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  Dr. SHAMSHAD

 REYYAN KHALID

.  10-NUST-SMME-BE-ME-76

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c 4TH April¶ 2011




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The   or   are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 IUPAC
Style (formerly: VII, VIIA) of the periodic table,
comprising fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). The artificially created
element 117, provisionally referred to by the systematic name ununseptium, may also be a halogen.

The group of halogens is the only periodic table group which contains elements in all three familiar states
of matter atstandard temperature and pressure.
Owing to their high reactivity, the halogens are found in the environment only in compounds or
as ions. Halide ions andoxoanions such as iodate (IO3í) can be found in many minerals and in
seawater. Halogenated organic compounds can also be found as natural products in living organisms. In
their elemental forms, the halogens exist as diatomic molecules, but these only have a fleeting existence
in nature and are much more common in the laboratory and in industry. At room temperature and
pressure, fluorine and chlorine are gases, bromine is a liquid and iodine and astatine are solids; Group 17
is therefore the only periodic table group exhibiting all three states of matter at room temperature.

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* fluorine 2, 7

17 chlorine 2, 8, 7

35 bromine 2, 8, 18, 7
53 iodine 2, 8, 18, 18, 7

85 astatine 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7

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Chlorine is a highly poisonous gas, greenish-yellow in color, with a sharp smell that induces choking in
humans. Yet, it can combine with other elements to form compounds safe for human consumption. Most
notable among these compounds is salt, which has been used as a food preservative since at least
3000 B.C.


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? The dangers involved with chlorine have made it an effective substance to use against stains,
plants, animals²and even human beings.
? The concentrations of chlorine used against troops on both sides in World War I (beginning in
1*15) was, of course, much higher. Thanks to the use of chlorine gas and
other antipersonnel agents, one of the most chilling images to emerge from that conflict was of
soldiers succumbing to poisonous gas. Yet just as it is harmful to humans, chlorine can be
harmful to microbes, thus preserving human life. As early as 1801, it had been used in solutions
as a disinfectant;
? In 1831, its use in hospitals made it effective as a weapon against a cholera epidemic that swept
across Europe.
? Another well-known use of chlorine is as a bleaching agent. Until 1785, when chlorine was first
put to use as a bleach, the only way to get stains and unwanted colors out of textiles or paper was
to expose them to sunlight, not always an effective method. By contrast, chlorine, still used as a
bleach today, can be highly effective²a good reason not to use regular old-fashioned bleach on
anything other than white clothing. (Since the 1*80s, makers of bleaches have developed all-color
versions to brighten and take out stains from clothing of other colors.)
? Calcium hydrocholoride (CaOCl), both a bleaching powder and a disinfectant used in swimming
pools, combines both the disinfectant and bleaching properties of chlorine. This and the others
discussed here are just some of many, many compounds formed with the highly reactive element
chlorine. Particularly notable²and controversial²are compounds involving chlorine and carbon.

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? Chlorine bonds well with organic substances, or those containing carbon. In a number of
instances, chlorine becomes part of an organic polymer such as PVC (polyvinyl chloride), used
for making synthetic pipe. Chlorine polymers are also applied in making synthetic rubber,
or neoprene. Due to its resistance to heat, oxidation, and oils, neoprene is used in a number of
automobile parts.
? The bonding of chlorine with substances containing carbon has become increasingly controversial
because of concerns over health and the environment, and in some cases chlorine-carbon
compounds have been outlawed. Such was the fate of DDT, a pesticide soluble in fats and oils
rather than in water. When it was discovered that DDT was carcinogenic, or cancer-causing, in
humans and animals, its use in the United States was outlawed.
? Chlorine-related insecticides have likewise been banned due to their potential for harm to human
life and the environment. Among these are chlorine-containing materials once used for dry
cleaning.
? Role of chlorine in chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) can never be neglected, which have been used in
refrigerants such as Freon, and in propellants for aerosol sprays. CFCs tend to evaporate easily,
and concerns over their effect on Earth's atmosphere have led to the phasing out of their use.

 

Fluorine has the distinction of being the most reactive of all the elements, with the
highest electronegativity value on the periodic table. Because of this, it proved extremely difficult to
isolate. Davy first identified it as an element, but was poisoned while trying unsuccessfully
to decompose hydrogen fluoride. Two other chemists were also later poisoned in similar attempts, and
one of them died as a result.


 

? A pale green gas of low density, fluorine can combine with all elements except some of the noble
gases. Even water will burn in the presence of this highly reactive substance. Fluorine is also
highly toxic, and can cause severe burns on contact, yet it also exists in harmless compounds,
primarily in the mineral known as fluorspar, or calcium fluoride. The latter gives off a fluorescent
light (fluorescence is the term for a type of light not accompanied by heat), and fluorine was
named for the mineral that is one of its principal "hosts".
? Beginning in the 1600s, hydrofluoric acid was used for etching glass, and is still used for that
purpose today in the manufacture of products such as light bulbs.
? The oil industry uses it as a catalyst²a substance that speeds along a chemical reaction²to
increase the octane number in gasoline.
? Fluorine is also used in a polymer commonly known as Teflon, which provides a non-stick
surface for frying pans and other cooking-related products.
? Uust as chlorine saw service in World War I, fluorine was enlisted in World War II to create a
weapon far more terrifying than poison gas: the atomic bomb.
? Scientists working on the Manhattan Project, the United States' effort to develop the bombs
dropped on Uapan in 1*45, needed large quantities of the uranium-235 isotope. This they obtained
in large part by diffusion of the compound uranium hexafluoride, which consists of molecules
containing one uranium atom and six fluorine anions.

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Long before World War II, health officials in the United States noticed that communities having high
concentration of fluoride in their drinking water tended to suffer a much lower incidence of tooth decay.
In some areas the concentration of fluoride in the water supply was high enough that it stained people's
teeth; still, at the turn of the century²an era when dental hygiene as we know it today was still in its
infancy²the prevention of tooth decay was an attractive prospect. Perhaps, officials surmised, it would
be possible to introduce smaller concentrations of fluoride into community drinking water, with a
resulting improvement in overall dental health.
After World War II, a number of municipalities around the United States undertook the fluoridation of
their water supplies, using concentrations as low as 1 ppm. Within a few years, fluoridation became
a hotly debated topic, with proponents pointing to the potential health benefits and opponents arguing
from the standpoint of issues not directly involved in science. It was an invasion of personal liberty, they
said, for governments to force citizens to drink water which had been supplemented with a foreign
substance.

During the 1*50s, in fact, fluoridation became associated in some circles with Communism²just another
manifestation of a government trying to control its citizens. In later years, ironically, antifluoridation
efforts became associated with groups on the political left rather than the right. By then, the argument no
longer revolved around the issue of government power; instead the concern was for the health risks
involved in introducing a substance lethal in large doses.

Fluoride had meanwhile gained application in toothpastes. Colgate took the lead, introducing "stannous
fluoride" in 1*55. Three years later, the company launched a memorable advertising campaign with
commercials in which a little girl showed her mother a "report card" from the dentist and announced
"Look, Ma! No cavities!" Within a few years, virtually all brands of toothpaste used fluoride; however,
the use of fluoride in drinking water remained controversial.

As late as 1**3, in fact, the issue of fluoridation remained heated enough to spawn a study by the U.S.
National Research Council. The council found some improvement in dental health, but not as large as had
been claimed by early proponents of fluoridation. Furthermore, this improvement could be explained by
reference to a number of other factors, including fluoride in toothpastes and a generally heightened
awareness of dental health among the U.S. populace.

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Another controversial application of fluorine is its use, along with chlorine and carbon, in
chlorofluorocarbons. As noted above, CFCs have been used in refrigerants and propellants; another
application is as a blowing agent for polyurethane foam. This continued for several decades, but in the
1*80s, environmentalists became concerned over depletion of the ozone layer high in Earth's atmosphere.

Unlike ordinary oxygen (O2), ozone or O3 is capable of absorbing ultraviolet radiation from the Sun,
which would otherwise be harmful to human life. It is believed that CFCs catalyze the conversion of
ozone to oxygen, and that this may explain the "ozone hole," which is particularly noticeable over the
Antarctic in September and October.

As a result, a number of countries signed an agreement in 1**6 to eliminate the manufacture of


halocarbons, or substances containing halogens and carbon. Manufacturers in countries that signed this
agreement, known as the Montreal Protocol, have developed CFC substitutes, most notably
hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), CFC-like compounds also containing hydrogen atoms.

The ozone-layer question is far from settled, however. Critics argue that in fact the depletion of the ozone
layer over Antarctica is a natural occurrence, which may explain why it only occurs at certain times of
year. This may also explain why it happens primarily in Antarctica, far from any place where humans
have been using CFCs. (Ozone depletion is far less significant in the Arctic, which is much closer to the
population centers of the industrialized world.) In any case, natural sources, such as volcano eruptions,
continue to add halogen compounds to the atmosphere.

 
? Bromine is a foul-smelling reddish-brown liquid whose name is derived from a Greek word
meaning "stink." With a boiling point much lower than that of water²137.84°F (58.8°C)²it
readily transforms into a gas. Like other halogens, its vapors are highly irritating to the eyes and
throat. It is found primarily in deposits of brine, a solution of salt and water. Among the most
significant brine deposits are in Israel's Dead Sea, as well as in Arkansas and Michigan.

? The first use of bromine actually predated both men by several millennia. To make their famous
purple dyes, the Phoenicians used murex mollusks, which contained bromine. (Like the names of
the halogens, the word "Phoenicians" is derived from Greek²in this case, a word meaning "red"
or "purple," which referred to their dyes.) Today bromine is also used in dyes, and other modern
uses include applications in pesticides, disinfectants, medicines, and flame retardants.

? At one time, a compound containing bromine was widely used by the petroleum industry as an
additive for gasoline containing lead. Ethylene dibromide reacts with the lead released by
gasoline to form lead bromide (PbBr2), referred to as a "scavenger," because it tends to clean the
emissions of lead-containing gasoline. However, leaded gasoline was phased out during the late
1*70s and early 1*80s; as a result, demand for ethylene dibromide dropped

±?     

Tetrabromobisphenol A

Brominated flame retardants represent a commodity of growing importance, and represent the largest use
of bromine. When the brominated material burns, the flame retardant produces hydrobromic acid which
interferes in the radical chain reaction of the oxidation reaction of the fire. The mechanism is that the
highly reactive hydrogen oxygen and hydroxy radicals react with hydrobromic acid and form less reactive
bromine radicals (free bromine atoms). These also react with radicals in the first to help terminate the
reaction.

? The bromine-containing compounds can be placed in the polymers either during polymerization if
a small amount of brominated monomer is added or the bromine containing compound is added
after polymerization. Tetrabromobisphenol A can be added to produce polyesters or epoxy resins.
Epoxy used in printed circuit boards (PCB) are normally made from flame retardant resins,
indicated by the FR in the abbreviation of the products (FR-4 and FR-2. Vinyl bromide can be
used in the production of polyethylene, polyvinylchloride or polypropylene.Decabromodiphenyl
ether can be added to the final polymers.
?   Ethylene bromide was an additive in gasolines containing lead anti-engine
knocking agents. It scavenges lead by forming volatile lead bromide, which is exhausted from the
engine. This application accounted for 77% of the bromine use in 1*66 in the US. This
application has declined since the 1*70s due to environmental regulations (see below).

?
 Poisonous methyl bromide was widely used as pesticide to fumigate soil and to
fumagate housing, by the tenting method. Ethylene bromide was similarly used.[27] These volatile
organobromine compounds are all now regulated asozone depletion agents. The Montreal
Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone scheduled the phase out for theozone
depleting chemical by 2005, and organobromide pesticides are no longer used (in housing
fumagation they have been replaced by such compounds as sulfuryl fluoride, which contain
neither the chlorine or bromine organics which harm ozone). Prior to the Montreal protocol in
1**1 (for example) an estimated 35,000 metric tons of the chemical were used to
control nematodes, fungi, weeds and other soil-borne diseases.

?     Bromide compounds, especially potassium bromide, were frequently


used as general sedatives in the 1*th and early 20th century. Bromides in the form of simple salts
are still used as anticonvulsants in both veterinary and human medicine, although the latter use
varies from country to country. For example, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does
not approve bromide for the treatment of any disease, and it was removed from over-the-counter
sedative products like Bromo-Seltzer, in 1*75. Thus, bromide levels are not routinely measured
by medical laboratories in the U.S. However, U.S. veterinary medical diagnostic testing
laboratories will measure blood bromide levels on request, as an aid to treatment of epilepsy in
dogs.

      

? Bromine, like chlorine, is used in maintenance of swimming pools, especially spas (hot tubs),
where it is generated in situ from a bromide plus hydrogen peroxide. In spas, the high water
temperatures render chlorinated water purification and buffering compounds unstable, and
bromine compounds may improve the life of the free-halogen antimicrobial.
? Water purification compounds, disinfectants and insecticides, such
as tralomethrin (C22H1*Br4NO3).[27]
? Potassium bromide is used in some photographic developers to inhibit the formation of fog
(undesired reduction of silver).
? Bromine vapor is used as the second step in sensitizing daguerreotype plates to be developed
under mercury vapor. Bromine acts as an accelerator to the light sensitivity of the previously
iodized plate.

 
 The major application of iodine is as a co-catalyst for the production of acetic acid by
the Monsanto and Cativa processes. In these technologies, which support the world's demand for acetic
acid, hydroiodic acid converts the methanol feedstock into methyl iodide, which undergoes carbonylation.
Hydrolysis of the resulting acetyl iodide regenerates hydroiodic acid and gives acetic acid. [3]
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The production of ethylenediammonium diiodide (EDDI) consumes a large fraction of
available iodine. EDDI is provided to livestock as a nutritional supplement.[3]

       Elemental iodine is used as a disinfectant in various forms. The
iodine exists as the element, or as the water-soluble triiodide anion I3-generated  by adding iodide to
poorly water-soluble elemental iodine (the reverse chemical reaction makes some free elemental iodine
available for antisepsis). In alternative fashion, iodine may come from iodophors, which contain iodine
complexed with a solubilizing agent (iodide ion may be thought of loosely as the iodophor in triiodide
water solutions). Examples of such preparations include:

6? Tincture of iodine: iodine in ethanol, or iodine and sodium iodide in a mixture of ethanol and water.
6? Lugol's iodine: iodine and iodide in water alone, forming mostly triiodide. Unlike tincture of iodine,
Lugol's has a minimized amount of the free iodine (I2) component.
6? Povidone iodine (an iodophor)
?      In most countries, table salt is iodized. Iodide is required
for the essential thyroxin hormones produced by and concentrated in the thyroid gland.
Potassium iodide has been used as an expectorant, although this use is increasingly uncommon. In
medicine, potassium iodide is used to treat acute thyrotoxicosis, usually as a saturated solution of
potassium iodide (SSKI). It is also used to block uptake of iodine-131 in the thyroid gland (see
isotopes section above), when this isotope is used as part of radiopharmaceuticals (such
as iobenguane) that are not targetted to the thyroid or thyroid type tissues.
Iodine-131 (in the chemical form of iodide) is a component of nuclear fallout and a particularly
dangerous one due to the thyroid gland's propensity to concentrate ingested iodine, where it is
kept for periods longer than this isotope's radiological half life of eight days. For this reason, if
people are expected to be exposed to a significant amount of environmental radioactive iodine
(iodine-131 in fallout), they may be instructed to take non-radioactive potassium iodide tablets.
The typical adult dose is one 130 mg tablet per 24 hours, supplying 100 mg
(100,000 micrograms) iodine, as iodide ion. (Note: typical daily dose of iodine to maintain
normal health is of order 100 micrograms; see "Dietary Intake" below.) By ingesting this large
amount of non-radioactive iodine, radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid gland is minimized.
See the main article above for more on this topic.[1*]
?     Iodine, as a heavy element, is quite radio-opaque. Organic compounds of a
certain type (typically iodine-substituted benzene derivatives) are, thus, used in medicine as X-
ray radiocontrast agents for intravenous injection. This is often in conjunction with advanced X-
ray techniques such asangiography and CT scanning. At present, all water-soluble radiocontrast
agents rely on iodine.
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The least stable isotopes of astatine have no practical applications other than scientific study due to their
extremely short life, but heavier isotopes have medical uses.

Astatine-211 is an alpha emitter with a physical half-life of 7.2 h. These features have led to its use
in radiation therapy

An investigation of the efficacy of astatine-211±tellurium colloid for the treatment of experimental


malignant ascites in mice reveals that this alpha-emitting radiocolloid can be curative without causing
undue toxicity to normal tissue

By comparison, beta-emittingphosphorus-32 as colloidal chromic phosphate had no antineoplastic


activity. The most compelling explanation for this striking difference is the dense ionization and short
range of action associated with alpha-emission. These results have important implications for the
development and use of alpha-emitters as radiocolloid therapy for the treatment of human tumors.[