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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF


PRESSURE VESSEL

BY JIMIT VYAS AND MAHAVIR SOLANKI


GUIDED BY : MR BHAVESH PATEL

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Certainly, help and encouragement from others are always appreciated, but in
different times, such magnanimity is valued even more. This said, this
Dissertation would never have been completed without the generous help and
support that I received from numerous people along the way.

I wish to express my deepest thanks and gratitude to my elite guide Mr Bhavesh


P Patel, Mechanical Engineering Dept., U.V. Patel College of Engg., Mehsana, for
his invaluable guidance and advice, without that the Dissertation would not
have appear in present shape. He also motivated me at every moment during
entire dissertation.

I also hearty thankful and express deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Bhavesh
Prajapati, senior manager at GMM Pflauder, for giving opportunity to undertake
a dissertation in the industry and furnishing the details and help.
Special thanks to Mr. Ankit Prajapati, Design Engineer, at GMM Pflauder, for
his keen interest and guidance in carrying out the work.
I wish to thank the principal Dr. J. L. Juneja and all the staff members of
Mechatronics & Mechanical Dept., U. V. Patel College of Engg., especially to ,
Prof. J. M. Prajapati, Prof. J. P. Patel, Prof. V. B. Patel, for their co-operation,
guidance and support during the work.

Jimit Vyas & Mahavir Solanki

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ASTRACT

The significance of the title of the project comes to front with designing structure of the
pressure vessel for static loading and its assessment by Ansys , is basically a project
concerned with design of different pressure vessel elements such as shell, Dish end
,operating manhole ,support leg based on standards and codes ; and evolution of shell and
dish end analysed by means of ansys .The key feature included in the project is to check
the behaviour of pressure vessel in case of fluctuating load .The [procedural step includes
various aspects such as selecting the material based on ASME codes ,and then designing
on the standards procedures with referring standard manuals based on ASME .Further we
have included the different manufacturing methods practice by the industries and
different aspects of it . And step by step approaches to the NTD method practice by the
industries followed with standards and also included within the report work. This will be
making a clear picture f this method among the reader .
conclusively, this modus operandi of design based on technical standard and
codes ., can be employed on practical design of pressure vessel as per required by the
industry or the problem statement given associated to the field of pressure vessel.

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INTRODUTION:
The pressure vessels (i.e. cylinder or tanks) are used to store fluids under pressure. The
fluid being stored may undergo a change of state inside the pressure vessel as in case of
steam boilers or it may combine with other reagents as in a chemical plant. The pressure
vessels are designed with great care because rupture of pressure vessels means an explosion
which may cause loss of life and property. The material of pressure vessels may be brittle
such that cast iron or ductile such as mild steel.

Cylindrical or spherical pressure vessels (e.g., hydraulic cylinders, gun barrels, pipes,
boilers and tanks) are commonly used in industry to carry both liquids and gases under
pressure. When the pressure vessel is exposed to this pressure, the material comprising the
vessel is subjected to pressure loading, and hence stresses, from all directions. The normal
stresses resulting from this pressure are functions of the radius of the element under
consideration, the shape of the pressure vessel (i.e., open ended cylinder, closed end cylinder,
or sphere) as well as the applied pressure.
Two types of analysis are commonly applied to pressure vessels. The most
common method is based on a simple mechanics approach and is applicable to “thin wall”
pressure vessels which by definition have a ratio of inner radius, r, to wall thickness, t, of
r/t≥10. The second method is based on elasticity solution and is always applicable regardless
of the r/t ratio and can be referred to as the solution for “thick wall” pressure vessels. Both
types of analysis are discussed here, although for most engineering applications, the thin wall
pressure vessel can be used.

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Classification of Pressure Vessels

Unfired Cylindrical Pressure Vessels


(Classification Based on IS 2825-1969)

a) Class 1 :

Vessels that are to contain lethal or toxic substances.


Vessels designed for the operation below -20 C and
Vessels intended for any other operation not stipulated in the code.
b) Class 2:

vessels which do not fall in the scope of clas1 and class 3 are to be termed as
class2 vessels. The maximum thickness of shell is limited to 38 mm.
c) class 3:

there are vessels for relatively light duties having plate thickness not in excess of
16 mm,
and they are built for working pressures at temperatures not exceeding 250 c and
unfired .
class3 vessels are not recommended for services at temperatutre below 0c.

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Categories Of Welded Joints


The term categories specifies the location of the joint in a vessels, but not the
type of joint. These categories are intended for specifying the special requirements
regarding the joint type and degree of inspection. IS-2825 specifies 4 categories of welds.
(Refer fig.)

a) category A: longitudinal welded joints within the main sheet, communicating


chambers ,nozzles and any welded joints within a formed or flat head.

b) Category B: circumferential welded joints with in the main shell, communicating


chambers, nozzles and transitions in diameter including joints between the
transtations and a cylinder at either the large of small end, circumferential welded
joints connecting from heads to main shells to nozzles and to communicating
chambers.

c) Category c: welded joints connecting flanges, tubes sheets and flat heads to main
shells , to formed heads , to nozzles or to communicating chambers and any
welded joints connecting one side plate to another side plate of a flat sided vessel.

d) Category d: welded joints connecting communicating chambers or nozzles to


main sheels ,to heads and to flat sided vessels and those joints connecting nozzles
to communicating chambers.

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STRESS
Types of Stresses
Tensile
Compressive Shear
Bending Bearing
Axial Discontinuity
Membrane Tensile
Principal Thermal
Tangential Load induced
Strain induced Circumferential
Longitudinal Radial
Normal
Classes of stress
Primary Stress
General:
Primary general membrane stress Pm
Primary general bending stress Pb
Primary local stress, PL
Secondary stress:
Secondary membrane stress. Qm
Secondary bending stress Qb
Peak stress. F
Definition and Examples
PRIMARY GENERAL STRESS:
These stress act over a full cross section of the vessel. Primary stress are
generally due to internal or external pressure or produced by sustained external
forces and moments. Primary general stress are divided into membrane and

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bending stresses. Calculated value of a primary bending stress may be allowed to


go higher than that of a primary membrane stress.
Primary general membrane stress, Pm
Circumferential and longitudinal stress due to pressure.
Compressive and tensile axial stresses due to wind.
Longitudinal stress due to the bending of the horizontal vessel over the saddles.
Membrane stress in the centre of the flat head.
Membrane stress in the nozzle wall within the area of reinforcement due to
pressure or external loads.
Axial compression due to weight.
Primary general bending stress, Pb
Bending stress in the centre of a flat head or crown of a dished head.
Bending stress in a shallow conical head.
Bending stress in the ligaments of closely spaced openings.
LOCAL PRIMARY MEMBRANE STESS, PL
Pm+ membrane stress at local discontinuities:
Head-shell juncture
Cone-cylinder juncture
Nozzle-shell juncture
Shell-flange juncture
Head-skirt juncture
Shell-stiffening ring juncture
Pm+ membrane stresses from local sustained loads:
Support legs
Nozzle loads
Beam supports
Major attachments
SECONDARY STRESS
Secondary membrane stress Qm
Axial stress at the juncture of a flange and the hub of the flange
Thermal stresses.

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Membrane stress in the knuckle area of the head.


Membrane stress due to local relenting loads.
Secondary bending stress, Qb
Bending stress at the gross structural discontinuity: nozzle, lugs, etc., (relenting
loadings only).
The nonuniform portion of the stress distribution in a thick-walled vessels due to
internal pressure.
The stress variation of the radial stress due to internal pressure in thick-walled
vessels.
Discontinuity stresses at stiffening or support ring.
Peak Stress F
Stress at the corner of discontinuity.
Thermal stress in a wall caused by a sudden change in the surface temperature.
Thermal stresses in cladding or weld overlay.
Stress due to notch effect. (stress concentration).

LOADINGS
Loadings or forces are the “causes” of stress in pressure vessels. Loadings may be
applied over a large portion (general area) of the vessel or over a local area of the
vessel. General and local loads can produce membrane and bending stresses.
These stresses are additive and define the overall state of stress in the vessel or
component.
The stresses applied more or less continuously and uniformly across an entire
section of the vessel are primary stresses.
The stresses due to pressure and wind are primary membrane stresses.
O the other hand, the stresses from the inward radial load could be either a
primary local stress or secondary stress. It is primary local stress if it is produced
from an unrelenting load or a secondary stress if produced by a relenting load.

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If it is a primary stress, the stress will be redistributed; if it is a secondary stress,


the load will relax once slight deformation occurs.
Basically each combination of stresses ( stress categories will have different
allowables, i.e.,

Primary stress: Pm < SE

Primary membrane local (PL):


PL=Pm+ PL <1.5 SE
PL=Pm+Qm< 1.5SE

Primary membrane + secondary (Q):


Pm+Q< 3SE
Loading can be outlined as follows:
Categories of loadings

General loads—Applied more or less continuously across a vessel section.


Pressure loads—Internal or external pressure (design, operating,
hydrotest, and hydrostatic head of liquid).
Moment loads—Due to wind, seismic, erection, transportation.
Compressive/tensile loads—Due to dead weight, installed
equipment, ladders, platforms, piping and vessel contents.
Thermal loads—Hot box design of skirt-head attachment.
Local loads—Due to reactions from supports, internal, attached
Piping, attached equipment, i.e., platforms, mixers, etc.
a. Radial load—Inward or Outward.
b. Shear load—Longitudinal or circumferential.
c. Torsional load.
d. Tangential load.
e. Moment load—Longitudinal or circumferential.
f. Thermal load.

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Types of Loadings
1) Steady loads—Long-term duration, continuous.
a. Internal/external
pressure.
b. Dead weight.
c. Vessel contents.
d. Loading due to attached
piping and equipment.
e. Loadings to and from vessel
supports.
f. Thermal loads.
g. Wind Loads
Types of Loadings
1) Non-steady loads- Short-term duration, Variable.
Shop and field hydro-test
Earthquake
Erection
Transportation
Upset, emergency
Thermal Loads
Startup, shut down

FAILURE IN PRESSURE VESSELS


Categories of Failures:
Material--Improper Selection of materials; defects in material.
Design—Incorrect design data; inaccurate or incorrect design methods;
inadequate shop testing.
Fabrication – Poor quality control; improper or insufficient fabrication procedures
including welding; heat treatment or forming methods.

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Service—Change of service condition by the user; inexperienced operations or


maintenance personnel; upset conditions. Some types of services which requires
special attention both for selection of materials, design details, and fabrication
methods are as follows:
Lethal
Fatigue (cyclic)
Brittle (low temperature)
High Temperature
High shock or vibration
Vessel contents
Hydrogen
Ammonia
Compressed air
Caustic
Chlorides
TYPES OF FAILURES
Elastic deformation—Elastic instability or elastic buckling, vessel geometry, and
stiffness as well as properties of materials are protecting against buckling.
Brittle fracture—Can occur at low or intermediate temperature. Brittle fractures
have occurred in vessels made of low carbon steel in the 40-50 F range during
hydrotest where minor flaws exist.
Excessive plastic deformation—The primary and secondary stress limits as
outlined in ASME Section VIII, Division 2, are intended to prevent excessive
plastic deformation and incremental collapse.
Stress rupture—Creep deformation as a result of fatigue or cyclic loading, i.e.,
progressive fracture. Creep is a time-dependent phenomenon, whereas fatigue is a
cyclic-dependent phenomenon
o TYPES OF FAILURES
o Plastic instability—Incremental collapse; incremental collapse is cyclic strain
accumulation or cumulative cyclic deformation. Cumulative damage leads to
instability of vessel by plastic deformation.

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o High Strain—Low cyclic fatigue is strain-governed and occurs mainly in lower-


strength/high-ductile materials.
o Stress corrosion—It is well know that chlorides cause stress corrosion cracking in
stainless steels; likewise caustic service can cause stress corrosion cracking in
carbon steel. Materials selection is critical in these services.
o Corrosion fatigue—Occurs when corrosive and fatigue effects occur
simultaneously. Corrosion can reduce fatigue life by pitting the surface and
propagating cracks. Material selection and fatigue properties are the major
considerations.

SPECIAL PROBLEMS
Thick Walled Pressure Vessels

Mono-bloc- Solid vessel wall.


Multilayer—Begins with a core about ½ in. thick and successive layers are
applied. Each layer is vented (except the core) and welded individually with no
overlapping welds.
Multi-wall—Begins with a core about ½ in. to 2 in. thick. Outer layers about the
same thickness are successive “ shrunk fit” over the core. This creates
compressive stress in the core, which is relaxed during pressurization. The process
of compressing layers is called auto-frettage from the French word meaning “self-
hooping.”
Multilayer auto-frettage—Begins with a core about ½ in. thick. Bands or forged
rings are slipped outside and then the core is expanded hydraulically. The core is
stressed into plastic range but below ultimate strength. The outer rings are
maintained at a margin below yield strength. The elastic deformation residual in

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the outer bands induces compressive stress in the core, which is relaxed during
pressurization.
Wire wrapped vessels: Begin with inner core of thickness less than required for
pressure. Core is wrapped with steel cables in tension until the desired auto-
frettage is achieved.
Coil wrapped vessels: Begin with a core that is subsequently wrapped or coiled
with a thin steel sheet until the desired thickness is obtained. Only two
longitudinal welds are used, one attaching the sheet to the core and the final
closures weld. Vessels 5 to 6 ft in diameter for pressure up to 5000psi have been
made in this manner.
THERMAL STRESS
Whenever the expansion or contraction that would occur normally as a result of
heating or cooling an object is prevented, thermal stresses are developed. The
stress is always caused by some form of mechanical restrain.
Thermal stresses are “secondary stresses” because they are self-limiting. Thermal
stresses will not cause failure by rupture. They can however, cause failure due to
excessive deformations.
DISCONTINUITY STRESSES
Vessel sections of different thickness, material, diameter and change in directions
would all have different displacements if allowed to expand freely. However, since they
are connected in a continuous structure, they must deflect and rotate together. The
stresses in the respective parts at or near the juncture are called discontinuity stresses.
Discontinuity stresses are “ secondary stresses” and are self-limiting.
Discontinuity stresses do become an important factor in fatigue design where
cyclic loading is a consideration.
FATIGUE ANALYSIS
When a vessel is subject to repeated loading that could cause failure by the
development of a progressive fracture, the vessel is in cyclic service.
Fatigue analysis can also be a result of thermal vibrations as well as other
loadings.

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In fatigue service the localized stresses at abrupt changes in section, such as at a


head junction or nozzle opening, misalignment, defects in construction, and
thermal gradients are the significant stresses.

NOZZLE REINFORCEMENT

Fig : nozzle reinforcement

Limits.

a. No reinforcement other than that inherent in the construction is required for


nozzles.
3-in. pipe size and smaller in vessel walls 3/8 in. and less.
2-in. pipe size and smaller in vessel walls greater than 3/8 in.

b. Normal reinforcement methods apply to

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Vessels 60-in. diameter and less-1/2 the vessel diameter but not to exceed 20 in.
Vessels greater than 60-in. diameter-1/3 the vessel
diameter but not to exceed 40.in
a. 1b, reinforcement shall be in accordance with para. 1-7 of ASME Code.
2. Strength
It is advisable but not mandatory for reinforcing pad material to be the same as the
vessel material.
a. If a higher strength material is used, either in the pad or in the nozzle neck, no
additional credit may be taken for the higher strength.
3. Thickness
It is recommended that pad be not less then 75% nor more than 150% of the part to
which they are attached.

4. Width
While no minimum is stated, it is recommended that re-pads be atleast 2in wide.
5. Forming:
Reinforcing pads should be formed as closely to the contour of the vessel as
possible. While normally put on the outside of the vessel, re-pads can also be put
inside providing they do not interfere with the vessel’s operation.
8. Openings in flat heads:
Reinforcements for the openings in the flats heads and blind flanges shall be as
follows
a. Openings < ½ head diameter- area to be replaced equals 0.5(tr), or thickness of
head or flange may be increased by:
Doubling C value
Using C=0.75
Increasing head thickness by 1.414
b. Openings>1/2 head diameter –shall be designed as a bolted flange connection.
9. Openings in torispherical heads.

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When a nozzle openings and all its reinforcement fall within the dished portion,
the required thickness of head for reinforcement purpose shall be computed using
M=1
10. Openings in elliptical heads
When a nozzle openings and all its reinforcement fall within 0.8 D of an elliptical
head, the required thickness of the head for reinforcement purpose shall be equal to the
thickness required for a seamless sphere of radius K(D).
11. General
Reinforcement should be calculated in the corroded condition assuming maximum
tolerance (minimum t)

12. Openings through seams.


a. Openings that have been reinforcement may located in a welded joint. ASME
code, division 1, does not allow a welded joint to have two different weld joint
efficiencies
13. Re-pads over seams
If at all possible, pads should not cover weld seams. When unavoidable, the seam
should be ground flush before attaching the pad.
14. Openings near seams
Small nozzles ( for which the code does not require, the reinforcement to be checked)
shall not be located closer than ½ in. to the edge of a main seam.
15. External pressures.
Reinforcement required for openings subject to external pressure only or when
longitudinal compression governs shall only be 50 % of that required for internal pressure
and tr, is thickness required for external pressure
16. Ligaments
When there is a series of closely spaced openings in a vessel shell and it is
impractical to reinforce each opening, the construction is acceptable, provided the
efficiency of the ligaments between the holes is acceptable.
17. Multiple openings:

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a. For two openings closer than 2 times the average diameters and where limits of
reinforcement overlap, the area between the openings shall meet the following
1. Must have a combined area equal to the sum of the two areas
2. No portion of the cross-section shall apply to more than one openings.
3. Any overlap area shall be proportional between the two openings by the ratio of
the diameters.
b. When more than two openings are to be provided with combined reinforcement:

17 b. When more than two openings are to be provided with combined reinforcement:
1. The minimum distance between the two centers is 1 1/3 the average diameters.
2. The area of reinforcement between the two nozzle shall be atleast 50% of the area
required for the two openings.
c. Multiple openings may be reinforced s an opening equal in diameter to that of a
circle circumscribing the multiple openings.
18. Plane of reinforcement.
A correction factor f may be used for “ integrally reinforced” nozzle to compensate
for differences in stress from longitudinal to circumferential axis of the vessel. Value of f
vary from 1.0 for the longitudinal axis to 0.5 for circumferential.

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CHAPTER 2

ENGINEERING GUIDELINES FOR


DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSELS

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Engineering Design Guidelines For Pressure Vessels

1.0 SCOPE
This specification covers the design basis for following equipment:
- Vessels
- Columns
- Reactors
- Spheres
- Storage Tanks
- Steel silos, Bins. Hoppers
- Steel Flare Stacks

2.0 CODES AND STANDARDS


The following codes and standards shall be followed unless otherwise specified:

ASME SEC. VIII DIV.1 / For Pressure vessels


IS: 2825

ASME SEC. VIII DIV.2 For Pressure vessels (Selectively for high
pressure / high thickness / critical service)

ASME SEC. VIII DIV.2 For Storage Spheres

ASME SEC. VIII DIV.3 For Pressure vessels (Selectively for high pressure)

API 650 / IS: 803 For Storage Tanks.

API 620 For Low Pressure Storage Tanks,

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API 620 / BS 7777 Cryogenic Storage Tanks (Double Wall)

ASME SEC. VIIIDIV.1 For workmanship of Vessels not categorized under


any other code.

ISO R831/ IBR For Steam producing, steam storage catch water
vessels, condensate flash drums and similar vessels

IS: 9178 / DIN 1055 For Silos Hoppers and Bins

BS: 4994 / ASME SEC X FRP vessels / tanks.`

ASME: B 96.1 Welded Aluminium Alloy Storage Tanks.

ASME SEC.II For material specification

ASTM / IS For material specification (Tanks)

IS: 875 / SITE DATA For wind load consideration

IS: 1893 / SITE DATA For seismic design consideration

ASME SEC. IX For welding.

WRC BULLETIN#
107, 297 / PD 5500 For Local load / stress analysis

3.0 DESIGN CRITERIA


Equipment shall be designed in compliance with the latest design code requirements, and
applicable standards/ Specifications.

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4.0 MINIMUM SHELL/HEAD THICKNESS

Minimum thickness shall be as given below

a) For carbon and low alloy steel vessels- 6mm (Including corrosion allowance not
exceeding 3.0mm), but not less than that calculated as per following:

FOR DIAMETERS LESS THAN 2400mm

Wall thickness = Dia/1000 +1.5 + Corrosion Allowance

FOR DIAMETERS 2400mm AND ABOVE


Wall thickness = Dia/1000 +2.5 + Corrosion Allowance
All dimension are in mm.

b) For stainless steel vessel and high alloy vessels -3 mm, but not less than that
calculated as per following for diameter more than 1500mm.
Wall thickness (mm) = Dia/1000 + 2.5
Corrosion Allowance, if any shall be added to minimum thickness.

c) Tangent to Tangent height (H) to Diameter (D) ratio (H/D) greater than 5 shall be
considered as column and designed accordingly.

d) For carbon and low alloy steel columns / towers -8mm (including corrosion allowance
not exceeding 3.0mm.

e) For stainless steel and high alloy columns / towers -5mm.


Corrosion allowance, if any, shall be added to minimum thickness.

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5.0 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

5.1 Vessel sizing


All Columns Based on inside diameter
All Clad/Lined Vessels Based on inside diameter
Vessels (Thickness>50mm) Based on inside diameter
All Other Vessels Based on outside diameter
Tanks & Spheres Based on inside diameter

5.2 Vessel End Closures :


- Unless otherwise specified Deep Torispherical Dished End or 2:1 Ellipsoidal Dished
End as per IS - 4049 shall be used for pressure vessels. Seamless dished end shall be used
for specific services whenever specified by process licensor.
- Hemispherical Ends shall be considered when the thickness of shell exceeds 70mm.
- Flat Covers may be used for atmospheric vessels
- Pipe Caps may be used for vessels diameter < 600mm having no internals.
- Flanged Covers shall be used for Vessels /Columns of Diameter < 900mm having
internals.
- All columns below 900mm shall be provided with intermediate body flanges. Numbers
of Intermediate flanges shall be decided based on column height and type of internals

5.3 Pressure
Pressure for each vessel shall be specified in the following manner:

5.3.1 Operating Pressure


Maximum pressure likely to occur any time during the lifetime of the vessel

5.3.2 Design Pressure


a) When operating pressure is up to 70 Kg./cm2 g , Design pressure shall be equal to
operating pressure plus 10% ( minimum 1Kg./cm2 g ).

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b) When operating pressure is over 70 Kg./cm2 g , Design pressure shall be equal to


operating pressure plus 5% ( minimum 7 Kg./cm2g).
c) Design pressure calculated above shall be at the top of vertical vessel or at the highest
point of horizontal vessel.
d) The design pressure at any lower point is to be determined by adding the maximum
operating liquid head and any pressure gradient within the vessel.
e) Vessels operating under vacuum / partial vacuum shall be designed for an external
pressure of 1.055 Kg./cm2 g.
f) Vessels shall be designed for steam out conditions if specified on process data sheet.

5.3.3 Test Pressure


a) Pressure Vessels shall be hydrostatically tested in the fabricators shop to 1.5 /1.3/ 1.25
(depending on design code) times the design pressure corrected for temperature.
b) In addition, all vertical vessels / columns shall be designed so as to permit site testing
of the vessel at a pressure of 1.5/ 1.3 / 1.25 (depending on design code) times the design
pressure measured at the top with the vessel in the vertical position and completely filled
with water. The design shall be based on fully corroded condition.
c) Vessels open to atmosphere shall be tested by filling with water to the top.
d) 1. Pressure Chambers of combination units that have been designed to operate
independently shall be hydrostatically tested to code test pressure as separate vessels i.e.
each chamber shall be tested without pressure in the adjacent chamber.
2. When pressure chambers of combination units have their common elements
designed for maximum differential pressure the common elements shall be subjected to
1.5/ 1.3 times the differential pressure.
3. Coils shall be tested separately to code test pressure.
e) Unless otherwise specified in applicable design code allowable stress during hydro test
in tension shall not exceed 90% of yield point.
f) Storage tanks shall be tested as per applicable code and specifications.

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5.4 Temperature
Temperature for each vessel shall be specified in the following manner:

5.4.1 Operating Temperature


Maximum / minimum temperature likely to occur any during the lifetime of vessel.

5.4.2 Design temperature


a) For vessels operating at 0C and over:
Design temperature shall be equal to maximum operating temperature plus 15 0C.
b) For Vessels operating below 0C:
Design temperature shall be equal to lowest operating temperature.
c) Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) shall be lower of minimum
atmospheric temperature and minimum operating temperature.

5.5 Corrosion allowance :


Unless otherwise specified by Process Licensor, minimum corrosion allowance shall be
considered as follows :
- Carbon Steel, low alloy steel column, Vessels, Spheres : 1.5 mm
- Clad / Lined vessel: Nil
- Storage Tank, shell and bottom : 1.5 mm
- Storage tank, Fixed roof / Floating Roof : Nil
For alloy lined or clad vessels, no corrosion allowance is required on the base metal. The
cladding or lining material (in no case less than 1.5 mm thickness) shall be considered for
corrosion allowance.
Cladding or lining thickness shall not be included in strength calculations.
Corrosion allowance for flange faces of Girth / Body flanges shall be considered equal to
that specified for vessel.

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5.6 Wind Consideration


Wind load shall be calculated on the basis of IS : 875 / site data.
a) Drag coefficient for cylindrical vessels shall be 0.7 minimum.
b) Drag coefficient for spherical vessel shall be 0.6 minimum.

5.7 Earthquake Consideration :


Earthquake load shall be calculated in accordance with IS : 1893 / site data if specially
developed and available

5.8 Capacity

5.8.1 Tank
Capacity shall be specified as Nominal capacity and stored capacity
Nominal capacity for fixed roof tanks be volume of cylindrical shell.
Nominal capacity for floating roof tanks shall be volume of cylindrical shell minus free
board volume.
Stored capacity shall be 90% of Nominal capacity.

5.8.2 Sphere
Stored capacity shall be 85% of nominal capacity.

5.9 Manholes :
a) Vessels and columns with diameter between 900 and 1000 mm shall be
provided with 450 NB manhole. Vessels and columns with diameter greater than
1000mm shall be provided with 500 NB manhole. However, if required vessels and
columns with diameter 1200mm and above may be provided with 600NB manhole.
b) For storage tanks minimum number of manholes (Size 500mm) shall be as
follows:
Tank Diameter Shell Roof
Dia. < 8m 1 1

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 26 
 

> 8m dia. < 36 dia 2 2


Dia. > 36m 4 2
Floating roofs (pontoon or double deck type) shall be provided with manholes to inspect
the entire interior of the roofs. Size of manhole shall be 500 mm minimum.

5.10 Floating Roof :

5.10.1 Unless otherwise specified floating roof shall be of following construction.


Tank Diameter Type of Roof
12 M < Double Deck Type
>12 M < 60M Pontoon Type
> 60M Double Deck Type

5.10.2 Floating roof design shall be in fabricators scope having proven track record.
Foam seal of proven make shall be provided unless otherwise specified.

5.11 Nozzle size : Unless otherwise specified


- Minimum nozzle Size : 40 NB
- Minimum Nozzle Size, Column : 50 NB
- Safety Valve Nozzle : Based on I.D.
- Self Reinforced Nozzle Neck : Based on I.D.

5.11.1 a) All nozzles and man-ways including self-reinforced type shall be 'set in' type
and attached to vessel with full penetration welds.
b) Self reinforced nozzles up to 80mm NB may be 'set on' type.
5.12 Flanges

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 27 
 

5.12.1 Unless otherwise specified nozzle flanges up to 600NB shall be as per ASME
/ANSI B16.5 and above 600 NB shall be as per ASME /ANSI B 16.47 (SERIES
'B')

5.12.2 For nozzles 100 NB and below, only weld neck flange shall be used. Slip on
flanges may be used for nozzles above 100NB in Class 150 rating only. All
flanges above Class 150 rating shall be weld neck type

5.12.3 Slip on flanges shall not be used in Lethal, Hydrogen, caustic, severe cyclic
service and corrosive service (where corrosion allowance is in excess of 3mm).

5.13 Internals :
Removable internals shall be bolted type and bolting shall be stainless steel Type 304,
unless specified otherwise.

5.14 Spares :
Gaskets : Two sets for each installed gasket.
Fasteners: 10 % (Minimum two in each size) of installed fasteners.
Sight/Light Glass: 4 sets for each installed glass.

5.15 Vent/Drain Connections:


Vessel shall be provided with one number each, vent/drain connection as per following :

VESSEL VOLUME, m3 VENT SIZE, NB (mm) DRAIN SIZE, NB


(mm)
6.0 and smaller 40 40
6.0 to 17.0 40 50
17.0 to 71.0 50 80
71.0 and larger 80 100

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 28 
 

5.16 Pipe Davit :


Vertical Vessel / Column having safety valve size > 80 NB and or having internals, shall
be provided with pipe davit per relevant standard.

6.0 INSULATION THICKNESS :


As indicated on process data sheet by process licensor

7.0 PAINTING
As per Standard Specification, unless otherwise stated.

8.0 MATERIAL SELECTION :


Material of various parts of equipment shall be selected per process data sheet guidelines
and proper care shall be taken for the points as given in Annexure- I or as specified.

9.0 SPECIAL CONSIDERATION FOR TALL COLUMN DESIGN


Mechanical design of self supporting Tall Column / Tower shall be carried out for
various load combinations as per Annexure-II

10.0 STATUTORY PROVISIONS :


National laws and statutory provisions together with any local byelaws for the state shall
be complied with.

Annexure : I

1. PRESSURE VESSEL STEEL PLATES ARE PURCHASED TO THE


REQUIREMENT OF THE STANDARD ASME SA-20, WHICH REQUIRES
TESTING OF INDIVIDUAL PLATES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SERVICE.
CARBON STEEL MATERIAL IS ORDERED TO MEET THE IMPACT
REQUIREMENTS OF SUPPLEMENT OF STANDARD ASME SA 20. TYPICAL

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 29 
 

MATERIAL SPECIFICATION IS AS FOLLOWS SA 516 GR.60. NORMALISED TO


MEET IMPACT REQUIREMENTS PER SUPPLEMENT SS OF SA 20 AT-50F

2. ALL PERMANENT ATTACHMENTS WELDED DIRECTLY TO 9 %


NICKEL STEEL SHOULD BE OF THE SAME MATERIAL OR OF AN AUSTENTIC
STAINLESS STEEL TYPE WHICH CANNOT BE HARDENED BY HEAT
TREATMENT.

3. CHECK FOR IMPACT TESTING REQUIREMENT AS PER UCS-66 FOR


COINCIDENT TEMPERATURE AND PART THICKNESS.

4. SELECTION OF STAINLESS STEEL MATERIAL SHALL BE BASED ON


PROCESS RECOMMENDATION/PROCESS LICENSOR.

5. ATMOSPHERIC/LOW PRESSURE STORAGE TANKS. MATERIAL SHALL


BE SELECTED AS PER API 650 /API 620 AS APPLICABLE.

6. MATERIALS FOR CAUSTIC SERVICE SOUR SERVICE OR SOUR + HIC


SHALL BE SELECTED BASED ON SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATION OF PROCESS
LICENSOR.

7. MATERIAL FOR PRESSURE VESSELS DESIGNED ACCORDING TO


ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 2 SHALL BE GIVEN SPECIAL CONSIDERATION
AS PER CODE.

8. ALL PIPES SHALL BE OF SEAMLESS CONSTRUCTION.

9. NONFERROUS MATERIAL AND SUPER ALLOYS SHALL BE SELECTED


BASED ON SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATION.

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 30 
 

10. MATERIAL FOR VESSEL /COLUMN SKIRT SHALL BE THE SAME


MATERIAL AS OF VESSEL/ COLUMN SHELL FOR THE UPPER PART WITH A
MINIMUM OF 500MM.

Annexure -II

DESIGN PHILOSOPHY OF TALL COLUMNS

Mechanical design of self-supporting tall column and its anchorage block shall be carried
out considering combination of various loads.

1.0 Loadings
The loadings to be considered in designing a self-supporting tall column/tower shall
include:
1.1 Internal and or external design pressure specified on process data sheets.
1.2 Self weight of column inclusive of piping, platforms, ladders, manholes, nozzles,
trays, welded and removable attachments, insulation and operating liquid etc. The
weight of attachments to be considered shall be as per Table -1 enclosed
Other loading as specified in UG-22 of ASME Code Sec, VIII Div.1. wherever
applicable.
1.3 Seismic forces and moments shall be computed in accordance with IS 1893 (latest
edition). Unless otherwise specified importance factor and damping coefficient
shall be considered as 2 and 2% respectively.
1.4 Basic wind pressure and wind velocity (including that due to winds of short
duration as in squalls) for the computation of forces / moments and dynamic
analysis respectively shall be in accordance with IS 875 (latest edition).
Additional wind loading on column due to external attachments like platforms,
ladders piping and attached equipment should be given due consideration.
1.5 Loadings resulting in localised and gross stresses due to attachment or mounting
of reflux / reboiler / condenser etc.

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 31 
 

2.0 Loading Condition


Analysis shall be carries out for following conditions :
2.1 Erection Condition: Column (un-corroded) erected on foundation without
insulation, platforms, trays etc. but with welded attachments plus full wind on
column.
2.2 Operation Condition: Column (in corroded condition) under design pressure,
including welded items, trays removable internals, piping, platforms, ladder,
reboiler mounted on column, insulating and operating liquid etc. plus full wind on
insulated column with all other projections open to wind, or earthquake force.
2.3 Test Condition: Column (in corroded condition) under test pressure filled with
water plus 33% of specified wind load on uninsulated column considered.
2.4 EARTHQUAKE AND WIND SHALL BE CONSIDERED NOT ACTING
CONCURRENTLY

3.0 Deflection of Column


Maximum allowable deflection at top of column shall be equal to height of the column
divided by 200.
3.1 If the deflection of column exceeds the above allowable limit the thickness of
skirt shall be increased as first trial up to a maximum value equal to the column
thickness and this exercise shall be stopped if the deflection falls within allowable
limit.
3.2 If the above step is inadequate, skirt shall be gradually flared to reduce the
deflection. Flaring of skirt shall be stopped if the deflection falls within limits or
half angle of cone reaches maximum limit of 9 deg.
3.3 If the above two steps prove inadequate in limiting the deflection within
allowable limits, the thickness of shell courses shall be increased one starting
from bottom course above skirt and proceeding upwards till the deflection falls
within allowable limits.

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 32 
 

4.0 Stress Limits


The stresses due to pressure weight wind / seismic loads shall be combined using
maximum principle stress theory for ASME Section VIII Div. I. Thicknesses are
accordingly chosen to keep the within limits as per Table-2.

5.0 Skirt Support Base


Base supporting including base plate, anchor chairs compression ring, foundation bolting
etc. shall be designed based on overturning moment (greater of seismic or wind). A
minimum number of 8 foundation bolts shall be provided. Numbers of foundation bolts
shall be in multiple of four.

6.0 Minimum Hydrotest Pressure


Minimum Hydrotest Pressure (in Horizontal position) shall be equal to 1.3 x design
pressure x temperature correction factor as specified in ASME Code Section VIII Div. I
(Clause UG-99) at top of column.

7.0 Dynamic Analysis


Dynamic analysis of each column shall be carried out for stability under transverse wind
induced vibrations as per standard design practice. The recommended magnification
amplitude shall be limited to tower diameter divided by five.

TABLE-1

DETAILS AND WEIGHT OF COLUMN ATTACHMENT


1. Shape factor for shell (for wind force calculation) : 0.7
2. Weight of trays (with liquid) to be considered. : 120 Kg./m2
3. Weight of plain Ladder: 15 Kg./m
4. Weight of caged ladder: 37 Kg./m
5 Equivalent projection to be considered for wind load on caged ladder : 300 mm
6. Distance of platform below each manhole : Approx. 1000 mm

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 33 
 

7. Maximum distance between consecutive platform : 5000 mm


8. Projection of Platform : 900mm up to 1meter dia. column; 1200 mm for column
dia.> 1 meter, from column insulation surface.
9. Equivalent height of platform (for wind load computation) : 1000 mm
10. Weight of platforms : 170 Kg./m2.
11. Platform shall be considered all around

TABLE -2
ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR COMBINED LOADING

VESSEL CONDITION / TEMP./ CONDITIONS

TYPE OF STRESSES ERECTION


OPERATING TEST

NEW OR CORRODED NEW CORRODED


CORRODED

TEMPERATURE AMBIENT DESIGN


AMBIENT

LONGITUDINAL KxSxE KxSxE


0.90xY.PxE
LONGITUDINAL COMPRESSIVE
STRESS KxB KxB B

Where
S = Basic allowable Tensile Stress as per Clause UG 23 (a) of ASME Code Sec. VIII
Div.1.
B = 'B' value calculated as per Clause UG-23 (b).
E = Weld joint efficiency of circumferential weld, depending on extent of radiography.

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 34 
 

K = Factor for increasing basic allowable value when wind or seismic load is present, 1.2
as per ASME Sec VIII Div 1.

Note : Allowable stresses in skirt to shell joint shall be as per following :


a) 0.49S, if joint is shear type.
b) 0.70S, if joint is compression type.

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 35 
 

CHAPTER 3

DESIGN PROCEDURE AND


CALUCULATION

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 36 
 

DESIGN THEORY
Circumferential or Hoop Stress
A tensile stress acting in a direction tangential to the circumference is called
Circumferential or Hoop Stress. In other words, it is on longitudinal section(or on the
cylinder walls).

Let,
p = Intensity of internal pressure,
d = Internal diameter of the cylinder shell,
l = length of cylinder,
t = Thickness of the shell, and
σ t1 = hoop stress for the material of the cylinder.

Now,
We know that total force on a longitudinal section of the shell
= Intensity of pressure × projected Area = p × d × l …..i

and the total resisting force acting on the cylinder walls


= σ t1 × 2t × l ….(Q of two section)

…ii

From equation (i) and (ii) , we have

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 37 
 

p×d p×d
σ t1 × 2t × l = p × d × l or σ t1 = or t =
2t 2σ t1
…..ii
Longitudinal Stress
A tensile stress acting in a direction of the axis is called longitudinal stress. In
other words, it is a tensile stress acting on the transverse or circumferential section.

Fig of Longitudinal stress


Let σ t 2 = Longitudinal stress.
In this case, the total force acting on the transverse section
= Intensity of pressure × Cross- sectional Area
π
=p× (d)² ………i
4
and total resisting force = σ t 2 × πd.t ………ii
From equation (i) and (ii), we have
π
σ t 2 × πd.t = p × (d) ²
4
p×d p×d
σt 2 = or t =
4t 4σ t 2

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 38 
 

Design of Shell Due to Internal Pressure


As discussed in article on thin vessel are cylindrical pressure vessel is subjected to
tangential ( σ t ) and longitudinal ( σ L ) stresses.

Pi × Di P × Di
σt = and σ L = i where D= mean diameter
2t 4t
= Di + t

Rule
The design pressure is taken as 5% to 10% more than internal pressure, where as
the test pressure is taken as 30% more than internal pressure.
Considering the joint efficiency,
The thickness of shell can be found by following procedure,
Pi × ( Di + t )
η ×σ =
2t
η × σ × 2t = Pi × ( Di + t )
Pi × Di
t=
2(η × σ ) − Pi

Design of Elliptical Head:


Elliptical heads are suitable for cylinders subjected to pressures over 1.5 MPa. The
shallow forming reduces manufacturing cost. It’s thickness can be calculated by the
following equation:

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 39 
 

pi diW
t=
2σ J
where,
di = Major axis of ellipse
W= Stress intensification factor

1
W = (2 + k 2 )
6
Major Axis Diameter 0.5d i
Where , k= =
Major Axis Diameter c

Rule > Generally, k = 2 ( how ever k should not be greater than 2.6)
1
W = (2 + 22 )
6
=1
Pi ⋅ di ⋅W
t=
2 ⋅σ ⋅ J

Design of Manhole
Let,
d i = internal dia. Of nozzle

d = d i + 2 CA
where, CA = corrosion Allowance in mm
t = Actual thickness of shell in mm
tr = require thickness as per calculation in mm.
tn = Actual thickness of nozzle
trn = Required thickness as per calculation in mm
Pi × Di
t =
rn
2 × σ ×η − Pi

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 40 
 

h1actual = Height of the nozzle above the shell in mm


h 2actual = Height of the nozzle below the shell in mm
h1 = Height till where the effect of the nozzle persists above the shell in mm
h 2 = Height till where the effect of the nozzle persists below the shell in mm
To calculate h1 and h 2 consider a term ‘h’
h = 2.5 ( t – CA) or h = 2.5 ( tn – CA) (whichever is smaller)
h1 = h or h1actual (whichever is smaller)

h2 = h or h 2actual (whichever is smaller)


X = Distance where the effect of the nozzle persists in mm on each side of the
centre line
X = d.
di
or X= + t + tn -3CA (whichever is maximum)
2
d op = outer dia. Of Reinforcing Pad in mm

d ip = inner dia. Of Reinforcing Pad in mm

t p = Thickness of Reinforcing Pad in mm

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 41 
 

Area Calculation
Area pertaining to material removed, A = d × tr
Excess area in the Shell, A1 = (2X – d ) ( t – tr –CA)
Excess area in the Nozzle, A2 = 2h1(tn – trn – CA)
Excess area in the nozzle inside the shell A3 = 2 h2 (tn – 2CA)
Area Required, A r = ( d op - d ip ) t p
Area required, Ar = A – ( A1 + A2 + A3)
When Ar = 0 or negative, no reinforcement is necessary as the vessel thickness self
compensates.
Design of Leg:
A) Legs support

In certain cases, legs can be made detachable to the vessel. These legs can
be bolted to plates. The design for leg supports is similar to that for bracket support. If
the legs are welded to the shell, then the shear stresses in the weld will be given by:
∑W ∑W
τ W = w2 P2 = KP1 H 2 Do mm 2 τW =
0.707 × tW × LW × n 0.707 × tW × LW × n

Where, tW = Weld Height

LW = Weld Length.
These types of supports are suitable only for small vessels as there is a concentrated
local stress at the joint.
B) Wind Load

Wind load can be estimated as :


Pw1 = K P H Do
1
This equation is valid for heights upto 20m. Beyond 20m, the wind pressure is
higher and hence for heights above 20m.
Pw 2 = KP2 H 2 Do

Generally, P1 lies between 400 N/ mm2 and P2 may be upto 2000 N/ m 2 .


Therefore, the bending moment due to wind at the base will be

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 42 
 

Pw1h1
(IF H ≤ 20 m) Mw =
2
Pw1h1 h
(IF H> 20m) Mw = + Pw 2 ( h1 + 2 )
2 2
Therefore, bending stress will be,
Mw
σbw = Where Z= section Modulus
z
The wind load would create tensile stress on the wind side and compressive on the other
side.

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 43 
 

Design Calculation
1) Thickness of cylinder
Given data
Internal pressure (P) = 0.588 MPa
Internal Diameter (Di) = 496mm
Corrosion Allowance (CA) = Nil.
Joint Efficiency for shell = 1.
As per Equation,
Pi × Di
t= + CA
2 × σ ×η − Pi
(0.588) × (496)
t= (Q CA is NIL)
2 ×137 × 1 − 0.588
= 1.066
∴ t = 1.066mm

2) Elliptical Head
1
W = (2 + k 2 )
6
where ,
Major Axis Diameter 0.5d i
k= =
Major Axis Diameter c
k=2
Rule > Generally, k = 2 ( how ever k should not be greater than 2.6)
1
W = (2 + 22 )
6
=1
Pi ⋅ di ⋅W
t=
2 ⋅σ ⋅ J
where,

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 44 
 

di = Major axis of ellipse = 496mm


W = Stress intensification factor = 1

Pi ⋅ di ⋅W
t=
2 ⋅σ ⋅ J
0.588 × 496 × 1
t=
2 ×137 × 1
= 1.06 mm
∴ t = 1.06 mm

3) Design Of Manhole
INLET NOZZLE (N1)
GIVEN DATA
Internal pressure (Pi) = 0.588 N/ mm 2
Internal diameter (Di) = 496 mm
Thickness (t) = 6 mm.
CA = NIL
Joint Efficiency (η ) = 1
Internal diameter of nozzle (di) = 254.51 mm
d = di + CA = 254.51 mm.
tr = require thickness = 1.066 mm.
tn = Actual thickness of nozzle = 9.27 mm.
trn = Required thickness as per calculation in mm.
0.588 × 254.51 Pi × Di
A = 2 ×137 ×1 − 0.588 t =
1 rn
2 × σ ×η − Pi
0.588 × 254.51
t =
rn
2 × 137 × 1 − 0.588

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 45 
 

= 0.547 mm.
t rn
= 0.547 mm.

Area Calculation
Area Pertaining to material removed, A = d × tr
= 254.51 × 1.066
= 271.3 mm2
Excess area in the shell, A1 = (2X – d ) ( t – tr –CA)
Generally,
X = d = 254.51 mm.
X = di + t + tn -3CA
2
= 254.51 + 6 +9.27 – 0
2
= 142.52 mm.
( Take X whichever maximum)
Therefore,
A = (2 × 254.51-254.51)(6-1.066-0)
= 1255.75 mm2
Excess area in the nozzle, A2 = 2h1(tn – trn – CA)
h = 2.5 ( t – CA) or h = 2.5 ( tn – CA)
= 2.5 × 6 = 2.5 (9.27)
= 15mm = 23.175 mm
( Take X whichever smaller)
h1 = h2 = h = 15 mm.
Therefore,
A2 = 2 × 15 ( 9.27 – 0.547 – 0)
= 261.69 mm 2
Excess area in the nozzle inside the shell A3 = 2 h2 (tn – 2CA)
= 2 × 15 ( 9.27-0)

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 46 
 

= 278.1 mm 2
Area required Ar = A – ( A1 + A2 + A3)
= -1524.24
As Ar is –ve or zero reinforcement is not necessary.

4) Design of leg
Wind load
Here ,
K = Coefficient depending on shape factor = 0.7
P = Wind pressure = 730 N/ mm 2
1
H = Height of the vessel above foundation =2413 mm
Do = Outer Diameter Of Vessels
Wind load can be estimated as :
Pw1 = K P H Do
1
= 0.7×730×2.413×0.508
= 626.38 N
Pw1h1
(IF H ≤ 20 m) Mw =
2
Pw1h1 h
(IF H> 20m) Mw = + Pw 2 ( h1 + 2 )
2 2
Here we use ,
Pw1h1
Mw =
2
= 626.38 × 1206.47
= 755.41 N.m
Here we use I- Section,
Therefore, Z = section Modulus
bh 3 − b1h13
Z=
6h

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 47 
 

4t(5t)3 − 3t(3t)3
=
6(5t)

= 13.96 t 3
Therefore, Bending Stress will be ,
Mw
σbw = (as σ bw = 350 N/mm²)
z
755.41
350× 106 =
13.96t 3
t = 5.36 × 10−3 m
123 123
∴ L= + + 1834
3 3
= 1916 mm

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 48 
 

SUMMARY

   INTERNAL DIAMETER (Di)  496mm   
SHELL  LENGTH (L)  1734mm    
   THICKNESS (t)  6mm   
HEAD   THICKNESS (t)                                   6mm   
   HEIGHT (h)                              173mm   
MAN HOLE  DIAMETER OF OPENING (di)  254.51   
   THICKNESS OF NOZZLE (tn)  9.27   
AS AREA CALCULATED IS   ‐ve     
REINFORCEMENT  RF PAD IS NOT REQUIRED     
PAD         
          
LEG   THICKNESS OF LEGS                          5 .36mm       
       
       

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 49 
 

DESIGN APPROCH 2 BY ASME


CODES

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 50 
 

DESIGN THEORY
PRESSURE VESSEL HEAD DESIGN UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE
THICKNESS OF HEADS/ CLOSURES:
ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD:
t = P.Di / (2SE- 0.2P) + CA
OTHERS;
t = P.K.Di/ (2SE-0.2P) + CA
K =CONSTANT BASED ON THE RATIO OF
MAJOR & MINOR AXIS (D/2H)
“VALUES OF FACTOR K”
D/2H 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.0

K 1.83 1.64 1.46 1.37 1.29 1.14 1.07 1.00

D/2H 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.0

K 0.87 0.76 0.71 0.66 0.57 0.50

TORISPHERICAL HEAD:
t= 0.885 PL/ (SE-0.1P) + CA
FOR KNUCKLE RADIUS, r = 6% OF CROWN RADIUS (L)
t =PLM/ (2S.E- 0.2P) + CA
where L=CROWN RADIUS
M=CONSTANT BASED ON RATIO OF CROWN AND KNUCLE
RADIUS(L/r)

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 51 
 

“VALUES OF FACTOR M”
L/r 1.0 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.0

M 1.00 1.06 1.10 1.15 1.18 1.22 1.25

L/r 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0

M 1.31 1.36 1.41 1.46 1.50 1.54 1.58

L/r 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 16.67

M 1.62 1.65 1.69 1.72 1.75 1.77

(USE NEAREST VALUE OF L/r; INTERPOLATION UNNECESSARY)


NOTE:
– MAXIMUM RATIO ALLOWED BY UG-32 (j) WHEN L EQUALS THE
OUTSIDE DIAMETER OF THE SKIRT OF THE HEAD. KNUCKLE
RADIUS, r SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 3t.
CONICAL HEAD:
t = PDi/ 2 COS α (SE-0.6P) + CA
α = half apex angle

HEMISPHERICAL HEAD:
t = P.Ri/ (2SE- 0.2P) + CA
FLAT HEADS & COVERS (UG- 34)
CIRCULAR COVER/ HEADS
t = Di * SQRT(CP/SE) + CA
Where C = Factor, dependent on joint geometry of head cover to shell (range 0.1
– 0.33)
OBROUND/ NON-CIRCULAR HEADS
(INCLUDING SQUARE/ RECTANGULAR)

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 52 
 

t = Di * SQRT(Z*CP/SE) + CA
where Z = 3.4 - (2.4 d / D)

PRESSURE VESSEL SHELL COMPONENT DESIGN UNDER


INTERNAL PRESSURE
Pressure Vessel Definition:
– Containers of Pressure
Internal
External
– Pressure Source
External
Application of Heat

Code Coverage:
– Subsections
Rule, Guidelines, Specifications
– Mandatory Appendices
Specific Important Subjects to Supplement Subsections
– Non-Mandatory Appendices
Additional Information, Suggested Good Practices
Inclusions:
– Unfired Steam Boilers/ Generators
Evaporators
Heat Exchangers
– Direct Fired Vessels
Gas Fired Jacketed Steam Kettles(Jacket Pressure less than 50
PSI)

Additional Interpretation:

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 53 
 

– The code rules may not cover all designs & constructions procedures.
Such additional design & construction procedure may be
adopted which are safe and acceptable.
– Field fabrication are acceptable.
– Other standards for components are acceptable
Guidelines for Designed Thickness (To be adopted):
– (1/16)” excluding corrosion allowance for shell & head (Min.)
– The above will not apply to heat transfer surface
– (1/4)” min. for unfired steam boiler shell
– (3/32)” min. excluding corrosion allowance for compressed air/ steam/
water service(for CS/AS)

– Corrosion allowance shall be based on experience/ field data(No


value/ code recommended).

THICKNESS CALCULATIONS
UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE, CYLINDRICAL SHELL:
Circumferential stress:
t = P.Ri / (SE- 0.6P) + CA
Longitudinal stress:
t = P.Ri / (2SE+0.4P) + CA
SPHERICAL SHELL:
t = P.Ri / (2SE- 0.2P) + CA
CONICAL SECTION: (INTERNAL PRESSURE)
t =P.Di/ 2COSα(SE- 0.6P) + CA

Stress Calculation
UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE,
CYLINDRICAL SHELL:
Circumferential stress:

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Sc = P (Ri + 0.6t)/ Et
Longitudinal stress:
Sl = P (Ri - 0.4t)/ 2Et
SPHERICAL SHELL:
Sc = P (Ri + 0.2t)/ 2Et
CONICAL SHELL SECTION:
Sc =P (Di + 1.2 tCOSα)/2Et COSα
Sl =P (Di – 0.8tCOSα)/4Et COSα

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 55 
 

ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE VESSEL

Project
Author

jimit and mahavir

Subject

shell analysis

Prepared For

project report

Project Created

Sunday, May 25, 2008 at 10:04:27 PM

Project Last Modified

Sunday, May 25, 2008 at 10:04:27 PM

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 56 
 

1 Introduction
The ANSYS CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering) software program was used in
conjunction with 3D CAD (Computer-Aided Design) solid geometry to simulate the
behavior of mechanical bodies under thermal/structural loading conditions. ANSYS
automated FEA (Finite Element Analysis) technologies from ANSYS, Inc. to generate
the results listed in this report.

Each scenario presented below represents one complete engineering simulation. The
definition of a simulation includes known factors about a design such as material
properties per body, contact behavior between bodies (in an assembly), and types and
magnitudes of loading conditions. The results of a simulation provide insight into how
the bodies may perform and how the design might be improved. Multiple scenarios allow
comparison of results given different loading conditions, materials or geometric
configurations.

Convergence and alert criteria may be defined for any of the results and can serve as
guides for evaluating the quality of calculated results and the acceptability of values in
the context of known design requirements.

Solution history provides a means of assessing the quality of results by examining how values change during successive
iterations of solution refinement. Convergence criteria sets a specific limit on the allowable change in a result between
iterations. A result meeting this criteria is said to be "converged".
Alert criteria define "allowable" ranges for result values. Alert ranges typically represent known aspects of the design
specification.

All values are presented in the "SI Metric (m, kg, N, °C, s, V, A)" unit system.

Notice

Do not accept or reject a design based solely on the data presented in this report. Evaluate
designs by considering this information in conjunction with experimental test data and
the practical experience of design engineers and analysts. A quality approach to
engineering design usually mandates physical testing as the final means of validating
structural integrity to a measured precision.

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2. Scenario 1

2.1. "Model"
"Model" obtains geometry from the Pro/ENGINEER® part "H:\shaell and
cylinder\SHEEL.PRT.2".

The bounding box for the model measures 1.73 by 0.52 by 0.52 m along the global x, y and z axes, respectively.
The model has a total mass of 109.69 kg.
The model has a total volume of 1.4×10-2 m³.

Table 2.1.1. Bodies


Name Material Nonlinear Material Effects Bounding Box(m) Mass (kg) Volume (m³) Nodes Elements

"SHEEL" "Structural Steel" Yes 1.73, 0.52, 0.52 109.69 1.4×10-2 4968 684

2.1.1. Mesh
"Mesh", associated with "Model" has an overall relevance of 0.
"Mesh" contains 4968 nodes and 684 elements.

No mesh controls specified.

2.2. "Environment"
Simulation Type is set to Static

Analysis Type is set to Static Structural

"Environment" contains all loading conditions defined for "Model" in this scenario.

2.2.1. Structural Loading


Table 3.2.1.1. Structural Loads
Reaction Reaction Force Reaction Reaction Moment
Name Type Magnitude Vector
Force Vector Moment Vector

"Pressure" Pressure 600,000.0 Pa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

2.2.2. Structural Supports


Table 3.2.2.1. Structural Supports

Reaction Reaction
Name Type Reaction Force Vector Reaction Moment Vector
Force Moment

"Fixed Fixed [-1.71×10-3 N x, 1.16×10-7 N y, [1.81×10-5 N·m x, 3.16×10-9 N·m y,


1.71×10-3 N 1.81×10-5 N·m
Support" Surface 3.67×10-9 N z] 1.06×10-7 N·m z]

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2.3. "Solution"
Solver Type is set to Program Controlled

Weak Springs is set to Program Controlled

Large Deflection is set to Off

"Solution" contains the calculated response for "Model" given loading conditions defined
in "Environment".

Thermal expansion calculations use a constant reference temperature of 22.0 °C for "SHEEL". Theoretically, at a uniform
temperature of 22.0 °C no strain results from thermal expansion or contraction.

2.3.1. Structural Results


Table 3.3.1.1. Values

Minimum Occurs Maximum Occurs Alert


Name Figure Scope Minimum Maximum
On On Criteria

"Equivalent Stress" A1.1 "Model" 8.6×106 Pa 3.5×107 Pa SHEEL SHEEL None

"Maximum Shear
None "Model" 4.96×106 Pa 1.87×107 Pa SHEEL SHEEL None
Stress"

"Total Deformation" A1.2 "Model" 0.0 m 4.27×10-5 m SHEEL SHEEL None

Convergence tracking not enabled.

2.3.2. Equivalent Stress Safety


Table 3.3.2.1. Definition
Name Stress Limit

"Stress Tool" Yield strength per material.

Table 3.3.2.2. Results

Name Scope Type Minimum Alert Criteria

"Stress Tool" "Model" Safety Factor 7.13 None

"Stress Tool" "Model" Safety Margin 6.13 None

Convergence tracking not enabled.

2.3.3. Shear Stress Safety


Table 3.3.3.1. Definition

Name Shear Limit Shear Factor

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"Stress Tool 2" Yield strength per material. 0.5

Table 3.3.3.2. Results

Name Scope Type Minimum Alert Criteria

"Stress Tool 2" "Model" Safety Factor 6.69 None

"Stress Tool 2" "Model" Safety Margin 5.69 None

Convergence tracking not enabled.

stress

Figure A1.1. "Equivalent Stress" Contours

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Scenario 1 Figures
deformation
Figure A1.2. "Total Deformation" Contours

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AppendicesA1.

A2. Definition of "Structural Steel"


Table A2.1. "Structural Steel" Constant Properties
Name Value

Compressive Ultimate Strength 0.0 Pa

Compressive Yield Strength 2.5×108 Pa

Density 7,850.0 kg/m³

Poisson's Ratio 0.3

Tensile Yield Strength 2.5×108 Pa

Tensile Ultimate Strength 4.6×108 Pa

Young's Modulus 2.0×1011 Pa

Thermal Expansion 1.2×10-5 1/°C

Specific Heat 434.0 J/kg·°C

Thermal Conductivity 60.5 W/m·°C

Relative Permeability 10,000.0

Resistivity 1.7×10-7 Ohm·m

Table A2.2. Alternating Stress

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Mean Value 0.0

Table A2.3. "Alternating Stress"


Cycles Alternating Stress

10.0 4.0×109 Pa

20.0 2.83×109 Pa

50.0 1.9×109 Pa

100.0 1.41×109 Pa

200.0 1.07×109 Pa

2,000.0 4.41×108 Pa

10,000.0 2.62×108 Pa

20,000.0 2.14×108 Pa

100,000.0 1.38×108 Pa

200,000.0 1.14×108 Pa

1,000,000.0 8.62×107 Pa

Table A2.4. Strain-Life Parameters

Table A2.5. "Strain-Life Parameters"


Strength Coefficient 9.2×108 Pa

Strength Exponent -0.11

Ductility Coefficient 0.21

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Ductility Exponent -0.47

Cyclic Strength Coefficient 1.0×109 Pa

Cyclic Strain Hardening Exponent 0.2

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Project
Author Jimit vyas and mahavir solanki
Subject Ellipsoidal dish end
Prepared for project analysis
First Saved Sunday, May 25, 2008
Last Saved Sunday, May 25, 2008
Product Version 11.0 Release

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 65 
 

Contents
• Model
o Geometry
ELIPTICALHEAD
o Mesh
CFX-Mesh Method
o Static Structural
Analysis Settings
Loads
Solution
Solution Information
Results
Max Equivalent Stress
Results
Max Shear Stress
Results
• Material Data
o Structural Steel

Units
TABLE 1
Unit System Metric (m, kg, N, °C, s, V, A)
Angle Degrees
Rotational Velocity rad/s

Model
Geometry

TABLE 3
Model > Geometry > Parts
Object Name ELIPTICALHEAD
State Meshed
Graphics Properties
Visible Yes
Transparency 1
Definition
Suppressed No
Material Structural Steel
Stiffness Behavior Flexible
Nonlinear Material Effects Yes
Bounding Box
Length X 0.508 m
Length Y 0.508 m
Length Z 0.173 m

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Properties
Volume 1.9271e-003 m³
Mass 15.128 kg
Centroid X -8.1168e-017 m
Centroid Y 1.0962e-017 m
Centroid Z -3.7996e-002 m
Moment of Inertia Ip1 0.34417 kg·m²
Moment of Inertia Ip2 0.343 kg·m²
Moment of Inertia Ip3 0.6178 kg·m²
Statistics
Nodes 2289
Elements 6232

Mesh

TABLE 4
Model > Mesh
Object Name Mesh
State Solved
Defaults
Physics Preference CFD
Relevance 0
Advanced
Relevance Center Fine
Element Size Default
Shape Checking CFD
Solid Element Midside Nodes Dropped
Straight Sided Elements
Initial Size Seed Active Assembly
Smoothing Medium
Transition Slow
Statistics
Nodes 2289
Elements 6232

TABLE 5
Model > Mesh > Mesh Controls
Object Name CFX-Mesh Method
State Fully Defined
Scope
Scoping Method Geometry Selection
Geometry 1 Body
Definition
Suppressed No
Method CFX-Mesh
Element Midside Nodes Dropped

Static Structural
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TABLE 6
Model > Analysis
Object Name Static Structural
State Fully Defined
Definition
Physics Type Structural
Analysis Type Static Structural
Options
Reference Temp 22. °C

TABLE 8
Model > Static Structural > Loads
Object Name Pressure Fixed Support 2
State Fully Defined
Scope
Scoping Method Geometry Selection
Geometry 4 Faces 1 Face
Definition
Define By Normal To
Type Pressure Fixed Support
Magnitude 6.e+005 Pa (ramped)
Suppressed No

FIGURE 1
Model > Static Structural > Pressure

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Solution

TABLE 9
Model > Static Structural > Solution
Object Name Solution
State Solved
Adaptive Mesh Refinement
Max Refinement Loops 1.
Refinement Depth 2.

TABLE 10
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Solution Information
Object Name Solution Information
State Solved
Solution Information
Solution Output Solver Output
Newton-Raphson Residuals 0
Update Interval 2.5 s
Display Points All

TABLE 11
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Results
Object Name Equivalent Stress Maximum Shear Stress Total Deformation
State Solved
Scope
Geometry All Bodies
Definition
Type Equivalent (von-Mises) Stress Maximum Shear Stress Total Deformation
Display Time End Time
Results
Minimum 3.101e+006 Pa 1.6131e+006 Pa 0. m
Maximum 3.1378e+007 Pa 1.6963e+007 Pa 4.1032e-005 m
Information
Time 1. s
Load Step 1
Substep 1
Iteration Number 1

FIGURE 2
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Equivalent Stress > Figure
equivalent stress

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FIGURE 3
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Maximum Shear Stress > Figure
maximum shear stress

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TABLE 12
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Stress Safety Tools
Object Name Max Equivalent Stress
State Solved
Definition
Theory Max Equivalent Stress
Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material

TABLE 13
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Max Equivalent Stress > Results
Object Name Safety Factor Safety Margin
State Solved
Scope
Geometry All Bodies
Definition
Type Safety Factor Safety Margin
Display Time End Time
Results
Minimum 7.9674 6.9674

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Information
Time 1. s
Load Step 1
Substep 1
Iteration Number 1

TABLE 14
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Stress Safety Tools
Object Name Max Shear Stress
State Solved
Definition
Theory Max Shear Stress
Factor 0.5
Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material

TABLE 15
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Max Shear Stress > Results
Object Name Safety Factor Safety Margin
State Solved
Scope
Geometry All Bodies
Definition
Type Safety Factor Safety Margin
Display Time End Time
Results
Minimum 7.369 6.369
Information
Time 1. s
Load Step 1
Substep 1
Iteration Number 1

Material Data
Structural Steel

TABLE 16
Structural Steel > Constants
Structural
Young's Modulus 2.e+011 Pa
Poisson's Ratio 0.3
Density 7850. kg/m³
Thermal Expansion 1.2e-005 1/°C
Tensile Yield Strength 2.5e+008 Pa
Compressive Yield Strength 2.5e+008 Pa
Tensile Ultimate Strength 4.6e+008 Pa
Compressive Ultimate Strength 0. Pa
Thermal

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Thermal Conductivity 60.5 W/m·°C


Specific Heat 434. J/kg·°C
Electromagnetics
Relative Permeability 10000
Resistivity 1.7e-007 Ohm·m

FIGURE 4
Structural Steel > Alternating Stress

TABLE 17
Structural Steel > Alternating Stress > Property Attributes
Interpolation Log-Log
Mean Curve Type Mean Stress

TABLE 18
Structural Steel > Alternating Stress > Alternating Stress Curve Data
Mean Value Pa
0.

TABLE 19
Structural Steel > Alternating Stress > Alternating Stress vs. Cycles
Cycles Alternating Stress Pa
10. 3.999e+009
20. 2.827e+009
50. 1.896e+009
100. 1.413e+009

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200. 1.069e+009
2000. 4.41e+008
10000 2.62e+008
20000 2.14e+008
1.e+005 1.38e+008
2.e+005 1.14e+008
1.e+006 8.62e+007

FIGURE 5
Structural Steel > Strain-Life Parameters

TABLE 20
Structural Steel > Strain-Life Parameters > Property Attributes
Display Curve Type Strain-Life

TABLE 21
Structural Steel > Strain-Life Parameters > Strain-Life Parameters
Strength Coefficient Pa 9.2e+008
Strength Exponent -0.106
Ductility Coefficient 0.213
Ductility Exponent -0.47
Cyclic Strength Coefficient Pa 1.e+009
Cyclic Strain Hardening Exponent 0.2

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FATIGUE ANALYSIS
Project

Author JIMIT AND MAHAVIR


Subject FATIGUE ANALYSIS
Prepared for DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE VESSEL
First Saved Monday, March 17, 2008
Last Saved Tuesday, March 18, 2008
Product Version 11.0 Release

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 75 
 

Contents

• Model
o Geometry
FATIGUEANALYSIS
o Mesh
o Static Structural
Analysis Settings
Loads
Solution
Solution Information
Results
Max Equivalent Stress
Results
Max Shear Stress
Results
Fatigue Tool
Results
Result Charts
goodman stress life rl
Results
• Material Data
o Structural Steel 2

Units

TABLE 1
Unit System Metric (m, kg, N, °C, s, V, A)
Angle Degrees
Rotational Velocity rad/s

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 76 
 

Model

Geometry

TABLE
Model > Geometry
Object Name Geometry
State Fully Defined
Definition
Source D:\pressurevesselanalysis\fatigueanalysis\FATIGUEANALYSIS.PRT.3
Type ProEngineer
Length Unit Millimeters
Element Control Program Controlled
Display Style Part Color
Bounding Box
Length X 0.762 m
Length Y 0.782 m
Length Z 2.08 m
Properties
Volume 0.30847 m³
Mass 2421.5 kg
Statistics
Bodies 1
Active Bodies 1
Nodes 12181
Elements 6191

TABLE
Model > Geometry > Parts
Object Name FATIGUEANALYSIS
State Meshed

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Graphics Properties
Visible Yes
Transparency 1
Definition
Suppressed No
Material Structural Steel 2
Stiffness Behavior Flexible
Nonlinear Material Effects Yes
Bounding Box
Length X 0.762 m
Length Y 0.782 m
Length Z 2.08 m
Properties
Volume 0.30847 m³
Mass 2421.5 kg
Centroid X -2.3696e-003 m
Centroid Y 2.1709e-003 m
Centroid Z -8.3295e-004 m
Moment of Inertia Ip1 522.75 kg·m²
Moment of Inertia Ip2 522.8 kg·m²
Moment of Inertia Ip3 80.459 kg·m²
Statistics
Nodes 12181
Elements 6191

Common Decisions to Both Types of Fatigue Analysis


Once the decision on which type of fatigue analysis to perform, Stress Life or Strain Life,
there are 4 other topics upon which your fatigue results are dependent upon. Input decisions
that are common to both types of fatigue analyses are listed below:
• Loading Type
• Mean Stress Effects

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• Multiaxial Stress Correction


• Fatigue Modification Factor

Within Mean Stress Effects, the available options are quite different. In the following
ections, we will explore all of these additional decisions. These input decision trees for
both Stress Life and Strain Life are outlined in Figures 1 and 2. fatigue analysis in both
predicted life and types of post processing available. We will look at each of these choices
in detail below.

Mesh

TABLE
Model > Mesh
Object Name Mesh
State Solved
Defaults
Physics Preference Mechanical
Relevance 0
Advanced
Relevance Center Coarse
Element Size Default
Shape Checking Standard Mechanical
Solid Element Midside Nodes Program Controlled
Straight Sided Elements No
Initial Size Seed Active Assembly
Smoothing Low
Transition Fast
Statistics
Nodes 12181
Elements 6191

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Static Structural

TABLE
Model > Analysis
Object Name Static Structural
State Fully Defined
Definition
Physics Type Structural
Analysis Type Static Structural
Options
Reference Temp 22. °C

TABLE
Model > Static Structural > Analysis Settings
Object Name Analysis Settings
State Fully Defined
Step Controls
Number Of Steps 1.
Current Step Number 1.
Step End Time 1. s
Program Controlled

TABLE
Model > Static Structural > Loads
Object Name Pressure Fixed Support
State Fully Defined
Scope
Scoping Method Geometry Selection
Geometry 10 Faces 2 Faces
Definition
Define By Normal To
Type Pressure Fixed Support
Magnitude -6.e+005 Pa (ramped)
Suppressed No

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FIGURE
Model > Static Structural > Pressure

Solution

TABLE
Model > Static Structural > Solution
Object Name Solution
State Obsolete
Adaptive Mesh Refinement
Max Refinement Loops 1.
Refinement Depth 2.

TABLE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Solution Information
Object Name Solution Information
State Not Solved
Solution Information
Solution Output Solver Output

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Newton-Raphson Residuals 0
Update Interval 2.5 s
Display Points All

TABLE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Results
Object Name Equivalent Stress Maximum Shear Stress Total Deformation
State Solved
Scope
Geometry All Bodies
Definition
Type Equivalent (von-Mises) Stress Maximum Shear Stress Total Deformation
Display Time End Time
Results
Minimum 4.7782 Pa 2.757 Pa 0. m
Maximum 6.4722e+007 Pa 3.5341e+007 Pa 4.4133e-004 m
Information
Time 1. s
Load Step 1
Substep 1
Iteration Number 1

TABLE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Stress Safety Tools
Object Name Max Equivalent Stress
State Solved
Definition
Theory Max Equivalent Stress
Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material

TABLE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Max Equivalent Stress > Results
Object Name Safety Factor Safety Margin
State Solved
Scope

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Geometry All Bodies


Definition
Type Safety Factor Safety Margin
Display Time End Time
Results
Minimum 3.8627 2.8627
Information
Time 1. s
Load Step 1
Substep 1
Iteration Number 1

TABLE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Stress Safety Tools
Object Name Max Shear Stress
State Solved
Definition
Theory Max Shear Stress
Factor 0.5
Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material

TABLE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Max Shear Stress > Results
Object Name Safety Factor Safety Margin
State Solved
Scope
Geometry All Bodies
Definition
Type Safety Factor Safety Margin
Display Time End Time
Results
Minimum 3.537 2.537
Information
Time 1. s

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Load Step 1
Substep 1
Iteration Number 1

TABLE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tools
Object Name Fatigue Tool
State Solved
Materials
Fatigue Strength
1.
Factor (Kf)
Loading
Type History Data
History Data C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v110\AISOL\CommonFiles\Language\en-
Location us\EngineeringData\Load Histories\sampleHistory2.dat
Scale Factor 5.e-003
Definition
Display Time End Time
Options
Analysis Type Stress Life
Mean Stress Theory Goodman
Stress Component Equivalent (Von Mises)
Bin Size 32
Use Quick Rainflow
Yes
Counting
Infinite Life 1.e+009 cycles
Maximum Data
5000.
Points To Plot
Life Units
Units Name cycles
1 block is equal to 1.e+006 cycles

Non-constant amplitude, Proportional Loading

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Non-constant amplitude, proportional loading also needs only one set of FE results. But
instead of using a single load ratio to calculate alternating and mean values, the load ratio
varies over time. Think of this as coupling an FE analysis with strain-gauge results
collected over a given time interval. Since loading is proportional, the critical fatigue
location can be found by looking at a single set of FE results. However, the fatigue
loading which causes the maximum damage cannot easily be seen. Thus, cumulative
damage calculations (including cycle counting such as Rainflow and damage summation
such as Miner’s rule) need to be done to determine the total amount of fatigue damage and
which cycle combinations cause thatdamage. Cycle counting is a means to reduce a
complex load history into a number of events, which can be compared to the available
constant amplitude test data. Non-constantAmplitude, proportional loading within the
ANSYS Fatigue Module uses a “quick counting” technique to substantially reduce runtime
and memory. In quick counting, alternating andmean stresses are sorted into bins before
partial damage is calculated. Without quick counting, data is not sorted into bins until after
partial damages are found. The accuracy of quick
counting is usually very good if a proper number of bins are used when counting. The bin
size defines how many divisions the cycle counting history should be organized into for the
history data loading type. Strictly speaking, bin size specifies the number of divisions of the
rainflow matrix. A larger bin size has greater precision but will take longer to solve and use
more memory. Bin size defaults to 32, meaning that the Rainflow Matrix is 32 x 32 in
dimension.

For Stress Life, another available option when conducting a variable amplitude fatigue
analysis is the ability to set the value used for infinite life. In constant amplitude loading,
if the alternating stress is lower than the lowest alternating stress on the fatigue curve, the
fatigue tool will use the life at the last point. This provides for an added level of safety
because many materials do not exhibit an endurance limit. However, in non-constant
amplitude loading, cycles with very small alternating stresses may be present and may
incorrectly predict too much damage if the number of the small stress cycles is high
enough. To help control this, the user can set the infinite life value that will be used if the
alternating stress is beyond the limit of the SN curve. Setting a higher value will make
small stress cycles less damaging if they occur many times. The Rainflow and damage
U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 85 
 

matrix results can be helpful in determining the effects of small stress cycles in your
loading history.

FIGURE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool

FIGURE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 86 
 

TABLE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool > Results
Object Name Life Safety Factor Damage
State Solved
Scope
Geometry All Bodies
Definition
Type Life Safety Factor Damage
Design Life 1.e+009 cycles
Results
Minimum 2.e+007 cycles 0.
Maximum 50.

TABLE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool > Result Charts

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Object Name Rainflow Matrix Damage Matrix


State Solved
Scope
Geometry All Bodies
Options
Chart Viewing Style Three Dimensional
Results
Minimum Range 0. Pa
Maximum Range 1.9246e+008 Pa
Minimum Mean -3.2328e+008 Pa
Maximum Mean 6.1628e+007 Pa
Definition
Design Life 1.e+009 cycles

FIGURE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool > Rainflow Matrix
Rainflow Matrix Chart Rainflow Matrix Chart is a plot of the rainflow matrix at the
critical location. This result is onlyapplicable for non-constant amplitude loading where
rainflow counting is needed. This result may be scoped. In this 3-D histogram,
alternating and mean stress is divided into bins and plotted. The Z-axis corresponds
to the number of counts for a given alternating and mean stress bin. This result gives
the user a measure of the composition of a loading history. (Such as if most of the
alternating stress cycles occur at a negative mean stress.) From the rainflow matrix
figure, the user can see that most of the alternating stresses have a positive mean
stress and that in this case the majority of alternating stresses are quite low.

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 88 
 

FIGURE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool > Damage Matrix
Damage Matrix Chart
Damage Matrix Chart is a plot of the damage matrix at the critical location on the
model. This result is only applicable for non-constant amplitude loading where
rainflow counting is needed. This result may be scoped. This result is similar to the
rainflow matrix except that the percent damage that each of the Rainflow bin cause is
plotted as the Z-axis. As can be seen from the \corresponding damage matrix for the
above rainflow matrix, in this particular case although most of the counts occur at the
lower stress amplitudes, most of the damage occurs at the higher stress amplitudes.

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 89 
 

TABLE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tools
Object Name goodman stress life rl
State Solved
Materials
Fatigue Strength Factor (Kf) 1.
Loading
Type Fully Reversed
Scale Factor 1.
Definition
Display Time End Time
Options
Analysis Type Stress Life
Mean Stress Theory Goodman

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Stress Component Equivalent (Von Mises)


Life Units
Units Name cycles
1 cycle is equal to 1.e+006 cycles

Types of Cyclic Loading


Unlike static stress, which is analyzed with calculations for a single stress state, fatigue
damage occurs when stress at a point changes over time. There are essentially four classes
of fatigue loading, with the ANSYS Fatigue Module currently supporting the first three:

• Constant amplitude, proportional loading


• Constant amplitude, non-proportional loading
• Non-constant amplitude, proportional loading
• Non-constant amplitude, non-proportional loading

In the above descriptions, the amplitude identifier is readily understood.


Is the loading a variant of a sine wave with a single load ratio or does the
loading vary perhaps erratically, with the load ratio changing with time?
The second identifier, proportionality, describes whether the changing
load causes the principal stress axes to change. If the principal stress
axes do not change, then it is proportional loading. If the principal stress
axes do change, then the cycles cannot be
counted simply and it is non-proportional loading.

Constant amplitude, Proportional Loading


Constant amplitude, proportional loading is the classic, “back of the envelope”
calculation describing whether the load has a constant maximum value or continually
varies with time. Loading is of constant amplitude because only one set of FE stress
results along with a loading ratio is required to calculate the alternating and mean values.

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The loading ratio is defined as the ratio of the second load to the first load (LR = L2/L1).
Loading is proportional since only one set of FE results are needed (principal stress axes
do not change over time). Common types of constant amplitude loading are fully reversed
(apply a load, then apply an equal and opposite load; a load ratio of -1) and zero-based
(apply a load then remove it; a load ratio of 0). Since loading is proportional, looking at a
single set of FE results can identify critical fatigue locations. Likewise, since there are
only two loadings, no cycle counting or cumulative damage calculations need to be done.

FIGURE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > goodman stress life rl

Value of Infinite Life


Another available option when conducting a variable amplitude fatigue analysis is the
ability to set the value used for infinite life. In constant amplitude loading, if the
alternating stress is lower than the lowest alternating stress on the fatigue curve, the

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fatigue tool will use the life at the last point. This provides for an added level of safety
because many materials do not exhibit an endurance limit. However, in non-constant
amplitude loading, cycles with very small alternating stresses may be present and may
incorrectly predict too much damage if the number of the small stress cycles is high
enough. To help control this, the user can set the infinite life value that will be used if
the alternating stress is beyond the limit of the SN curve. Setting a higher value will
make small stress cycles less damaging if they occur many times. The rainflow and
damage matrix results can be helpful in determining the effects of small stress cycles in
your loading history. The rainflow and damage matrices shown in Figure 13 illustrates
the possible effects of infinite life. Both damage matrices came from the same loading
(and thus same rainflow matrix), but the first damage matrix was calculated with an
infinite life if 1e6 cycles and the second was calculated with an infinite life of 1e9
cycles.

FIGURE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > goodman stress life rl

TABLE
Model > Static Structural > Solution > goodman stress life rl > Results

Object Name Life Damage Safety Factor Equivalent Alternating Stress


State Solved
Scope
Geometry All Bodies
Definition
Type Life Damage Safety Factor Equivalent Alternating Stress
Design Life 1.e+009 cycles

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Results
Minimum 1.e+012 cycles 8.895 4.7782 Pa
Maximum 1.e-003 6.4722e+007 Pa

Material Data

Structural Steel 2

TABLE
Structural Steel 2 > Constants
Structural
Young's Modulus 2.e+011 Pa
Poisson's Ratio 0.3
Density 7850. kg/m³
Thermal Expansion 1.2e-005 1/°C
Tensile Yield Strength 2.5e+008 Pa
Compressive Yield Strength 2.5e+008 Pa
Tensile Ultimate Strength 4.6e+008 Pa
Compressive Ultimate Strength 0. Pa
Thermal
Thermal Conductivity 60.5 W/m·°C
Specific Heat 434. J/kg·°C
Electromagnetics
Relative Permeability 10000
Resistivity 1.7e-007 Ohm·m

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FIGURE
Structural Steel 2 > Alternating Stress

TABLE
Structural Steel 2 > Alternating Stress > Property Attributes
Interpolation Log-Log
Mean Curve Type Mean Stress

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TABLE
Structural Steel 2 > Alternating Stress > Alternating Stress vs. Cycles
Cycles Alternating Stress Pa
10. 3.999e+009
20. 2.827e+009
50. 1.896e+009
100. 1.413e+009
200. 1.069e+009
2000. 4.41e+008
10000 2.62e+008
20000 2.14e+008
1.e+005 1.38e+008
2.e+005 1.14e+008
1.e+006 8.62e+007

FIGURE Structural Steel 2 > Strain-Life Parameters

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TABLE
Structural Steel 2 > Strain-Life Parameters > Property Attributes
Display Curve Type Strain-Life

TABLE
Structural Steel 2 > Strain-Life Parameters > Strain-Life Parameters
Strength Coefficient Pa 9.2e+008
Strength Exponent -0.106
Ductility Coefficient 0.213
Ductility Exponent -0.47
Cyclic Strength Coefficient Pa 1.e+009
Cyclic Strain Hardening Exponent 0.2

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Wind analysis
Contents
1. File Report
Table 1 File Information for windanalysiscfx11_001
2. Mesh Report
Table 2 Mesh Information for windanalysiscfx11_001
3. Physics Report
Table 3 Domain Physics for windanalysiscfx11_001
Table 4 Boundary Physics for windanalysiscfx11_001
4. Solution Report
Table 5 Boundary Flows for windanalysiscfx11_001
5. User Data
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4

Fig: Wind analysis

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1. File Report
Table 1. File Information for windanalysiscfx11_001
Case windanalysiscfx11_001
File Path D:/pressurevesselanalysis/windanalysiscfx11_001.res
File Date 15 March 2008
File Time 03:46:08 PM
File Type CFX5
File Version 11.0
Fluids Air at 25 C
Solids None
Particles None

Figure 2. pressure distributation on face of vessel

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2. Mesh Report
Table 2. Mesh Information for windanalysiscfx11_001
Domain Nodes Elements
pressurevessel 7338 28308

Figure 3. streamline and pressure representation

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3. Physics Report
Table 3. Domain Physics for windanalysiscfx11_001
Name Location Type Materials Models
Heat Transfer Model = Isothermal
Turbulence Model = SST
pressurevessel B4 Fluid Air at 25 C Turbulent Wall Functions = Automatic
Buoyancy Model = Non Buoyant
Domain Motion = Stationary

Table 4. Boundary Physics for windanalysiscfx11_001


Domain Name Location Type Settings
Flow Regime = Subsonic
Normal Speed = 47 [m s^-1]
Mass And Momentum = Normal
Speed
pressurevessel inlet inlet Inlet
Eddy Length Scale = 0.1 [m]
Fractional Intensity = 0.05
Turbulence = Intensity and
Length Scale
Flow Regime = Subsonic
Mass And Momentum = Static
pressurevessel outlet outlet Outlet
Pressure
Relative Pressure = 0 [Pa]
pressurevessel symp symp Symmetry
Wall Influence On Flow = No
pressurevessel body body Wall
Slip
Wall Influence On Flow = Free
pressurevessel freewalls freewalls Wall
Slip
pressurevessel F41.4, Wall Influence On Flow = No
pressurevessel Wall
Default F45.4 Slip

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4. Solution Report
Table 5. Boundary Flows for windanalysiscfx11_001
Momentum
Location Type Mass Flow
X Y Z
body Boundary 0.0000e+00 -1.7561e+03 2.7605e+02 -8.3776e+01
freewalls Boundary 0.0000e+00 -1.4953e+02 0.0000e+00 0.0000e+00
inlet Boundary 1.7405e+02 -5.1811e-07 -8.5229e+03 1.5579e-06
outlet Boundary -1.7405e+02 1.3129e+01 8.1929e+03 -2.3151e+00
pressurevessel Default Boundary 0.0000e+00 -1.9325e-02 5.4447e+01 8.5967e+01
symp Boundary 0.0000e+00 1.8922e+03 0.0000e+00 0.0000e+00

By interpolation we get: for 41 m/s of


wind speed the wind pressure is 730
N/ m2 and from the standard wind
load table we compare the result
which is very accurate.

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INTRODUCTION TO GLASS LINING

Introduction of Glass lining (Glasteel)

In recent years, because of the expansion of the chemical process and pharmaceutical
industries world-wide and increased concerns for safety and quality control, Pfaudler
began investigating new approaches in glass development that would lead to a glass
composition that could be made available to all users of glass-lined equipment.

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Together with the chemical process industry and with the co-operation of Pfaudler
divisions around the world, Pfaudler established the criteria for a new composition:
A non-crystalline structure.
Increased resistance to acid and alkali corrosion.
High resistance to impact.
High resistance to thermally induced stresses.
A formulation that could be easily produced by all Pfaudler manufacturing plants.

The result is Glasteel 9100®, Pfaudler's first "international glass", offering an unmatched
combination of corrosion resistance, impact strength, thermal shock resistance, non-
adherence and heat transfer efficiency.

Now GMM Pfaudler customers, regardless of where their processing operations are
located, can purchase a single glass system and be assured of getting the same high
quality worldwide. With Glasteel 9100 ®, GMM Pfaudler sets a standard the world can
depend on.

glass. However, these are very recipe sensitive and general statements cannot usually be
made. An exception to this are chemistries that involve the element silicon (Si),
especially when ionised, e.g. Si, SiO. Relatively small amounts of dissolved SiO can be
highly effective in reducing the corrosion rate of the Glasteel 9100 system, thereby
greatly extending its usage range. It has also been shown that colloidal silica additions to
recipes containing the highly corrosive fluorine ion (F-) can drastically reduce the
corrosive rate.

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Water
Pure Water
Pure water in the liquid phase is not very aggressive. Its behaviour resembles highly
diluted acid and corrodes only the surface layer of the glass ("ion exchange process"). At
170°C, a corrosion rate of 0.1 mm/year can be expected.
But because this water is an unbuffered, pH-unstable system, even a slight alkalization
can change the situation. If there is a shift toward higher pH values, the isocorrosion
curves for diluted alkaline solutions have to be consulted for orientation purposes.
Glasteel 9100 ® is highly resistant to condensing water vapour. However, to counter the
possible danger of the condensate shifting to an alkaline pH, it is recommended that the
vessel contents be slightly acidified with a volatile acid, e.g. hydrochloric or acetic acid.
It is also highly recommended that the unjacketed top head be insulated or heat traced to
reduce condensation formation.
Agueous Neutral pHMedia
With these type media, e.g. tap water, salt solutions, corrosion rate depends greatly on the
type and quantity of the dissolved substance. Carbonates and phosphates usually increase
the rate while alcohols and some ionic species, e.g. A13+, Zn2+ Ca2+, may reduce it.

Alkalis
As alkali concentration rises, corrosion rate increases. Also, the temperature gradient for
alkaline glass corrosion, is steeper. The result is that concentrated alkalis require a more
definite setting of the temperature limits.

The corrosion rate of concentrated alkaline solutions cannot be expressed by the pH value
alone. For aqueous solutions of alkaline materials with a pH value of 14, the particular
concentration must also be considered to establish appropriate operating temperatures.
Other factors affecting alkaline corrosion are the specific reaction and the dissolving
ability of the chemical, the influence of the nature and amount of other dissolved
substances and agitation.

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Isocorrosion curves for sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and
ammonia take into account technically relevant parameters influencing the rate of
corrosion; for example, the volume/ surface area ratio, inhibition effects by calcium ions,
alkaline concentration and temperature.

Under actual operating conditions, even very slight contamination (tap water in sodium
hydroxide, for example) can cause major changes in the rate of corrosion. Other factors,
such as product velocity and splash zone, can affect the corrosion rate as well. Due to
these interactive complexities, meaningful testing is strongly advised.

To eliminate the influence of the testing equipment on the rate of corrosion, procedures
are carried out in polypropylene bottles. For solutions above the boiling point, autoclaves
with PTFE inserts were used. By comparing the results with control experiments, it is
proven that the testing equipment does not have an inhibiting effect.

Pfaudler Ultra-Glas 6500 ®

1 . Extends the range of Glasteel® applications.


2. Allows safe and easy handling of high temperature processes
never before approved for Glasteel equipment.
3. Provides potential for reduced cycle time compared to conventional
vessel glass.
4. Provides extended thermal shock protection for faster heating
and cooling.
5. Provides increased operating safety margin through its enhanced
thermal protection.
6. Is ideal for the higher temperatures required by today's chemical
process applications.

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The features of GMM Pfaudler Ultra-Glas 6500 ® are the result of changes in glass
composition and material preparation, altered applications and firing procedures, as well
as changes in equipment design and materials of construction. These changes permit
trouble-free application of the required high-stress coating and provide the highly
corrosive-resistant glass-lined surface for which Pfaudler has been respected for years.
Technical details of corrosion rates in common chemicals and thermal operation limits
are available on request.

Temperature Limits

Although Ultra-Glas 6500 ® has a high degree of helpful compressive stress in the glass
layer there are definite limits to the level of thermal stress which the glass can withstand
without incurring damage:
Only two thermal conditions must be considered when determining the temperature
limits:

A. Introduction of media into a vessel.


B. Introduction of media into a jacket.

CAUTION: "Safe" operating temperatures vary with conditions. Because so many


variables are involved, temperature ranges are given only as a guide. Where in practical,
operation below the maximum and above the minimum is recommended. Contact
Pfaudler for details.

Type 4300 Glass Coatings


Type 4300 ® glass coatings represent a new aspect of this tradition and are designed to
bridge a perceived gap in the application range. GMM Pfaudler Type 4300 ® glass is still
an acidic type of glass, but its primary application is based on improved alkali resistance.
Type 4300 glass coatings are advisable wherever alkaline conditions prevail during the

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cycle, or as a result of concentration and temperature, or where concentration and/or


temperature conditions exceed permissible limits for conventional glass.

In addition, Type 4300 ® glass coatings are advisable where any of the following
conditions exist:
Protection of alkaline products against metal contamination.
Danger of discoloration of alkaline products due to incorporation of metals.
Stabilization of high-molecular alkalis sensitive to metal contact.
Inadequate redox stability of the vessel material in the alkaline range.

Compared to our world renowned standard glass, Type 4300 ® has three times better
alkali resistance. This means that higher process temperatures can be used, or that, under
otherwise equal conditions, these glass coatings will have three times the life
expectations.

The Type 4300 ® glass does make a slight concession in the area of acid resistance.
Although it is adequate for mild service, it is not recommended for aggressive acid
conditions.

Corrosion Resistance
For pure acids and bases most commonly used in the chemical industry , technically
relevant parameters influencing the rate of corrosion (for example, the volume/surface
area ratio, inhibition effects, concentration, and temperature) are considered.

In practical operation these materials are always encountered with liquid additives,
dissolved substances or gases which may have positive or negative effects on resistance.
We therefore recommend performing corrosion tests or contacting a Pfaudler consultant
to assure material suitability for individual processes.
The Need For PPG

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When the requirements of the Bulk Drug industry were studied recently, in context of the
stringent requirements of GMP and FDA, the need for a different glass was evident. Two
of the requirements of the pharmaceutical industry are increased purity in order to comply
with the FDA and GMP requirements and alternating alkali/acid operation.

The process equipment of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries has so far been
very similar - especially in terms of glasslined reactors and components. In light of the
survey, Pfaudler's response was a novel glass tailored to the needs of manufacturing
pharmaceutical products, vitamins and fine chemicals.

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Appendix

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BIBLOGRAPHY
Dennis Moss
Hiadri Farzdak
C.S Sharma
Somnath chatopadhay

For Ansys :
Tutorials of cfx 11.0

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