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Part – A

INTRODUCTION
Motivation is to give reason, incentive, enthusiasm, or interest that causes a specific action or
certain behavior. Motivation is present in every life function. Simple acts such as eating are
motivated by hunger. Education is motivated by desire for knowledge. Motivators can be
anything from reward to coercion.
A common place that we see the need to apply motivation is in the work place. In the work force,
we can see motivation play a key role in leadership success. A person unable to grasp motivation
and apply it will not become or stay a leader. It is critical that anyone seeking to lead or motivate
understand "Howletts Hierarchy of Work Motivators."
Salary, benefits, working conditions, supervision, policy, safety, security, affiliation, and
relationships are all externally motivated needs. These are the first three levels of "Howletts
Hierarchy" When these needs are achieved; the person moves up to level four and then five.
However, if levels one through three are not met, the person becomes dissatisfied with their job.
When satisfaction is not found, the person becomes less productive and eventually quits or is
fired. Achievement, advancement, recognition, growth, responsibility, and job nature are internal
motivators. These are the last two levels of "Howletts Hierarchy." They occur when the person
motivates themselves (after external motivation needs are met.) An employer or leader that meets
the needs on the "Howletts Hierarchy" will see motivated employees and see productivity
increase. Understanding the definition of motivation, and then applying it, is one of the most
prevalent challenges facing employers and supervisors. Companies often spend thousands of
dollars each year hiring outside firms just to give motivation seminars.
Another place motivation plays a key role is in education. A teacher that implements
motivational techniques will see an increased participation, effort, and higher grades. Part of the
teachers’ job is to provide an environment that is motivationally charged. This environment
accounts for students who lack their own internal motivation. One of the first places people begin
to set goals for themselves is in school. School is where we are most likely to learn the
correlation between goals, and the definition of motivation. That correlation is what breeds
success.
Since Bangladeshi market is huge populated and highly competitive, so better quality and more
quantity of production are needed to survive in the market. To get more quality & quantity for
goods & services, employees’ concentration on their responsibility is important. Consistent
motivational technique can drive employees to perform their responsibilities accurately for better
production.

MOTIVATION

The term motivation is derived from the Latin word movere, meaning "to move." Motivation can be
broadly defined as the forces acting on or within a person that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence
of goal-directed, voluntary effort.
Motivation is the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, & persistence of
effort toward attaining a goal.

We also define motivation as a process that starts with a physiological or psychological


deficiency or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. We can
say,

P=M+A+E

Here, P= Performance

M= Motivation (Must want to do the job)

A= Ability(Able to do the job)

E= Environment (The total Environment where the worker’s work)

Motivation is the driving force which help causes us to achieve goals. Motivation is said to be
intrinsic or extrinsic. The term is generally used for humans but, theoretically, it can also be used
to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. This assignment refers to human motivation.
According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical
pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a
desired object, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as
altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality. Conceptually, motivation should not be
confused with either volition or optimism. Motivation is related to, but distinct from, emotion.

Motivation is Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be
continually interested in and committed to a job, role, or subject, and to exert persistent effort in
attaining a goal. Motivation is the energizer of behavior and mother of all action. It results from
the interactions among conscious and unconscious factors such as the (1) intensity of desire or
need, (2) incentive or reward value of the goal, and (3) expectations of the individual and of his
or her significant others.
There are two main kinds of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is internal. It
occurs when people are compelled to do something out of pleasure, importance, or desire.
Extrinsic motivation occurs when external factors compel the person to do something. However,
there are many theories and labels that serve as sub tittles to the definition of motivation.

Part – B
MOTIVATION THEORY
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

Abraham Maslow developed the hierarchy of needs, which suggests that individual needs exist
in a hierarchy consisting of physiological needs, security needs, belongingness needs, esteem
needs, and self-actualization needs. Physiological needs are the most basic needs for food,
water, and other factors necessary for survival. Security needs include needs for safety in one's
physical environment, stability, and freedom from emotional distress. Belongingness needs
relate to desires for friendship, love, and acceptance within a given community of individuals.
Esteem needs are those associated with obtaining the respect of one's self and others. Finally,
self-actualization needs are those corresponding to the achievement one's own potential, the
exercising and testing of one's creative capacities, and, in general, to becoming the best person
one can possibly be. Unsatisfied needs motivate behavior; thus, lower-level needs such as the
physiological and security needs must be met before upper-level needs such as belongingness,
esteem, and self-actualization can be motivational.

Applications of the hierarchy of needs to management and the workplace are obvious. According
to the implications of the hierarchy, individuals must have their lower level needs met by, for
example, safe working conditions, adequate pay to take care of one's self and one's family, and
job security before they will be motivated by increased job responsibilities, status, and
challenging work assignments. Despite the ease of application of this theory to a work setting,
this theory has received little research support and therefore is not very useful in practice.

Self-Actualization need: drive to become what one is capable of becoming includes growth,
achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment.

Esteem need: includes internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and
external factors such as status recognition, and attention.

Social need: includes affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship.

Safety need: includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm.

Physiological need: includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs.

Maslow belief as each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next need become
dominant. That means people move up the step of hierarchy. So if anyone want to motivate
someone he needs to understand what level of the hierarchy that a person is currently on and
focus on satisfying the needs at or above the level.

Theory of X and Y (McGregor):


Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings. one basically negative, labeled
Theory X, and other basically positive, labeled Theory Y. Author concluded that managers’
views of the of the human beings are based on a certain grouping of assumption and the
managers tend to mold their behavior toward employees according to these assumptions.
Theory X- Lower order needs
➢ . Dislike work and avoid it.
➢ . Too concerned, controlled, threatened with punishment
➢ . Avoid responsibility.
➢ . Places responsibility over other and have no ambition.
Theory Y- Higher order needs
➢ . Positive assumption.
➢ . Work as rest or play.
➢ . Employees are self directed and concerned.
➢ . People have potential.
➢ . Ability to innovative.

ALDERFER'S ERG Theory


The ERG theory is an extension of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Alderfer suggested that needs
could be classified into three categories, rather than five. These three types of needs are
existence, relatedness, and growth. Existence needs are similar to Maslow's physiological and
safety need categories. Relatedness needs involve interpersonal relationships and are comparable
to aspects of Maslow's belongingness and esteem needs. Growth needs are those related to the
attainment of one's potential and are associated with Maslow's esteem and self-actualization
needs.

The ERG theory differs from the hierarchy of needs in that it does not suggest that lower-level
needs must be completely satisfied before upper-level needs become motivational. ERG theory
also suggests that if an individual is continually unable to meet upper-level needs that the person
will regress and lower-level needs become the major determinants of their motivation. ERG
theory's implications for managers are similar to those for the needs hierarchy: managers should
focus on meeting employees' existence, relatedness, and growth needs, though without
necessarily applying the proviso that, say, job-safety concerns necessarily take precedence over
challenging and fulfilling job requirements.
Description of ERG Theory
Clayton Alderfer extended and simplified Maslow's Hierarchy into a shorter set of three needs:
Existence, Relatedness and Growth (hence 'ERG'). Unlike Maslow, he did not see these as
being a hierarchy, but being more of a continuum.
Existence
At the lowest level is the need to stay alive and safe, now and in the foreseeable future. When
we have satisfied existence needs, we feel safe and physically comfortable. This includes
Maslow's Physiological and Safety needs.
Relatedness
At the next level, once we are safe and secure, we consider our social needs. We are now
interested in relationships with other people and what they think of us. When we are related,
we feel a sense of identity and position within our immediate society. This encompasses
Maslow's Love/belonging and Esteem needs.
Growth
At the highest level, we seek to grow, be creative for ourselves and for our environment. When
we are successfully growing, we feel a sense of wholeness, achievement and fulfillment. This
covers Maslow's Self-actualization and Transcendence.

MOTIVATOR-HYGIENE THEORY
Frederick Herzberg developed the motivator-hygiene theory. This theory is closely related to
Maslow's hierarchy of needs but relates more specifically to how individuals are motivated in the
workplace. Based on his research, Herzberg argued that meeting the lower-level needs (hygiene
factors) of individuals would not motivate them to exert effort, but would only prevent them
from being dissatisfied. Only if higher-level needs (motivators) were met would individuals be
motivated.

The implication for managers of the motivator-hygiene theory is that meeting employees lower-
level needs by improving pay, benefits, safety, and other job-contextual factors will prevent
employees from becoming actively dissatisfied but will not motivate them to exert additional
effort toward better performance. To motivate workers, according to the theory, managers must
focus on changing the intrinsic nature and content of jobs themselves by "enriching" them to
increase employees' autonomy and their opportunities to take on additional responsibility, gain
recognition, and develop their skills and careers.

MCCLELLAND'S LEARNED NEEDS THEORY

McClelland's theory suggests that individuals learn needs from their culture. Three of the
primary needs in this theory are the need for affiliation (n Aff), the need for power (n Pow), and
the need for achievement (n Ach). The need for affiliation is a desire to establish social
relationships with others. The need for power reflects a desire to control one's environment and
influence others. The need for achievement is a desire to take responsibility, set challenging
goals, and obtain performance feedback. The main point of the learned needs theory is that when
one of these needs is strong in a person, it has the potential to motivate behavior that leads to its
satisfaction. Thus, managers should attempt to develop an understanding of whether and to what
degree their employees have one or more of these needs, and the extent to which their jobs can
be structured to satisfy them.

EXPECTANCY THEORY
In the early 1960s, Victor Vroom applied concepts of behavioral research conducted in the 1930s
by Kurt Lewin and Edward Tolman directly to work motivation. Basically, Vroom suggested
that individuals choose work behaviors that they believe lead to outcomes they value. In deciding
how much effort to put into a work behavior, individuals are likely to consider:

• Their expectancy, meaning the degree to which they believe that putting forth effort will
lead to a given level of performance.

• Their instrumentality or the degree to which they believe that a given level of
performance will result in certain outcomes or rewards.

• Their valence, which is the extent to which the expected outcomes are attractive or
unattractive.

All three of these factors are expected to influence motivation in a multiplicative fashion, so that
for an individual to be highly motivated, all three of the components of the expectancy model
must be high. And, if even one of these is zero (e.g., instrumentality and valence are high, but
expectancy is completely absent), the person will have not motivation for the task. Thus,
managers should attempt, to the extent possible, to ensure that their employees believe that
increased effort will improve performance and that performance will lead to valued rewards.

In the late 1960s, Porter and Lawler published an extension of the Vroom expectancy model,
which is known as the Porter-Lawler expectancy model or simply the Porter-Lawler model.
Although the basic premise of the Porter-Lawler model is the same as for Vroom's model, the
Porter-Lawler model is more complex in a number of ways. It suggests that increased effort does
not automatically lead to improved performance because individuals may not possess the
necessary abilities needed to achieve high levels of performance, or because they may have an
inadequate or vague perception of how to perform necessary tasks. Without an understanding of
how to direct effort effectively, individuals may exert considerable effort without a
corresponding increase in performance.

Individual
Effort

Individual
Performance

Organizational
Reward

Personal Goals

From this model we can get:

A. Effort-performance relationship

B. Performance-reward relationship

C. Reward-personal goals relationship

EQUITY THEORY
Equity theory suggests that individuals engage in social comparison by comparing their efforts
and rewards with those of relevant others. The perception of individuals about the fairness of
their rewards relative to others influences their level of motivation. Equity exists when
individuals perceive that the ratio of efforts to rewards is the same for them as it is for others to
whom they compare themselves. Inequity exists when individuals perceive that the ratio of
efforts to rewards is different (usually negatively so) for them than it is for others to whom they
compare themselves. There are two types of inequity—under-reward and over-reward. Under-
reward occurs when a person believes that she is either puts in more efforts than another, yet
receives the same reward, or puts in the same effort as another for a lesser reward. For instance,
if an employee works longer hours than her coworker, yet they receive the same salary, the
employee would perceive inequity in the form of under-reward. Conversely, with over-reward, a
person will feel that his efforts to rewards ratio is higher than another person's, such that he is
getting more for putting in the same effort, or getting the same reward even with less effort.
While research suggests that under-reward motivates individuals to resolve the inequity, research
also indicates that the same is not true for over-reward. Individuals who are over-rewarded often
engage in cognitive dissonance, convincing themselves that their efforts and rewards are equal to
another's.

According to the equity theory, individuals are motivated to reduce perceived inequity.
Individuals may attempt to reduce inequity in various ways. A person may change his or her
level of effort; an employee who feels under-rewarded is likely to work less hard. A person may
also try to change his or her rewards, such as by asking for a raise. Another option is to change
the behavior of the reference person, perhaps by encouraging that person to put forth more effort.
Finally, a person experiencing inequity may change the reference person and compare him or
herself to a different person to assess equity. For managers, equity theory emphasizes the
importance of a reward system that is perceived as fair by employees.

Equity can be measured:

Employees Reward Other rewards


______________ Compared to _____________
Employees input Others input

GOAL-SETTING THEORY
The goal-setting theory posits that goals are the most important factors affecting the motivation
and behavior of employees. This motivation theory was developed primarily by Edwin Locke
and Gary Latham. Goal-setting theory emphasizes the importance of specific and challenging
goals in achieving motivated behavior. Specific goals often involve quantitative targets for
improvement in a behavior of interest. Research indicates that specific performance goals are
much more effective than those in which a person is told to "do your best." Challenging goals are
difficult but not impossible to attain. Empirical research supports the proposition that goals that
are both specific and challenging are more motivational than vague goals or goals that are
relatively easy to achieve.

Several factors may moderate the relationship between specific and challenging goals and high
levels of motivation. The first of these factors is goal commitment, which simply means that the
more dedicated the individual is to achieving the goal, the more they will be motivated to exert
effort toward goal accomplishment. Some research suggests that having employees participate in
goal setting will increase their level of goal commitment. A second factor relevant to goal-setting
theory is self-efficacy, which is the individual's belief that he or she can successfully complete a
particular task. If individuals have a high degree of self-efficacy, they are likely to respond more
positively to specific and challenging goals than if they have a low degree of self-efficacy.

REINFORCEMENT THEORY

This theory can be traced to the work of the pioneering behaviorist B.F. Skinner. It is considered
a motivation theory as well as a learning theory. Reinforcement theory posits that motivated
behavior occurs as a result of reinforces, which are outcomes resulting from the behavior that
makes it more likely the behavior will occur again. This theory suggests that it is not necessary to
study needs or cognitive processes to understand motivation, but that it is only necessary to
examine the consequences of behavior. Behavior that is reinforced is likely to continue, but
behavior that is not rewarded or behavior that is punished is not likely to be repeated.
Reinforcement theory suggests to managers that they can improve employees' performance by a
process of behavior modification in which they reinforce desired behaviors and punish undesired
behaviors.

Ten Techniques for Motivation


Motivation in the work environment has changed. Change has become the norm. Also the
motivation level of employees has changed. This can lead to increased dissatisfaction and
decreased productivity.

Here are ten techniques for motivating employees to succeed:

1. Take Care of the Little Things to Motivate Others


Doing the little things well will show that you respect your employees. Making sure you are on
time for meetings, saying “good morning” and “thank-you,” and returning phone calls and e-
mails in a timely manner goes a long way to showing your employees that you care during
chaotic times.
2. Be an Active Listener to Motivate Others
Recent research stated that the average supervisor or manager only invests two hours per year
applying “pure listening” skills. Pure listening is when you are listening to your employee you
are not:
 Multitasking
 ordering your lunch
 Watching people walk by your office.
 Answering telephone calls
 setting up appointments
To be a pure listener you must be an active listener. Good managers do more than pay attention.
They genuinely care about people and never talk down to them. They ask their employees about
their goals and dreams, their past achievement, their concerns and challenges during this chaotic
time. They listen with their hearts and minds. They respect the employee’s thoughts and
opinions. They realize that the employees sometimes have the best answer for achieving more
through chaos.

3. Walk Your Talk to Motivate Others


If you expect your employees to arrive early, then you arrive early. If you expect your
employees to keep their promises, you keep your promises. If you want your employees to keep
to high standards, you keep to high standards.
Your employees are watching you even when you don’t think they are watching you. So set the
tone. Once you walk through the doors of your organization make sure you are positive and
upbeat if you expect your employees to be positive and upbeat.

4. Let People Know They Make a Difference to Motivate Others


At the top of many lists of what motivates employees, more than money, is knowing that they
make a difference at work. One of the most powerful methods of letting your employees know
they make is difference is praise. The praise should relate to how the employee helps achieve the
overall mission of the organization.
5. Communicate Clearly to Motivate Others
Communicate so that others understand what you want to achieve. Adapt your communication
to the audience you are speaking. Constantly communicate your vision and goals so that there
are no misunderstandings. The clearer the vision, the clearer the communication, the clearer the
opportunity for success.
6. Help Employees Succeed to Motivate Others
People go to work to succeed, not fail. It is your job to understand your employee’s strengths
and weaknesses so that you can put them in the best position to succeed. If, for example, you
find out that an employee is lacking in a certain skill set to succeed during a change then provide
the coaching and training to make them and your organization successful. The best managers
minimize or eliminate their employees weaknesses and while building on their strengths.
Remove any and all barriers to success.
7. Focus Your Team on the Goal to Motivate Others
Focus your employees on the end result, the overall team goal. Once you successful
communicate this your team will band together to defeat any obstacles that get in the way.

8. Create High Standards to Motivate Others


High-performance organizations set high standards for their people. Employees want to know
what is expected of them, how their performance is measured, and what rewards they can expect
when they exceed the standard. Make sure the standards are consistently applied to each
employee. Make sure each employee understands how the standards are measured so that they
know how to reach it. As each plateau is reached, set new goals.

9. Help Your Employees Compete and Win to Motivate Others


Develop goals that help all your employees excel. Make your goals inclusive not exclusive.
This means that everybody is working together and wins together. Have your employees
complete against the goal, not each other.

10. Reward Outstanding Achievement to Motivate Others


Find ways to recognize your achievers in a public way. The more you reward employees for
excellent achievement, the more you receive more of the same behavior. Make sure you are
consistent with the way you contribute rewards to your employees. It is very important that you
communicate exactly why the employee is being rewarded.

Some of the ways you can show recognition are:

 Idea board
 Initiative Board
 Star Spotlight
 Certificates
 Gift cards
 Say thank-you
 Lunch

Apply these motivation techniques manager will motivate others to achieve their goals during the
most challenging of times.

Part – C
My Work Place
I have worked in Square Textiles Ltd. as a HR executive. I have experienced some motivational
techniques that are applied by Square Textiles Ltd.
About Company:
Square Textiles Ltd. started its journey by establishing the first unit in 1997. One year later the
second unit was established. Square Textile is a subsidiary company of Square Group .The
Company was incorporated as a public limited company in the year of 1994. The operation was
started in 1997.It was enlisted in Dhaka Stock Exchange & Chittagong Stock Exchange in 2002.
Within a very short time of span the company achieved some significance success. Square
Textile receives Oeko-Tex standard 100 and ISO-9002 certificates in the year 2000. Authorized
capital of the company is tk. 1000 million. It’s paid- up capital is tk. 251.90 million. 1,223
employees are working in this organization. The business lines of Square Textiles Limited are
manufacturing and marketing of yarn. The factory is located in Saradaganj, Kashimpur, Gazipur,
Bangladesh. Its office is located at Uttara in Dhaka.

Mission Statement:
The mission statement of Square Textiles Limited is “Our mission is realization of vision
through maximum production of goods and services strictly on ethical and moral standards at
minimum costs to the society ensuring optimum benefits to the shareholders and other
stakeholders.” This mission is envisioned by the concept of business which ensures well being of
the investors, stakeholders, employees and members of the society which will create new wealth
in the form of goods and services.
Key Product / Services:
As stated earlier the business line of the company is manufacturing and marketing of yarn. It
manufactures:
• 100% Cotton Ring Span Yarn For Hosiery
• 100% Cotton OE Rotor Yarn for Hosiery
• Knit Fabrics for 100% export oriented readymade Garments Industry.
It also performs the following services:-
• Dying & Post Mercerization.
• Fabric Dying
The final output is marketwise by Square Fashion Ltd.
In Square Textile Limited two types of products are produced in two different units. These are as
follows:
Unit 1: Combed and Carded Yarn from a count range of Ne.10 to Ne.80.
Unit 2: Combed Ring Yarn from a count range of Ne.20 to Ne.40.
In Square Spinning Ltd. 100% Cotton Carded and Combed Yarn in the count range of Ne.16 to
Ne.30 are produces. Finally in Square Fashion’s Ltd. Readymade Knit Apparels like T-shirts,
Polo shirts, Tank tops, Pajamas, Sport wear, Under garments, Men’s & Ladies fashion wear ,
Kids wear etc.
Strategic Goals & Objectives:
The company sets the following objectives for it to achieve:
• To strive hard to optimize profit through conduction of transparent business operations within
the legal and social framework with malice to none and justice for all
• To create more jobs with minimum investments
• To be competitive in the internal as well as external markets
• To maximize export earning with minimum imported in-puts
• To reduce the income gap between top and bottom categories of employees.
Thus the company focuses to pole-star its mission that fulfill the objective with emphasis on the
quality of the product , process and services blended with good – governance that help build the
Image of the most enable corporate – citizenship at home and abroad . The company wants to
produce such society friendly goods and services that go to satisfy the wants of all the relevant
party without disturbing or damaging the socio- economic and ecological, balance of the mother
earth and the process of human civilization leading to peaceful co-existence of all the leaving
beings. The company always strives for top quality products at the least cost reaching the lowest
rungs of the economic class of people in the country. The company values its obligation to the
greater society as well as it strives to protect the interests of its shareholders and to ensure
highest return and growth of their assets

Motivation techniques of Square Textiles Ltd.


In Bangladesh perspective to motivate the employees we can use the techniques stated and
explained by the social researchers. Motivating staff by training, self motivation, recognition,
awards, incentives, incentive programs, employee satisfaction, employee reward programs, team
building, employee recognition programs which will ultimately increase employee productivity.
Square Textiles Ltd applies some motivational technique to motivate their employees. These
techniques are applicable in the business environment of Bangladesh. Motivational techniques of
Square Textiles Ltd are:

Management by Objectives (MBO)


Structural approach to organization-wide participative goal setting that aims to serve as a basis
for (A) greater efficiency through systematic procedures, (B) greater employee motivation and
commitment through participation in the planning process, and (C) planning for results instead of
planning just for work. In MBO practice, specific objectives are determined jointly by managers
and their subordinates, progress toward agreed-upon objectives is periodically reviewed, end
results are evaluated, and rewards are allocated on the basis of the progress. The objectives must
meet five criteria: they must be (1) arranged in order of their importance, (2) expressed
quantitatively, wherever possible, (3) realistic, (4) consistent with the organization's policies, and
(5) compatible with one another. Suggested by the management guru Peter Drucker (1909-2005)
in early 1950s, MBO enjoyed huge popularity for some time but soon fell out of favor due to its
rigidity and administrative burden. Its emphasis on setting clear goals, however, has been
vindicated and remains valid.
Management by objectives (MBO) is a systematic and organized approach that allows
management to focus on achievable goals and to attain the best possible results from available
resources. It aims to increase organizational performance by aligning goals and subordinate
objectives throughout the organization. Ideally, employees get strong input to identify their
objectives, time lines for completion, etc. MBO includes ongoing tracking and feedback in the
process to reach objectives.
MBO is primarily used as a tool for strategic planning, employee motivation, and performance
enhancement. It is intended to improve communication between employees and management,
increase employee understanding of company goals, focus employee efforts upon organizational
objectives, and provide a concrete link between pay and performance.
An important factor in an MBO system is its emphasis on the results achieved by employees
rather than the activities performed in their jobs.

MBO consists of following six steps


A. Set the Organizational Goals
B. Set Departmental Goal
C. Discuss Departmental Goals
D. Define Expected Results (Set individual Goals)
E. Performance Review
F. Provide Feedback
Square Textiles Ltd. Practice MBO to achieve best performance from their employees . At first
the board of directors of Square Textiles Ltd. Set a specific goal for the company & describe it
to the manager of different department. Then manager establish their departmental goals &
presented it to their subordinate. Managers also explain to subordinate expected outcomes & set
individuals goals. The board of directors of Square Textiles Ltd review performance of the
employees and provide reward on the basis of the employees performance.
For Management by Objectives (MBO) to be effective, individual managers of Square Textiles
Ltd must understand the specific objectives of their job and how those objectives fit in with the
overall company objectives set by the board of directors.
Square Textiles Ltd ensures that the managers of the various units or sub-units, or sections know
not only the objectives of their unit but should also actively participate in setting these
objectives and make responsibility for them.
In Square Textiles Ltd Management by Objective (MBO) systems, objectives are written down
for each level of the organization, and individuals are given specific aims and targets. Managers
of Square Textiles Ltd identify and set objectives both for themselves, their units, and their
organizations & they try to Ensure that they set the right objectives to achieve the right results.
MBO in Action at In Square Textiles Ltd
A Manager's Guide at In Square Textiles Ltd provides the following directions.
1. Start with a few well-chosen overriding objectives.
2. Set subordinates objectives that fit in with overriding objectives.
3. Allow subordinates to set their own key results to enable them to meet their objectives.

Money
The directors of Square Textiles Ltd think that money is the most powerful motivational tool.
Economists and most managers have tended to place money high on the scale of motivators,
while behavioral scientists tend to place it low. The directors argue that money is a motivational
tool for four reasons.
First: Money is likely to be more important to people who are raising a family. It is an urgent
means of achieving a minimum standard of living, although this minimum has a way of getting
higher.
Second: It is probably quite true that in most kind of business and other enterprises, money is
used as a motivator.
Third: Money as a motivator tends to be dulled somewhat by the practice of making sure that
salaries of various managers in a company are reasonably similar.
Fourth: If money is to be an effective motivator, people in various positions, even though at a
similar level, must be given salaries and bonuses that reflect their individual performance.
It is almost certainly true that money can motivate only when the perspective payment is large
relative to a person's income. The trouble with many wage and salary increases and even bonus
payments is that they are not large enough to motivate the receiver.
Positive reinforcement:
Positive reinforcement approach has been suggested by skimmer. This motivator helps the
managers and supervisor to think positive about the goal or objective. It strengthens employee
confidence to perform their activities. Positive reinforcement includes-
a) Properly designed work environment.
b) Praising performance.
c) Removal of obstruction to performance.
d) Control planning and organizing.
e) Good communication.
Square Textiles Ltd approves the participation and encourages participation of the employee in
planning an objective and this participation helps top management in designing work
environment. The Management of Square Textiles Ltd praise the performance of employee and
always keep good communication with the top, middle and lower level managers. This creates
positive reinforcement into the organization.
Participation:
One technique that has been given strong support as the result of motivation theory and research
is the increased awareness and use of participation. There can be no doubt that only rarely are
people not motivated by being consulted on action affecting them by being ''in on the act''. There
is also doubt that most people in the center of an operation have knowledge both of problems and
of solutions to them. Participation is also a means of recognition. It appeals to the need for
affiliation and acceptance. Above all it gives people a sense of accomplishment. But encouraging
participation does not mean that managers weaken their positions. Square Textiles Ltd encourage
participation of subordinates on matters where latter can help, and listen carefully, on matters
requiring employees decision they must decide themselves. The employees of Square Textiles
Ltd can participate on decision making process; as a result they think themselves as an important
member of the organization. It helps them to increase their productivity.
Job enrichment:
Job can be enriched by making it challenging and meaningful. This applies to the jobs of
managers as well as to the non-managers. Job enrichment is related to Herzberg's theory of
motivation, where factors such as challenge, achievement recognition, and responsibility are seen
as the real motivators.
In job enrichment, the attempt is to build into jobs a higher sense of challenge and achievements.
A job may be enriched by variety. As such job enrichment has been described as 'vertical
loading' of a job. For job enrichment Square Textiles Ltd takes some steps. These are:
a) Giving workers more freedom.
b) Encouraging participation and interaction.
c) Feeling of personal responsibility.
d) Giving feedback.
e) Involving workers in change management.

Job rotation
Job rotation is a training that requires an individual to learn several different some in a work unit
or department and performer each job for a specified time period. In job rotation, individuals
learn several different jobs within a work unit or department. One main advantages of job
rotation is that it makes flexibilities possible in the department. When one employee like junior
merchandiser absence another merchandiser can easily perform the job. Square Textiles Ltd use
job rotation to tech employees about different type of work within the organization. It motivates
employees as they have knowledge of whole task of the organization. Job rotation reduces their
boredom, increases motivation through diversifying the employees activities, and helps
employees better understand how their work contributes to the organization.
Job enlargement
Job enlargement increasing the number & verity of tasks that an individual perform. Job
enlargement results in jobs with more diversity. Job enlargement means increasing the scope of a
job through extending the range of its job duties and responsibilities generally within the same
level and periphery. This contradicts the principles of specialization and the division of labour
whereby work is divided into small units, each of which is performed repetitively by an
individual worker. Some motivational theories suggest that the boredom and alienation caused
by the division of labor can actually cause efficiency to fall. Thus, job enlargement seeks to
motivate workers through reversing the process of specialization. A typical approach might be to
replace assembly lines with modular work; instead of an employee repeating the same step on
each product, they perform several tasks on a single item. In order for employees to be provided
with Job Enlargement they will need to be retrained in new fields which can prove to be a
lengthy process. However results have shown that this process can see its effects diminish after a
period of time, as even the enlarged job role become the mundane, this in turn can lead to similar
levels of demotivation and job dissatisfaction at the expense of increased training levels and
costs. The continual enlargement of a job over time is also known as 'job creep,' which can lead
to an unmanageable workload. Job enlargement is horizontal loading. Square Textiles Ltd
sometimes apply job enlargement technique to motivate their employees. From job enlargement
the employees of Square Textiles Ltd experiences variety job which helps them to achieve the
specific goals with high performances.

Employee relation

Employers and employees each have their own sets of needs and values, and successful
relationship between these two sides requires that some sort of balance be struck. This balance
often takes the form of a psychological contract, an understood agreement between employer and
employees that defines the work relationship. This contract with or without support of a formal
collective bargaining, agreement influence the outcome achieve by each side.
SQUARE group the various into three channel categories those are:
1. Employee safety
2. Employee health
3. Employee working condition

1. Employee safety: SQUARE provide the employee safety .It ensure the all kinds of job safety
such as insurance of each employee not this it provide insurance to the labor.
2. Employee health: Free medical checkup, provide health card and also provide necessary
medical facilities for each employee.
3. Employee working condition: The working condition of employee is very hygienic
Square is ISO 9001-2000 Certified company

Incentives of Square Textiles Ltd to motivate employees


Compensation fluctuates according to

– A pre-established formula
– Individual or group goals because group goals are different from individual goals
– Company earnings Incentives adds to base pay
It controls costs because the employee is being paid for his/her extra effort and for the benefits
brought to the organization.
Incentive Pay Categories
Individual
Group
Company-wide
Individual incentive plans

– Quantity of work output (How many units produced)


– Quality of work output (What was the quality of the product or service being produced or
served)
– Monthly sales (How much sales was generated)
– Work safety record (How many hazard or errors are being reduced.
– Work attendance (If the absent is reduced or attendance is good)
Group Incentive
Performance Measures
 Group incentive plans
 Customer satisfaction
 Labor cost savings
 Materials cost savings
 Reduction in accidents
 Services cost savings
Company-Wide Performance Measures
Company-wide incentive plans
Company profits
Cost containment/prevention
Market share
Sales revenue
Individual Incentive Plans (Piecework plans)
• Awards based on individual
production vs. company standards
• Awards based on individual
performance standards using
objective & subjective criteria
• Quantity and / or quality goals

Group Incentive Plans

• Rewards employees for their


collective performance
• Group incentive use has increased in industry
• 2 types
– Team - based or small group
– Gain sharing

Company-Wide Incentive Plans


• Rewards employees when company
meets performance standards

• 2 Types
– Profit sharing plans
– Employee stock option plans
Benefits of SQUARE to motivate employees
Employee benefits & services were formerly known as fringe benefits and these benefits were
primarily the in-kind payments employees receive in addition to payments in the form of money.
In addition to paying employees fairly and adequately for their contributions in the performance
of their jobs, organizations assume a social obligation for the welfare of employees and their
dependents. Employees benefits are usually inherent components of the non-compensation
system are made available to employees that provide:
– Protection in case of health & accident
– Income upon retirement & termination
these benefits are components that contribute to the welfare of the employee by filling some kind
of demand & these benefits motivate employees.

Legally required benefits of SQUARE


✔ Social Security: Social security benefits include the general benefits like unemployment
insurance & benefits, old age insurance, and Medicare facilities.
✔ Workers’ Compensation: Worker’s compensation includes the compensation when an
employee becomes injured or disable due to extreme working conditions or while
working at the job site.
✔ Family & Medical Leave: Family leave includes the compensation continuation during
the family leave such as maternity or paternity leave and other family leave.
✔ Old age, Survivor, Disability Insurance requirements for getting compensation:
– Earn 40 quarters of credit, or
– Be employed for 10 years
– Be age 62 for partial benefits
– Be age 65 for full benefits
– Now the age has been extended to age 67 because more and more workers are retiring
late.
– Widow aged 60 +

Medicare
Depends on the country’s policy, Medicare facilities are generally government services to
citizens. Organizations add some value to Medicare facilities. In some countries Medicare is
financed together by employees’ tax, employers and the government.
Provided insurance coverage for:

 Hospitalization: Covers inpatient & outpatient hospital care & services.


 Major Doctor Bills: Charges of visiting a doctor or specialist.
 Prescription drug costs.
 Provides unlimited in-home care in certain situations.

Workers’ Compensation
 Workers’ compensation is a legally required benefit is included in the compulsory disability
laws of many countries. Mostly, employer is seen liable regardless of the fault.
 Objectives of Workers’ compensation:
– Provide income & medical benefits
– Reduce litigation
– Eliminate legal fees & time
– Encourage employer safety
– Promote accident study & avoidance
 Workers’ compensation claims
– Injury
– Occupational disease
– Death
 Workers’ compensation benefits
– Medical services
– Disability income
– Death benefits

Discretionary Benefits
• Discretionary benefits are judgment based benefits that the organization provides to its
employees. These benefits are not legally required benefits but enhances organizational culture
and corporate image.
• Benefits include:
– Protection programs
– Pay for time not worked
– Other services

Pay for time not worked


• Holidays
• Vacations
• Funeral leave
• Marriage leave
• Sick leave
• Stress leave
• Blood donation or welfare work
• Personal leave
• Sabbatical leave/ For Muslims, leave after death
• Other religious leaves such as pilgrimage or preaching
Part – D

Conclusion:
Motivation is an important part in the entire progress of an effective management. Every workers
of higher level or lower level of management has the ability to perform their duty neatly and
effectively. But lack of proper motivation technique keeps them away from showing their
caliber. Proper motivation and utilization of the motivating technique can help an organization to
achieve their set target or goal. The term motivation is internally linked with the human needs,
which are explained by the social searchers, like physiological, security, social, esteem and self-
actualization as well as with the special motivating factors like-money, positive reinforcement,
participation and job enrichment. These motivational techniques are most affective, where
motivation is more important in production. Motivation technique of Square Textiles Ltd is much
more effective as they concentrate on their employees & it has a great positive impact on their
production.

References:

1. Organizational Behavior by Stephen P. Robbins (Latest Edition) Prentice Hall of India,


New Delhi
2. Course Teacher Lecture
3. Square Textiles Ltd. website
4. Internal source of Square Textiles Ltd.
5. Internet