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An introduction to Centrifugal Pumps
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• Electrical Measurements Of Flow Mettler-Toledo Thornton's Flow measurement for pure water www.mt.com/flow
• Environment
• Fluid Mechanics
• Gas and Compressed A centrifugal pump converts the input power to kinetic energy in the liquid by accelerating the liquid by a revolving device - an
Air impeller. The most common type is the volute pump. Fluid enters the pump through the eye of the impeller which rotates at high
• HVAC Systems speed. The fluid is accelerated radially outward from the pump chasing. A vacuum is created at the impellers eye that continuously
• Hydraulics and draws more fluid into the pump.
Pneumatics
• Insulation The energy created by the pump is kinetic energy according the Bernoulli Equation. The energy transferred to the liquid
• Material Properties corresponds to the velocity at the edge or vane tip of the impeller. The faster the impeller revolves or the bigger the impeller is, the
• Mathematics higher will the velocity of the liquid energy transferred to the liquid be. This is described by the Affinity Laws.
• Mechanics
• Miscellaneous Pressure and Head
• Physiology
If the discharge of a centrifugal pump is pointed straight up into the air the fluid will pumped to a certain height - or head - called the
• Piping Systems
shut off head. This maximum head is mainly determined by the outside diameter of the pump's impeller and the speed of the
• Process Control rotating shaft. The head will change as the capacity of the pump is altered.
• Pumps
• Standards The kinetic energy of a liquid coming out of an impeller is obstructed by creating a resistance in the flow. The first resistance is
Organizations created by the pump casing which catches the liquid and slows it down. When the liquid slows down the kinetic energy is converted
• Steam and to pressure energy.
Condensate
• Thermodynamics it is the resistance to the pump's flow that is read on a pressure gauge attached to the discharge line
• Water Systems
A pump does not create pressure, it only creates flow. Pressure is a measurement of the resistance to flow.

In Newtonian fluids (non-viscous liquids like water or gasoline) the term head is used to measure the kinetic energy which a pump
creates. Head is a measurement of the height of the liquid column the pump creates from the kinetic energy the pump gives to the
liquid.

the main reason for using head instead of pressure to measure a centrifugal pump's energy is that the
pressure from a pump will change if the specific gravity (weight) of the liquid changes, but the head will not
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The pump's performance on any Newtonian fluid can always be described by using the term head.
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Different Types of Pump Head

Search the ToolBox! Total Static Head - Total head when the pump is not running
Translate this Total Dynamic Head (Total System Head) - Total head when the pump is running
Static Suction Head - Head on the suction side, with pump off, if the head is higher than the pump impeller Free Industry
Page!!
Static Suction Lift - Head on the suction side, with pump off, if the head is lower than the pump impeller Magazines
About Us! Static Discharge Head - Head on discharge side of pump with the pump off BioOptics World
Dynamic Suction Head/Lift - Head on suction side of pump with pump on Magazine
Temperature Dynamic Discharge Head - Head on discharge side of pump with pump on

The head is measured in either feet or meters and can be converted to common units for pressure as psi or bar.

o
C it is important to understand that the pump will pump all fluids to the same height if the shaft is turning at the
o
F
same rpm

The only difference between the fluids is the amount of power it takes to get the shaft to the proper rpm. The higher the specific
gravity of the fluid the more power is required. appliance DESIGN
Length
Centrifugal Pumps are "constant head machines"

Note that the latter is not a constant pressure machine, since pressure is a function of head and density. The head is constant, even
if the density (and therefore pressure) changes.
m

km The head of a pump in metric units can be expressed in metric units as:

in
h = (p2 - p1)/(ρ g) + v 22/(2 g) (1) Diesel Progress
ft
International
where
yards Edition
miles h = total head developed (m)

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nautical p 2 = pressure at outlet (N/m 2)


miles
p 1 = pressure at inlet (N/m 2)

ρ = density (kg/m 3)
Volume
g = acceleration of gravity (9.81) m/s 2

v 2 = velocity at the outlet (m/s)


3
m
Head described in simple terms
liters

in
3 a pump's vertical discharge "pressure-head" is the vertical lift in height - usually measured in feet or m of
3
ft
water - at which a pump can no longer exert enough pressure to move water. At this point, the pump may be
said to have reached its "shut-off" head pressure. In the flow curve chart for a pump the "shut-off head" is the
us gal
point on the graph where the flow rate is zero

Pump Efficiency
Velocity
Pump efficiency, η (%) is a measure of the efficiency with wich the pump transfers useful work to the fluid.

η = Pin/Pout (2)

m/s where
km/h
η = efficiency (%)
ft/min
Pin = power input
ft/s

mph Pout = power output


knots
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Pa (N/m )
2
Related Topics
bar

mm H2O
Pumps - Piping systems and pumps - centrifugal pumps, displacement pumps - cavitation, viscosity, head
2
and pressure, power consumption and more
kg/cm

psi Sponsored Links

inches H 2O
Related Documents

Alternating Pumps - Secure the system and achieve equal wear by alternate pumps in parallel
Flow Best Efficiency Point - BEP - Maximum designed pump efficiency�
Centrifugal Pump Speed-Torque Curve - Centrifugal pumps characteristics - speed torque curve
Centrifugal Pumps and Standards - Centrifugal pumps design and dimensions standards
Classifications of Pumps - Selecting between Centrifugal Pumps and Positive Displacement Pumps
3
m /s
Converting Pump Head to Pressure - Converting head (ft or m) to pressure (psi or bar, kg/cm2) and vice
3
m /h versa
US gpm Discharge Regulation of Centrifugal Pumps - Adapting pump capacities to process demand
cfm
NPSH - Net Positive Suction Head - A definition and an introduction to Net Positive Suction Head - NPSH
Pump Affinity Laws - Turbo machines affinity laws are used to calculate volume capacity, head or power
consumption in centrifugal pumps when changing speed - rpm - or wheel diameters
Pump Power Calculator - Calculate pump hydraulic and shaft power?
Unit Converter Pumps - Specific Suction Speed - Specific Suction Speed may be used to determine what general pump
design to use for maximum efficiency
Scientific
Pumps in Parallel or Serial Connection - For pumps in serial - add heads, for pumps in parallel - add
flowrates
Shut-off Head - Centrifugal pumps and maximum - or shut-off - head
Specific Speed - Pumps - Specific speed may be determined independent of the pump size
Stable and Unstable Centrifugal Pumps - Characteristics of stable and unstable centrifugal pumps
Calculator Volume Flow and Temperature Rise in Pumps - Calculate temperature rise in pumps
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