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c

INTRODUCCIÓN
QUÉ ES LA ELECTRÓNICA
c c
 c   ccc c ccc cc cc  cc c
c c
c c   ccc  c
c
c c c c
 
c c c  c c c c c c 
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c    c c c
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c  c c c  c c c
  c c   c c  c  c
 c c  c
  cc   cc c c  c c
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c c c c
c 
cc
c c
c
CAPÍTULO 1
COMPONENTES PASIVOSc
cc
c
c
 c
 cc  c
 c  c  c
c
c c 
 c  !c c c 
c
 c c 
"c #  c
$
 cc% c

Resistencias:c
c  cc c cc
c 
  ccc  c c  c
c
 c c  c
 c   c    c c  c c  c  c c  c c

c c
cc cc  cc&
cccc c
cccc'c
( ccc&c c c  cc
c c c c  cc
  ccc
 c c c c c

 cc cc c   c cc cc c


 ccc c
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ccc c
 cc c c)"c%*+,#c
-c c c c c  cc c  "c  c cc  c
"c

c c
c  c c cc  c c"c
cc
#c*c#.c/c#0c/c#1c/cc/c#c
cc
c cc  c c cc  c cc#cc
c cc c c ccc
  c#.c#0c#1cccc#c cc c
( cc  cc
ccc  c c"c
cc
#c*c.,2.,#.c/c.,#0c/c.,#1c/cc/c.,#3c
% c  c c c   c  c #.c #0c #1cc cc #c 4c  c  
c c c c c
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ccc ccc#c c
c
c  c c c c cc c  c ccc cc
c
c
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 c c ccc c cc c
c c  c c
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cc
c
c cc cccc
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c cc c c cc
 cccc cc  c
cc
p c v  
c 
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cc c c cc  
c  c cc  
c c cc

cc c c cc 
c  c cc 
c ccc

cc c c cc c  c cc c c cc
cc c c cc c  c cc cc cc

cc c c cc c  c cc cc cc

cc 
c c cc c  c cc cc cc
cc c c cc c c cc cc cc

cc  c c cc 
c  c cc cc cc

cc !"c #c cc c  c cc cc cc
cc $%c &c cc cc cc cc cc cc
cc
7c c c  c c c   c  c  c c c c  c c c
 c c c  c c89999c] c c cc c:c8c;c
c c  c c c
 c c  c c c c   c  c c c
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cc
.ccccccc.8cccc00cccc11cccc<=ccccc>?cccc.9c
.0cccc.?cccc0=cccc1@cccc8>ccccc?0c
..cccc.1cccc.>cccc0ccccccc0<ccccc1ccccccc1>ccccc<1ccccc8.ccccc>0ccccc=8ccccc@.c
c
 ccc
 cccc09c;c c c
c c
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cc
c
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cc  c c cc c8c;c
cc ccc ccc 
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c ccc ccc   c
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c "c .,?c .,<c .,1c .,0c .c c 0c'c c
 c c.c;c0c;c8c;c.9c;cc09c;c
 c & c   c c c  c  c   c  c c
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c  c c  c   ! c   c c  c  !c c c   c 6c 
c c  c
c  c c c
c c  c &c c c c c c c c
 cc    cc
cc
Capacitores:c
c 
 c 
c  c c  c c c   c  c c  c
 c c c
c c
 c
c c c c2 c  3cc
 c  c
 cc c c

c ccc
c
cc c c
 cc  c
cc
  c cc
cc
cc  cccc
 c c   c
c c 
c c  c c c c &
c c  c c

  c c   c c  c c c 
  c c c  c 2A3c c c c 
  c
  ! ccc
 cc cc c cc   c
ccc ccc
B> B@
&
 cc   c2.c„Ac*c.c&c.9 cA3c  c2.c Ac*c.c&c.9 cA3cc
  cccccc
B.0
2.cAc*c.c&c.9 cA3c
c
$  c c 
 c c  c   c c c
c c c 
 c c c    c c
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cc c  ccc
 c c  c
cc
  c c   c c
c ccc
c
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Cc !c & c c  c 
  c c 
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c  c  c c c  c
 cccc c c cc   cc  c ccc
  cc
c cc c
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c
( ccc
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 cc c c  c c
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c c  c c c c c   c c  c c
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c !cc cc c c c
cc
cc
c c
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c c c c cc c
 c c   c c  c c c
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c   c c  c  c c   c c
 c c c c  c c c

"c
c c
c
  c c c"c
cc
$c*c.,2.,$.c/c.,$0c/c.,$1c/cc/c.,$3c
cc
cc
  c c
c"c
cc
$c*c$.c/c$0c/c$1c/cc/c$c
cc
& c c   c c
 ccc cc
cc c& cc c cc
 c c
c c c   c c c  c c  c 
  c  c c
& c ! cc
ccc cc cc c c c(c
 c
cccccc   c
)c
ccc c
 c cc   cc c c c
 c ! cc ccc
 cccc
c c
 cc
cc   ccc c$cc
c c

 cc
 c c
  c cc c cc.999c+c
 c& c
 c cc c
ccc
  c c c
c
c   c  c   c c c    c c c c c
 c c  c
c
cc c cc  c
c c
c c& c c   c c6cc  c
c c & c c c  c c

c  c c c  c  c  c  c c
cc c  c c c   c(c c
  c cc  c cc
 c
 c ccc
 cc c  c& ccc
  cc c
 c(c
 cccc c   c
c
 c c ccc c  ccc c   c
cc
Inductancias:c
c
c c  c
c c  c c 
  c
c  c  c c  c  c c
c c
c c
cc   c c c
$  cc c
c ccc ccc c cADc 6ccc c
 c
 c  c c c
 c c  c c c  c  
  c
c c  c
c cc c c c ccc  c ccccccc

cc  c c  c c
 c c c  c 
c  c c   c c c   c
 cc
cc  cccccccADc   c 
c
$c c ADc   c c 
c c c 
  c c c c 
c c c   c c c

c c
c
  c ccADcc

 ccc  c cc ccc   c c  c
c   c 
 c cc c  c c c( cc c cccc
 c cc   c c  cccc cc c c cc  c
c  c  c  c c c c c   c (c  c c 6c c   c
  cc ccc  c c c c
c   cc cc c2-3cccc   ! c
cc  c
  cc

 c
 c c  c  c   c  c c c c   c  c   c c
  c

cc ccc c cc cc


ccc cc
cc c cc   c c c cc   !cc  c  "c
cc
c2„-3c*c2 0cEc03c,c2.?c c/c<9c3c
cc
c*c%  c2c  3c
c*c c cc c2c
 3c
c*c  c cc c2c
 3c
c*c6c c
c
c c
CAPÍTULO 2
TEOREMAS DE CORRIENTE CONTINUA
cc
Fcc6 cccc cc c  cc  cc  c c
c
 c c
  c cc 
c"c c cG  ccc c cc
4c

Leyes de Kirchoff:c
(c cccccccc cc cc cc ccc cccc
 c
c cG  cc  cc cG  c
 c
c c c  "c c  c c c   c c  c  c c c c  c c  c c c
 c cc   c c c cc cc
c cc"cc c  c c23cc c c cc !c c
c cc c  c cc  c cc
 c c  c   c c c c
cc  c
 c  c
cc
cc

c
cc
Teorema de Thévenin:c
$  c c c   c  c c c  c c  c c c c  c

 c
 ccc c c
cc c  c c cc
cc cc  "c c  c cc c c c2ccH3c
 c c

 c
c c c
c
c c c c c c+-c c
c cc c  c c#-ccccc c+-cc#-cc"c
#-c cc  c c
cc  ccc cccHc  cc  c
cc  c  c cc c c ccc cc  c cc c
c c
+-ccc c
ccccccHccc c2 c3c
c c
cc
c c  c 
 c c c c  c c   c c c   c  c  c c
 ccc  c c

Teorema de Norton:c
c c &
c  c  c   c  c
c c  c  c 2c c H3c
 c
c   c
c c  c c c cc  c
c c  c c#c
c
cc c c c c c%c
cc c#cc c c  c c cc  c c c#-cc%ccc
 c c  c
cccBHc

c c
c c
CAPÍTULO 3
CORRIENTE ALTERNA
cc
Icc cc
c
 cc c
 cc c  c7 c cc

 c c c c c c c  c   c c  c c c c

 c
cc   ccc
 c ccc  cccccc
   c c c c c
c c !c  c c c  c c c 
c c  c c c  c
  cc cc&
  c cc
cc 
c c c cc
c  c   c c  c  c  c  c c c  c c c  c  c c

  c 
c c c
 c c c c c c  c c   !c c c   c c c

c c c  c  c  c   c c   c  c c c 
c c
 ccccc$$cc6cc c cc c7$c
c  c c  c  c c  c c
 c c
c  c
  c
ccc 
c(cc c  c$cc$cc c
cc

c
cc
Parámetros importantes de la corriente alterna:c
A  "c 46c c c  c c  c c  c c
  c c .c   c c
  c c ccc-!c2-!3cccc  ccccAc7cc c cc cc
c c c c009c+c89c-!c  c c c cc c c c
  c89c
c
c  c
Cc    cc  c
cc   "c46c c c
c c$c c c
cc   c c 
c
A"ccc  c c c  c  cc   c c c ccccc c? c
 "c c c  
c  c  c c
  c c  c c $c 
c c  c c c
 c
c c c c c009c+c89c-!c c
 cc c09cc
c ccc   ccc
 ccA*.,c
+c "c+c ccc cc c c c 
c
+c& "c+c cc cc cJJccJJc cc c
+c "cD c  c c ccc c cc cc c
 c  c
( c c ccccc  "c

c
+c  !"c +c  c
 c c  c  c  c c  c $$c  c (c  c
 "c

c
+c
c c
"c +c c  c  c c  c c & c c  c c c c JJc c c
JJc
c c   c  c c c  c c  c c c 
  c  c c c

c c  c 3c  c c  c c  c c c c c c  !c c c
& c c c
c c
c c c
 c c c  c 3c c c  c c c  c
  c
c   c@9Kc
cc

c
cc
cc  c3c cc   cc c89c-!ccc
 cc*09cccc  cc
 c c c
c 7c c c  c c
 c c c c c  c c  c c   c
 cccc cc c c
 ccc  c
c  cc c
ccc c 
c  cc c
cc  c3cccc  ccc c cc   c@9Kc2 ,0c 3cc
c  cc
 c cc c
ccc  ccc  cc
cHc  cc
 c c c
c c c Hc c @9Kc c c c c c  c c c  c c  c
  cc
  c
c   ccc
c@9Kc
$c c  c c c c c   c c
c c c  c  c c  c

 c
"c
Cc*cC&cc20 c/c?3c
cc

'c ()'c "c*)c

+'c+%%c
cc
c
c
'c ,c
c
?'c+"c
c
cccccccccc
Otros tipos de corriente alterna:c
c cc   !c    c c
c c c
cc ccc
 c 
 c
 cc c
cc  cccc c c c ccc  c

c
Cc c c c c
 c 2 c  c  c    3c c  c c c c c  c
  "c
cc

c
cc
)c c  c   ! cc ccc c  "c
cc

c
cc
c ccc c c c "c
cc
c
cc
$c c  c c    c c c
c  c c   c
c c  c  c c
 c c
cc
c c c

Comportamiento de los componentes pasivos en C.A:c


c
c
 c c  c
 c  ccc
 c c c c
 c !c ccccc  c
c
cc$$ccc !ccc !cc
c cccc$c
#  c c $"c c c c 6 c c
 c
c c  c c 
c c c
 cc
c$ccc
c$$c
(c c cc c  cc ccc ccc c
cc

c
cc
%  cc$"ccc
c c
cccc  c  cccc
cc$$c  c c  c
 ccc  ccc
c c cc
 cc$c c
cc c
cc
c
cc
c c cc c cc c c c c
ccccc c c
 c   c@9Kc c cc@9Kcc
ccc c
c
c c ccc cc   ccc c   "c
cc
L c*c0c c ccc  cL cc&
ccc
cc
ccL c*c+,%c
cc c c)ccc "c
cc
23c*c+23,L c*c+23,0 c
cc
7 c
 cc ccc cc 
 c&  c cc cc cc c
c c   c c c cc   c  c c

 ccc
$
  cc$"ccc  ccc& c c c
  cc c  c c$c
cc

c
cc
cccccc cc cc c@9Kcc
ccc c  cc
 c c c c cc
c c cc c
  c2 cc3ccccc  c  "c
cc
L$c*c.,0 $c
cc
c
  c cc c c)"c
cc
23c*c+23c,cL$c*c0 $c+23c
cc
 c  c c  c 
 c c c   c
c c c c

 c c
c

Impedancia: c
Cc c c
ccccc 
  ccc ccccc  "c
cc
Mc*c#c/c2L cBcL$3c
cc
cc cc
c2 c 3cc c c cc "c

c
cc
c c cc 
  cc  c   c2I3ccc  "c
cc
Ic*c.,Mc

Combinaciones R-L, R-C y RLC:c


 c cccc c  ccc
cc c  c cc
c c
c
 c & c c c c  c c  c   c c 
 c c
  c c c c 
c c  c c  c c  c c c c
  c
#B "c

c
cc
cc c
 ccc c c cc c c  c+cc+#cc
c c c c  c + c c   c @9Kc c 
c c c c c   c c
 c cc c+cc  cà  ccc c
#B$"c
cc

c
7c c  c c  c c c   c #B cc c c c  c c c  c c
  c c c !c +#c c c c c c  c  c  c +$c c @9Kc  c c c
 c7cc c cc c+ccà  c cc
cc%c
#B B$"c
cc
c
cc
c 6 c c c c c c  c c
c c c   c c $c c 1c 
c c

c
 c2#c c$3c
c 
  c2M3cc cccc c
cc c c cc ccc  cc+$c  c@9Kccc c+#cc
cccc+ c  c@9Kc4c ccc  cc c  cc c cc
 c  c c c  c c c c  c
c   c c  c c 2+3c
  ccc c cL cNcL$c c cL$cNcL cccc ccc c cL$c*cL c
c c
CAPÍTULO 4
COMPONENTES SEMICONDUCTORES
ccc
Cc   c c c 
c  c c c c c  c c  c
c

c c c  c c c  c c  c c  c c   c c c c
 c 23c c c   c c
 c  c
  c c
c c
  c c c c c c c
  c 2 3c c   c c
 c c
 c c 
c %+c c c c   c 2(   c O c 3c
Oc c c c c  c c c c c   c 
!c c
c cc cc c
  ccccccc c 
  c cc

!c   c )c  c  c c  c c  c c  c     c  c
c
 ccc ccccc cc c
c  cc c 
cc cc c cccccc
c 
c c c    c c  c c c  c  c   c
 cc

El diodo: c
c  c c  c  cc
 c cc  c c  c c ccc
  c
c cc c  c
c c c c   c cc
  c cc  cc
 c c  c c
   c c    c c c  c c c  c 
c c  c c

 cc  c c  c c c   c


  c  c c   c
c  c
 c
c c  c c
 c   c  c   c c  c c c

  c cc c


c
c
c c c c c  c ccc  cB4c ccc
c c c
c c c
c ccc c
c cc  cB4cccc
!c ccccc
 c c c   c c  c  ccc
c
  c  c c
 c  c  c c  c c   c c c
   cc!c4ccc c cc!cc$  ccc
 c c cc  cc
c  c
  c  c c c !c c c c  c c c 4c c
  c c    c c
 c c c  c c  c c
  c
c c c  c  c c  c c

 cc!c c c c   cc  cc cccc c


c c
  c
  c c   c cc cc!c4cccc
( cc c&cc
 cccc   cc  cc c
  c cc
c ccc!c4ccc ccc cccc   c c c
cc
 c  c c  c
c  c c c  c 
  c c  c c  c c
 c
& ccc!ccc4c 
 ccc   c c ccc c c
ccc

c
cc
$c c  c
 cc c c c c &c c c  c   c c c  c   c c

 c c cc  c cc c c2
 ! c cc 3c
c   c 
 c c 
 c c c
 ! c c c c  c
 c

 c c& c c c2+C3cc
 c cc cc  c !cc  c c c
c c  c c cc 6c c c  c   c 
 c c c   c c
 c  c c9=c+c
cc   cc91c+c
cc c
c   c   c !  c 
 c c c
 ! c c c c c c  c c
 c  c c  c 2 c c  c 3c c
 c  c 4c  c c
cc ccccc cc cc  cc c
4c  c  c
c
 ! c c c c +#c c  c c c
   cCc c c ccccccc  cc  cc c  c
ccccc c c
 cc!c
c c c c c  c  c c  c c c  c
 c  c c
  "c  c   c 2c c   c c
c   3c  c c  c
 c c   c  c c c   c  c   ! c c  c  c

 c

El zéner:c
cc
c c  cc   ! c
c 
c c c c  c c$$c
cc
c
cc
Cc  c c c 
c c c c !c c 
 c  c  c  c c c
 c cMc+Mc) c cc
c c   c ccc c
 c

cc  c c  cc  c c   ccc!c c


 c$  cc c
!ccc
 c c ccc+Mccc
cc c  cc
Cc c c 
  c
 c c  c c !c c c c   c c c  c
  c c cc ccc  "c
cc

c
cc
7 "c +c*c c c c @cc.0c+c

+c*c c c c =c+c


c
%!c*c$ ccc!c 8cc
c
%c*c$ c c c 09cc89cc
c
$c c c c c   c
 c  c c  c & c c c  c c   c
 
 c cc    c   ccc c c c
c  cc c c c 
cc c cc cccc cc
  c # c  c c c   c    c  c c c  c c  c  c
 cJJccc c
cc c cc c"c
cc

c
cc


'c
-.c/c0"c
c 
c1c

+(c*c c c c


c
%!2 3c *c $ c  c  c   c
c c  c 27c  c c c c c c c
c  3c
%2&3c*c$ c& c c ccc
c
cc
( c
c
c c c c ccc@cc.0c+cc ccc c c c
c=c+cc# c"c
cc
# cc2@cBc=3,29998c/c99893c*c0,9988c*c1>1>c]c
cc
cc%!2 3cc  c ccc c c c!c
+c c# c c cccc  cc1>1>ccP
c& ccc c cc
c   Qc $c c  c c c 
 c .c   c c c c   c  c c
 ccc c  cc 
 c c
 cc cc
c
c  ccccccc c

c  c c
c# cc c
c c c c  c c 1>1>c ]c c c c  c c c
& c c c
c  c

c7ccc ccc cc ccc


& cc11c]c
ccc c
c
Ic c c c  c c c   c c c c c  c
 c c c 
c c
  c
cc 
 cc c cc c
cc c cccc2+cBc
+3c
c c"c%c*c0,11c*c>9>9cc
cc*c0c+c&c>9>9cc*c9.0c'c
 c c# c c 
 c c
 cc.,0c'c
cc
El L.E.D.:c
)c 
c c  c  !c c c c  c c c  c  c c  !c  c 6c
c 7c2 c  c7  3c
c   c cc
c c  ccccc
 ! cc c c c c  c
B4c c c c c   c c   c c c c  c c  c   c c
  c c c  c c c c c  c   c c  c c c   c
  c
( c c 
c "c c  c c c c  c c c 7c c
c c   ! c c
 c 
c c   c  c  c    c c c  c c  c c

c c 
  cccc c c   !c6c
c c   c  c
c
Transistores:c
c cc cc  c c cc

  c c
 ccc  cc
  c c c c  cc c c cc c2 cc3c cc
   c c c
  c c
  cccc c23c
c  c c c c c c c 
  c c  c c c
 c 
 c c c
 c c  c  c
  c c   c c c   c c c  
c c c c
 c ccc c  ccc 
c
c cc
  c
(c   !c  cc  c c !c  c c
  cc
c
c cc
c   c c c
 c   c c
 c c c c &
  c
c c  c c c
 c c cc6 c
c c  c  cc"cc c
c c
!c   c  c
 c c 4c c c c c c c  c  c c 
c c c 4c

 c
c c c c  "c c4Bccc cccccccB4ccccc
cc2 cc c!c& cc c
c4ccc  c
ccc  c c c44c
( cc c& cc c
cccc  c c
c4cc cc c
c43c
cc

c
cc
( cc
 c c c&ccc  c4Bc c c c  c
 ! cc cc

  c c    c c  c c c  c 
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CIRCUITOS RECTIFICADORES Y FILTROS
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c c c  c 
ccccc
 cc cc  cc cc
 !cc c cc  c cc ccc  c cc
c  c 
c  !c c c 
c c   c
 c c c c c   c  c

 c  ccc6c cc


  cc cc c  cc
cc c
& cc !cc  c
 cc
 c   !cc  c
  c ccc

c c  c c


  c   c c  c  c c   c  c c c
 c c c  c  c c 
c c  c c  c  c  c  c c  c c
 c c
ccc  c 
cc

Componentes de mayor potencia"cc


c c
 c c c c  c  c c c   c  c c

c c
  c cc   c c c  c cc
cc cc
  c c c cc  cc 
c c   c
 cc
cc
 ccc  c c
 cccc.,0cUcc c c
 c c ccc
 cc
$c  c c c c
 c c c 
 c  c c
8ccc ccc cc
 ccc  cc cc
( c c
c   c c c
 c c c  
c  c  c c c  c c
 c   ccc c&c c 
cc   !c c
c c
 c
 c c c  c cc 
c  c  c c
 ccc
cc
 cc

Montaje de los alambres y cables"cc


c c J  Jc c J
 Jc  c c c c 
c
c !c c c   c 
c c

c cc cccc ccc c c ! c c  cc
 c &c c c c c  c c
c c  c c c 
c   c
cc
c
c
c ccc
c c c c & c c   c 
c c c c c c 
c    c
c c  c c c c c   c
 c
 c  c  c &c c c
  c c<cc8ccc c cc!c c
cc
c
c ccc ccc cc  c  "cc
Bcc c cc
 c  cc c c c
c c6 cc
cc  cc c  cccc c   cc
Bc 4c c   c   c c  c c  6c
c
c  c  c
 c c
 cc
Bc (c  c c c c c   c c c !c  c c
 c   c c
 c

ccc  cc
c c  c c c c & c c !c  c c c  ! c c
 c c c   c
&cc
ccc! c c cc c& c
 c cc c
ccc c
cc   cc   cc c ccc !c c  c

 ccc  c c c c


  c c c c  c c  c c
 cc  c cc cc
c c c c c c c
c c c  c
 c c 
c c
 c

 c
c c !cc
 cc&
  cc

Montaje de los disipadores térmicos"cc


ccccc c
cc  cc  cc
c  cc  ccc
cc cc cccc  c 
c
$  c c
 c c
 c  c c  c 
B  c   c  c
 c c   c c c c  c  c   c c  c c c c
   c c    c c 
 c c c  c   c
c  c c   c c c

c ! ccc c c cc cccc


-c c c c cc  c c
 c ccc !c c
c c  cc  c c
c cc
!c c ccc
  cc
c c  cc
c c c c c ccc 
c c c c  cc
c  c c  c  c c c  c c   c c c  c c c  c c
 ccc c c cc
4cc cc c 
 cc c
 c c  c 
ccc 6c
c c!c c
c c 
c c  c
cc
 c ccc cc
c
 c c c c 
c  c c  c c c   c c  !c
  c ccc
 c&
  cc c
 c cc
ccc  ccc cc cc   c cc ccc c

cc c c  cc


c c
PROBADOR DE SCR´s

$c c  c   c


 c c  c c ($#c c c  c  c c c ( c c c  c
 c c  c c  c .c c
 c c
 c (c ( c c c c c  c c c
 c  c  c
 c c (c c  c c c  c c c  c c  6c  c c 
c c
  c  c  c
c c ($#c c 
c .9>c
c c
c c c c  c c
  c
cc

c
Lista de componentesc

 c 


c  
c 
c
c c8c9"c c c;c  a a c <
?"c
c   c 0"+
c %c
c c9":cc>c %=c%"c "
c cc c:c c3c
pc
c  c c"
c
c
c c
MONTAJE DE LOS COMPONENTES

Cc !c  c c c   c 
c c  c c
 c c c c c

c
c c c  c  !c c

 c
 c c c c c   c  c
 ccc  ccc c c
 c  cc
c

 c
 cc !ccc c 
ccc
 cc cc  c
c  c 
c c 
 c  c  c c c 
c c c   c c c c c
 c
  c cc
cc
c
 c c
  c c
 c  c  c c  c c  c   c
 c c   c c
c  c
 c   c c c c   c cc c c
 cc
  cc
c
c c c cc
 c c"c
cc c& cc

c c  c  c c
 c
c c  c c  c    c
cc&c c 
cc  ccc  c cc   c c
c
c
 cc cc  c
c c cc c

  cc 
ccc
&c ccc
c c c   c 
c c  c
  c  c c
  c c c   c

c  ccc
 ccc cc cc c !c c

  c c c


 c
c c c 
cc cc
  cc
c  !c c  c c  c c
 c c  c  c c c c
 c
c c  ccc  c 
cc c !cc c cc  c
c c
  c
c c c
 c  !c c  c c c  c c c c
c   c c  c c 
c c  c & c c c
c c
  c 
c c c 
 c c c c  !c c
  c c
 c
 cc  ccc c
c c
!ccc 
c  c  c
c   cc
c
c   c 
c c c  ccc  cc
c  c cc cc
 c !ccccc c c
 c
c
ccc
$  c c c c c c c c
c c  c c
  c
c  c c
 c c
"cc
Bcc  cc !cc c c c
c c   c
 ccc
c c  c
  c
 c  cccc !ccccc cccc cc
Bc 4c c c !c c c !c c  c c  
c c c  c c  c c
 c

 ccc
Bc 4c c   c c  c c c & c  c c  c  c c c c c c

  c  c  cc   ccccc


cc
Bc(cc cc c c cccc ! cc
  cc c  c
c
cc 
cc
Bc(c c c c
  c
 c c ccc 
ccc
c c  cc
& c c  c 
 c
c  !c c c   c   c c

ccc c c!c  cc  ccc c
c c  cc !c
 c c 
 c c c
c   c c c c  c c  c   c c
   cc
c 
c c  c c  c  c c
 c c c c
c
c c cc ccc  c   c ccccc
 c
 !c c  c  cc  cc c cc  ccc
 cc
c c c  c 
ccccc
 cc cc  cc cc
 !cc c cc  c cc ccc  c cc
c  c 
c  !c c c 
c c   c
 c c c c c   c  c

 c  ccc6c cc


  cc cc c  cc
cc c
& cc !cc  c
 cc
 c   !cc  c
  c ccc

c c  c c


  c   c c  c  c c   c  c c c
 c c c  c  c c 
c c  c c  c  c  c  c c  c c
 c c
ccc  c 
cc

Componentes de mayor potencia"cc


c c
 c c c c  c  c c c   c  c c

c c
  c cc   c c c  c cc
cc cc
  c c c cc  cc 
c c   c
 cc
cc
 ccc  c c
 cccc.,0cUcc c c
 c c ccc
 cc
$c  c c c c
 c c c 
 c  c c
8ccc ccc cc
 ccc  cc cc
( c c
c   c c c
 c c c  
c  c  c c c  c c
 c   ccc c&c c 
cc   !c c
c c
 c
 c c c  c cc 
c  c  c c
 ccc
cc
 cc

Montaje de los alambres y cables"cc


c c J  Jc c J
 Jc  c c c c 
c
c !c c c   c 
c c

c cc cccc ccc c c ! c c  cc
 c &c c c c c  c c
c c  c c c 
c   c
cc
c
c
c ccc
c c c c & c c   c 
c c c c c c 
c    c
c c  c c c c c   c
 c
 c  c  c &c c c
  c c<cc8ccc c cc!c c
cc
c
c ccc ccc cc  c  "cc
Bcc c cc
 c  cc c c c
c c6 cc
cc  cc c  cccc c   cc
Bc 4c c   c   c c  c c  6c
c
c  c  c
 c c
 cc
Bc (c  c c c c c   c c c !c  c c
 c   c c
 c

ccc  cc
c c  c c c c & c c !c  c c c  ! c c
 c c c   c
&cc
ccc! c c cc c& c
 c cc c
ccc c
cc   cc   cc c ccc !c c  c

 ccc  c c c c


  c c c c  c c  c c
 cc  c cc cc
c c c c c c c
c c c  c
 c c 
c c
 c

 c
c c !cc
 cc&
  cc

Montaje de los disipadores térmicos"cc


ccccc c
cc  cc  cc
c  cc  ccc
cc cc cccc  c 
c
$  c c
 c c
 c  c c  c 
B  c   c  c
 c c   c c c c  c  c   c c  c c c c
   c c    c c 
 c c c  c   c
c  c c   c c c

c ! ccc c c cc cccc


-c c c c cc  c c
 c ccc !c c
c c  cc  c c
c cc
!c c ccc
  cc
c c  cc
c c c c c ccc 
c c c c  cc
c  c c  c  c c c  c c   c c c  c c c  c c
 ccc c c cc
4cc cc c 
 cc c
 c c  c 
ccc 6c
c c!c c
c c 
c c  c
cc
 c ccc cc
c
 c c c c 
c  c c  c c c   c c  !c
  c ccc
 c&
  cc c
 c cc
ccc  ccc cc cc   c cc ccc c

cc c c  c


c c
TEST DE GANANCIA PARA TRANSISTORES
cc
$cc c cc  c
 c !cc c c cc  cc
cc cc  cc c c c ccc
&  c
D c c "c c   c cc c c cc
 cc  ccc c c
c  c  c  c c c
 c c c   c c  c  c  c  c c 089c c

 c  c  c c c 


 c c 089c c   c c 199c  c   c c  c  c  c c
 c c 899c c c
c c c   c c
c c  c c  c c c

 c2
c
c=99c c?993c
c c cccccc c 
c(0,cBc(0,(1c cccc c  c
cc
 cc89cc899c  cc c  c#.cBc#<cc ccc c  c c
cc.99cc.999c  cc  c#.cc#<c
$c.cc0cc cc cc
 cccc cc cc
 ccc
 c c c  
c c
 c   !c c c c c c c 099c c c $$c  c c

 c c cc


c  c c cJJccc
c
  c c JHJc c  c 44c c
 c c
 c .c c c c  c c 
&  c .9c 5c  c c c

c cc cJHJccc


  ccJJc c c4cc cc 
c0ccc
c c c.c c
( c c
c c c c ccc c cc
cH$c!c

c cc  c c !c c


 c  c c c c  c  c
c cc Vc( cccc c 6c c c cccc
 c c  c  c  c c c
 c c c  c 4c
c c c 44c c
 c c  c c c c 
c c  c c   c 6c  c c c
   cc  c cc c c c c   cc89cc cc  c
c 6 c  c c
 c c  c 44c c c  c c
 c 4cc c c
 c 6c c
c

c
a   c

 c 


c  
c 
c
     c c c c;c aac
"c
"cc @ , c",c
9"c c c;c :c"c c@A"c",c
cc8c9"c c c;:c cc <c#c
c c<c& c
 c8c9"c   c 0"" c  c
c c $4 c
8c9"c   c 0"" c  c
c c8c9"c $4 c
   c  % "c ppppc
"c
c8c9"c  #c
c
c c
CIRCUITOS DE PRUEBA DE COMPONENTES

c c c  c  c c   c c c  c
c  c c  c c  c
  c cc
c c cc  c cc c cccc  c
 ccc cc  cc
 cccc  cc  c c
( c c c c c c c  c 4c c 44c c   !c c   c  c c
 ccc c c
c c
 c c
 c c c
  c c c  c c c   c   c c
  c c

cc   c c c  cc


ccc  c
 c c   c
c
cc($#Vc
 c   !cc  c
 c c($#Vc
Circuito para prueba de diodos rectificadores de silicio:c
D cc  c
 cc c c  c  c c   c
c
c009c+c ccc
( cc  c cc
 cccc c  ccc  c   c
c c  c .cc
c  c c c  c c c cccc
c  c  c
  c c c

c
Figura 1c
( ccc
 c c c c    c c  c cc  ccc  cc  c
 c c 
c   c 009c +c c  cc c  c  cc 
c c c  c c c
c cc cc !c  cccccc  c cc  cc c  c c

Circuito para prueba de diodos rectificadores de silicio de baja tensión:c


 ccc  c
 cc cc  c ccc(c&
6cc  c.41<c
.40=9cc.4@.<c
cc cc  ccc cc  c1c
$  c c c c  c c c  c c  c 0c  c c c c  c c c

  c   cc  c c 5c  cc


  c cccc  cc
cccc c ccccc   c cc  c c
c
Figura 2c
c  c cccc c cc  cc  c  
 c cc
  c cc
c c  c c c c   c c  c  c c 
c c   c c   c

  cc  cc   cc c  c c


$  cc c
c c  c
c.41<c.40=9cc.4@.<ccccc  cc
  !cc  c cc  c1c  cccc  ccc c.cc1ccc c
c c.cc
cc c  cc  ccc c  c    cc
 cc  c c
c cc
c ccc& c c  c
 c c  c c c   c  c
c c  c c   c c   c c c c
& cccc  c c

c
Figura 3c

Probador de transistores bipolares:c


cc  c<c
 c c
 c
c c
cc& ccc
c
c  c B
Bc c c c   c c  c
  c c c c c c c
 c   c c  c  c c
c  c  c c
  c c c
  c c  c  c c c c c c c 
c ( c c c
c
 c 
c
BB
c c  c  c c
  c c c c
c c c  c
  c
c
Figura 4c
c c c c c c c   c c c  c  !c c   c 
W c c c
cc c  cc
 c cc  ccc c cc
c
c c  c   c c  c c 2c c .9c G3c c c  c c  c
cccc2.99ccccc cccccccc
&  c
.999ccc cc3c

Probador de rectificadores controlados de silicio:c


c c c c  c 8c c 
c c
c   c 
c c 
c  c
c c009c+c$  cc ccc  c c c c<9cc
&  c
c
c
cc ccccc cc   c
c cc
cc cccc

c  c c  c  c ( c c 
c   c c
c  c  c  c  c c
  ccc  cc
cc c cc
cc  cc
cccc
  ccc  c c

c
Figura 5c
c  c c 
c D)(c c c   c c
 c c 
c (%B4)c c c c c
 c   c cc c c c
 cc c  c   c
c c   c  c 
c c  c c c 
c c   c c
 c c  c
c c 
c c  c   c c c  c c  c c c c c c c
 c c  c
 c c   c c c c  c c c
c c c
  c  c c!c  ccc  cc   cc c   c
c c
LOCALIZACIÓN DE FALLAS EN LOS CIRCUITOS
c

c c  c c   c


c
 c !c c  c  !c  c   c c
 cc c c  c cc   cc c  ccc
c
c
 
c  cc !c"c
.c + c cc c  ccc c c  c cc ! c
0c D cccc
c c
cc
3c # ! c c  c c 
 c c c c   c c   c  c c
 cc  c c
cc  "cc
<c 7c c   c c  c c  c  c c  c
c c c
 c c  c c
c
 c ccc
  c cc
 c
 ccc  c c   c
8c ( c c c  6c   c c  c c
c c c  c c c   c
 c
 c c  c   c
c c & c c c c c
 c
 !c c c  
c c c  c  c  c    c   c  c c
  c
c c cc cc ! cc cc   c c
c
c c   c 
c c  c
 c   c  c  c c c c c   c
 c
>c D cc cc  c
c  cc c c ccc c
c
c  c  c c c 
c  c 2 c  c 3c c   c c

 c   !cc  c c
 c c
c ! ccc c c
=c ( c  c  c  c c 
c  c c c  c   c c  c
& c c
 c 2  c c 
 3c   c   c c
 c c
   c
?c ( cc  c  c
cccc  c  cc c
 ccc cc
c c cc
ccc
 ccc
  c  cccc
c c c
c  c  c  c c c c c c 
c c c c
 c c c  c c  c c  c c
  c  c c   c c

  c   c
 c cc c   cc   c c  c
Cc c c   c c
 c c   c c   c c 
 c
c c
 c ccc2cc
 c.c c c c ccc ccc
 c cc
c
 cc c 3c cc
 c ccc

c
cc c ccccccc
c & c cc  c c c 
 c c c &
  c c  c c 
 c  c
 c  c c c c
c   c c c
 
c c  c c c c   c c
  ccc  c     cc
c
 c c  cc  cc  c
INDICADOR DE POLARIDAD

cc c c c  cc


c !cc
c   !ccc c cc c c
 cc
  cc cc c.cc cc cc  cc c0c c c
 cc
c ccc c c c  cc
cc cc 
 c c  c c
c c   c c c c c   c c
c c c
 c
 c
 cc
ccc cc cc c c cc c c
c
 c
cc

c
a   c
  c 
 c  
c 
c
c c8c9"c c c  c
c c8c9"c aac<
"c%"c
c#c9"c
c#c9"c c
c % c c8c
9"c
c