen true Ox, ta co Yn lim g(xn, 0) = O. -xn~o

=

0, 'do do g~xn' 0)

=

O~ V'xn :t: O. V~y

16

xl1~o

lim g(xn,xn)

= ~.
g(x, y).

Vi O;e 21 nen khong ton tai . lim
(x.y)-.(O.O)

1.6. Tinh tien tile eua ham so hai bien so
010 ham s6 f(x. y) xac djnh trong mien D. Mo(xo, Yo) ill m¢t diem thuoc D. Ta noi rang ham 56 f(x, y) lien tuc tai Mv neu : 1. Ton tai 2. lim lim
(x.y)~(xo,y()

f(x. y) ;

(x.y)~(."((),y(J)

f{x. y)

= f(xo.

Yo).

(7.1 5)

Ham s6 f(x, y) dllqc goi 13 lien [(IC trong mien D neu no lien tuc tai moi diem cua mien D. Ham s6 nhieu bien s6 lien tuc trong mot mien dong gi6i. noi cling co nhung tfnh chat nhu ham s6 mot bien sO lien tuc trong mgt khoang dong gi6i noi : no giol nQi, dat gia hi Ian nhat va be nhat trong mien ay, Vi du 7. Xet tinh lien tuc cua ham s6 G(x.y)=

{

x +y
a

2 xy

2

.V(x.y);e

(0,0)

• neu (x, y)

= (0.0).

G(x, y) xac dinh tren roan lR? N6 lien tuc tai moi diem (x, y) ;e (0. 0) vi

no Iii thtrong cua hai ham s6 lien tuc v6i mau s6 khac O. Chi con phM xct tinh lien tuc cua G(x. y) tai (0. 0). Vi khong ton tai lim
(x,y)-).(O,O)

x +Y

2 xy

2 (xem

vi du 6) nen G(x, y) khong lien tuc tai (0, 0). Tom lai, G(x, y) lien tuc tai moi diem (x, y) ;e (0.0).

Chuthich. Neu d~t x

= Xo + 6X, Y ::::Yo + 6.y, ta co f(x. y) = f(xo + Ax. Yo + Ay),
17

Lai d~ M viet Ia .

= f(Xo + illt,

Yo + .1y) - f(xo, Yo)' Khi do cOng thuc (7.15) co M

the

(~.6y)-l-(O.O)

lim

= O.

(7.16)

N6i each khac, ham s6 f(x, y) lien tuc tai Ma(xo, Yo) neu he thuc (7.16) duqc
thoa man.

§2. £)~O HAM RIENG. VI PHAN TOAN PHAN
2.1. 0,0 ham rieng
2.1.1. Dinh nghia. z = f(x. y) la mot ham s6 xac dinh trong mien D, (xo, Yo) lit mot diem thuoc D. Neu cho y = Yo.Yo Ia hang s6, rna ham s6 mot bien s6 x ........ Yo) c6 dao ham tai x Xo thi dao ham do goi la dao ham f(x, rieng dtii viii x ella ham s6 f(x. y) tai (Xo, Yo) va duqc ky hieu la

...

A

A

""

A-

=

fiXo, Yo) hay

ax. (xo, Yo)

Of

hay

Ox (xo, Yo)'

Oz

Vay theo dinh nghia ciia dao ham ham s6 mQt bien s6, ta co - I' f(xo + illt,yo) - f(xo,yo) fx (xo, Yo) - 1m A_
IU.-l-O
Uh •

Tuong nr, dao ham rieng dol viii y Clla ham s6 f(x, y) tai (Xo.Yo)kY hieu ia
f( ) - li f(xo,yo + .1y) - f(xo. Yo) y xo, Yo rm A .1.y-l-O lly Nhu vaykhi tinh dao ham rieng d6i vOi x cua f, chi viec xern y 13 hang s6 va lay dao ham cua f dOi v(ri x; khi tinh dao ham rieng d6i voi y Clla f, chi

viec xem x lit hAng
Vi du

1. Tfnh cac dao ham rieng cua z = X4- 5x3y2 + 2y4.
ax

so va liy

dao ham ciia f d6i ven y.
220z 3

Oz

= 4x - 15x Y • fly = -lOx Y + 8y . = xy (x > 0). _

3

3

Vi df!, 2. Tinh cac dao ham rieng ella z

Oz y-l Oz YI Ox = yx • fly = x n x .

18

Vi du 3. Tfnh cac dao ham riengcua z == eos(;)

(y

se0).

: = -Sin(;).!
: =

(;)

= -Sin(;).~,
=

-sm(~).~(~) sm(~).;2 .
2

Chu thich 1 : DI;lO ham rieng ella ham s6 n (> 2) bien s6 duqc dinh nghia tirong nr, Khi tfnh dao ham rieng cua f d6i vOi m¢t bien s6 nao do, ta xem cac bien s6 khac Hi hang s6 va tinh dao ham ella f d6i vci bien s6 ay,

Vi du 4. Tinh cac dao ham rieng ella ham s6 u = eX y cos z.

.

- =e ax.
2.1.2.

au

x2y au x2y 2 2xy cos z - == e x cos Z

'

Oy

,

au
UL.
:l...

=

-e

x2y. SIOZ •

Y nghia hinh

hoc cua~o

ham rieng z

GQi S III d6 thl ella ham s6 Z = f(x, y), C, III giao tuyen ella S va mat phAng y == Yo'C, chinh lit do thi ella ham s6 mot bien s6 f(x, Yo) teen mat pMng y = Yo.

Do do dao ham rieng fx(Xo,Yo) Ia he s6 g6c ella dUOng tiep tuyen T, ella C, 4-i diem P(xo, Yo, z.o), trong do Zo = f(xo Yo) (hmh 7.15). Con dao ham rieng fy(xo, Yo) la he s6 g6c ella dirong tiep tuyen T2 cua giao tuyen ~ cua m~t S VOl m~t pit!ng x = ~o tai p(xo, Yo,z.o).
t

y

Hlnh 7.15

Dao ham rieng fx(xo, Yo) cfing bieu dien van toe bien thien cua ham s6

f(x, y) thea huong x tai (xo, Yo),con flxo, Yo)bieu dien v~n t6c bien thien ella f(x, y) theo huang y tai (xo. Yo)'
2.1.3.Df!.O hdm rieng cap cao

z

=

Cac dao ham rieng fx' fy goi Ia dao ham rieng cap mt}l ella ham s6 f(x, y). Chung cilng lit nhtmg ham s6 ella x, y. VI v~y co the xet cac
19

~.,

dao ham rieng cua chung : (fx)x' (fx)y, (fy)x' (fy)y, goi Ia dao ham rieng cdp hai cua f(x, y). Ta dung cac ky hieu sau :
(fx),

= fxx =

!(:)
.=

= ~~ = ~~,

(fx)y

= fxy
=
fyx

a (at) = Oy Ox a (at) ::; ax Oy a (at) ::; Oy Oy

a2f ::; OyOx a2f OxOy

a2z ::; OyOx'
::; OxOy'

(fy\

aZz

(fy)y
\/j

::; fyy

a2f ::; Oy2

a2z ::; Oy2'
+ 2x\ - 5y4, + 6x2y, + 2x3
-

du 5. f(x, y)::; x2eY + x\2 _ y5
fx ::; 2xeY fxx ::; 2eY

+ 3x2

l,

fy::; x2eY

+ 6xl, + 6x2y,

fxy ::; 2xeY fyy ::; x2eY

fyx ::; 2xeY

2ol.

Cac dao ham rieng cap cao han ducc dinh nghia tuong U!. Chang han
fxyy ::; (f.,y)y

a ( OyOx. J ::; Oy20x fif a3f ::; Oy

.

Ta thira nhan rna khong chirng rninh dinh If quan trong sau. Dinh Ij 7.1 (Schwarz). Neu ham so f(x. y) c6 cae dao ham rieng Ixy WI fvt (rang mot mien D va netl cdc dao
(xo, Yo) ~ D thi

ham

rieng

oy

lien tuc tai diim

I xy(xo, Yo) ::; yixo. y~). I
Ta dii thay ket qua nay Tir dinh
lien tuc,

a vi du S,

Iy

Schwarz d~ dang suy ra rang fXyy ::; fyxy ::; fyyx neu cluing

Dao ham rieng cap cao cua ham s6 n (> 2) bien s6 duqc dinh nghia

urong tu,
20

u=
II
X-

Z -

2 x-yz

e

:
,

Z2Cll-YZ

_ 2 x-yz "xx - Z e ,
Uxxy -

_

Uxxyz

ze . -Z - Z e . _ -3Z 2e x-yz _ z 3e x-yz .(_ y ) - -3Z 2e x+yz + yz 3e _ ~.\-F -

2 x-yz

(

) __

3 x-yz

.

2.2. Vi phin loan phan
2.2.1. D;nh nghia. Ta biet rang neu ham s6 mot bien s6 f(x) xac
dinh trong khoang I c lR va nell ton t~i dao ham f'(xo), L'..f(xo) Xo
E

I thi so gia

= f(xo + Ax)
4

- f(xo), trong do Xo

+ L'..x E I, co tM bieu dien diroi dang
+ allx,
(7.17)

M(xo) trong do a Ax
4

= f(xo)L'..x

0 khi L'..x 4 O. Bieu thuc f'(xo)L'..x, phan chinh ella L'..f(xo) khi

O. goi la vi phan ella f(x) tai xo. Vay neu dao hilm!'(xo) Ibn tai thi ftx}

khd vi tai xo'

Bay gio xet ham s6 hai bien s6 f(x, y) xac dinh trong mien D c
Mo(xo, llf(xo, Yo) va M(xo Yo)

]R2.

= f(xo
4

+ L'..x, Yo + L'..y) la hai diem thuoc D. Neu s6 gia

+ Ax, Yo + L'..y) - f(xo. Yo) co the bieu dien duoi dang
L'..f(xo. Yo)

= AL'..x + Bdy
4

+ uL\x + pL'..y,
4

(7.18) 0 va p
4

trong do A, B la nhimg s6 khOng phu thuoc L'..x, Ay; con u (Ax, Ay) (0, 0) (tuc la khi M

0 khi

Mo)

thi ta noi rang ham s6'j(x, y) khd vi

tai Mo. bieu thue AL'..x + BL'..y goi III vi phdn toan pluln_eua ham s6 f(x, y) tai (xo, Yo) t'tng vci cac s6 gia L'..x, L'..y va duqc ky hieu la df(xo, Yo). Neu ham s6 f(x,
y) kha vi tai (xQ, Yo) thi no lien tuc tai do, vi tit

cong thuc (7.18) suy ra M(Xo. Yo) 40 khi (llx, L'..y) 4 (0,0) (xem chu thich §l). Ham s6 f(x, y) goi la klui vi trong mien D neu no kha vi tai moi diem
thuoc D. Chu thicb 2. Nell f(x, y) khfl vi tai (xo, Yo) thi ton tai cac dao ham rieng fx(xo, Yo), fy<xQ. Yo)· That vay, tll: eOng thuc (7.18) trong do a
4

ta co

f(xo + L'..x. Yo) - f(xo, Yo) = AL'..x + aL'..x, 0 khi Ax
4

O. Do do 21

fx ( xo. Yo) - li f(xo + L\xSo) - f(xo.Yo) - A • - 1m A_ -

ax~o

llh

CUng nhu vay fixo, Yo) = B. _
Nhu vay neu ham s6 f(x, y) kha vi tai (xo, Yo) thi vi phan toan philo ella n6 tai (xo, Yo) diroc cho 00i

df(xo' Yo) = fixo, yo)~x + fy(xo. Yo)~y·
Chu thich 3. Kh~e vm

ham

s6 mot bien s6, neu ham s6 hai bien s6 f(x, y)

e6 cac dao ham rieng fiXo, Yo), fixo,

Yo) thi chua chac

no da

khi'i vi tai

(xo, Yo)' Xet ham s6 sau
G(x,y) =

{

°

x +y

2

xy

2

neu (x, y) :#:(0,0), neu

(x,y)

= (0,0).
= rim
O(h,O)
h

Theo dinh nghia cua dao ham rieng, ta c6 G (0 0)
xv-«

=

h~O

rrm

G(h,O) - 0(0,0)
h -

=

h~O

°

'

vi Gth, 0) = 0. 'Vh:#:0. Tuong tu; ta co 0lO. 0) vi d~ 6 §1) nen khong khi'i vi tai (0, 0) .•

= 0. Vay t6n tai cac dao ham

rieng 0x(O, 0). GyC0,0). nhung ham s6 o«, y) khOng lien tuc tai (0, 0) (xem

2.2.2. Die'u ki~n khd vi ella ham sd nhilu bien so Dinh Ij 7.2. Ne'u ham stff(x, y) co cac dao ham rieng trong mat mie'n D chua diim Mofxo, Yo) vii neil cac dao ham rieng tty lien tuc tai Mo thi ham StY

I(x, y) khd vi tai Mo. vi phan toan phdn cua f(x, y) tai Mo duac tinh bdi
cong thuc

df(xo. Yo) = Jxf.xo.Yo)Lix + Jlxo + Yo)L1y
Chung minh: Gia sir (xo + Ax, Yo + ~y)
E

(7.19)

D. Ta c6

M(Xo. Yo) = f(xo + ~x, Yo + ~y) - f(xo. Yo)

= [f(xo + ~x,
22

Yo + ~y) - f(xo. Yo + ~y)] + [f(xo. Yo + ~y) - f(xo - Yo)]·

Ap dung cong thuc Lagrange eho bAm s6 mot bien s6 (xern eOng thirc (3.2), t~p 1), ta duqc : .

trong d6

x Ia mot gia tri nao do nAm gitta
hi nao
-

f(Xo + .1x, Yo + Ay) - f(xo, Yo + Ay)
Xo

= Mfx(
y),

-

x , Yo + Ay),

va

Xo

+M ;

f(xo. Yo + .1y) - f(Xo, Yo) trong d6 y Ia mot gia

= Ayflxo.

do nam gitra Yo va Yo + Ay. Vay

.1f(xo. Yo) = .1xfx( x , Yo + Ay) + .1yf/Xo. Nhung vi fx va fy lien tuc tai Mo(xo. Yo) nen fX<x • Yo + Ay) = fX<xo, Yo) + a, fyCxo. y)

-

y)

= fyCxo. Yo) + P.
yo)Ay + aM trong

trong do a ~ 0; P ~ 0 khi (.1x. Ay) ~ (0. 0). Do 'do M(xo. Yo) M(Xo. Yo). duqe B

= fX<xo. Yo) Ax + flxo.
dien dum dang

+ PAy.

(7.20) fx(xo. Yo),

= fy(xo,

bieu

(7.18),

do A

=

Yo). Do d6 ham s6 f(x, y) kha vi tai Mo(xo. Yo) va vi phan toan

phan df(xo. Yo) duQ'C cho boi df(xo. Yo) = fX<Xo.Yo)M + flxo. Yo)Ay .•

Chu thich 4. Cling nhu d6i ham s6 mot bien s6, VI x, y la bien s6 doc lap nen ta co Ax dx, Ay dy, do d6 cOng thuc (7.19) con duqc viet Ia

=

=

vm

df(Xo. Yo) = fX<xo. yo)dx + flXo, Yo) dy. Vi du 7. Tfnh vi phan toan phan cua ham s6
Z

=

~x2

+ y2.

Ham s6 xac dinh tren toan IR2.Vi cac dao ham rieng Oz Ox lien tuc tai moi (x, y)

=

Jx2

x

az =

+ y2 ' 8y

Jx2

y
+ y2

* (0, 0) nen z kha

vi tren IR2\ {(O. O)} va

dz = xdx + ydy .

Jx2 +l

23

Clui thich 5. Doi voi ham so n (> 2). bien so, dinh nghia ham so kha vi. dieu kieu kha vi cua ham so, cong thtrc cua vi phan toan phan cilng luang nr
nlnr ham s6 hai bien s6.

Vi d~18. Tinh vi phan loan phan cua ham so u = xeYl.

Ham so xac

dinh tren toan
-=:C"

ll~? Cac

dao ham rieng

au Dx

\'1

au = xze'vc , Dy

Du

Dz

=:

xyc-

vz

lien tuc tren roan

~J

nen ham so u kha vi tren toim]R3 va
VI

du = c· dx

+ xze-VIdy + xyc- VI dz = e)'Z{dx + xzdy + xydz),

2.2.3. C}ngdung vi pluin toan phdn vao tinb gd'n dung T ir v( phai cua cong t hue (7.20) ta tha y rang (, (xo' Yo)-1.x + fyC'<-Q. Y Yo),'\ Et vo cung he bac nhat d6i voi p = ~-1.x2 + -1.y2 khi P --» O. con a-1.x + {~-1.y lit vo cung be cap cao d6i vci p. VI vay khi -1.x, dY kha nho, ta co the: xern

iH(xo. Yo) xap xi bang df(xo, Yo). tuc
hay

Ia
(7.21)

df(xo. Yo) ::::;(xo, YO)dX + fy<xo, YO)dY f

f(xo + Ax, Yo+ dY)::::; [(xu' Yo) + (Jxo, Yo) dX + fy(xo, Yo) Ay.
ncu Xu

Vi dl.1 9. 010 ham so ftx, Y) = x2 + 2xy - /. Tfnh L\f(x, y) va df(x, y)

= 2, Yo = 3, L\x ::: 0,03,

6.y = -0,02.

df(x, y) = (2x + 2Y)dX + (2x - 2y)dy. df(2, 3) = (2.2 + 2.3).(0,03) + (2.2 - 2.3).(-0,02) = 0,34.
L\[(2. 3)

= f(2.03 ; 2,98) - f(2, 3) . = ((2,03) 2 + 2.2.03.2,98 -

(2,98) 2] - [2 2 + 2.2.3 - 321 = 0,34 34.

'fa thay df(2, 3) ;::,; 6[(2, 3), nhirng tinh df(2, 3) d~ hem.
!'.

\./

(I.I

I

lt) . T' h gan d' ' ung arctg 0,95' 1,02 III

Ta dn tinh z(xo + Ax, Yo + Ay), trong do z = aretg Ax = -0,0:'5, D.y

r.
x

Xo = I, Yo

=

I,

= 0,02.

24

Taco

Theo coug thirc (7.21) z(1 - 0,05; 1 + 0,02)::::::zt l , I) + zx(l, l)Llx + Zy(l, l)tly

hay
arclg-;:::: aretg + 0,95
1,02 1 1.0,05

+ 1.0,02
2

= -4 + 0,3

n

5

= 0,785

+ 0,035

= 0,82 radian,

Vi du 1 J. Khi do ban kinh day va chieu cao ella mot hlnh "non tron xoay ta diroc lOem va 25em. Biet rang sai s6 m6i Ian do co the tcri a,lem. Hay tinh sai so tuyet doi 1<1nnhat khi tinh the tich ella hlnh n6n. .

The tich
duoc cho bdi

Vella hlnh non tron xoay co ban kinh day R va chieu eao H

12 V = 31tR H .
Do d6 vi phan cua Via
dv

......

=

av tlR

oR

+ oH

oV U AH

=

2nRH tlR + 1tR LlH

2

3

3'

Vi

IDR!

;5;

0,1,

ID.HI ;5; 0,1 nen sai so Ian nhat khi tinh V HI.
2.n.10.2S ., 1) + 1t.l00 ., 1) (0 3 3 (0

= 20 xcm 3::::: 63 em 3 .

2.2.4. Dilu kien di bilu thue P(x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy lil m{Jt vi phdn toan phdn Ta biet rang vi pharr loan phan ella ham so kha vi f(x, y) la
df

=

ax dx + ay dy.

Of

Of

Bay gia cho hai ham so P(x, y), Q(x, y). Djnh ly sau day cho ta biet khi nao bieu thirc P(x. y)dx + Qtx, y)dy ia vi phan toan phan eua mot ham s6
f(x, y) nao do.

25

lJinh Ij 7.3. Gid su cdc ham s{/ Pix, y), Q(x, y) co cdc dao ham rieng lien tuc trong mQt miln D nao do. Bitu thuc Pix, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy la m~t vi phan toan phdn khi va chi khi

ap

aQ Oy = ax'

t1x,y) ED.

(7.22)

Chung minh: Neu P(x, y)dx +Q(x, y)dy la vi phan toan phan cua ham so f(x, y) thl Of Of P(x,y) = ax' Q(x,y) = iJy . Dodo

ap
By
2 2 .

Nhimg :~

=

!~

= ayax'

a2f

OQ a2f Ox = Oxfly'

VI chting ciing lien tuc trong mien D (do dinh 197.1)

nen ta co dieu kien (7.22). V~y (7.22)
lit mot vi phan loan phan,

la <lieu kien cln de p(x,

y)dx + Q(x, y)dy

Dao lai, neudieu kien (7.22) dugc thoa man thl p(x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy lit mot vi phan toan phan, Ta thira nhan ket qua nay .• Chu thich 6. Neu dieu kien (7.22) dUfC thoa man, ta c6 tlm dugc ham so f(x, y) sao cho df = P(x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy. Viec tim ham so f(x,"y) diroc trinh bay trong vi d1:lsau. Vi du 12. ChUng minh rang cac bieu thirc sau day lit vi phan toan phan :
a)
001

the

= (2x -

5y2)dx + (6l- IOxy)dy,

b) ""
Tim cac

= 3x2(1 + Iny)dx ham so fj(x.

(2

Y - ~}Y'

Wi Y> O.

y) sao cho dfj = Oli' i

= 1,2. = 6y2 lOxy. Do do

Gidi: a) Ta

co P(x, y) = 2x ap

5y2, Q(x, y)

iJy = -lOy = Ox .

eo

Vay (01 lit mot vi phan toan phan, Ta phai tim ham so f1(x, y) 'sao cho dfl

= 001. do d6

26

Of, =2x-5y Ox

2

'

(*)

Of, 2 Oy = 6y - lOxy. Lay nguyen ham theo X hai ve cua (*), ta duqe f,(x, y) = x2 -

(**)

5lx + <p(y),

(***)

trong do <p(y)III mot ham s6 kha vi bAt ky ella bien s6 y, <p(y)diroc xem Hl hang s6 tuy y d6i vm x vi x, y Hi hai bien s6 d()c I~p.Lay dao ham d6i voi y hai v€ cua (***), ta duqc

at

a; = -lOxy

+ o'(y)

(****)

So sanh (**) va (****), ta duqe rp'(y) = s6 tuy

y. Thay

6l. Do do <p(y)= 2y3 + C, CIa

hang

<p(y)vao (***), ta diroc fj(x, y) = x2 - 5xy2 + 2y3 + C.

LUll Y rang ta ciing eo the bat dAu tinh bang each lay nguyen ham theo y hai ve cua (**) nhu trong phan b) dum day, b) Ta eo p(x, y)

= 3x2(1 + lny), Q(x, y) = ~y -

3

2y. Do do

V~y (02 hi mot vi phan toan phan, Ta phai tim ham s6 f2(x, y) sao cho df2

= (02' do do

~ = 3x\1
ar

+ lny),

(i)

a;

=

-y-2y.
-l

x3

(ii)

Lily nguyen ham thea y hai ve cua (ii), ta duoc f2(x, y) = x31ny + <p(x),

(iii)

trong do <p(x) Hi mot ham s6 kha vi bA'tky eua x. LA'ydao ham theo x hai ve cua (iii), ta duoc 27

at2

ax = 3x

2

Ihy + <p'(X).

(iv)

So sanh (iv) voi (i), ta diroc o'(x) 56 tuy

= 3x

2

Do do <p(x)

=x

3

+ C, CUt hang

y. Thay

otx) vao (iii), ta dtroc f2(x, y) = x3(l + Iny) - y2 + C.

§3. e~o HAM CUA HAM SO HQP.
, ? , A'

e~o HAM

COA HAM

s6 AN

cua ham so hqp 3.1.1. Cho ham 56 z = f(u,. v), trong do u = u(x), v = v(x) la nhtrng ham s6 ella x. Ta noi rang z = f(u(x), vrx) 13 ham 56 hop cua x qua cac bien 56 trung gian u, v. Dinh ly sau day eho ta quy tAe tinh dao ham cua ham s6 hop z = f(u(x), v(x». D!nh If 7.4. Nell Z = /(11, v) Ja ham sf; khd vi Clia II, v va neu It = uix), V = vex) /d nhiing ham s6' khd vi ella x thi Z 10. am s6' khd vi ella x va ta co h
3.1. ham
dz Of du -=--+--

e~o

dx

all

at

dx

av

dv

dr

(7.23)

Chung minh: Cho bien 56 d¢c lap x 56 gia 8X; u, v co 56 gia urong irng la 8u, 8v ; ham z eo 56 gia nrong irng 13 ta: Vi z = f(u, v) la ham 56 kha vi cua u, v nen 8z eo th€ bieu dien dum dang
8Z

= au 8U + Ov L\v + a.8u + ~8V, = at

at

Of

trong do a ~ 0, ~ ~ 0 khi (8U, 8V) _,. (0.0). Chia hai ve cho 8X, ta duoc
8Z 8X , Cho

au

8U L\x

+

Ov L\x

Of

8u

+ a. 8v + ~ 8V .
L\x 8V A L\x
X L'l.x~O

8x

4

0'

, VI

L'l.x~O uX

I'im A 8U

du I'irn = -d •L'I.x~O X

ux

=

dv -d • I'im ex.

I'un Il = 0 , L'l.x---.o ~ = 0 ,

tadut;J;

dz
dx

=

lim 8Z =
L'l.x~O

L\x

au

at au +
ax

Ov

Of Ov •

ax'

28

dz, v,I d U. 1 • T'm h -d neu z = u2 x

2 . uv + 2v, u = e-x , v = smx.

Theo cong thue (7.23), ta eo
dz 8z du Dz 8v . dx = dx + 8v = (2u - v)(-e

au

ax

+x

) + (-u + 4v)eosx
+x

= -(2e +x -

sinx)e

+ (4sinx - e )eosx.

+x

Chu thich 1. Neu z = f(x, y) Ia ham s6 kha vi ella x, y va neu y = y(x) Iii ham s6 kha vi cua x thi z = f(x, y(x» la ham s6 hop cua x, kha vi doi vci x va ta co
-=-+--.

dz dx

8z ax

8z dy ay dx

(7.24)

Dao ham 'dx dz . dao ~am :

a ve

tnii goi Iil dao ham toan phdn ciia z doi voi x, con ..
y) d6i voi x.

a ve phai Iil dao ham rieng ella z = f(x, = 1n(2 x
2x

YiI d I!'.2 T'mh dx neu z dz '"

+ y 2) , y

. = sm 2x.

1,beo cong thee (7.24), ta eo -=-+--=

dz dx

8z Ox

Oz dy
fly dx

x2+y2

+

2y

2'

x2+y2

smxeosx=------

'e ,

2x..:r4sin3 x cos x x2+sin4x

3.1.2. Bay gia xet ham s6 z = f(u, v), trong do u = u(x, y), v = v(x, y) la nhiing ham s6 ella hai bien s6 doc lap x, y. Khi do z ;:: f(u(x, y), v(x, y» Iii ham s6 hopcua x, y thong qua cac bien s6 trung gian u, v. tinh dao bam rieng d6i vOi x cua ham s6 z, ta xem y khong dOi. khi do z f(u(x. y), v(x, y» la bam s6 hop ella met bien s6 d¢C I~p x thong qua hai bien s6 trung gian u, v. Do dinh ly 7.4, ta eo

'De
=

az

at'

au

at' 8v ta du<;IC dinh ly sau, v)

OX=8UOX+8VOX'

Cling lap luan nhu vay khi tlnh :' Dinh Ij 7.5. Ntu ham so' z

so' u

= u(x,

= f(u,

ta ham so' kOO vi cua

u, v va cac ham thi ton tai cdc

y),

v ;::

' dgo ham neng
'A

ax' Oy va ta co

az az,

v(x, y) co cac dao ham rieng ux' uyl Vx'

,

Vy

29

az Of au Of iJv ax = au ax + iJv ax' az = Of au + Of iJv Oy au Oy iJv Oy..
Vi du 3. Tinh :':
Tac6
neu z

(7.25)

= eUcosv, u = xy, v = ~.
au
= y, By = x, ax = y' ay = -

au Dod6:

az

= e cosv,

u

Ov

az

= --e

u

smv, ax

v

:

au

fJv

lav

y2 .

x

:=

e'Ycos(;)y - e'YSin(;)~= e'Y[ycos(;) - ~ Sin(;)l

~ =e'Y cos(;)x -e'Y Sin(;)(- ;, )= e'Y[xcos(;)- ;, Sin(;)
in = O.

1

Chu thich 2. Quy ttic tinh dao ham cua ham so hop cling duqc rna rong cho mrong hop ham s6 f phe thuoc nhieu bien so trung gian hon va cac bien so trung gian phu thuoc nhieu bien s6 d<)cl~p hon, .

3.2. 0,0 ham cua ham so

3.2.1. Gii sir hai bien so x, y diroc rang buoc vOi nhau IX1i phuong trlnh F(x. y) khi n6i (7.26) Neu y = f(x) Iii.mOt ham s6 xac dinh trong mot khoang nao d6 sao cho vao phuong trlnh (7.26). ta duqc mot d6ng 'oMt thee thl ta y = f(x) Ia ham sf; tin X8c dinh IX1i phuong trlnh (7.26). Chang han phtrong trlnh

rang

the y = f(x)

x2 + y2 X8c

i =0

(7.27)

2 2 2 2 dinh hai ham s6 y= -x y= -x trong khoang -a :s; x ~ a, vi khi the cluing vao phuong trlnh (7.27) ta duqc d6ng nhai thuc

an

Ja

va

-Ja

x2 + (a2 - x2) - a2

= O. 't;/x E

[-a, a].

Chu y rang khOng phai moi ham s6 ~ deu c6 the bieu dien duoc dum dang y = f(x). Chang han, ham s6 xac dinh IX1i phuong trlnh

an

30

xy - eX+ eY = 0 khOng the hieu dien duqc dum dang y

= f(x).

Ngiroi ta chimg minh duQC rAng neu ham s6 F(x. y) kha vi trir mot s6 diem. ham s6 y = f(x) kha vi. Lay dao ham hai vi5phuong trinh (7.26) theo x, cong thee (7.24) cho ta r,«, y) + Fy(x. y)y' = o. Do d6 neu Fix, y):#! 0, ta co
y'

=

Fx(x,y) Fy(x,y) .

(7.28)

Vi du-t, Tinh y' neu x3 + y3 - 3axy
Vi F(x, y) (7.28), taco Y ,

= 0;

=

x3 +

l -3axy
Fx (x, y) Fy{x,y)

kha vi tren toan lR? nen theo cong thuc

=

=-

3x2 - 3ay 3y2 - 3ax

=-

x2 - ay

y - ax

2

nell

~

y - ax:#! .

2

0

Vi d~ 5. Tfnh y' neu xy - eX + eY = o. VI F(x, y) = xy - eX + eY kha vi tren lR? nen y =_
t

F (x,y)
Fy(x,y)
X

=_

y - eX neu x + eY :#!o. x + eY

3.2.2. Ta noi rang ham s6 hai bien s6 z bill phuong trlnh F(x, y. z) = 0 nlu F(x. y, ftx, y» = 0

= ftx, y)

la ham s6

an xac dinh
(7.29)

vm moi (x, y) thuoc mien xac dinh cua f. Ciing nhu trong tnrong hop tnroc, neu F(~. y. z) kha vi thl trir tai m()t s6 diem d*c biet. ham s6 f(x, y) khii vi. Lay dao ham hai vl phuong trlnh (7.29) d6i v6i x va dOi vm y, ta duQC

Ian luot

:

.

BF

ax (x.y.z)

BF ftz + &z (x.y.z) ax

=0

;

31

;;;;-(x,y,z)
LJ

of

+ ~(X,y,Z);l
~

of

oy

oz = O.

' A' Do d0 neu -0

of (x, y, ) :t:: 0,
z
Z

' ta co
(7.30)

v'I

d ~l 6. T' h ax' Oy neu xyz GZ oz In

= cos (x + y + Z ) .

Vi F(x, y, z) cho ta:

= xyz
Oz _ GZ

- cos(x + y + z) kha vi tren lR,3 nen cong tlurc (7.30)

ax - Oy

Fx.(x,y,z) Fz(x,y,z) Fy(x,y,z) Fz(x,

_ yz+sin(x+y+z). - xy + sin(z + y
==

+ z)'

=

y.z)

+ sin(x + y + z) xy + sin(x + y + z)'
xz

§4. D~O HAM THEO HUaNG. VECTO GRADIEN
4.1. O~a ham thea hU'dng 4.1.1. Ta biet rang cac dao ham rieng
fx.(xo, Yo), f/xo, Yo) bieu dien van t6c bien thien cua ham s6 z f(x, y) tai diem

=

Mo(xo. Yo) theo luning ella cac tI1J.COx, Oy. Bay gio ta mu6n tfnh van t6c bien thien ella ham s6 Ay tai Mo theo mot huong bat ky xac dinh boi vecto don vi ii cua no. GQi n la
goc giita tI1J.COx va vecto

u

U. Khi

do vecto

co cac thanh phan (cosrr, sinn). Qua

Mo
o
Xu Hinh 7.16
x

dung mot duang thing eo huong cua ii , tren dirong thang ay lAy diem M(x, y) sao cho

M:M = pii
_______.__.._.

(hlnh 7.16), p la d¢ dai dai

s6 ella MoM. Gioi han neu eo eila 32

ty

s6

III f'(M) _ f(Mo) =

p

p

f(x.y) _ f(xo.yo) = -........:.....--~-"-p

khi P ~ 0 goi

Ia dao ham cua ham z thea huang i1 tai
Djjz(Mo)

Mo. diroc ky hieu

Ia

.

hay

Oil (Mo)·

Oz

Neu ii trung v6i vecto dan vi
_ D jjZ(M)0 _

T

ella f.I11e thl Ox
_ z(xo.Yo) _

p~o

im

z(xo

+ P.yo)
p

_-

Ox

az (xo.Yo ) .

- V~y dao ham rieng :

Ia dao ham

ella z thea huang cua f.I11e Ox, eon ~
truc

Ia dao ham cua z theo hu6ng e~a Oy,
I

Tren hlnh 7.17. Djjz(Mo) bieu dien he s6 g6c ella dirong tiep tuyen T cua giao tuyen C ella m~t z = f(x, y) v6i m~t pMng di qua MaPo va vecto D. Diiz(Mo) cling bieu dien v~ t6c bi€n thien ella bam 56 i= f(x, y) tai M, thea hu6ng ii,

, P, C

I

:'
x

J.- _ - -

o

,

M~': u .
o ,

-. __

:'

I

.J_

- - --

y

--+

Hinh 7.17

Dinh Ij 7.6. Ni''u ham sd z = f(x. y) khd vi tai Mofxo, Yo) thi tai do no co dao ham theo moi huang u va Diiz(Mo)
a la goe

= fi.xo.

Yo) cosa + fjXo. Yo)sina,

(7.31)

rna

u tao vai true Ox.
ham s6 f(x, y) khll vi tai Mo nen s6 gia = f(M) - f(Mo)

Chung minh: Vi _III co

the vi€t duOi dang Il.z = f:t(xo, Yo)pcosa
a~
0,

= f(xo + pcosa,
+ flxo.

Yo + psina)

_ f(Xo, Yo)

Yo)psina

+ apcosa + ppsina,

trong d6

P~

Okhi P ~ O. Dodo 33

V~y

Vi du 1. Tinh dao ham cua ham s6 vectc

Z

= x2 -

5xy + 3/

thee huang cua

v = 67 + 8]

tai diem (2. -1).

Vecto dan vi ii irng voi thirc (7.31) : Djjz(x, y) Dijz(2,-l)

v

co cac thanh phan

5"'"5' (3 4)

Theo cong

.

= zx<x. y)cosa

+ Zy(x, y)sina

= (2x -

5y) ~ + (-5x + 9y2)~,

3 4 23 = (2.2 + 5.1)5 + (-10 + 9)"5 = s·

4.1.2. Dao ham cua ham s6 ba bien s6 w nhu tren, Gi6ng nhu chirng minh dinh

= f(x.
:

y, z) theo huang xac

dinh hOi vecto don vi ii tai diem Mo(xo. Yo, l{) duqc dinh nghia nrong tl}'

iy 7.6 ta co

f)!nh Ij 7.7. Ni'u ham sl)'w
no co dao ham thea moi huang Duf(xo,yo,zo)

= fix,
XQC

y, z) khd vi tai Mo(xo, Yo, zo) thi tai do

djnh boi vecta don vi

u

va

= fjxo, Yo. zo)cosa

+ fjxo, Yo. zo)cos{3 +
(7.32)

+ fixo. Yo, zo) cosy,
trong do a,

P. ria

nhi1ng goc

rna ii

tao viri ba true Ox, Oy, Oz.

4.2. Vectc:s gradien
Neu ham s6 hai bien s6 f(x. y) co cac dao ham rieng fx' fy tai diem M(x, y). nguoi ta goi gradien cua f tai M ia vecto co cac thanh phan (fx(x, y), fy(x, y»,

ky hieu

~

gradf(x,y)

hay Vf(x.y). Vay

grad f'(x, y)

= (fx(x, y), fy(x. y» = fX<x,y) T

+ fy(x. y)] .

(7.33)

34

Vi du 2. Tinh

g;;d f(M) neu f(x, y) = In(x2 + y2),
grad f'(M) =
---

M(3. -4).

x +y
6-: = 251

2

2x

2I

-:

+
8-:

x +y

2

2y·-:

2

J.

gradf(3.-4)

-

251-

Neu ham s6 ba bien s6 f(x, y. z) e6 cac dao ham rieng fx' fy• fz tai M(x, y, z), nguoi ta goi gradien cuaf tai M la vecto co cac thanh phan

va ky hieu la grad f'(x.y.z). f)!nh Ii 7.8. Neu ham s{/t khd vi tai diem M thi gici tri Ian nhdt cua dao ham theo huang D,J(M) bang Igradf(M)1 va dat duac khi

--

(fx(x, y, z), fy(x, y. z), fZ<x.y, z)

u

cung huang

vai vecta grad f(M).
Chung minh: Ta clnmg minh cho ham so ba bien so f(x, y, z). Vecto grad f'(M) co cac thanh phan (fx(M), fy<M), fZ<M», con vecto don vi u co cac thanh phan (coset, cosfi, cosy). Do do tieh vO huang ella hal vectc grad f'(M) va ii duqc tinh theo cong thtrc

---

--

gradf(M).ii

= fx(M)coset + fyCM)eos~ + fz(M)eosy = D~f(M).
9.

Theo dinh nghia ella tich vO hu6ng, ta co Diif(M)

= gradf'(Mj.ii = Igrad f(M)lluleos =

9 Ia goc giua grad f(M) va il, Do do grad f(M).ii dat gia tri 100 nhat khi eos9

--

=

1, tuc

ta

khi 9

0, hay khi huang ella u trung voi huang ella

grad f(M). Khi do gradf(M).u

= jgradf(M)!


-+

Vi du 3. Neu f(x, y, z) = x3 + y3 + z3 + 3xyz, tinh gradf va tinh dao ham cua f tai M(l, 2, -1) theo huong ella vecto w = -i + 2j - 2k. Gidi: Ta e6 gradf =
______. -0 -0

(i+ fy} + fzk = 3(-i + 3j
-t ~

= 3(x2
.....

+ yz)i + 3(y2 + zx)J + 3(z2 + xy)k,

grad f'(M)

+ 3k).

35

Ba eosin chi huang cua ;: dan vi

la (

-1'~,-~),
= x2 xy +

d6 Iii ba thanh phan cua vecto

n tmg voi

;, Do d6

Diif(M) = g;:;df(M),i:i = (-3{ -~) Vi dl;4 4. Cho ham s6 f(x, y)

+ 9,~ +

9(-~)

= 1.

l.
hi 160

a) Tfnh van t6c bien thien cua f tai A(2, 0) theo hu6ng tft A den B(5, 4), b) Theo hueng nao tht v~n t6c bien thien Ay 16'0 nhat, Tinh gia nhat fiy, Gidi: a) gradf

= (fx' fy) = (2x gradf'(A) = (4, -2),

--

y, -x + 2y),

Vecto Do"d6

AB

c6 cac thanh phan (3, 4), vecto dan vi i1 Ung vOi n6 Iii (~, ~).

Dof(A) = gradf(A).u

--

....

=

4'5 - 2'5

3

4

=

S'
hi Ian nhai
khi

4

b) Theo dinh ly 7,8, van tOe bien thien cua f tai A dat gia

ii cling hu6ng v6i g;;df(A)
19;;df(A)1

= (4, -2).Gia tri 100 nhfit fiy bang

= ~42 + (_2)2 = Eo.
18. m()t arm xa

4.3. TntCJng v8ctcf Ngtroi ta goi truang vecta xac dinh tren m()t mien Dc
cho Ung v6i mOi di~m M(x, y, z) don
E

)R3

D met vecto duy nhfit F(M) co g6c ~

M, cac thanh phan p(x, y, z), Q(x, y, z), R(x, y, z), N€u

vi tren

i.j. k III cac vecto
.... (*)

ba true toa d(), ta co _ F(M)
......

= P(x,y,z)i
thi

._.

+ Q(x,y,z)j + Rtx.y.zjk,

._.

Ching han, neu f(x, y, z) Ia m()t bam s6 xac dinh, c6 cac dao bam rieng cap mot trong mien D 36
c)R3

grndf

Iii m()t truong vecto xac dinh trong D.

Truong vecto F(M) cho bbi cOng thac (*) goi Ia truang the' neu ton tai

-

mot ham s6 u(x, y, z) sao cho
-grad u

= -F

~

au

ax = P(x, y, z), au ay F.

= Q(x.y, z), Oz = R(x, y, z),

au

tUc·la sao cho P(x, y, z)dx + Q(x, y, z)dy + R(x, y, z)dz goi la ham stI the vi cua tnrong

= du, Ham 56 u(x, y, z)

Tuong t1! nhu 'v~y, tnrong vecto xac dinh trong mot mien D c JR2Ia mot anh xa cho ung voi moi diem Mtx, y) E D mOt vecto duy nhAt P(M) co g6c tai M. cac thanh phan Ptx, y). Q(x. y). Ta co

-

F(M)

= P(x. y)i

-

+ Q(x, y)j.

-

(**)

Tnrong vecto xac dinh bl:ri cong thuc (**) goi Ia truang the' neu t6n tai m¢t ham s6 utx, y) goi Ia ham sf;' the vi ciia tnrong

---- = F gradu

~

au ax

=

Ptx.y),

au ay

p, sao cho
= Q(x,y),

tee la sao cho

P(x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy

= duo

Theo dinh Iy 7.3. bieu thirc Pdx + Qdy la mot vi phan toan phan khi va chi khi 8P 8Q (***)

ay=ax·

V~y tnrong F cho hOi (**) la tnrong thl! khi va chi khi di~u kien (***) diroc thoa man. Khi d6 c6 the tim duqt: ham s6 u(x, y) then P(x, y) va Qtx, y) (xem muc 2.2.4). .

Vi du 5. Cac tnrong vecto sau c6 lit tnrong thl! khong. TIm ham s6 the vi cua tnrong neu do Ia truong the.

PI = (x2 + y2)i + (x2 _ y2)J. 2) F; = (3x2 + y2)i + (2xy - 3)].
1)

Gidi: 1) Ta co P(x, y)

= x2 + l.Q(x. y) = x2 _ y2,
8Q

8P Vay FI khOng la wang

ay = 2y *" 2x = ax . the.
37

2) Ta co

Ptx, Y) ::: 3x2 + y2,
8p
_,

Q(x. y) = 2xy - 3,

By ::: 2y::: Ox .

OQ

V~y F2 III tnrong the. Ta tim ham s6 u(x, y) sao eho

·Ou

--;;;-= 3x

220u

ox

+Y,

::t., :::
V]

2xy - 3.

Tir phirong trlnh sau suy ra

u
<p(x)

la mot ham s6 kha vi bat kyo Do do

= xl-

3y + <p(x),

Ou = y 2 + <p '( x) ax
So sanh voi bieu thirc cua ~
o'(x)
uX

a tren, ta duC1C .
=:> <p(x)

= 3x2

= x3
3

+ C,
tnrong

C la hang s6 tuy y. v ~y ham s6
u(x, y)

vi the cua

F2

Hi

= x/-

3y + x + C.

§5.

eve TRI

5.1. CI/e tr] ella ham·sohai bien so 5.1.1. IJjnh nghia. Ta n6i rang ham s6 z == f(x, y) dat cue tri tai diem Mo(xo, Yo) neu vOi moi diem M(x, y) kha glin Mo nhung khac Mo hieu f(M) - f(Mo) co dau khong ddi ; neu f(M).- f(Mo) > (hi f(11o) III cue tiiu ; neu I(M) - [(Mo) < 0 thi f(Mo) lit cue dai. Cue dai va cue tieu duqc goi

°

chung Iii. cue tri, diem Mo dtroc goi III diem cue tri.

v, I
'Ii(x. y)

d 1.1 J • H'am so z A-

* (0, 0).

=

.J<. ,2 x 2 + y 2 dat cue neu tar (0, 0) vi X

+ Y2 > ,

°

5.1.2. Diiu kien can cua cue try Dinh' Ii 7.9. Neu ham sdft», y) dat cue tri tai dilm Mo(xo, Yo) va tai cac dao ham rieng ton tai till

do

(7.34)

38

Chung minh:

VI f(x. y) dat

Cl,IC

thi ham 56 mot bien

so x

tri tai Mo(xo, Yo)nen neu c6 dinh y

:=

Yo

1---+

ftx, Yo) dat cue tri tai x ::;:xo' VI dao ham

rieng fx(xo, Yo) t6n tai, no phai bang 0 theo dinh fyCxo.Yo)::;: .• O

Iy

Fermat. Cfing nhu vay

Dieu kien (7.34) la dieu kien can ella cue trio no khong la dieu kien dll VI rna cac dao ham rieng cap mot bang 0 chua chac ham dat cl,l trio Tuy nhien dinn Iy 7.9 cho phep ta chi 11mCI,lC tri tai nhtrng diem a do cac dao ham rieng cap motdeu bang khong, goi la dilm dung.
tai nhirng

diem

so

5.1.3. Dieu ki~n du cua

C,!C

try

Ta thira nhan ket qua sau.

Dinh Ij 7.10. Gid sri rang Mo(xo, Yo) Iii mf)t die'm dung cua ham sii' f(x, y) va ham s{/f(x, y) co dao ham rieng cap hai d ldn can diem Mo. D4t
r ::;: fx/'xo, 1) Neu

Yo), s :;:Ixy(xo, Yo), t

= Iyj.xo,

Yo). Khi d6 :
Cl!C

la cue

dai neu r < a

l -rt < a thi f(x,
;

y) dat CI/C tri tai Mo. Do fa y) khong dat cue tri tai Mo;

tic'u neu r

> 0,

2) Nell 3) Neu

~l rt > 0 thi f(x, i -n

::;: thi chua ktt ludn duoc I(x, y) dat cue tri hay khong 0

dat cue tri tai Mo (truang hap nghi ngo). Vi du 2. Tim cue tri clla ham Taco Toa d¢ cua diem dimg

so z:;::x2 + y2 + 4x -

2y + 8.

la nghiem

Zx :;:: 2x + 4, Zy :;:: 2y - 2. cua h¢ 2X + 4:;:: 0 { 2y - 2 = 0

V~y diem dirng duy nhat ta diem (-2. 1).

so dat cue tieu tai diem (-2,
Neu viet lai
Z ::;: (x

VI

zxx ::;: 2. Zxy :;:: 0, Zyy :;:: 2

nen

S2 -

rt :;::-4 < 0, con r
Z~

= 2 > 0, vay ham
E

1) va Zmin :;:: 22 + 12 + 4.(-2) - 2.1 + 8::;:3.

+ 2)2 + (y - 1)2 + 3, ta thay

3 V(x, y)

lR_2, d~ng

, thiic xay fa khi va chi khi x = -2, y:;:: 1, ta thay lai ket qua tren. Vi du 3. Tim cue tri ella ham

so z:;::x3 + l-

3xy.

39

TacO

z, ::;3x2 -

3y, Zy ::;

31- 3x.

T~ d¢ ella diem dung Iiinghiem ella h¢
x2 -

r=0
0

{ y2 _ X =

D6 Iii mot he phuong trlnh d6i xung, The' y ::; x2 tir phirong trlnh dau vao plnrong trinh sau, ta duQC
0= x4 X

= x(x3

-

1) = x(x - 1)(x2

+ X + 1),

Phuong trmh ay eo hai nghiem x -MI(l, 1), Vi Zxx ::; 6x, Zxy diem

= -3,

= 0, x ::; 1. Vay eo hai diem dirng Mo(O, 0),
c6lrt ::;9>

Zyy ::; 6y nen ~ Mo(O,0) ta

0,

Mo khong

Iii diem cue tri, Tai MI(l, 1) ta eo s2 - rt::; 9 -36::; -27 < 0,

r ::;6 > 0, MilA diem eire tieu, Zmin

= 1 + 1 - 3 = -1.
y

Vl d~ 4. Ti cue tI1- eua h' s6' z = x 3 + y 3 , . • am l un Ta e6
Zx

= 3x2,

Zy ::;

3i, vay ehi e6 mot
=

di~rn dung Mo(O,0). VI Zu = 6x, Zxy = 0, Zyy::; 6y,'
nen tai Mo ta eo s2 - n 1l$1ngay dl1qc. OUJ

Y z(Mo) ::; z(0, 0) ::; 0, 3 + y3. Hieu ay duong neu z(x, y) - z(O, 0) ::; x diem M(x, y) nam trong goc phan nr thti nhat, am neu M nam trong g6c phdn nr thu ba. Do
do dau ella hieu z(M) - z(Mo) thay d6i

rang

O. Vay chua ket
x

a Ian

can diem Mo (hinh 7.18) nen Mo khong Iii diem cue tri, 3x - 2y + z

Hinh 7.18

Vi du 5. Tlm khoang each ngdn nhat tir diem (1, -2, 0) den mat phang

= 1.

Khoang each tir diem (1, -2, 0) den diem (x, y, z) bang
d

= ~(X

- 1)2

+ (y + 2)2 + z2 .

Vi diem eve tri ella d trimg vm diem cue tri ella d2• ta tim cue tri ella d2 ::; (x - 1)2 + (y + 2/ + i

:::;y, z). f(x,

(7.35)

40

VI diem (x, y, z) nam tren m~t phAng 3x - 2y + z = 1 nen cac bieh s6 x, y. z trong (7.35) thoa man dieu kien 3x - 2y + z The z

= 1-

= 1. = F(x,
y).

(7.36)

3z + 2y rut ra tu (7.36) vao (7.35) ta diroc d2 (x - 1)2 + (y + 2)2 + (1 - 3x + 2y)2 :

=

Bai toan trb thanh tim cue ti~u ella ham s6 hai bien s6 F(x, y). Ta e6

= 2(x -1) - 6(1Fy = 2(y + 2) + 4(1Fx

3x + 2y)

= 4(5x - 3y - 2), 3x + 2y) = 2(-6x + 5y + 4).

TOO;1 ella diem dimg la nghiem ella h~ phuong trlnh d¢ 5X - 3y - 2 = { -6x + 5y + 4 = 0. Giai h¢ tren, ta duqc mot diem dimg duy nhat ta ( - ~ • - ~ ). VI F xx Fxy = -12, Fyy = 10 nen s - rt = 144 - 200
2

°

= 20,

diem cue tieu. H<1I1nita ta diem rna knoang each diem A(l, -2, 0) be nhar, d6 13.chan cua dUCmg vuOng goc hO;1 A xuong m~t ph!ng do~ Khoang eaeh do la til

tm

< 0, r = 20 > 0 nen Mo la biet rang teen m~t phang 3x - 2y + z = 1 eo mot

= -56

d = ~(x _1)2 + (y + 2)2 + (1 - 3x + 2y}2

ham s6 ba bien s6 (7.35), trong d6 cac bien s6 x, y, z thoa man dieu kien (7.36) goi la cue tri dMu kien (hay cue tri tuang dOl). Trong vi d\} 5 ta dii thay bai toan tlm cue tri eo dieu kien cua ham s6 ba bien s6 f(x, y, z) vao dieu kien z = <p(x, y) diroc dua ve bai toan tim eire tri cua ham s6 hai bien s6 f(x. y, <p(x, y» := F(x,_y).

Chu thich.

O!C tri cua

co

CUng v~y, hili toan tim cue tri tU<1I1g cua ham s6 hai bien s6 f(x, y) d6i voi dieu kien y = <p(x) diroc dua ve bai toan tim cue tri cua ham s6 mot bien s6 f(x, <p(x» := F(x).

Vi du 6. Trong cae hinh chu nhat n¢i tiep trong hinh tron ban kinh R.
hinh nao eo dien tieh IOn nhat. 41

Goi x, y Ia chieu dai hai canh cua hlnh ehil nhat, Dien tich cua hlnh chtt nhat la S xy. Vi hinh chit nhat n()i tiep trong hinh tron ban kinh R nen thee 2 dinh ly Pythagore, ta co x + 4R2 (hlnh 7.19). V~y ta can tim cue dai cua ham s6

=

l=

Sr=xy voi dieu kien x2 + y2 = 4R2. Vi x > 0, y > 0 nen til (7.38) rut fa y = J4R2 - x2• yeo nghia khi x2 ~ 4R2

(7.37) (7.38)

<=>

2R. Vay can tim eire dai cua ham s6 mot bien s6
X ::;

S= xJ4R2 Taco

_x2 ,0~x~2R.
Hi'nh 7.19

2 dS = J4R2 _x2 _ x dx ~4R2 _ x2

=

2(2R2 - x2) ~4R2 - x2 •

~~ = 0 khi x = R.fi. Til bang bien thien x
dS dx 2R

+
0------

0
2R
2

II 0

S

ta thay S dat eire dai khi x = R.fi, khi do y = R..fi . V~y hlnh ehil nhat n()i tiep trong hlnh tron co dien tich 16'0nhat khi nola hlnh vuong,

Chu thich. • Ta co th~ tham s6 hoa dieu kien (7.38) bang each d~t x = 2Reost, y

= 2Rsint,

0

s t s ~ VI x > 0, y > O. Khi do

S = 4R 2sintcost
n6 dat gia tri 16'0 nhai khi sin2t

= 2R 2sin2t,

=

1 => t

=:

=> x

= y. Ta di den

ket qua

nhanh han. 42

• Theo bat dAng thue Cauchy, xy

< x +y 2

2

2

,dau bang xay khi x

.

= y. Do

do neu dung ba't dAng tlnrc ay ta duoc ngay ket qua.

5.2. Gia tr] Ian nhat va be nhat cua ham so hai bien so trong m9t mien dong gidi n9i
Chung Ian hon hay be hon nhtmg gia tri khac cua ham

b muc tnroc chi co tinh chat dia phuong. so b Ian can diem cue tri, Ngiroi ta thuong goi do lit nhfrng CI,(C tri dia phuang. BAy gio ta mu6n tlm
Cue tri chung ta dinh nghia

rna

be nhat cua ham s6 trong toan Ix? mot mien nao do. Ta. biet rang neu ham so f(x, y) lien tuc trong mot mien dong gioi n¢i D thi no dat gia tri Ian nhat va gia tri be nhat cua n6 trong mien ay, Neu cac gia tri ay dat duoc tai nhimg di~m b ben trong mien D thl nlumg diem ay phai la ditm cue tri, do d6 la diem dirng cua ham so. Nhung cac gia tr] Ay cling co thi! dat duqc tren bien cua mien D. Do do muon tim gia tri lem nhat va gia tri be nhat cua ham s6 f(x, y) trong mien dong gioi noi 0 ta thuc hien cac buoc : gia tri Ian nhat
1) Tinh gia tri cua f tai cac diem dimg cua f

va

nam

trong mien D ;

2} Tinh gia tri IOn nhat va be nhat cua f tren bien cua mien D; 3) S616n (be) nhat trong cac gia tri tinh

b I) va 2) III gia tri Ian (be) nhat
y

phai tim.
Vi du 7. Tinh gia tri Ian nhat va be
nhat cua ham s6 f(x, y)

= x2 + 2xy

+ 3/

A

trong mien D dong hlnh tam giac co cac

dinh A(-I, 1),8(2,1), C(-I, -2).

-1

x

m tim diem

Ham

so f(x,

y) lien U,Ie trong mien D. fx ,::: 2x + 2y ::: 0

dirng ta giai h~

c --------2
Hinh 7.20

{ fy ::: 2x + 6y = O.
D6 la mot he phuong

trinh tuyen tinh thuan nhat eo dinh thirc khac khong,
vay chi e6 mot diem dirng la diem (0, 0)

nen n6 chi co nghiem tam thuong,

nam trong D (hlnh 7.20), f(O, 0) -I ::; x ::; 2. Tarn thue

= O. Teen qUID AB, Y = I, f(x, I) = x2 + 2x + 3, b~e hai ay dat cue tieu tai x = -I, f(-I, I) = 2, con
43

<>::,

f(2, 1) = 11. Tren canh AC, x = -1, f(-I, y} = 3y2 - 2y + 1, -2 Sy S I, no dat cue tieu ~ y x- y

= ~"

r(

-1, ~)

= ~,

f(-I, -2)

= 17, "[(-1,1) = 2. Tren canh OC,
+ 3(x _1)2
=~,

= 1, do dOy = x-I,

f(x, x-I)

= x2 + 2x(x -1)

-1 S x S 2, no dat cue tieu tai x =

l' f(~'-~) f(-l,

= 6x2 -

8x + 3,

-2) = 17,

f(2, 1) = 11. So sanh cac gia tri d3 tinh, ta thay
fmin

= 0, fmax = 17.
TfNH VI PHAN

§6.

vAl lING DVNG ellA PHEP

TRONG HiNH HQC
6.1. Ham veete, £lUCsng cong trong khong gian
6.1.1. D!nh nghia va vi dl! I Ht mot khoang trong JR, anh xa cho Ung YOi m6i s6 thuc 1 E I mot vecto trong IRn duy nhit r(t) goi Ia mot ham vecta. Ta se xet YOi n :; 3, Neu x(t), y(t), z(t) 18ba thanh phan cua vecto 7(t), ta viet
r(1) :; (x(t), y(t), z(t» hay 7(t) = x(t)i

+ y(t)] + z(t)k.
z(t)

D~t

OM :; ret},

diem M

co toa

z

(x(t), y(t), z(t» (hlnh 7.21). Gift sir cac ham s6 xu), y(t}, z(t} lien tuc tren I. Khi t bien thien trong I, diem M vach thrum mot duang cong C lien tuc trong
JR3.

Ta n6i

rang x :; x(t), y:;
r(t)=x(t)i

y(t}, Z:; z(t)

y

la cac phuang trtnb tham s6 cua duemg
cong C. ~ yet}] + z(t)k 18.
Hinh 7.21

phuong trlnh vecto cua dUCmgcong C. 44

Nell lim x(t) = xo'
I.... o H

t-Ho t .... o H

lim y(t)

= Yo'

t-Ho

lim z(t)
.

= zoo ngum

ta dinh nghia

fun r(t)

= fo.

trong d6 ~ = (xo' Yo' zo)'

Vi du l . M6 tA duang eong bieu dien hOi phtrong trinh vecto r(t) =:= (2 - t, 1 + 3t, -4 + 5t). Phuong trinh tham s6 eua dubng eong III x = 2 .; t, y = 1 + 3t. z = -4 + St.
Th ba phuong trlnh tren,

rut fa

t=2-x
V~y

,

t=

y-l 3'

t= z+4
5'

2_x=y-1=z+4
35' D6 13 phuong trinh ciia dUO'ngthfulg di qua diem (2. 1, -4) song song vOi vecto {-t, 3, 5).

Vi d", 2. MO ta dubng eong e6 phinmg trlnh tham s6

x = cost, Y. = sint, z = t.
VI x + y2 :::: eos t + sin t = 1 nen du<mg cong nAm tren m~t UV tron e6
2 2 2

z

phuong trinh x2 + y2 = 1.

.

VI z ::::t nen duang eong xoan tren m~t tru (hinh 7.22), DuOng eong goi III dUCtng xodn (Ic. Ciing e6 xem duong xoln 6c 1il quy dao ella hcp hai chuyen dOng: chuyen dOng quay trim deu trong m~t phing Oxy quanh g6C toa d¢ va ehuyen d¢ng thAngd~u theo true Oz.

the

y

Hinh 7.22

6.1.2. Phudng trlnh clia m(Jt4ilm
Gia sir

nep
E
E

tuyen, pluJp di~n .cia d-wng cong t{li

to

E

I va

to

+h

I, cac diem M(x(to), y(to), Z(to»E C va C. Vecto

M(x(fo + h). y(to + h), z(to + h)

45

~r(to)

= [(to

+ 11) - r(to)

= OM - OMo =

MoM

c6 cac thanh phan (x(to

+ h) - x(to), y(ta + h) - y(to), z(ta + h) - z(to».

Dod6
~r(to)

h

= (X(to

+ h) - x(to)
h'

y(to

+ h) - y(to)
h '

z(to
z

+ h) - Z(to»)
h .

Neu cac ham s6 thanh phan xtt), yet), z(t)
kha vi tai li

to thi ton tai
~r(to)

h -Joo

1m

h

=

h -JoO

to r(to + h) - r(to) 1m . h
y

Gioi han d6 goi la dao ham cua ham vecta ret) tai to, ky hieu Iii r'(to)'
r'(to)

V~y (7.39)
x
Hlnl! 7.23

= (x'(to),

y'(ta), z'(to)o

Mat khac, vi trf gioi han cua dirong cat tuyen MoM khi M dan toi Mo

tren duong eong C neu ton tai Iii uep tuyen cua C tai Mo. V~y nell vecto r '(t 0) -:F- 0, plnrong cua vecto r' (to) trung voi phirong cua tiep luyen cua . dlIemg eong C tai Mo.

Diem P(X, Y, Z)

E

1R3nam tren ducng tiep tuyen cua
nghia iii (7.40)

C tai Mo khi vii chi khi veeta MoP cung phirong voi vecto r'(to)'
X - x(to) x'(to) _ Y - y(to) _ Z -z(to) y'(to) z'(to) .

D6 iii phirong trinh tiep tuyen cua duong eong C tai goi Iii phap di¢n.eua duong cong C tai
phap dien cua duemg eong C tai

Mo.
E JR.3

M~t phang di qua Mo vuong g6e voi tiep tuyen cua duong eong C tai Mo

Mo. Diem

P(X, Y, Z)

narn tren

Mo khi vii chi khi hay MoP. r'(to)
= 0,

MoP .l r'(to) nghia 1a [X - x(ta)]x'(ta)

+ [Y - y(ta)] y'(ta) + [Z - zeta)] i(to)

= O.

(7.41)

D6 Iii plnrong trinh cua phap dien ciia duong cong C tai Mo.
46

Vi du 3. 1) Viet phtrong trmh dmmg tiep tuyen va phap dien ciia duong xoan 6c .

x
tai diem ling VOlt =

= acost, y = asint, = bt
Z

;.

2) Chling minh rang dirong tiep tuyen vcridirong xoan 6c do IUOn tao voi true Oz m¢t goc khong d6i. Gidi: 1) Ta co:

x(;)
x'(t)

=

0,

y(;) a,z(;) =
=

;b,

x'(;) = -a, Y'(;) = 0, z,(;) =b.
X

= -esint,

y'(t)

= acost, z'(t) = b,

Vay phuong trinh cua tiep tuyen vOl dirong xoan 6c tai diem ling voi
1t t= _

2

I' a

=

Y-a

hay

-a
Y

°

= _Z_-_2=.._b
b b - Z ).

1t

= a, bX = a ( ;

Phuong trlnh phap dien cua dubng xoan 6c tai dic~m 'ling vm t

=;

Ia

-aX +

b( Z - ; b) 0.
=

2) Vi x'(t) -asint, y'(t) acost, z'(t) b nen cac eosin chi phuong cua ' duong tiep tuyen cua duong xoan 6c III a sin t a cos t b ~a2 + b2 ' ~a2 + b2 ' Ja2 + b2 . Cosin chi phuong thu ba khong phu thuoc t, nen dUOng tiep tuyen voi dUOng ,xoan 6c lam VOltrue Oz m¢t g6c khong d6i. 6.1.3. Vi phon cung Tuong tl! nhu trong dUOng cong phang, vi phan cung cua dirong cong trong khong gian co phuong trinh tham s6

=

=

=

47

x duQ'Ccho b6i

= xtt), y = y(t), Z = z(t)
(7.42)

6.2. M,t cong
Cho m~t cong S co phuong trinh
f(x, y, z);; o.

Diem Mo tren mat S goi Ia dilm chinh quy neu tai do cac dao ham rieng fx• fy• fz d~u tOn tai va khong dOng thoi trier tieu. Mot diem khong chinh quy goi III dilm kY di. Mo III diem chinh quy tren m~t S. Duong th~ng MoT goi IA duang tiep tuyen cua mat S tai Mo neu no IA tiep tuyen tai Mo cua mot duong cong nao
do nam tren mat S di qua qua

Mo. Noi

chung co vO 56 dUOng cong tren m~t S di

Mo, do do co vO s6 duemg tiep tuyen

cua mat S di qua Mo.
z

Dinh Ij 7.11. M9i duang tie'p tuyen vai mat cong tai m(Jt dilm chinh quy Mo cua no de'u ndm tren cung m(Jt ~t phcing. Chung minh: GQi L III mot dUOng cong nao d6 tren m~t S di qua Mo, cac plurong trlnh tham s6 cua nola
x = x(t), y

y

Htnk 7.24

= y(t), z = z(t). L, cac to", d¢ cua no Ia ("0. Yo>Zo), trong do xo

Diem

Mo thuoc

= x(to),

Yo = y(to). Zo = z(to)·

v6i mot gia tri xac dinh to nao d6. Phuong trlnh vecto cua duUng L Ia ret) = (x(t), y(t), z(t». Vecto r'(to)

= (x'(to), y'(to), z'(fo}) cung phuong v6i tiep toyen clla L tai Mo·

M~t khac, vi du<mg L namtItn m~t S nen cac ham s6 x(t), y(t), z(t) phii thm\ man phuong trlnh cua mat S, tuc III

48

f(x(t), yet), z(t)}

= o.

Lay dao ham hai v€ d6i voi t, ta duqc
fX<x(t),y(t), z(t)}x'(t)

+ fy(x(t), yet). z(t)y'(t) + fz<x(t). yet), z(t»z'(t) = o.

v Ui t = 10, ta e6
Vecto (fiMe), fy<Mo). fz<Mo»ehlnh lit vecto grad f(Mo)' ::t: 0 (xern muc 4.2) vi
->

Me la diem

chfnh quy ella mat S. Vecto d6 khong phu thuoc dirong eong

L, con (x'(to), y'(to), z'(to» lit vecto 1'(10). Do d6 phuong trinh (7.43) vi€t Ul

eo th~

grad f(Mo). r'(to)
~ f(Mo).

= o.
Mo
d~u vuong g6c v(ri vecto

V~y moi duong ti€p tuyen ella m*t S ~i

Chung cung nam tren m~t phang di qua

Mo

vuong g6e VOl

vecto grad f(Mo). M~t phang chua moi duang ti€p tuyen ella m~t S tai lit phiip tuyen ella m~t S tai

Mo goi

lit tie'p dien

cua m~t S tai Mo. Duong thang di qua Mo cang phuong vm grad f(Mo) goi

Mo. .

Di~m M(X, Y. Z) e IR?nam tren ti€p dien cUa m~t S tai Me khi va chi khi

----

MoM. grad f(Mo) = 0

hay fx(Mo)(X - xo) + fy(Mo)(Y - Yo) + fz(Mo)(Z - 7(0) D6 Ia phuong trlnh ella ti€p dien ella m~t S tai

= o.
Mo khi

(7.44)

Mo.
va chi

Diem M(X. Y. Z) e 1R?nam tren phap tuyen ella mat S tai khi vecto MoM curig phirong voi vecto r'(Mo) hay

...

X - Xo _ Y - Yo _ Z - z2 f,-<Mo) - fy(Mo} - fz(M~)·
2

(7.45)

Vi du 4. Vi!!t phuong trinh ella ti€p dien va phap tuyen cua m~t n6n x+ i = 0 tai diem (3. 4, 5).

l-

49

Taeo

f(x. y. z) = x + y - z
2 2

2

= O.

dodo

fx = Zx,y :;;: y. f3 =-2z. f2
Phuong trinh ella tiep dien ella mat non tai diem (3. 4. 5) la 6(X - 3) + 8(Y - 4) - lO(Z - 5) = 0 hay 3X + 4Y - 5Z X-3 Y-4

= O.
Z-5

Phirong trinh cua phap tuyen ella mat n6n tai diem (3. 4. 5) Iii
-6-=-8-=

-10 .

Chu thich. Neu phuong trlnh cua mat S e6 dang z = Ftx, y). ta ~t

f(x. y. z)
Khido

;= F(x.

y) - z.

fx(x, y, z) = Fx(x. y),

fix. y. z):;;: Fy(x. y). fZ<x.y, z) =-1.

V~y ba h¢ s6 chi phuong ella phap tuyen eua mat S tai diem (Xo, Yo) ta

Fx(xo. Yo),

r,«; Yo),-1.
ON T~P

CAU HOI

1. Phat bieu dinh nghia ham s6 ba bien s6, mien xac dinh ella ham s6 ba bien s6. Tun mien xac dinh eua ham s6 f(x, y, z) = x2 + y2 + z2. 2. 3. 4. 5. eaeh bieu dien hinh hQCella ham sO hai bien s6. M;}t e~u x2 + .; + z2 co phai Iii do thi cua mot ham s6 hai bien s6 nao khong ? Dinh nghia gioi han cua ham s6 f(x, y) khi (x, y) ~ (a, b). Dinh nghia ham s6 f(x, y) lien tuc tai diim (a, b). Khi nao thi ham ~6

= R2

f(x. y) khOng lien tuc tai diim (a. b).
Dinh nghia dao ham rieng ciia bam s6 f(x. y) tai diem (a, b); hinh h9C cua no. 50

Y

nghia

6.

Dinh .nghiaham s6 f(x, y) khii vi tai diem (a, b). Neu f(x, y) kha vi top di~m (a, b) thi cac dao ham rieng fx(a, b), fy<a, b) eo ton tai khong ? Vi sao?

7. 8. 9.

Neu ton tai cac dao ham rieng fia, b), fla, b) thi ham s6 f(x, y) co khii vi tai (a, b) khong ? V6i di~u kien nao ham 56 f(x, y) khii vi tai (a, b). Vi sao eo the Ung dung vi phan toan phan de tinh gao dung bieu thee f(xo + L\x, Yo + ~y) khi biet f(xo. Yo). Dinh nghia dao ham rieng c~p hai, cap ba cua ham 56 f(x, y). Khi nao thl
ta co fxia, b)

= fyx(a, b)

10. Co bao nhieu dao harnrieng cap ba cua ham 56 f(x, y). Neu cluing deu lien tuc thl co bao nhieu dao ham rieng c~p ba khac nhau ella f(x, y). 11. V6i dieuki¢n nao thi Ptx, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy la mot vi phan toan phan. 12. Dinh nghia ham 56 hop, Quy tac tfnh dao ham cua ham 56 hop, 13. Dinh nghia ham 56 Quy t&c tfnh dao ham cua ham 56 trlnh f(x, y, z) = 0 xac dinh bao nhieu ham 56 tin. 14. Dinh nghia dao ham theo hu6ng ciia ham 56 f(x,y, gradien cua ham 56 f(x, y, z), quan h¢ gifra cluing.
------0

an.

an. Phuong

z), dinh nghia

15. Vi sao ham f(x, y) tai diem (a, b) tang nhanh nh~t then hu6ng clla vecto
grad f(a, b). 16. Dinh nghia Cl!C hi cua ham 50 f(x, y), cho vi du, Ham sO f(x, y) co dat eire tri tai diem (0, 0) khong ? 17. Quy t&ctlm cue tri cua ham s6 f(x, y). 18. Dinh nghia cuc tri co dieu kien cua ham s6 f(x, y), Quy cic Om cue tri co dieu kien ella ham 56 f(x, y). 19. Cach tim gia tri 160 nhat va be nhat clla ham 56 f(x, y) lien tuc trong mot mien dong gioi noi D. 20. Phuong trlnh ella tiep tuyen va phap dien ella duang eong tai mot diem. 21. Phuong trlnh ella

= x2 -l

tiep dien va phap tuyen cua mat eong tai mot diem.

22. Ole rnenh de sau day dung hay sai ? 1) Ham 56 f(x, y)

= sinx + tgy xac dinh tren toan lR?
51

2) Neu khi (x, y) __. (0,0) dQCtheo ca hai true Ox, Oy rna ham s6 f(x, y) d4nt6i cung mot gim han L thl lim f(x, y) = L.
(x,YH'(O,O) .

3) Ham s6 f(x, y) = 4) fx(a, b)

, (2 SID:

x

+; +
y a

2)

lien tuc tai diem (0, 0).

=

lim t(x, b) - f(a, b).
x-+a
X-

5) Neu t6n tai cac dao ham rieng fia, b), fia, b) thl ham s6 f(x, y) vi tai (a, b). 6) C6 ham s6 f(x, y) nao thoa man cac dang thee sau khong ? 2 2 2 2 (,,(x, y) 3x - 3y ,fy(x, y) 3x + 3y .

kha

=

=

7) Neu f(x, y, z) = e-x

2

thl grad f(x,y,z)

---

= -2xe-x
..-

2

.

8) Neu f(x, y) dat cue tri tai (xo, Yo) thi grad f(xo' Yo)
-grad
---+

= o.

...

9) Ham s6 f(x, y). tai diem (a, b) giam nhanh nhAt theo hu6ng cua f(a, b).

BAI T~P
1. Cho f(x, y) = 2' Tmh f(2, I), fe-I, 3), f(x, 2x ), f(x + h, y + k). x +2y . 2
I

..

-

2xy

2

2. Chog(x, y, z) = x1nysinz, Tfnh g( -I, e2•
3. Tim mien xac dinh clla cac ham s6 sau :
a) f(x, y)

:).

g(t, t, t), g(x + y, x, x - y).

=

1
x+y+

1;

b) f(x, y) = d) f(x, y)
f) f(x, y)

Jx

2

-

Y;

c) f(x, y) e) f(x, y)

= x~n(4

- x2 - 4y2) ;

= ../x+t -

F1 ;

= ..Ix lo(x + y);

=

19 _ x2 _ y2 V ; x+y

52

g) f(x, y)

x = arccos= y

;

h) f(x, y) = ~X2 + y2 - 1 + In(4 - x2 - y;) ;
i) f(x, y, z) =

~1- x2 _ y2 - Z2 ;

j) f(z, y, z) 4.

= In( ~ + ~ + ~ -1).
b)z=4x2+y2+
2

MO ta cac mi;itbac hai sao : a) x2 + + i -2x - 2y + 1 = 0 ;

l

1;

c) 4(x2 +

l) - z2 - 4 = 0
2

;

d) Y - x - 1 = 0 ; f) y2 - x2 - z2 = 0.

e) y2 - x2 - 1 = 0; .

5.

Tim gicri han khi (x, y) ~ (0, 0) cua cac ham s6 sao: = 5xy2 - 3x y a) f( x, y ) 2 1 xy c) f(x, y) =
e) f(x, y)

+1

b) f(

x, Y

) = 2x2 - 3y2

3x + 2y

2

2

2 + x2 + y2 . 2y sm y ;
J .

(x + y)2 d)f(x, y) = . 2 2; X +y

=

"x2 + y2 + 1 -1

6.

Tinh cac dao ham rieng cap met cua cac ham s6 sao: b) f(x, y)
c) f(x, y)

=~

x
x2 + y2 + 4xW; y

= yln(x2 ,.

-l) ;
y2 1+ x - 2y) ;

d) f(x, y) = -y~
f) f(x, y)

= 3 +- ;
y

x3

x

g) f(x, y) i) f(x, y)

= arctg
= eXYtg(x

h) f(x, y) = lntx +t~x2

+ y2) ;

k) f(x, y, z)

= eXYz sin 'j_ x

;

2 j) f(x, y) = xy (x > 0) ; y 1) f(x, y, z) zsin- -. x+z

=

53

7. Tinh vi phan toan phan Clla cac ham s6 :
a) f(x. y) ~ x3 + y3 - 3xy ;
c) f(x, y) ~ yeXY ; b) f(x, y).::: d) f(x, y)

=

+y In(x2 +
X

2

X

2

3l + I) ;
+ z3 ;

e) ftx, y) :::eX+Ysin(x- y) ; g) f(x, y, z)

f) f(x, y. z) ~ x~y2

= In~x2

+

l

+ z2;

. h) f(x, y. z)

= xeY + yeZ + U!-x,
;

8. Tinh gttn dung cac s6 sau :
a) ~9.(l,95)2

+ (8,1)2 ;

b) In[(O,09)3 + (0.99)3J d) ~5eO,02 + (2,03)2 f) ~(3,02)2

c) ~(I.04)1,99 + In(l,02); e) (1,03)2

;

+ (1,99)2 + (5,98)2.

VO,98 . ~(1. 05)3
9. Tinh cac dao

ham

rieng cap hai cua cac ham s6 sau :

a) f(x, y} ~ x3y2 +

2xJY ;
3

b) f(x, y) :::cos2(2x - 3y} ;
d) f(x, y) :::sin(x - y)

c) f(x, y)::: (x2 + y2)2 ;

+ cos(x + y),

10. Tfnh cac dao ham rieng cap cao cua cac ham s6sau : a) f(x, y)

= x 3y 2 -

5x y, tinh fxxx;

4

c) f(x, y) :::cos(ax + eY),tinh fxyy; e) f(x, y, z) :::eXY sinz, tinh fzyx;

, = e xy2,tmh fxxy; d) f(x, y, z) = eXYZ, fyzy; tinh b) f(x. y)
f) f(x, y, z) = In(x2 + 2y2 + 31), tinh fxyz'

11. Trong

cae ham s6 sau, ham s6 nao thoa man phtrong trinh Uxx + uyy ~ 0 ?

a) u(x, y) ~ x2 +

l;

c) u(x, y) ~ x3 + 3x/; e) u(x, y)::: 10 ~x2 + y2 ;

= x2 - J/; d) u(x, y) = x3 - 3xy2;
b) u(x, y)

12. ChUng minh rang cac ham s6 sau thoa man phuong trtnh un ~ a2uxx:
a) u(x, t) ;: sin(kx)sin(akt) ; c) u(x, t) 54

= sin(x -

b) u(x, t) ;: (x - at}4 + (x

+ at)4 ;

at) + In(x + at).

13. a) Tim hamso u(x, y) thoa man phuong trinh

!,Ix :::: 0

;

b) Tim ham s6 u(x, y) thoa man phuong trinh uxy::::O. 14. Neu bieu thee nao trong cac bieu thirc ro 'dum day lit vi phan toan phan, hay tim ham s6 I(x, y) d~ cho df:::: ro : a) co ::::(3x2 + y)dx + (x - 4l)dy ;
b) ro::: (5xy + 3)dx +

c) ro::: (3x2

1- 4xy + 3)dx +- (2x y - 2X2)dy ;
3

(2l- x2 + l)dy

;

d) ro::: (6x + siny)dx + (xeosy + y2 + siny)dy ; e) ro ::::(xeosy - ysiny)dy + (xsiny + yeosy)dx ; f) co :::: (y + eX cosy + x2)dx + (x - eXsiny + eY)dy ; g) ro ::::x2lnydx - (x + y21nx)dy (x > 0, y > 0)
h)

ro:::

(!
y
3 U

+ 2Y x3

)dX - (_!_ + _I J.dY. y2 x2

15. Dung quy lAc My dao ham cua ham s6 hop, tinh :~ :
a ) z:::: bj

..

+ v 3, trong d6 u:::: X2, v:::: 1 - e x ;
trong

z= u~l+v2,

do u e xef.v d6
U ::::

e

cosx :

c) z:::: In(u +

i). trong

Jl+x.

v:::: 1 + Fx. :

16. DUng quy lAc Iay dao ham cua ham s6 hop, tfnh :':
a)

z::::u2sinv. trong d6 u ::::x2 +

b) z::::sinueosv, trong d6 U:::: (x - y)2, v::::x2 _ y2; c) z::::u2 - 3u2v3, trong d6 U:::: xeY,v::::xe -y ; d) z :::: retg(uv). trong d6 u ::::x2, v ~ xeY; a e) z ::::-eu -3v. trong d6 u :::: 2y. v:::: xl. x
17. a) Chung minh rang ham s6
uxx
U::::

I. v ::::2xy ;

~x2 + y2 + ~2 thoa man phirong trinh
2 u' 55

+ Uyy + uzz::::

b) ChUng minh rang

ham s6 z = yln(x2
-zx. +~zy
x

lIz

-l)
"

thoa man phirong trlnh

y

= 2' y

e) Cluing minh rang ham hai ham

so U = xf(x
Uyy

+ y) + yg(x + y), trong d6 f, g

la

so kha vi, thoa

man phuong trlnh

ux.x.- 2ux.y +

= O.

18. Tfnh dao ham cua cac ham so An ; a) y5 + 3x2y2 + 5x4 = 9, tinh y' ~ b)

l + (x

2

+ l)y + x4 = 0, tfnh y' ~ + y2 = arctgl, tfnh y', y";

e) InJx2

x

d) xeosy + ycosx e) 1 + xe" - yeX
f) xy2"- sin(x

= 1, tfnh y' ; = 0, tfnh y' ;

+ y) + y

= 0, tinh y' ;
+ z), tinh lx, Zy;

g) xy + yz - zx = 0, tinh zx' Zy ; h) x2
1

+

l- Z2 = 2x(y

i) yx 4

+ x 2 y 3 = exyz , t Inh lx, Zy ;

j) xe" + yz + zeX
(.

= 0, tfnh zx, Zy ; so f tai diem
P va dao ham ella ham

k) In( 1 + Y - z) - z - x = 0, tmh zx. Zy.

19. Tinh gradien ella cac bam huong ii ;
a) f(x, y)

so f theo

-0(3 4) = x 2y 3 + 4xy 5, P(l, -1), u 5' -"5 ;
" = ex smy,

" b) f(x, y)

P 1, 4 ' u -

(1t)
.

-0( J5' J5 ; 1 2)

c) f(x, y)

1 = xy 2z3 • P(1, -2,1), -o( J3' - .J3' J3 ; u

1 1)

56

d) f(x, y, z) = x y + xvI + z, PO, 2, 3),

2

rr:»:

_(2.1 3 . 3'3'- 2)
U

20. Tinh gia tri Ian nhat cua van tOe bien thien ella ham s6 f tai diem M, ghi tri Ian nhat ay dat duqe theo huang nao ? a) f(x, y) = In(x2 + y2), M(3, 4) ; b) f(x, y)

=

~x3 + 2y, M(2, 4); y = -x + -, y z
M(4, 2,1);

c) f(x, y, z)

d) f(x, y, z)

= eos(2x

- 3y + 3z), M

2' 1t 1t) (1t 3' - 6 .

21. ChUng minh rang neu u(x, y), vex, y) la cac ham s6 kha vi; a, b Iii hang s6 thi :
a) grad (au + by)

= agrad u + bgrad
_.,

-v

v;

b) grad (uv) ::;:ugrad v + vgrad u ; -d e) gra (u) = vg;:;d u -2 ug;;d v (Vi;; 0) v

22. Tim cue tri ella cac ham s6:
a) f(x, y) ::;: x2 + y2 + 2xy + 2x + 2y ; 2 b) f(x, y)::;: xsiny ;

e) f(x,"y)::;: ~xy + (47 - x - Y>( ~ + ~) ;
d) f(x, y)::;: x4 + y4 - 4xy

+ 1;

e) f(x, y) ::;: x2y + y3 - 3x2 - 3y2+ 2 ; 3 f) f(x, y) ::;:(x - y)2

+ (x + y)3 ;

g) f(x, y)::;: xyf l - x - y) ;

57

h) f(x, y)

= x[(lnxi + II ;
+ siny + cos(x + y), 0 ~ x, y ~ : ;
y)exy.

i) f(x, y) = sinx j) f(x, y)

= (x -

23. Tim eire tri e6 dieu kien cua cac ham s6 : a) f(x, y) = xy v6i dieu kien 2x + 3y - 5 = 0 ; b) f(x, y) = x2 + Y voi dieu kien x2 +

l= 1;

24. a) Diem nao tren m~t Z2= xy + 1 gao g6e toa d¢ nhat ? b) Diem nao tren duang tron x2 +

l = 4 gao diem (3, -1) nhat ?

e) Dic!m nao tren mat phang x + 2y + 3z = 4 gao g6c toa d¢ nhar ? d) Trong cac hlnh hop chit nhat rna ba mat nam tren ba m~t phang toa d¢, mot dinh nam tren mat phing x + 2y + 3z = 6, hinh nao c6

nch IOn nhat.
25. Tfnh gia tri 100 nhat va be nhat cua ham s6 f tren mien D : a) f(x, y)

the

:= 1 -

x2 - y2, D la mien tron dong (x -

Il + (y - II~; 1

b) f(x, y) = x2 +

+ x - y, D Iii mien d6ng gici han blri cac duang thing x = 1, y = 1 va x + y = 1 ;

3l

c) f(x, y) = 1 + xy - x - y, D la mien d6ng gici han bbi cac duang ~ y=x 2 vay= 4 ; d) f(x, y) = x2 + y2 + -x2y + 4. D la mien d6ng gim han blri cac duong tnang x
e

l,x=-I,y=

I vay=-l;

e) f(x. y) = sinx + siny + sul(x + y), D Ia mien d6ng giro han hOi cac duong thing x = 0, x =

"2'

n

y = 0, y =

-

"2.

n

26. Viet phUCIDgrmh tiep tuyen va phap dien cua duong cong tai diem P: t
a) x = t, Y =

2'

t

2

z=

"3'

t

3

P

(11'"2' 3"1) ;

b)x=2t,y=

2J2cost,

z= 2.J2sint,

P(~'2'2);

58

c) x d) x a) z

= tsint + cost, y = tcost t ,

sint, z::: 2t, 3, 3). 1, 1) ;

p(~,- I,n);

= cost, Y = 3e z = 3e-t, PO,
r=

27. Vi€t phuong trinh phap tuyen va ti€p dien cua m~t tai ~iem P: x2 - 2xy +

l- x + 2y, P(l,
P(2, 2, 3) ;

b) 4x + y2 + z2 ::: 24, P(2, 2, 2) ;
c) x2

2

+

l- z2::: -I,

d) Z = In(x2 + y2), PO, 0, 0).

f>6pso
2 6 2 1. f(2, 1)=:-3 ;f(-1,3)=-19 ;f(x,2x)=
f(

4x

1+ 8x

2

x + ,y +
-1.el,
:)

h

k) _

2xy + 2(kx + hy) + 2hk - x2 + 2y2 + 2hx + 4ky + h2 + 2k2 .

2.

g(

~

J2 ; g(t, t, t) = t21nt sint ;

g(x + y, x, x _' y) =:(x + y)2lnx sin(x - y).

3. a) (x, y) I x + y + 1 * 0 J ;
b) {(x, y) I y s x2} ;
c) {(x,y)lx2+4i<4};

d) {x, y) I x ~ -I} n [x, y) I y ;:::I } ; e) {(x, y) I x> O} II {(x. y) I x + y > O} ~
f) {(x. y) I Xl + y2 S 9} II {(x. y) I x g)

+ Y :;C O} ;

«x, y) I y:jl!: OJ

II

{(x. y)

11;1 s 1 }.

h) (x, y) , I $ x2 + y2 < 4} ;
i) {(x. y. z) I x2

+ i + z2 511 ;

j)(x. y. z) I ~ + ~ + ~:<_U.

59

4.

a) M~t cau tarn tai (1, 1, 0), ban kinh 1. b) M~t paraboloit eliptic, dinh tai (0, 0, 1), nhan Oz lam true,
2

c) Mat hypeboloit mot tang tron xoay, do duong hypebOn y2 - ~ = 1, x

= 0 quay quanh

tI1;lC

Oz sinh ra.

d) M~t tru co dirong sinh song song, ycri Oz, cAt mat phang z duemg parabon y = x2 + 1. . e) Mat tru co dirong sinh song song voi Oz, cat mat phang z

= 0 theo
=0
theo

duong hypebOn
f) M~t non co dinh

lx

2

= 1.

a g6c toa d¢ nhan

Oy lam true d6i xtmg.

5. a) 1 ;
c) 1 ;

b) Khong t6n tai gioi han ; d) khong t6n tai gici han ; y2
(x 2

e) 2.

6. a) fx
b) fx

= 5x4y2 + 2xy5, =
+y )
2' 2 3{2 •

c) fx d) fx

=

2xy
X

2

-y

==

Yr-+4W. 2vx .
2 2

e) fx
f)

(4x _ y)e2x -xy+y ,

r, =-3 -2'
x

3x2 y

Y x

g

)f

=_

(1 + x2)2

2xy

+ y2 '

h) fx =

"x2 + y2

I

1

'
+ eXY
21 , cos (x - 2y)

i) fx

= yexYtg(x

- 2y)

60

fy = XY .2ylnx
k) f

2

;

x

= eXYZyzin s

r -Lexyz X x2

cos y , x f = eXYzxy y ; sin
Z

f = exyzxzsin y Y x
I) fx

+.! eXYz y, cos x x
zy y

X

=-

y zy cos- _, (x + z)2 x +z x +z
(x

f =--cos--, Y x+y cos--.
X

z

Y

x+ z

fZ

. y = 51n---

+ z)2

+z

7. a) df = 3(x2 - y)dx + 3(y2 - x)dy ;
b) df= (y2 - x )dx - 2xydy (x2 + y2)2 c) df = eXYrldx + (1 + xyjdy] ; d) df:;; 2xdx + 6ydy ; x2 + 3y2 + 1
e) df:;; eX+Y([sin(x - y) f) df:;; ~y2
2

+ cos(x - y)]dx + [sin(x - y) - cos(x - y)]dy} ;
2 xy dy + 3xz dz; ~y2 + z3 2~y2 + z3

+ z3 dx +
,

g) df=

xdx + ydy + zdz x2 + y2 + z2

h) df = (eY - re -x)<Ix + (xe" + eZ)dy + (yeZ - e -x)dz.

8. a) 9,99; d) 3,037; 9. a) fxx :;;6xy ,
2

b) -0,03;
e) 1.027;

c)

1,05;

06,989. 1
3 X

f.ty

= 6x y + c:' fyy = 2x -

2

vY

2Vy3

r::
61

b) f.. = -8cos(4x - 6y), fxy x

·

18 = 12cos(4x - 6y), fyy = -z-cos(4x

- 6y);

c

)f xx

= 3(2x

2

I "X2 + y2

+ y2) f
'xy

=

I "X2 + y2
fxy

3xy

f.,; 'YY

=

2 3(x + 2y2) . I ' "X2 + y2

d) fxx = -sin(x - y) - cos(x

+ y),

= sio(x - y) - cos(x + y),
352

fyy"= -sin(x - y) - cos(x + y) 10. a)

6l-

120xy ;

b)(4y

+ 2xy )exy ;
;

2 c) -acos(ax + eY) eY + e Yasin(ax + eY) ;

d) exyz(2x2z + x\z2)
f)

e) eXY(l + xy)cosz;

96xyz2. (x + 2y2 + 3z3)3 .

11. Cac ham s6 b). d), e), f) thoa man plurong trinh dii cho.

13. a) u(x, y) b) u(x. y)

= f(y),

f la ham s6 bat kyo s6 kha vi bit ky.

= f(x) + g(y), f va y la hai ham
3

14. a) x3 + xy - ~ y3 + C ; d) 3x2 + xsiny + Y3 - cosy + C; h) ~ f) xy

+ eXcosy + T + eY + C ;

x3

y

_r_ + C.
x2
-

IS. a) 6x

7

3e\1 - 2ex + e2x)

;

b) (1- x)e-X~l + cos2 x _ xe-

sinxcosx JI+cos2 X

x

:

c~ 16. a)
Zx

)

+ (I + .JX)2

1

(I2~

+

1+ f;.J . f;.
y2).2x,

= (x2 + y2)[4xsin(xy)

+ 2y(x2 + y2)cos(xy)},

= (x2 + y2)[4ysin(xy) + 2x(x2 + l)cos(xy)} ; b) Zx = cos(x - ylcos(x2 - y2).2(x - y) - sin (x - y)2sin(x2 Zy 62

Zy = -cos(x - y)2cos(x2 - yl).2(x - y) + sin(x - y)2sin(x2 -l).2y ;

C) Zx

= 2xe
=

2y

- 15x e ,
X)

4 -y

Zy

= 2x2e2~ + 3x5e -Y;
x3eY
2

d)

x2eY(2 +
62 2

Zx

1+ X e Y

'

Zy = 1 + x6e2Y ;
Zy

e) z,

= eX2 y-3xy

y(2x - 3y).

= eX y-3xy

2

x(x - 6y}.

18. a) _ 6xy2 + 20x

3

b) _

5y4 + 6x2y
X

2xy + 4x • 2+1' 3y2 + x

3

c) y'

=

+ Y , y"

X- y

=

2 (X 2 + y 2 ) ; d)
(X _ y}3 f)

CO~ Y

- ysinx ; xsmy - cos x

cos(x + y) - y2 . 2xy - cos(x + y} + 1 •

g)

Zx

=

X-

y-

Z , z: Y =s

=

X

X-

+Z

Y

;

h}

Zx

=_X-

(y

Z- X

+ z) • z.. = _ y -y

X; Z- X

I} Zz. = -

.

-=------=----....;._ xyZ
xye Y

yzexyz

_

4x3y _ 2xy2

J} Ie}

.

z, z

+ zeX = -, e y + eX

Zy Zy
D~f(P} =
~),

==

xeY +

Z

y + eX '
1

.
.

X

=

1+ Y 2+y-z

Z,

2+y-z

19. a} grad f(P} = (-6,23),
b) c) d)

~

-T ;

22

g;;d f(P} g;;d f(P) g.:;i f(P}
10

= ( ~,

"'I2:o.J2

D-f(P) = ~; u "'110 D-f(P} = l~ ; u "'13 D~f(P) 4'4

= (4, - 4,12),
= ( 6,1,

!).

=

2: . ;c}T'

20. a) 25'
d)

(6 8)
25'25

;b)T'

..m

(6· 1)

Jl7

(1

2,0,-2

)

;

..fii, (2, -

3, - 3)
63

22. a) Cl,fc tieu f(O, -1)

= -1

;

b) Khong co cue tri ; d)C\lctieuf(l, 1)=f(-I, -1)=-1;

c) Cy'c dai f(21, 20) = 282 ;

e) Cue dai f(O, 0) = 2, eire tieu f(O, 2) = -2 ;
f) Khong

co cue tri ;

g)

O,rc dai f ( ~, ~) = ;7 ;

h) Cue tieu f(l, 0) = 0 ; j) Kh6ng co cue tri, 23. a) cue dai

i) Cy'c dai f ( ~ , ~)

=% ;

f(!,~) ~! ;
=

b) O!c ti~u flO, -I)

= -I,

CI/C

dai f

(± ~ ,~) = !.

24.

a) (0,0, 1);

b)(-'lo,-lo);
x + 2y + 3z ;:: 6 co toa d~ ( 2,1, ~ ).
fmax

c) (~,

~,t) ;
rna dinh nAm tren m~t pMng
2"'"2 (1 1) ,
= 1,

d)

Hlnh

25. a) fmin;:: -2 -

2J2,

= -2 + 2J2 =4

; ;

b) fmin = f
c) fmin

fmax = f(1, 1)

= f(-2, 4) = -9,

fmax = f(2, 4);:: 3 ; fmax ;:: f(±I, 1)

d) fmin = f(Ot 0) = 4, e) fmin - f(O, 0) ;::0,

=7;

f_= f(~'~)= 3f.
X+Y+'Z-!!.=
7t

26. a) X-I

1 1 = Y - 2 = Z - "3 •
7t

6

'

b)X--=2-Y=Z-2 2

'

X-Y+Z--=O· 2

'

64

c)X=Z'

1t

Y+l Z-1t -1t---2-'
2

-- Y + 2Z - -

1t 2

51t =0 . 2'

d) X-I

= 0, Y - 3 = 3 =---=t'
Z+1

Z,

Y....:.Z=O. -X+2Y -Z=O;
4X + Y + Z - 12

Y-l 27. a) 1- X = -2b) -4c)

X-2

=

Y - 2 = Z - 2,

=0;

X-2 -2X-I

= -2- =--=3'
= =t'
Z
Y=0,

Y-2

Z-3

2X + 2Y - 3Z + 1 = 0 ; 2(X-l)+Z=0.

c) -2-

65

Chuting VII' TICH PHAN KEP

~~
-

dld: !lEu (!au
Chuang nay nghien CLtuve'tlch phgjn xac d!nh eua ham bien phZln kep. Do 103 6~ bi8n

68, do do

68 mQt

68 sang

ma rQng cua tich

tich phgjn cua ham

68 hai

co r~t nhiiu iliim tLlGl1gt~ vb; tlch phan dc d!nh.

-

Khi hoc, einh vien d'n n.~m viJ'ng dinh nghia, tich phan kep trong h~ tea d$ fJe'-cac nhu tlch m4\t cong eua tlch phan k6p.

cac tinh chat va cach t'inh
Colt? cue, cang

va trong h~ tea

cac Ltng dl;lng : tfnh the' tich v~t thB. di~n tlch hlnh ph~ng va di$n

§1. BAI ToAN DAN DEN KHAI NleM TICH PHAN KEP:
THE TICH V~T THE HINH TRV CONG
Giii sil can tinh th~ tfch Vella
v~t th~ hlnh tru cong, day dirci la mien hilu han D trong mat phang Oxy (tit nay ve sau ta hi~u mien hfru han D la mien d6ng), day tren la mat cong S, e6 phirong trlnh z = f(x, y) va cac dubng sinh song song voi Oz. Ham s6 z = f(x, y) xac dinh, lien t1~C va kh6ng am trong mien D (hinh 8.1). Chia mien D mot each tuy
z
z = f(x,Y)
~.I A ~ ....

o~-+--~~--~--_ o
Hinh 8.1

y
x

thanh n mien nho do, d., ... , dn-l, e6 cac dien tich tucmg tmg III

8cro. 8crl ..... 8crn-1 va qua bien ella cac mien nho ay dung cac mat tru duong sinh song song voi Oz. Nhu vay, hlnh tru cong dii eho diroc ehia thanh n hinh tru cong nho. ~ tinh th~ tich hlnh tru eong nho thir i, lay trong mien nh6 di mot diem tuy y

66

Mj(Si' lli)' Theo gia thet, bam 56

ftx, y) lien tuc trong mien D. nen tren mien

nho dj gia tri cua no khac f(Mi) rat ft. V~y the tich hlnh tru cong nho thu i co tM xem glin dung bang thi tich hlnh tru th~ng. co dien tich day la .1O'j. chieu cao Ia f(Mi) va the tich V cua v~t the hlnb tru cong dii cho gao dung bang:
Vn

=

f(Mo).1O'o

+ f(MI ).10'1 + ...+ f(Mn_1 ).1O'n_1

hay
Vn

=

n-I

L f(M

i

).1O'j.

i=O

Dt thay rang khi tang 56 phan chia n len sao cbo cac manh nho d, co dirong
kfnh 'A./*) nho Iai thi 5\1 khac nhau giira V va V n cang it. Do do. hien nhien the tich V cua vat the hinh tru cong dii cho diroc xem la gioi han cua V n khi n ~ +00 sao cho duang kfnb Ion nhat trong cac duang kinh A.icua cac mien

nho d, tien den khong (thuong ky hieu la maxA.j). Vay :
V

=

lim
max

(n,,+OO)

A.j"O

Vn

=

n-I

lim
max

(n,,+oo)

A.j"O i=O

L f(Mi)~O'i'

§2. f)INH NGHiA TrCH PHAN KEP
Cho ham 56 hai bien 56 z ftx, y). xac dinh trong mien hihl han D. nam trong mat phang Oxy, Thuc hien cac buoc sau : 1. Chia tuy

=

y mien

D thanh n mien

nbc do. dl,

...• dn-I'

co cac dien tich

tuong ling la .10'0' ~O'l' ...• 80'n-I' 2. Trong m6i mien nho d, IllY mot diem tuy f(Mj).1O'j

= f(Si'

y

Mj(Si' llj) va tinh

lli) .1crj (i = 0, 1, ... , n - 1). n-I

3. Lap t6ng
In

=

L f(M
i=O

j

).1O'j.

T6ng In goi la t6ng tich phdn cua ham 56 f(x, y) trong mien D.
{*} Dulmg kfnh A.i eua mien dj theo dinh nghia 13 khoang each 160 nMt giila hai diem bat ky tren bien cua di.

67

4. Tim gi6i han Clla In khi n..-.+ +00 sao cho max Aj ~ O. Neu t6ng In tien den m¢t gioi han xac dinh I, khong phu thuoc vao each chia mien D va each

chon diem M, trong mOi mien nho dj, thi gi6i han I duoc g<;>i tich phan kep lit
cua ham s6 f(x, y) trong mien D, ky hieu la fIf(x,
D n-1

y)dcr. V~y

JIf(x,y)dcr
D

=.

max Aj -JoO j",O
(n-Jo+<Xl)

lim

Lf(Mj)6.crj.

f(x, y) g<;>i ham s(/ duai ddu tich phan, do goi lit yeu ttf dien tich, D goi la la mien lay tich phan, x va y goi 18 cac bien s6' tich phdn, Neu Hf(X, y)dcr ton tai thi ta n6i rang ham so f(x, y) khd tich trong mien D. Ngum ta chimg minh duqc rang: neu ham s6 f(x, y) lien hilU han D thi kha tich trong mien D.
D
U}C

trong mien

Tra I~ bai roan dAn den khai niem tich phan kep va dua vito dinh nghia tich phan kep vira neu, ta co
n-l

V

=.

lim
(n-Jo+<Xl)

max Aj-Jo0j=O

L f(Mj )6.crj Hf(x, y)dcr.
=. D

tinh th~ tfch cua v~t th~ hlnh tru cong chi Ia m¢t trong rat nhieu 00i toan thuc te dan dt!n khai niern tfch phan kep, do do khOng nen hieu tich phan kep chi la th~ tich, rna phai hieu rang tich phan kep la mot con s6. con s6 ay chi phu thuoc vito ham s6 dum diu tich phan f(x, y) va mien lily tfch phan D, mit khOng phu thuoc vito ky hieu cua bien so tich phan, nghia lit: . JJf(x,y)dcr = Hfeu• v)dcr. D D

can luu y lit bai toan

§3.

cAc

TiNH CHAT ClIA TicH PHAN KEP

Dua vao dinh nghia, ta thiy rang each xay dung tich phan kep va tich , phan xac dinh hoan toan gi6ng nhau, do do cac tinh chat cua tich phan kep, cling nhir each chimg minh cac tinh cha:t ay deo hoan toan nrong.tu nhir tfch phan xac dinh. (5 day ta chi phat bieu cac tinh chat rna khong chung minh. 68

Tinh chat 1. Hkf(x,y)dcr D

= k JJf(x,y)dcr
D

(k la hang s6).

Tinb chtit 2. H[f1(x,y) + f2(x,y) - f3(x,y)] de =
D

::; Hf1(x,y)dcr + Hf2(x,y)dcr - JJf3(x,y)dcr. D D D

Tinb chtit 3. Neu mien la'y tich phan D chia thanh hai mien D, va D2 fbi
nhau thi

Jjf(x,y)dcr
D

= fJf(x,y)dcr + fJf(x.y)dcr.
DJ D2

Tinb chtit 4. Neu tai moi diim thuoc mien D ta luOn c6 f(x, y) ~ 0 thl Hf(x, y)dcr ~ 0, con neu f(x, y) S 0 tai rnoi diem thuoc mien D thi
D

Hf(x,y)dcr
D

so.

Tinh chat 5. Neu tai moi diem thuoc mien D ta luon c6 f(x, y) ~ cp(x, y)

thi

Iff(x,
D

y)dcr ~

ffCP<x, y)dcr.
0

Tinb char 6. Neu m va M Ia cac gia tri be nhat va 160 nhfft cua ham so f(x, y) trong mien D, nghia la : m S f(x, y) S M tai moi diem (x, y) E D thl
mSo s Hf(x,y)dcr
D

S MSo.

trong d6 So

Ia dien

tfch cua mien D.

Ttnh chat 7 (con goi la dinh If v~ gia tri trung binh). Neu f(x, y) lien tuc trong mien D thi trong mien d6 tim duqc it nhat mot diem Mi(~i.lli) sao cho :
Hf(x,y)dcr
D

::;f(~i,l1i)So·

Gia tri cua ham s6 f(x,' y) tai diem Mi(~i'T]i) goi Iii gia tri trung binb cua ham s6 f(x, y) trong mien D.

69

§4. CACH T[NH TICH PHAN KEP TRONG He TO~

DO DE-cAc
y

Nhu da biet trong dinh nghia tich phan kep, giai han I khong phu thuoc each ehia mien D thanh nhUng mien nh6 nen trong h¢ toa d¢ De-cac, d~ cho tien nguoi ta ehia mien D thanh cac mien nho hoi cac duemg thang song song vai cac true toa d¢ Ox va Oy. Khi do, m6i mien nho di noi chung la mot hlnh chit nhat, co cac canh song song vai cac true toa dQ va e6 chieu dai la dx. dy (blob 8.2). Bci v~y, yeu t6 dien tich do = dxdy va IcY hieu tich phan kep thirong viet dum dang JIf(x, y)dxdy.
D

x
Htnh 8.2

D~ tinh tich phan kep, chu JIf(x,y)dxdy
D

y

ding tnrong hop f(x, y)

hang so do the tfch V ella v~t

the hinh

;?:

0 trong mien D.

tru cong, day diroi

1a

mien D trong mat phang Oxy, day tren ia mat cong S co phirong trinh z f(x, y) va cac duong sinb song song voi Oz. Do do muon tfnh tich phan kep trong tnrong hop f(x, y) ;;::0 chi can tinh the tich V cua vat the hlnh tru eong. tich V ay duoc tinh bang cong thirc

=

The

b

V = fS(x)dx,
a

(8.1)

trong do Sex) ia dien tich cua thiet dien tao nen boi giao dien cua mat phang thang goc voi true hoanh tai diem x va v~t the, con x a va x b la phirong trlnh cua nhtrng mat phang gioi han hai dau cua vat tbe (xem cong thirc (6.20) muc 3.3 chuang VI).

=

=

Gia sir mien D thoa man dieu kien sau : moi duong thang song song voi true Oy bien cua mien D khong qua hai diem.

ca.t

Trang mat phang Oxy, vi! hai duong thang song song voi true Oy va tiep xuc voi bien cua mien D tai cac di~m A va B, co hoanh dQ Ian Iuot la a va h. Hai di~m nay chia bien ella mien D thanh hai duang eong APB va ARB, co

70

phuong trinh l~n hrot la y = £.PI (x) va y = 'P2(X)' Cit v~t thi hinh tru cong da eho bang mot mat phang thang goc v6i true .hoanh tai diem x v6i x E (a, b). Thiet dien nhan diroc la hinh thang cong PMNR (hinh 8.3); phia tren gi6i han bbi duong cong MN eo phirong trinh la z = f(x, y), xem nhir z ham s6 mot bien s6 y (vi duong cong MN la giao tuyen ella mat phAng th~ng g6c voi true hoanh tai diem x va mat cong S eo plurong trinh la z f(x, yj); phia du6i la doan thang PR song song v6i true Oy va hai canh ben 'la PM va RN. Ta co

=

IP = 'PI (x) va IR

= 'P2 (x).

Dung
a

cong thirc tinh dien tieh hlnh thang eong trong chtrong VI, ta eo
S.hang cong PMNR

x Hinh 8.3

x

1p2(X)

= Sex) =

J

f'(x, y)dy.

Ip! (x)

Thay bieu thtrc ella Sex) vao cong thuc (8.1), ta eo V Nhung V = JJf(~,y)dxdy, o JIf(x,y)dxdy= o NguOi ta thuong viet duoi dang
b 1Il2(x)

= I( I

b

1Il2(x)

f(x,y)dy)dx.

a Ill! (x)

nen

b 1Il2(X)

I( I

f(x,y)dy)dx.

JIf(x,y)dxdy
D
1p2(x)

= Idx
a

I

f(x,y)dy.

(8.2)

<il!(x)

Tom lai, di tinh tich phan kep ta ehi can tinh Ian hrot hai tfch phan xac dinh, Dau tien, tinh

J

f(x,y)dy,

xem x Ia hang s6, ket qua cho ta mot

Ill! (x)

71

ham s6 ella x. Tinh tfch phan ham s6 fly thee x tu a den b ta duqe ket qua phai tim. Bay gio gia sir moi duong thing song song v6i. true Ox cat bien ella mien D khong qua hai diem. Neu ta cat vat tht hlnh tru eong da eho bang mot mat phang thAng g_6c voi true tung tai diem y va Iy luan tuong nr nhu tren, ta co cong thuc tinh tieh phan kep sau fIf(x,y)dxdy
D

=

d

1V2(Y)

JdY J f(x,y)dx,
C

(8.3)

IVI(Y)

trong do x

dirong phuong trlnh dirong eong CSE; C va E la nhimg diem tiep xuc gilia cac dirong thang song song v6'i true Ox va bien cua mien D; e va d la tung dQ cua cac ditm C va E (hinh 8.4). Chii tinh

= \fIl (y) la phuong trinh cong CQE; x = \fIz(y) la

Y

o

Htnh 8.4

x

y

rang, neu dung cong thee (8.3) de tinh tich phan kep thi dau tien

1V2(Y)

J f(x, y)dx, xem y la hang so, ket quacho ta mot ham s6 ella y. Tinh
IVj(Y)

tfch phan ham s6 fly thee y

tit c den d ta duoc ket qua phai tim. Cha y : 1. Trong tnrong hop f(x, y) < trong mien D, nguoi ta chirng minh duqc rang cac cong thtrc tinh tieh phan kep (8.2) va (8.3) van dung.

°

2. Khi tinh tich phan kep bang cong thuc (8.2) hoac (8.3), van de xac dinh can tich phan dong mot vai tro rflt quan trong, Dietl nay se duqc minh hoa r5 trong nhirng vi du diroi day. Vi du 1. Xac dinh cac can tlch phan trong tich phan kep JIf(x, y)dxdy
D

v6i: a) D la mien gi6i han ~Oi cac duong y b) Dla

= 2x2 va y = 2 (hlnh 8.5); mien gioi han boi cac duang y = 0, y = x2 va x + y = 2 (hinh 8.6);

Gidi:
a) Hoanh d¢ cua cac giao diem A va B duqc xac dinh boi phirong trinh

72

2X2 ~ 2 ; x ~ ±l.

y

XA~-l,xB~l. Ap dung cong thtrc (8.2), tinh nch phan thco y tnroc, Nhln thea huang dirong cua true Oy, thay rang dtnmg cong AOB gioi han phia duai ella mien D eo phirong trlnh y ~ 2x2~ dirong thang AB gici han phia teen ella mien D co phucmg trlnh y ~ 2; elm x bien thien tir xA ~ -1 den xB ~ 1 (nghia Dodo
I

x=V1
-1

o
Hinh 8.5

1

x

la eo

the bieu dien mien D bOi

cac bat dang thirc kep : -1 s x s I va 2x2 :s; y :s; 2).

JIf(x,y)dxdy
D

~

J dx J f(x,y)dy.
2x2

2

-I

Neu dung cong thirc (8.3) thl tinh tich phan thea x tnroc, Nhln theo huang duang ciia true Ox, thay rang dirong cong OA gioi han phia dum cua mien D eo phuong trlnh x ~ mien D eo phuong trmh x ~

-J¥~ J¥;

dUOng cong OB gioi han phia teen ella

eon y bien thien til y ~ 0 den y = 2 (nghia

la eo the bieu dien mien D hOi cac bat dAng thirc kep :

o s y s 2 va
V~y

-,J¥. :s;x :s;# ).
=
2

jJf(x,y)dxdy
D

JdY
0

Jt J -Jt

f(x,y)dx.

b) Hoanh d¢ ella giao diem B duqc xac dinh bbi phuong trinh x2 ~ 2 - x hay x2 + x - 2 ~ O. Til do nhan duoc : xB ~ I, YB ~ 1. •

Ap dung cong tlurc (8.2), tfnh tfch phan thea y tnroc, Nhln thea huang
dirong cua true Oy, thay rang dubng eong OBA giro han phfa tren cua mien

73

D g6m hai dean OB va BA co phirong trinh khac nhau, nen phai chia mien D thanh hai mien OCB va CAB. Ta co JIf(x,y)dxdy
D

y

=

=

If f(x, y)dxdy + DCa + ff f'(x, y)dxdy.
CAB

boac x =

y=l

{Y x
Hinh 8.6

Mien OCB co the bieu dien bOi cac bat dAng thirc kep :

o s x SIva
1sx

0s

yS

x2~

con mien CAB co thi: bieu dien bOi cac bat d&ng thuc kep :

s 2 va 0 s y s 2 -

x.
2 2-X

Dodo
fff(x,y)dxdy
D

= fdx f
0 0

I

'1.

2

f(x,y)dy

+ fdX
1

f

f(x,y)dy.

0

Neu dung cong tlurc (8.3), ta tinh tich phan thea x tnroc thl khong can phai chia mien D, VI nhin thea huang dirong cua true Ox co the bieu dien mien D boi cac bflt dAng thtrc kep : o

s y SIva

JY s
=
I

x

$

2 - y.

2-y

fff(x,y)dxdy
D

fdY
0

.JY

f f'(x.yjdx.

Qua tnrong hop nay. ta thay ro tam quan trong cua viec phai can cu vao hlnh dang cua mien D rna quyet dinh dung cong thuc (8.2) hoac (8.3) de tfnh tich phan kep mot each don gian nhat.

vt a« 2. Ti~h

tich phan kep

If x 2ydxdy,
D

D la mien giai han b&i : 8.7) ;

a) Cac dirong thAng

x

= 0, x = 3, Y = 0 va y = 2 (hinh

74

b) Cac dtrong y

c) Cac duong y Gidi:

= -x, x = .JY va y = 2 (hlnh S·.9).
y

= x2 va y =

~2 - x2 (hlnh 8.8);

a) Ap dung cong tlurc (8.2), tfnh tieh phan thea y tnroc. Nhln thea huang dtrong cua true Oy, co the bieu dien mien D cac bat dAng thirc kep :

y=2

wi

x=3

o .::;; .::;; va 0 .:s; y s 2, x3
dodo
3 2 2 0

x ffx YdxdY
D 2

Hinh 8.7

=

JdX Jx YdY .
0

Dau tien, tfnh tieh phan thea y, xern x la hang
2

so, ta co
2

o
Cu6i cung, ta co

Ix YdY = x
2

2 2

Jydy
0

= x Y2 ~:~=
2 '

2

x (2 2

2

-

0

2

)=

2x

2

.

JIx YdxdY
D

2

=

J2x dX
0

2

= 2. ~ I::~=

}(3

3

-

0

3

)

= 18.

Neu dung cong thirc (8.3). tfnh tich phan thea x tnroc. Nhin thee huang dirong cua true Ox, co the bieu dien mien D hOi cac M·t dAng thuc kep :

o s y s 2 va 0 .::;; s 3. x
V~y
Hx ydxdy
D 2

=

2
0

Idy Jyx dx.
2 0

3

Tinh tfeh phan thea x, xern y la

3

Jyx dx

2

va

o

31 = y 3Jx2dx = y. X3 ::0=
3 0

hang s6,

ta co .

~ (33 - 03)

= 9y,

75

b) Ap dung cong thtIc (8.2), tfnh tich phan thee y tnroc. Nhln thee huong duong cua true Oy, c6 tht bieu dien mien D bOi cac blii dang thuc kep : (chu y rang hoanh d<)cua cac giao diem A va C diroc xac dinh boi phuong trinh : ~2'_X2
X

-1 :::; :::; 1 va x2 x

sy s

~2 - x 2

y='i27

y

== x2, 2_x2=X4,
-

y=.;~'-"'""""I.

2 == 0, x == ± 1, v~y hoanh d¢ cac giao di~m

4

+X

2

x

la :

Hinh 8.8

xA

= -1, Xc = 1). Do d6 .
1 2 ~2_x2

JIx YdxdY == J dx x ydY o -I x2
== J x2•
-I

J

2

I

Z y=X22

y2

y-.r;:;}

dx

1
=::

x2 J2(2

- x2 - x4)dx

-I

=::

2
I

1I

J (2x

- X4 -

x6)dx
.

-I

;: J(2x2 - x4 - x6)dx (do 2x2 - x4 - x61a ham s6 chan).

o
==

(2~

3

_£ 5

_~)IX=1
7

x=o

=::

105

34.
doan AB co pmrong trinh

Chu y : 1. DOi voi tnrong hop tren, lip dung cong tlnrc (8.2) la don gian nhat. That vay, neu dung cong thuc (8.3), ta phai tinh tich phan theo x tnroc. Khi do, nhin thee huong duong cua true Ox, thay rang dirong cong OAB giOi han phia duOi cua mien D g6m hai doan OA va AB co phirong trinh

khac nhau (doan OA c6 pbuong trlnh x
x
=::

=::

-..[y,

-~2 - y2); duong cong DCB gioi han phia tren cua mien D gom hai OC va CB co phirong trinh IAn hrot la : x

dOI;lD

= ..[y

va x ;: ~2 - y2, hai

diem A va C co cung tung d¢ bang I, nen phai chia mien D thanh hai mien OACvaABC. 76

2. Trong vi du nay, mien lAy tfch phan D d6i ximg d6i v6i true Oy, ham s6 du6i dau tich phan x?y la ham s6 chan d6i v6i x, nen c6 tM viet fIx2YdxdY
D

= 2 fJx2ydxdy,
DI

trong d6 DJ Ia mien "tam giac cong" OBC. Dung cong thirc (8.2), ta JIx YdXdY = 2 Jdx o 0
2 I

co

J2-x2
J
x2

x2ydy = 2 Jx2 Y2 Y'"
0

I

2

~

:-X

dx

Y"'X I

=

I

Jx2(2 - x2

_

x4)dx

=

J(2x2 - x4 _ x6)dx

o
= ~x3 _!x5

0

3

5

_!x7Ix=! = ~ 7 x=O 105.

c) D6i v6i mien D dB:cho, tfnh bang cong thuc (8.3) la dan gian nhllt. That vay, neu dung cong thirc (8.2), ta phai tfnh tich phan thee y tnroc, Khi do, nhln thee huang duong cua true Oy, thay rang dueng cong AOe gi6i han phia dirci cua mien D g6m hai doan AO va oe c6 phuong trlnh khac nhau (doan AO c6 phuong trinh y -x, doan oe c6 phuong trlnh y x2) nen phai

=

=

chia mien D thanh hai mien AOB va BOC. Ta tinh tfch phan thee x tnroc. Nhln theo huang duong cua true Ox, c6 tht bieu dien mien D 00i cac bit ding thee kep : O~y$2.-y~x'$ Dodo JIx YdXdY = JdY J x ydx. Hi'nh 8.9 o 0 -Y Dau tien, tinh tfch phan thee x, xern y lit hang s6, ta c6
2
. 2

y=2

y

JY.
.JY

x=yy
x
2

.JY

-Y

x3lx-JY f x2Ydx = y .JY x dx = y'-3 x--y I =
2

-Y

=
Cu6i cung, ta

r(y

co

3

'Y "Y -r-vr')

=!(y5/2 + y"),
3

77

IJ 2ydxdy
X

=21 J_(y5/2 3

D
=

°

+ y4)dy = -1(21 _y7/2
3 ·7

+ _y5 )
5

I-

y-2 y=O

1(2 3" 7,2 7/2

1 + 5,2

5)

= 105 (5,,2

16

c: + 14).

§5. CACH TINH TICH PHAN KEP TRONG

HE TOA £)0 cue
ill • • ..

Gia sir can tinh tich phan kep I = JIf(x,y)dcr trong he toa dQ cue, trong o do mien D co tlnh chat lit rnoi tia xuat phat tlr g6c cue 0 cat bien cua n6 khong qua hai diem. Mu6n the, ta chia mien D thanh cac mien nho d, hOi : - Oie tia xuat phat tir g6c q> == hang s6 ;
CI,lC

0, co phuong trinh trong h~ toa dQ Cl,IC

- Cac dUOog tron dong Him 0, co phirong trinh trong he toa d¢ cue r = hang s6 (hinh 8,10). Khi do, rnoi mien nho dj noi chung Ia mot hlnh "tu giac cong" gioi han bOi hai dtrong tron dOng tam va hai han kfnh cua chung. Dien tich 60"j cua mien nbc dj bang hieu s6 ~ dien tfch hai hlnh quat tron co cimg .goc a tam 6q>j va co ban kinh Ian 6.qlj

°

Im;n Ill. ri + 6ri va fi :
1 2 I2 Acr· = - (r· + L\.[.) 6ln. - - (, 6cn. 1 21 1 ""'1 2 1 ""'1
Hlnh 8.10

x

= ( f, + .1.[.) 2
1
_I

, L\.r.6,{n. = [..1.[.,6_fn.
1 '1""1 1 I

""'1'

trong do ri = fj

+

~i

til ban kinh trung blnh giii'a fi va ri + 8fi'

78

De thanh lap t6ng tich phan In cua ham s6 f(x,' y) trong mien D, ta gia thiet rang ham s6 f(x, y) lien tuc trong mien D. Khi do, trong moi mien nho d, co the l~y mot diem tuy

y

Mi(~i' lli)' & day ta chon Mi(~j, T]i) lit mot

diem nam tren dirong tron ban kinh trung blnh ri c6 toa d¢ cue la riova <pi
(voi <Pi< <p; < <Pi+ 8<pj).

Tac6

(1:(t nhien

ta chon h~ toa dO De-cac co g6c tai cue 0 va true hoanh trung voi
n-I

true cue) va

In ==

L f(M )8O'i
j

=

n-1 i=O

L f(ri' COS<P'i' <pi)rjruj8<pj' ri'sin
---1- -too

j:O

Vl've phai la t6ng tfch phan cua ham s6 f(reos<p. rsin<p)r thee cac bien r va <ptrong mien D, nen chuyen qua gi6i han khi n
ta

sao cho maxs, -) 0,

nhan duqc tfch phan kep cua trong mien D : 1= Jff(x, yjdo =
D

ham

s6 ftrcose, rsin<p)r thea cac bien r va <p
(8.4)

Iff(x. y)dxdy = IIf(r cos <P.r sin qnrdrdrp .
D D

D6 lil cong thee chuyen tlch phan kep tit he toa dO De-cac sang h~ toa d¢ cue, Bieu tlurc do = rdrdo goi la yeu ttl dien tich trong he toa dO cue. T6m lai, mu6n chuyen tich phan kep JJf(x. y)dxdy tit h¢ toa d¢ De-cac
D

sang he toa d¢ cue, ta thay x va y trong ham s6 dum dau tich phan bbi rcosqi va rsino, con dxdy thay bang rdrdrp, Dong thOi phuong trmh duong cong giro han mien lay tfch phan D cling phai dOi sang he toa dO cue bang each thay x == rcosrp, y = rsimp. Sau do tfnh

II f(r cos <Posin <p)rdrd<p hoan toan r

D

giong nhu trong h¢ toa d¢ De-cac, nghia la cling dua ve hai tfch phan xac dinh lien tiep d6i voi cac bien r va <po thay r5 each xac dinh can lay tfch phan, ta phan biet ba tnrong hop sau:

De

79

1. Truang hap g6c cue 0 ndm ngoai mien D. Gia sir mien D nam gifta cac tia <p= a va <p= p, moi tia xuat phat tir g6c cue 0 cat bien cua D khong qua hai diem (hlnh 8.11 a, b) va r g I(qi), r g2(q» 1&11uqt Ia phuong trlnh trong he toa dQ cue cua cac doan duong cong APB va ARB (hoac eRE) (neu nhln tir g6c cue 0 phia mien D thi APB IIIdoan duong eong gioi han phia dum mien D, con ARB (hoac eRE) III doan duong cong gioi han phia tren mien D). Khi do, lay tich phan thea r tnroc (xern <pIa hang s6), sau d6 lAy tich phan thea <p,ta co

=

=

ve

JIf(rcos<p, r sin ejrdrdo
D

=

J3

g2 (Ijl)

Jd<p
Ct

f

f(r cos q>, rsinq»rdr.

(8.5)

gl (Ijl)

a) Hinh B.II

Gia sir moi tia XUAl phat tir g6c cue 0 c~t bien cua mien D khong qua mot diem (khong diem 0) va plurong trlnh ella bien d6 trong he toa dQ cue la r g(q» voi a::;; q> ::;; P (hlnh 8.12). Khid6, Hfytfch phan thea r truOe (xern q> III hang so), sau d61ay tich phan thea <p,ta co 2. Truong hap g6c cue 0 bien

nam tren

cua mien D.

=

ke

If fer cos <p,r sin q>)rdrdq> = f dqi f f(r cos <p,r sin q>)rdr .
J3
g(cp)

(8.6)

D

Ct

0
r = g(ljl)

o
Hinh B.12 Hinh B.13

80

3. Truong hap g&: Cl{C a nam trong mien D.. Gilt sir moi tia xuat phat tir gOc cue 0 eat bien cua mien D tai m¢t diem vit phuong trmh cua bien do trong h~ toa d¢ cue lit r = g(ep) vm 0 ~ cp $ 27t (hinh 8.13). Khi dis, lify tfch phan thea r tnroc (xem cplit bang s6), sau do lay tfch phan thea cp, ta eo: Jjf(r cos cp, rsincp)rdrdcp
D

=

21t
0

J dcp f f(r cos cp,r sinrpjrdr
g(cp)

(8.7)

0

cac cong thirc tren, tich phan thea thfr nr nguoc lai, nghia lit tnroc h€t thea cp (xem r la hang s6), sau do thea r thtrong khong sir dung.
Chu

y. Trong

Vi du 3. Chuyen tfch phan kep fff(x,y)dxdy
D

tit h~ toa de.') De-cac sang

mien giro han hOi :

he toa d<) cue, viet fO cac c~n hly tfch phan thea r va thea <p, trong d6 D Ia a) Duang tron x2 + b) DUCmg tron x2 + c) DUCmg tron x
2

l = 2x (hlnh 8.15) ; + l = 2y (hlnh 8.16) ;
=

l = 4 (hinh 8.14);

d) Cac duang thAng y 2 x + l = 4x (hlnh 8.17). Gidi:

x, y = -x va cac duang tron x2 + y2

= 2x,

a) D6i sang toa d¢ cue, phuong trlnh dUOng tron x2 + y2 = 4 co dang : r = 2. VI gOc CI,J'C 0 nam trong mien D nen ap dung cong thirc (8.7), ta co JJf(x,y)dxdy D
== fff(rcosc.p,fsin<p)"drd<p

y

x

D
21t

=

J d<pIf(rcos<p, o
0

2

r sin ejrdr. Hinh 8.14

b) DuOng trim x2 + y2

(x - 1)2 + y2 == 1. Trong h¢ toa d¢ c\1C, phtrong trlnh dUOngtron tren co dang : r == 2cos<p. Cac tia
, I'

the viet dum dang : x2 - 2x

= 2x

Ht duong tron tam 0'(1,0)

+ 1+

l = 1 hay

ban kfnh 1, VI co

ke tit g6c

cue 0 va tiep xiic v6i duang tron (bien cua mien D)
I

trung voi 0' va Y: d 0 d 0 a = y '0 cua mien D nen

7t, .... -2 va R ==

1t 2'

V'I g6 c

CI!C

0 nam .. b'ien ~ rren A ..A

ap dung

cong thirc (8.6), ta co 81

JJf(x,y)dxdy
DO·

= JJf(r cos cp,rsincp)rdrdcp
it

=
y

"2

J dcp J
it

2coslp

f(rcoscp, rsincp)rdr.

2"

0

Y2

x

y'

x
Hinh 8.15 Hinh 8.16

C)

Dueng tron x2 +

the viet dum dang

dQ cue, phirong trinh duem.gtron tren c6 dang : r = 2sincp.

l = 2y Iii duong tron tam 0'(0, 1), ban kinh 1, vi c6 : x2 + l- 2y + 1 = 1 hay x + (y - 1)2 = 1. Trong h~ toa
2

Cac tia ke tit g6c cue 0 va tiep xuc vOi. duimg tron (bien cua mien D) trimg v6i Ox va Ox'. do d6 u = 0 va p = 1t. Vi g6c C1!C 0 nam tren bien Clla mien D nen lip dung cong thtk (8.6), ta co
JIf(x, y)dxdy

=

jJf(r cos cp,r sintpjrdrde
0
:It

o

= Id<p
o

2sinlp

J

f(rcoscp, rsin cp}rdr.

0

d} Gi6ng tnrong hop b) x2 + y2 = 2x lit phuong trlnh duang trim tam

01 (1. 0), ban kinh 1 ; con x2 + y2 = 4x Ia pmrong trlnh duang trOn tam O2(2, 0). ban kfnh 2. D6i sang toa d¢ c\IC. phuong trlnh cac dubng bien Clla mien D

co dang

: x2 + y2 = 2x ~ r = 2coscp ;

82

= 4x -1' r = 4coscp ; Y = -x -1' rsino = -rcoso,
X

2

+Y

2

y r

= 4coSlp
x

y

= X4
,

rsinqi = rcoso,

tgcp = 1, cp = VI g6c
nen

4".
Hinl: 8.17

1t

ap dung

ClJC

0 nAin ngoai mien D cong thuc (8.5), ta co Jjf(x,Y)dxdy D

=

jJf(r cos cp. r simpjrdrde D
4

=

J dcp J
1t

4cosIjl

fer cos cp, r sin cp)rdr.

2eosljl

4

Vi du 4. Chuyen sang toa dO cue, tinh :
a)

IfJ
D

dX~Y 2' D 11imien gioi han hOi cung tron 4-x -y

v=

.J2x - x2

va

true Ox (hlnh 8.18) ; b) JJarctg~ dxdy, D lil mien gici han hOi cac dUOng trim x2 + D . 2 x + y2 = 9

l = I,

va

cac duimg thing y = ~ x, y = J3x

(phan narn trong goc

ph~ nr thii nh4't (hinh 8.19»; c)

_! dx-J.L

a

~a2_x2 2

(x + y2)dy.

2

x

Gidi:
a) Thay x = rcose, y = rsino wo ham s6 dum dau tfch phan, ta co
1 1 = J4-(r2 1

~4_X2_y2

cos2<p + r1sin1 cp) = ~4-i'

con dxdy thay bang rdrdqi, Theo (8.4), nhan dug<;

83

dX:Y 2 = rdrd<P2· D ~4 - x - Y D~4 - r . D6i sang toa d¢ cl,l'C, phuong trlnh eung tron y = ~2x - x2 e6 d~g : rsinqi

If

If

y y

=V2x ~ i
r = 2coslp

= ~2reos<p

- r2 eos2 <p,
1 Hin.h 8.18

Ism2<p + l.cos2<p = 2rcos<p,
r2 :;:: 2rcos<p, r=

x

2eos<p( 0

$

<p:S;~}

Cac tia ke ti) g6c eire 0 va tiep xtic voi bien cua mien D trung v6i Ox va Oy, do d6 a = 0 va

p:;:: ~.

Theo cong thuc (8.6),

ta

eo

If
D
2cos<p

rdrd<p ~4 - r2
2

=

"2 o

1t

Id<p f
.
0

2 cos Ip

rdr . ~4 - r2
r2 :;:: t,

Tnroc hft, tinh rdr
e-

o

I ~rdr

bang each dOi bien so 4 -

-2~dr = dt,

4- r

~t , r bien thien ti) 0 den 2cosq>, do d6 t bien thien tit 4 den 4sin2<p. rdr
2

V~y
2 cofSIp """""7'=== = 4sin 1p 4

o
(0 dAy :

~4 - r2

f

dt

2"t

c=

-Ji

14Sin21p 4

= -2 sin <p+ 2

~4sin2 <p = 2sm<p, vi <pbien thien tu 0 den ; nen sine > 0).

Cu6i cung

1t

=

2q>+ 2eos<p

2

=

2.

o

2 + 2cos2

1t

1t

-0 - 2cosO =

1t -

2.

84

b) Thay x = rcosc:p,y = rsine vao ham s6 du6i dau tich phan, ta c6 arctg - = arctg
x
y

r sinrp
r cosrp

= arctg( tgc:p)= c:p.

D6i sang to","d¢ cue, phuong trinh cac dirong bien cua mien D c6 dang :

l = 1~ r = 1; 2 x +l =9~ r = 3;
x2 +
1 . 1 Y = J3 x ~ rsmo = J3 r coso ; ~ tge = J3 1

y=V3x
y

~ c:p =

6;
3
Hinh B.19

1t

q>=-

11:

6

y = J3x ~ rsino = J3r cos c:p
~ tgtp

x

= J3 ~

c:p =

;.
1t

Ap dung cong thirc (8.5), ta c6

'3 3 Jfarctg ~ dxdy = Jfc:prdrdc:p JC:Pdc:p = Jrdr
D D
1t 1t

1

6

=

3 r213 31 Jc:pT 1 dc:p= JC:P·Z·(9-l)dc:p 11: 1t 6 6

c) Theo dau bai, y bien thi~n tu y = _~a2 - x2 den y = ~a2 _ x2, con x bien thien tu -a den a, vay mien D gi6i han bOi duong tron y2 = i -x2 ~ x2 + = a2

r
-8

=a

l

(hlnh 8.20). Trong M toa d¢ cue, phirong trinh duong tron tren c6

dang : r = a. Vi g6c cue 0 nam trong mien D, ap dung cong thirc (8.7), ta c6

Hinh 8.20

85

J r la J 4d~ a = J d~Ir dr = '"4 d~ = o
2n
a

2n 4
0

2n
0

4

3

0

In = 4~ O·
a

4

2

=

T'

na

4

0

Chu y. Qua cac vi du 3 va 4, thay r~ng nguoi ta thuong chuyen tich phan kep tir he toa dQ De-eae sang h¢ toa dQ cue trong truong hop ham s6 duoi dau tich phan f(x, y) chua bieu thirc x2 + hoac trong tnrong hop mien lay tich phan D la mot m*t tron, mot phan mat tron, ...

l

§6. lING DVNG HiNH HQC ellA TiCH PHAN KEP 6.1. Thi tich v,t thi
Nhu da biet trong muc bai toan dan den khai niem tich phan kep, the tfch V cua mot v~t the hlnh tru eong eo day dum la mien D trong mat phAng Oxy, day tren la mat eong S eo phuong trinh z :: f(x, y) va cac dUCmgsinh song song vOi Oz (ham s6 z :: f(x, y) gia thiet lien We va khong Am trong mien D) diroc tinh hang cong thuc V:: jJf(x,y)dxdy. (8.8) z

o
Neu f(x, y) ::;·0 trong mien D

thi JIf(x,y)dxdy o

s 0 va

V:: - Hf(x,y)dxdy. (8.9) o Trong tnroug hop can tfnh the tfch v~t the, giOi han 00i cac m~t eong z fl (x, y), z :: f2(x, y) va hlnh chieu eua v~t the do len m~t phang Oxy la mien D (fl(x, y), f2(x, y) lien tuc va f2(x, y) ~ fl(x, y) trong mien D) thi the tfch V phai tlrn bang hieu s6 thf tich hai v~t the hinh tru eong ABCEF va ABCGF (hlnh 8.21) :

=

AC0B
x
Htnh B.21

y

86

v=

fIfz(x,y)dxdy
D Z

- fIfl(X,y)dxdy
D

=

jj[fZ(x,y):..._ fl(x,y)]dxdy.
D

(8.10)

Vi du 5. Tinh the tich vat the gioi han bbi cac m~t :

a) y = x , y = 1, x + Y + Z = 4 va z = 0 ;
b) z=4x2

-/vaz

= x2

+ yZ.

Gidi:

a) V~t dB.cho 13. m¢t v~t the hinh tru cong, day dum la mien D trong m~t phang Oxy gim han bbi. dUOng parabol y x2 va dubng thing y 1; day tren la m~t phangz 4 - x -y (hinh 8.22 va 8.23).

the

=

=

=

z=4-x-y

y

=1

y

y=1

x

Hinh8.22

Hinh B.23

Ap dung
V

cong thee (8.8) va (8.2), ta c6 ff(4-x -y)dxdy
D

=
=

=

S dx S (4-x
-I

-y)dy

5 68 1 (72 -x-4x 2 +x 3 +T dx = (7 x4) x4 X )!1 j ZX-T--3-+T+ 10 -1=15·

x2

S[(42 4x3 x
=
-I

x)y - y;

Ji;:~2

dx

-I

° (0,0,4) va 0(0, 0, 0)
1

b) V~t the da cho gi6i han bbi. hai mat paraboloit tron xoay co dinh tai

(hinh 8.24). DuOng cong L (giao tuyen cua hai mat paraboloit) duoc xac dinh bbi. he hai phuong trmh :

z {z

= 4 - x2
= x2

_ y2

+ yZ
87

Khu z trong hai phirong trinh, nhan diroc : x

= 2. Day chinh la phuong trinh cua duong tron LJ gioi han mien D va 130hlnh chieu cua
dirong cong giao tuyen L xu6ng mat phang Oxy. VI tinh d6i xung cua v~t th~ d6i v6i cac mat phang toa d¢ Oxz va Oyz

2

+

l

L

nen chi can tinh
goc phan him

!

th~ tich nam trong

x
Hinh 8.24

tha nhat. Ta c6
~=

JJ(4 - x2
DJ

-

y2 - x2 - y2~xdy,

trong d6

n, ia

!mat

tron x2 + y2 S 2 nam trong goc phsn nr thu nhat cua

mat pMng Oxy (hlnh 8.25). tich phan kep duoc don gian, ta chuyen sang toa d¢ eire bang each thay x, y trong ham s6 duoi dau tfch phan bbi reese, rsine, con dxdy thay bang rdrde. Ta c6

De tinh

V = 4.2. JJ(2 - r2)rdrdcp.
Phuong trinh dirong tron LI : x2 + y2 = 2 khi d6 c6 dang r = ..fi. VI g6c eire o nam tren bien cua mien D1, ap dung c6ng thtrc (8.6), nhan diroc

y

v = 8 Jdcp J (21' o
n
0 2

2

.,fi

Hinh 8.25

r3~r
n

=8

"2(

Jr o

-

. r4 J r = .;2 C "2 4 _ dcp = 8 Jdcp = 8cp 2
1[

=

41t.

r-O

0

0

88

6.2. Di,n tich hinh phing
Neu trong tich phan kep fJf(x,y)dxdy,
D

ham s6 duoi dau tlch phan bang s6 do the tich hlnh

f(x, y) == I v6i rnoi (x, y) thuoc mien D thl fJdxdy

o I:nJ. thang co day la mien D, dirong sinh song song v6i Oz va chieu cao bang 1. Do do fJdxdy ciing bang s6 do dien tfch day, nghia la dien tich mien D. V~y
o

s=

IIdxdy.
o

(8.11)

Trong h¢ toa d¢ cue, dien tfch S cua hinh phang D la

S

=

II rdrdqi.
D

(8.12)

Vi du 6. Tinh dien tfch hinh phang gidi han boi cac duong :
a) y

=2-

x2

va y

= x (hlnh

8.26) ;

b) x2

+ y2 = 2x, x2 + y2

= 4x, Y = x va y = 0 (hlnh 8.27).
+X

Gidi:
a)

Tnroc het, can tim toa d¢ cac giao diem MI va M2. Ta c6
x

=2-

2 2 x; x

-

2

= 0, xI = -2

va x2 = 1.

V~y toa d¢
~~

cac giao di~m la : MI(-2, -2)

va M2(1, 1).

Ap

dung cong thirc (8.11),
y I 2-x2 x

S

=
=

If dxdy = I dx I dy
o
-2
2

IIy IY=2-X
-2
I

dx

y=x 2

x

=

I (2 - x
-2

- x)dx

=

(2X _ x3

3 _

£) I
2-2

J=

2.. 2

Hinh 8.26

89

b)

D6i sang
2

x +y

= 2x ~ r = 2cos<p ; x 2 + y2 = 4x ~ r = 4cos<p ; 1t Y = X4 <p= 4" ~ y = 0 -40 <p= o.
2

toa dO cue phuong trlnh cac duimg bien cua mien D c6 dang :

Ap dung cong thirc (8.12), ta c6

S

=

fJ rdrdqi = Jdtp J
D
1t

'4
0

1t

4co.~ql

rdr

2COSql

= 4j.!.r2!r=4cOSql d
o 2
r=2cosql
1t

<P

o

4

x

=
-

14 2 J(l6cos2

;+l=2x
<p- 4cos <p)d<p
1t

2

r = 2cosql

o
1t

Hink 8.27

-6 J

4

o

-3( Sin2<p)I~ cos 2r..A <p........ _6'4Jl+COS2<Pd <p2 <p+ -20
0

-

_3(1t4" + 2' . 1)

6.3. Oi,n tich mit cong
z = f(x,Y)

y

y

x
a) b)

Hinh' 8.28

Gia sir co mot m~t cong cr gioi han bCri mot duong cong kin. Phuong trinh cua mat cong cr la z f(x. y), ham s6 f(x. y) giB.thiet lien t1,1C co cac va dao ham rieng lien t1,1C trong mien D (D Iii hlnh chieu cua mat cong o tren

=

90

m;llt phAng Oxy), Chia mien D mer each tuy y thrum n mien nho

dn-1,

tfch nrong ung III 80'0. 801'" ., 80n-l' Trong m6i mien nho dj lay m¢t diem tuy Y Pi(~j, llj), Ung v6i no III diem Mi(~j, llj. ~j) tren
mat cong cr (hlnh 8.28a)_ Dung mat phang Tj tiep xiic voi m;llt cong 0' tai diem Mj• GQi tj Ia manh cua m~t phang Tj rna hinh chieu cua no tren mat ph!ng Oxy dung bang dj_ Dien tich ella m:inh tj ky hieu la 8Tj• GWi han neu
n-I

Co cac dien

do. d1, ... ,

eo cua

L 8T

j

khi n --+ +00 sao cho duong kinh IOn nhat trong cac dueng

i=O

kinh ~ cua cac mien nho dj tien de'n khong (thuong ky hieu la maxt..j) diroc goi III dien tich cua mt;itcong a, va duoc tfnh nhu sau : GQi Yj18.goc gifra m~t phang Tj va m~t phAng Oxy, do ehinh la goc gitra true Oz va phap tuyen tai M, voi m~t cong da cho, ta co (hlnh 8.28b) : 8cr·
I

= 8Tcosy·;
I

8T
I

I

80· = __ cosYj

I __

Nhir da biet b Chuong VII, cac he s6 chi phirong cua phap tuyen tai M, vOi.
mat cong da cho lil -Pi Dodo

= -f~(Mj)

; -qj

= -f;(M)

va 1.

Dien tich S cua m~t cong da cho Ia gi6i han cua tdng tren khi n --+ +00 sao cho maxx, --+ O. Gi6i han fi'ychac ehan t6n tai vi cac ham s6 p = (x,y) , q=

f; (x, y)

f;

lien

t1;IC

trong mien D. Do d6, thea dinh nghia tich phan kep,
n-l

ta co: S

=

maxAj-+O j=O
(n-H'oo)

lim

L fiTj = maxlim j=O ~l L Aj.....O
(n-++oc»

n-l

r-----

+ Pf + qf fioj,
(8.13)

s=

Jf~l + p2 + q2 dxdy.
D

91

Vi du 7. Tinh dien tich ~t

cau tam 0(0, 0, 0), ban kinh R:

x2 + y2 + i = R2.
VI tinh chat d6i xirng cua mat cau d6i voi gee 0 va d6i v6i cac mat phang toa d¢. nen chi can tinh dien tfch cua phan mat cau nam trong g6c phan tam thu nhAt (hinh 8.29), Khi do :
Z

=

~R 2

- X2 _

y2 ,

p=

,
Zx,

=~

-x
R -x
2 2

-y

2•

R

y

vA S

= 8 ff)
D

R

2

R -x

2 dxdy,

Hinh 8.29

-y
R2 ~ ' nam trong g6c phan nr thu nha eua At .'
I

ID}' a 4 mat tron x + y:s; 1 ,2 2 trong d0

mat phang Oxy. Chuyen sang toa dl) eve, ta eo

S= 8

II J R
D
1t

2

R -r

2

2fd<pRf .J -rdr rdrde = -8R
2
0 0

1t

R -r

2

=

-8R 8R

"2 .J o

f

R2 - r2 2

Ir:o r-R

1t

d<p= -8R f(-R)dq>
0

2

=

2

'"2 =

7t

47tR .

92

CAU H61 ON

T~P

1. Neu bai toan dAn den khai niem tich phan kep, 2. 3. 4. Dinh nghia va

y nghia

hmh hoc cua tich phan kep,

Phat bieu va rninh hoa hlnh hoc cac tinh chat cua tich phan kep, Clnrng minh cong thirc tfnh tich phan kep trong h¢ toa d¢ De-cac. Neu quy tac xac dinh can tich phan,

5. Neu cong thuc tinh tich phan kep trong h~ toa dQ C\l'C va quy lAc xac dinh can tich phan.
6. Neu cac Ung dung cua tich phan kep de tinh hlnh phang, dien tfch mat congo 7. Trong cac menh de sau,·rnenh de nao dung:
2 I
-1 I-x

the tich

v~t th~, dien tich

1) Jdx J f(x,y)dy

= = =

I
-I I

2

J dy Jf(x,y)dx
0 l-y

;

o
I

2) Jdx J f(x,y)dy

JdY J f(x,y)dx
0
I 2y

;

o
I

0
2x

0

- 3) Jdx J f(x,y)dy

JdY J f(x,y)dx
0 0

;,

o 4)
1

0
2
2 2

Jdx Je-x
-1 0 D

-y sin xdy = 0 ;
=

5) JJ(x2 + y2 -l)dxdy

°

neu DU. mien gioi han hOi duong

6) JJ(2x2 ., y)dxdy = J d<p 2 cos2 <p+ r sinrpjrdr J(2r
D
1t

2'

1t

2 I

neu D 13. mien

2" 2 + y2 ::;4}, (r, <p)13.toa d¢ cue ciia diem co toa {(x, y) : x ~ 0, I ::;;x
dQ m-cac (x, y).

93

7) Neu D lil mien hinh tam giac gi6i han hOi true hoanh va cac duang thAng y ::: 1 + x, y::: 1 - x, thl tfnh tlchphan kep

de

JIf(x,y)dxdy,

o
ta tinh lich phan theo y tnroc, theo x sau dan gian han each tinh theo th6' 11! nguqC lai, .

BAI T~P
Tinh
2

..

-

cae tich phdn
I 2

:
2

1.

JdYJ(x + 2y)dx. o0
21t

2.

fdX f;'dy.
IY

x

2

I

x

3. Tim

J d<p J o

a

"2
rdr. 4.

1t

J de f
1t

3coscp

r2

sin2 odr.

asine

cae e4n ella tiehphdn

kip

If ./rx, y)dxdy
D

2"

0

khi d6i thanh hal. tich phdn

xdc 4!nh liin tilp :
S. 6. 7. 8. 9. D Ia hinh chii' nhat c6 cac dinh : 0(0. 0) ; A(2, 0) ; B(2. 1) ; C(O, 1). D lil hinh tam giac c6 cac dinh: 0(0.0); A(1, 0) ; B(1, 1). D lil hlnh thang co cac dinh : 0(0. 0) ; A(2, 0) ; B(1, 1) ; C(O. 1). D Ia hinh binh hanh co cac dinh : A(l, 2) ; B(2. 4) ; e(2, 7) ; 0(1. 5). D la hinh quat tron OAB nhu hinh sr 8.1.
y

x
Hinh 8I'B.}

94

Df!il vao cac c~n dii cho, hay viii phudng' trinh cac dui'lng cong gi6i h{ln mien l4y tich phdn D va ve mien ltly dch phon ay :
3

10.

fdX
2

x+9

J f(x. y)dy.

3

11.

I

x2

o

Jdx J
o

J25-x2

f(x.yjdy,

12.

J dy J f(x,y)dx.
i
3x

2-y

'"4-1 Ddi thfr II! Jaytich phdn trong cae dch phdn kep sau :
1

-6

13. Jdx f'(x, y)dy. o 2x
-2-

J

1

I-y

14. JdY

o
R

_p

J

f(x,y)dx.

RJi
o

15.

J dx jf(x.y)dy
0

x

+

J

~R2_x2

dx

R.J2 2

o

f

f(x,y)dy.

Tinh nhirng tich phan kep sau :

16. JJxdxdy, D IAmien nhir hlnh BT 8.2.
D

17.

Ii~a2 _ x2 _ y2 • D III phiin dxdy
D

mat

trong g6c ph&. nr thu nh9:t. 18. -

tron tam 0(0, 0), ban kfnh a,

nam

0 Hinh Bf8.2

OX

H ~dXdY2' D IAmien gim han blri. cac duoog y == x; vA y = x. +y
n

19. IJex/Ydxdy, D la mi~n tam giac cong gim han bOi cac duang y2 = X, x=OvAy=1. Chuyln nhiing tich phdn kip du6i day sang h~ tOf! c~n My tich phdn theo T va theo ffJ:

49 cl!C va xOcd~nh cac
-

20. jJf(x, y)dxdy, D lAmien tam giac, giro han hOi cac dttOng y = x, y = -x

va y=

n

1.

95

2

")l

r-----

22. JdxJf(~x2

+ y2)dy."

o

0

Chuyin sang h~ toa dq cue, tinh nhimg tich phdn kep sau : 23.
24. 25 •

fJ(x2
D D

+ y2 )dxdy, D la mien gi& han bCri. duong tron x2 +
X 2 -

l = 2ax.

fJ~ 1 -

y2 dxdy, D Ia mat tron, tarn tai g6c 0, ban kinh" 1.

anh ' ._. ., irong ' y II "xdxdy y2 ' D I'a rmen van kh an, nam gnra h ai. d·>..... tron x2 + "2 = 1 2+ o va x2 + y2 = 4.
R
~R2_)l2

26. fdx

o 27. y

f

10(1 + x2 + y2)dy.

0

Tinh thi tieb v,="hi gi6i han t

= ..Jx, y

==

2£,

bm cac m(it : x + z = 6, z = 0.

28. z = 2X2 + y2 + 1, x + Y

= 1 va cac m~t toa dQ.
3 "2 x + y = a ,y = 0, Z = 0 (a > 0).

29. x + y + Z = a, 3x + y = a,

Chuyin sang h~ toa dqcl!c, tinh thl tich vljt thl giUi han
30. 2az = x2 + 31. x2 +

bm cac mi# :

l.x2 + l + z2 = 3i (a>
Z

0).

l = 2ax, = ~x2

+ y2.

Z

= 0 (a> 0).

Tinh di#n tich hinh phdng giUihI;lnbm cae dllilng : 32. y2 = 4ax, x + y = 3a. y = (y ~ 0. a > 0).
33. y

°

= 2 x , Y = 2 -2x , Y = 4. = 12 a troog
g6c phan tam

34. r = asi03<p.
35. Tinh dien tich phan m~t phang 6x + 3y + 2z thu nhat (x ~ 0, y ~ 0, z ~ 0).

96

36. Tinh dien tieh ph1tn m~t parabOlOit z

x + y2
x2 + y2

2

= 1. = Rx.

= x2 + l

nam ben trong m~t lIV

37. Tinh dien tieh phan mat ettu x2 + y2 + z2 = R2 nam ben trong m~t t.IV

Oapso
1. 5. 6. 7. 8.

T:
1 2 2 1

14

12 4'5'

fdYff(x,y)dx hoac fdx ff(x,y)dy. o0 0 0
1 1 1

x
0
,1 L

fdYff(x.y)dx hoac fdx ff(x,y)dy.
o
I

y
2-y

0

2

2-x

fdY f f(x,y)dx hoac fdx ff(x,y)dy + fdx f f(x,y)dy. o 0 0 0 1 0
2 2x+3 2x 4

fdx f f'(x.yjdy hoac '2 5 2 7 2 fdY ff(x.y)dx + fdYff(x,y)dx + fdY f f(x,y)dx.
1 Y 4 1 ~2_y2 5 Y

2 1

-2-

y-3

9.

J2 fdY f f(x,y)dx + f dy

O-y

I I-N
0

f(x,y)dx hoac

o ~2-x2 1 ~2-x2 f dx f f(x,y)dy + fdx f f(x,y)dy.
-1

-x

x

10. Y=x2, y= x + 9, x= 1, x = 3.
. 12. x = 4 - 1, x = 2 - y. y2

1l.y=O,y=
2 Y

~25 - x2, x=D,x=3.

'2 3 I 13. fdY ff(x,y)dx + fdY ff(x,y)dx. or 2 Y 3 3'
97

o

14.

J dx J
0 2

~1_x2

1

I-x 0

f(x.y)dy + Jdx
0

J f(x.y)dy.
.16.

-I

R.fi
15.
o

J dy

JR2_y2

J
y

f(x.y)dx.

6.
19. 2.
1

1

17.

T.
T
31't

1ta

18.ln2.
_I_

20.

J dcp J f(rcos<p.rsin<p)rdr.
.~in<ll 0 sin
tp

7t

4
7t

31't 4

I
SID

sin tp
<II
7t CON

4

cos2 tp

21. Jf(tg<p)d<p

o 4" o 25.2n.
27.
1't

I

rdr +

J f(tg<p)icp J rdr +
0

J f(tg<p)d<p
37t

I

2 <II

rdr.

0

7t

0

4 2 cose

4

22. Jd<p

J rf(r)dr.

34 23. "2na .

0

48j6.
na3

3 28. 4. 31.

29.
3

18.
10 Ta 2.

a3

30. -3-(6-13 - 5). 9 33. 12 - 2ln2. 36. ~ (5~ - I).

9a .
na2

32

32.

34'4·
37. 2R2(n - 2).

35. 14.

98

ChU'dnglX
TicH PHAN DlIONG

c:::ftt{1:W
-

'i1ld:. !JEu

atilt
cac
kidn thac

Chuang nay trinh bay nghia. cac tfnh chit.

ca b~n vi

tLch ph,gn thrOng

: c:linh

each tinh tlch ph,gn duOng. quan h~ giiJa ttch

ph,gn duang dQc theo m$t dtJOngcong kln v6i tfch ph,gn k6p trong .miin gi6i han bOi duang cong kin do (c8ng thac Green) cua t'ich ph~n dtJOng. Sinh vi8n cgn n~m vung ph~n CltJOng

va mQt 56 ang d!,Jng

cac

khai ni~m iy• ttnh duqc t'ich ph~n dtJOng.
5jC ,--..,. .

v~n d!,mg dtJqc m$t cach linh hoat; c8ng thac Green trong tinh ttch

va a~c bj~

hiiu auqc sau

aiiu ki~n cJn

ph~n auang dQc theo m$t cung AB (AB) chi phl,l thu$c hai m6t A

va au ,--..,. tLch dB
VaG

va B.

kh8ng phlJ thu$c

AB ma

§1. BAI ToAN DAN DEN KHAI NleM TicH PHAN ellONG :
CONG CUA MQT LVC BIEN £)01
Gilt sir can tinh cong A cua mOt hrc chuyen dong tren cung cong phang
r-.A,

.,.A

Il10'.2

F

rac dung len mot ch!'t diem M Lire F :: F(M) :: F(x.y)
r--

tu B d~n C.

bien thien lien tuc doc thea BC va co cac hlnh chieu xu6ng hai true Ox va Oy 18. (x, y) va Qtx, y) (cluing la nhUng ham so lien tuc tren Be). Ta P
~.......

to

F(M)

= F(x, y) = P(x, y)i

.....-+

+ Q(x, y)j,

trong do i va j la cac vecto dan vi tren hai true Ox va Oy. Chia BC mot each tuy
r--

-

-<

~, ..., En::
~

n cung nho bbi cac diem chia B = Bo, B1, C co cac d() dai urong irng la ~o . .6.sl•...6.so-l. Xet cung nho tha .

y thanh

i : BjBi+l• Tren cung do, vi d¢ dai

khong d6i va bang F(Mi) v6i Mi(~i' Th) la mot diem nao do tren BjBi+l.

-

ASj

kha be nen co the xern nhu hrc F

-

-----

99

__...,
Ngoai fa co the! coi BjBi+1 nhu trung v6i dAy cung BjBj+1
--> ,..--....

va chat

di~m M

coi nhir chuyen dong thllng tren day cung BjBj+1 (hlnh 9.1). Do do, cOng do

luc F tao nen khi chat diem M chuyen d(mg dQC theo BjBj+1 g&1dung bang
[F(Mj)![BjBj+1lcOSUj

= F(Mj).BjBj+1 =
.....

P(~j, llj)Axj + Q(~i' lli )AYi'
-->

trong do u· lil g6c gii1a F(Mj) I

va
AYi

BjBi+l• Ax· I

=

Xj+l - X· I

va

Y
Yj+1 Ilj

F(Mj)

= Yi+l -

Yi la cac hi.nh chieu cua

Yi

BjBi+i xu6ng hai true Ox va Oy; cOng di~m cung dung do luc F tao nen khi chat M chuyen d¢ng dQC thoo cong Ph.ang tit B den C gan

-

80=8

bang

0

X;

l;;

)(;+1

X

Hlnh 9.1

An = P(~, TJJAxo + Q(~, TJo)Ayo ... +

+ P(~n-I' TJn-l)Ax~-1,. Q(~n-I' TJn-I)AYn-1
n-1 = ~]P(~i'l1j)Axj
i=O

+ Q(~i,l1j)AYd-

.
,..--....

De thay rang khi tang s6 phan chia n len, sao cho cac BjBi+1 cang
tao nen xem

nba lai

thl sl/ khac nhau giiia A va An cang it. Do do, hien nhien cong A do lire

la gi6i han cua An khi n ~
A=
ma)tA.s ·""O
.(n~)

+00 sao cho maxzss, ~
0-1

o. V~y

F

lim A, =

lim
maxA.\j-+O (0-++00)

L[P(~i,TJj)Axi
i=O

+Q(~i.TJi)AYd·

100

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