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A PROJECT REPORT

QUALITY WORK LIFE


45 Days Summer Training Project with

” HDFC Standard Life Insurance Company Ltd.”

Submitted by:

Priya Mudgal

MBA – III Semester

Poornima School of Management

ISI – 2, RIICO Institutional Area, Goner Road, Sitapura, Jaipur

Poornima school of Management


(Department Of Management Studies)

(ISI – 2, Goner Road, Sitapura, Jaipur)

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CERTIFICATE OF

Summer Project/Training during June – July, 2010


Certified that Mr. / Ms. Priya Mudgal , student of Master of Business Administration,
III Semester has submitted his report on “Quality work life” after successfully
completing the summer practical training at ’ HDFC Standard Life Insurance
Company Ltd. ‘ from June 17th to August 1st 2010, towards fulfillment of the syllabus
requirement prescribed by Rajasthan technical University, Kota for MBA III semester
Paper.

Dr. Vandana Sharma

Director, PSOM

Acknowledgement
It gives me pleasure to present this report. This report is out come of the
study on “QUALITY OF WORK LIFE”. I got support from many people without their
help I would not have got success. I wish to record sincere appreciation and thanks
to them.

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First of all I would like to thanks Mr.Shatayprakash channel manager
in Hdfc . HDFC Standard Life Insurance Company Ltd for undertaking this project
work.
I’ll be failing in my duty if I do not thank Mr. R.K. Agarwal for hs
constant moral support
Finally, I am very thankful to all of my friends whose cooperation and
suggestions have helped me in successful complete of this project.

Priya Mudgal

PREFACE

Paradigm shifts encompassing structural, functional and governance aspects should


have normally formed the subjects of debate and discussion at the time of beginning

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of the insurance sector reforms. These facets which were examined in nineties are
now being taken up for discussion once again after more than a decade of
implementing a wide range of reforms, a new concept has recently blossomed.

Every single insurance company, be it from the private sector, or even the foreign
counterparts, are embarking on providing its services to the customers by evolving
new financial instruments and adopting new strategies. At this juncture, a question
that needs to be answered is: ‘was not the case similar few years ago? Perhaps not.

With the change of catch phase from ‘caveat emptor’ to ‘caveat vendor’, insurance
companies are trying its level best to offer a transparent environment and quality of
services to the invaluable customers. Emphasizing on the requisites of the
costumers, the entire business concept has provided a host of new insurance
product/services and instrument to the ever ending worlds.

The predicament for insurance arises when hank customer abandons the traditional
services of availing life protection cover. This argument has been increasingly raised
by the discerning population of the best answer as well as a principal strategy for
insurance confronted with a plethora of quandaries.

Table of Contents

Preface

1. Executive summary 6

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2. Industry profile 8

3. Company profile 12

4. Objectives, Scope and Purpose 19

5. Research Methodology 20

6. Data & Analysis 21

7. Conclusion 52

8. Recommendations 55

9. Limitations 64

10.Bibliography 68

Executive summary
Quality work life basically is all about employee involvement, which consists of
methods to motivate employees to participate in decision making. This help in
building in good relationship.

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In today's high tech, fast-paced world, the work environment is very different than it
was a generation ago. It is not uncommon for a person to change careers an
average of six times in his or her lifetime. It is now rare for a person to stay with a
single company his or her entire working life. Because employees are often willing to
leave a company for better opportunities, companies need to find ways not only to
hire qualified people, but also to retain them.

Unfortunately, many employees these days feel they are working harder, faster, and
longer hours than ever before. Job-related employee stress can lead to lack of
commitment to the corporation, poor productivity, and even leaving the company; all
of which are of serious concern to management. Many employees bring work home
with them on a regular basis, especially now that it is so easy for them to do that.
With the wide availability of cell phones, pagers, personal digital assistants, and
computers, employees find it harder to get away from the office.

The project helps me to understand how a company’s HR Department try to improve


their business by keeping good relations with employees. IT helps to understand
how good working conditions help employees to work more efficiently. ‘Quality work
life’ emphasises on how an employee and employer should keep a proper balance
between their work and family. If emphasises how people can keep balance by
making their work timings flexible.

Employees in the future will likely be looking for corporations that have a new work
environment, one that encourages each employee to work toward improvement in
the product or service gives employees the responsibility and authority to make
decisions, provides timely feedback, and rewards employees based upon the quality
of the product and efforts. Team effort will assume central importance, especially
that of self-directed work teams. Employees will choose employers who have aims
and values that match theirs and who value balance in their employees' lives.
Employees want to learn and advance, so opportunities for professional growth will
attract employees. Health human resources have emerged as a top priority for
research and action. This paper echoes calls for a fundamentally new approach to
the people side of the health care system –treating employees as assets that need to
be nurtured rather than costs that need to be controlled.

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This paper examines the research and relevant Canadian empirical evidence on
work schedules, work time and work–life balance. It assesses trends and current
practices in Canadian workplaces, particularly in sectors under federal jurisdiction.
The paper also reviews empirical evidence on problems regarding work–life balance,
increasing work-life pressures, and the need to accommodate evolving family
structures. It also considers possible legislative and non-legislative solutions.

Industry profile

In India, Insurance is a national matter, in which life and general insurance is yet a
booming sector with huge possibilities for different global companies, as life
insurance premiums account to 2.5% and general insurance premiums account to
0.65% of India's GDP. The Indian Insurance sector has gone through several phases

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and changes, especially after 1999, when the Govt. of India opened up the insurance
sector for private companies to solicit insurance, allowing FDI up to 26%. Since then,
the Insurance sector in India is considered as a flourishing market amongst global
insurance companies. However, the largest life insurance company in India is still
owned by the government.
The history of Insurance in India dates back to 1818, when Oriental Life Insurance
Company was established by Europeans in Kolkata to cater to their requirements.
Nevertheless, there was discrimination among the life of foreigners and Indians, as
higher premiums were charged from the latter. In 1870, Indians took a sigh of relief
when Bombay Mutual Life Assurance Society, the first Indian insurance company
covered Indian lives at normal rates. Onset of the 20th century brought a drastic
change in the Insurance sector.
In 1912, the Govt. of India passed two acts - the Life Insurance Companies Act, and
the Provident Fund Act - to regulate the insurance business. National Insurance
Company Ltd, founded in 1906, is the oldest existing insurance company in India.
Earlier, the Insurance sector had only two state insurers - Life Insurers i.e. Life
Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), and General Insurers i.e. General Insurance
Corporation of India (GIC). In December 2000, these subsidiaries were de-linked
from parent company and were declared independent insurance companies: Oriental
Insurance Company Limited, New India Assurance Company Limited, National
Insurance Company Limited and United India Insurance Company Limited.
Insurance Companies In India

• Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Company Limited


• Birla Sun Life Insurance Co. Ltd
• HDFC Standard life Insurance Co. Ltd
• ICICI Prudential Life Insurance Co. Ltd.
• ING Vysya Life Insurance Company Ltd.
• Life Insurance Corporation of India
• Max New York Life Insurance Co. Ltd
• Met Life India Insurance Company Ltd.
• Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance Limited
• SBI Life Insurance Co. Ltd
• Tata AIG Life Insurance Company Limited
• Reliance Life Insurance Company Limited.
• Aviva Life Insurance Co. India Pvt. Ltd.
• Shriram Life Insurance Co, Ltd.

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• Sahara India Life Insurance
• Bharti AXA Life Insurance
• Future Generali Life Insurance
• IDBI Fortis Life Insurance
• Canara HSBC Oriental Bank of Commerce Life Insurance
• Religare Life Insurance
• DLF Pramerica Life Insurance
• Star Union Dai-ichi Life Insurance
• Agriculture Insurance Company of India
• Apollo DKV Insurance
• Cholamandalam MS General Insurance
• HDFC Ergo General Insurance Company
• ICICI Lombard General Insurance
• IFFCO Tokio General Insurance
• National Insurance Company Ltd
• New India Assurance
• Oriental Insurance Company
• Reliance General Insurance
• Royal Sundaram Alliance Insurance
• Shriram General Insurance Company Limited
• Tata AIG General Insurance
• United India Insurance
• Universal Sompo General Insurance Co. Ltd

Clearing basics
Before we begin the analysis of Indian insurance industry, let us clear some basics
on insurance.

• In the words of a layman, insurance means managing risk. For instance, in


life insurance segment, the insurance company tries to manage mortality
(death) rates among the wide array of clients.
• The insurance company works in a manner by collecting premiums from
policy holders, investing the money (usually in low risk investments), and then
reimbursing this same money once the person passes away or the policy
matures. The greater the probability for a person to have a shorter life span
than the average mark, the higher premium that person has to pay. The case is
the same for all other types of insurance, including automobile, health and
property.

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• Ownership of insurance companies is of two types:
• Shareholder ownership
• Policyholder ownership

Types of Insurance

1. Life Insurance - Insurance guaranteeing a specific sum of money to a


designated beneficiary upon the death of the insured, or to the insured if he or
she lives beyond a certain age.
2. Health Insurance - Insurance against expenses incurred through illness of the
insured.
3. Liability Insurance - This insures property such as automobiles, property and
professional/business mishaps.

Challenges facing Insurance Industry

• Threat of New Entrants: The insurance industry has been budding with
new entrants every other day. Therefore the companies should carve out niche
areas such that the threat of new entrants might not be a hindrance. There is
also a chance that the big players might squeeze the small new entrants.
• Power of Suppliers: Those who are supplying the capital are not that big a
threat. For instance, if someone as a very talented insurance underwriter is
presently working for a small insurance company, there exists a chance that
any big player willing to enter the insurance industry might entice that person
off.
• Power of Buyers: No individual is a big threat to the insurance industry and
big corporate houses have a lot more negotiating capability with the insurance
companies. Big corporate clients like airlines and pharmaceutical companies
pay millions of dollars every year in premiums.
• Availability of Substitutes: There exist a lot of substitutes in the insurance
industry. Majorly, the large insurance companies provide similar kinds of
services – be it auto, home, commercial, health or life insurance.

How to choose an insurance company?

There are many factors to probe into when an investor chose an insurance company.

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• The consumers as well as the investors should only focus on the insurer's
financial strength and capability to meet ongoing responsibilities to its
policyholders.
• The fundamentals of the insurance company should be strong and should
not indicate a poor investment opportunity as this might also deter growth.

Company profile

HDFC Standard Life Insurance Company Ltd. is one of India's leading private
insurance companies, which offers a range of individual and group insurance
solutions. It is a joint venture between Housing Development Finance Corporation
Limited (HDFC Ltd.), India's leading housing finance institution and a Group
Company of the Standard Life, UK. HDFC as on December 31, 2007 holds 72.38
percent of equity in the joint venture.

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HDFC STANDARD LIFE INSURANCE PARENTAGE

HDFC Limited.
• HDFC is India leading housing finance institution and has helped build more
than23, 00,000 houses since its incorporation in 1977.
• In Financial Year 2003-04 its assets under management crossed Rs. 36,000
Cr.
• As at March 31, 2004, outstanding deposits stood at Rs. 7,840 crores. The
Depositor base now stands at around 1 million depositors.
• Rated AAA by CRISIL and ICRA for the 10th consecutive year.

• Stable and experienced management.

• High service standards

• Awarded The Economic Times Corporate Citizen of the year Award for its
long-standing commitment to community development.
• Presented the Dream Home â award for the best housing finance provider in
2004 at the third Annual Outlook Mone Awards.

HDFC Standard Life Insurance Company Limited., being one of the key players in
the insurance sector in India, offers a host of individual and group insurance
solutions, suiting customer requirements. It happens to be a joint venture between
Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited (HDFC Limited), and a Group
Company of the Standard Life Plc, UK. It was per the data on February 28, 2009 that
HDFC Ltd. held 72.43% and Standard Life 2006, Ltd. held 26.00% of equity in the
JV. The remaining stake is held by others.

Established on 14th August 2000, HDFC Standard Life Insurance Co. Ltd. is a joint
venture between Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited (HDFC Limited)

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- India's leading housing finance institution, and a Group Company of the Standard
Life Plc, UK. The Company is one of leading private insurance companies, offering a
range of individual and group insurance solutions, in India. Being a joint venture of
top financial services groups, HDFC Standard Life has adequate financial expertise
to manage long-term investments safely and resourcefully.

HDFC Standard Life Insurance offers a range of individual and group solutions,
which can be easily personalized to specific needs. Its group solutions have been
planned to offer complete flexibility, together with a low charging structure. As of 31
December, 2008, the Company's new business premium income stood at Rs.
1,839.70 Crores; it has covered over 812,811 lives so far. Given below is a
comprehensive list of policies and products on offer by HDFC Standard Life
Insurance:

Protection Plans

• HDFC Term Assurance Plan


• HDFC Loan Cover Term Assurance Plan
• HDFC Home Loan Protection Plan

Children's Plans

• HDFC Children's Plan


• HDFC Unit Linked Young Star II
• HDFC Unit Linked Young Star Plus II
• HDFC Unit Linked YoungStar Champion

Retirement Plans

• HDFC Personal Pension Plan


• HDFC Unit Linked Pension II
• HDFC Unit Linked Pension Maximiser II
• HDFC Immediate Annuity

Savings & Investment Plans

• HDFC Unit Linked Endowment Plus II


• HDFC SimpliLife
• HDFC Unit Linked Endowment II
• HDFC Unit Linked Enhanced Life Protection II

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• HDFC Unit Linked Wealth Maximiser Plus
• HDFC Unit Linked Endowment Winner
• HDFC Endowment Assurance Plan
• HDFC Money Back Plan
• HDFC Single Premium Whole of Life Insurance Plan
• HDFC Assurance Plan
• HDFC Savings Assurance Plan

Health Plans

• HDFC Critical Care Plan


• HDFC SurgiCare Plan

Group Plans

• Group Term Insurance Plan


• Group Variable Term Insurance Plan
• Group Unit Linked Plan - Gratuity
• Group Unit Linked Plan - Superannuation
• Group Unit Linked Plan - Leave Encashmen

The MD and CEO of HDFC Standard Life Mr. Deepak Satwalekar, has given the
company new directions and has helped the company achieve the status it currently
enjoys. HDFC Standard Life brings to you a whole range of insurance solutions be it
group or individual or NAV services for corporations, they can be easily customized
as per specific needs.

HDFC Standard Life Insurance India boasts of covering around 8.7 lakh lives by
March'2007. The gross incomes standing at a whopping Rs. 2, 856 crores, HDFC
Standard Life Insurance Corporation is sure to become one of the leaders and the
first preference for any life insurance customer.

The Bancassurance partners of HDFC Standard Life Insurance Co Ltd are HDFC,
HDFC Bank India Limited, Union Bank of India, Indian Bank, Bank of Baroda,
Saraswat Bank and Bajaj Capital.

OTHER PRODUCTS

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• Rural Products
• Social Development Insurance Plan
• Tax Benefit Schemes

The premium payment options available to the customers vary from online payment
to direct desk payments at the HDFC Standard Life Branches, by courier services or
in drop boxes provided. You can also pay by ECS or Automatic Debit System or
credit cards or standing instruction mandate. HDFC Standard Life Insurance
Company is a customer oriented corporation and aim at complete customer
satisfaction.

The lapsation and renewal policy of HDFC Standard Life are clearly defined on the
official website. Online renewal forms are also available. For any change in personal
details like the contact details or the nominee of the policy or policy benefits, online
servicing is also available. Even the claim procedure has been simplified since affect
of the loss life is irreparable and is thus fully understandable at HDFC Standard Life.
A completely hassle-free process has been formulated to provide maximum
convenience.

HISTORY

HDFC Standard Life Insurance Co. Ltd was incorporated on 14th august 2000. It is a
joint venture between Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited India and
UK based Standard Life Company. Both the joint venture partners being one of the
leaders in their respective areas came together in this 81.4:18.6 joint Venture to form
HDFC standard life insurance company limited.
The MD and CEO of HDFC Standard Life Mr. Deepak Satwalekar, has given the
company new directions and has helped the company achieve the status it currently
enjoys. HDFC Standard Life brings to you a whole range of insurance solutions be it
group or individual or NAV services for corporations, they can be easily customized
as per specific needs.
HDFC Standard Life Insurance India boasts of covering around 8.7 lakh lives
byMarch'2007. The gross incomes standing at a whopping Rs. 2, 856 crores, HDFC
Standard Life Insurance Corporation is sure to become one of the leaders and the
first Preference for any life insurance customer.

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The Banc assurance partners of HDFC Standard Life Insurance Co Ltd are HDFC,
HDFC Bank India Limited, Union Bank of India, Indian Bank, Bank of Baroda,
Sarawat Bank and Bajaj Capital. The premium payment options available to the
customers vary from online payment to direct desk payments at the HDFC Standard
Life Branches, by courier services or in drop boxes provided. You can also pay by
ECS or Automatic Debit System or credit cards or standing instruction mandate.
HDFC Standard Life Insurance Company is a customer oriented corporation and aim
at complete customer satisfaction.
The causation and renewal policy of HDFC Standard Life are clearly defined on the
official website. Online renewal forms are also available. For any change in personal
details like the contact details or the nominee of the policy or policy benefits, online
servicing is also available. Even the claim procedure has been simplified since affect
of the loss life is irreparable and is thus fully understandable at HDFC Standard Life.
A completely hassle-free process has been formulated to provide maximum
convenience.
HDFC Standard Life first came together for a possible joint venture, to enter the Life
Insurance market, in January 1995. It was clear from the outset that both companies
shared similar values and beliefs and a strong relationship quickly formed. In
October1995 the companies signed a 3 year joint venture agreement.
Around this time Standard Life purchased a 5% stake in HDFC, further strengthening
the relationship.
The next three years were filled with uncertainty, due to changes in government
andon going delays in getting the IRDA (Insurance Regulatory and Development
authority) Act passed in parliament. Despite this both companies remained firmly
committed to the venture.
In October 1998, the joint venture agreement was renewed and additional resource
made available. Around this time Standard Life purchased 2% of Infrastructure
Development Finance Company Ltd. (IDFC). Standard Life also started to use the
services of the HDFC Treasury department to advise them upon their investments in
India.
Towards the end of 1999, the opening of the market looked very promising and both
companies agreed the time was right to move the operation to the next level.
Therefore, in January 2000 an expert team from the UK joined a hand picked team
from HDFC to form the core project team, based in Mumbai.

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Around this time Standard Life purchased a further 5% stake in HDFC and a 5%
stake in HDFC Bank.
In a further development Standard Life agreed to participate in the Asset
Management Company promoted by HDFC to enter the mutual fund market. The
Mutual Fund was Launched on 20th july 2000.
Incorporation of HDFC Standard Life Insurance Company Limited:
The company was incorporated on 14th August 2000 under the name of HDFC
Standard life insurance company limited.
Their ambition from the beginning was to be the first private company to re-enter the
life insurance market in India. On the 23rd of October 2000, this ambition was
realised when HDFC Standard Life was the first life company to be granted a
certificate of registration.
HDFC are the main shareholders in HDFC Standard Life, with 81.4%, while
Standard Life owns 18.6%. Given Standard Life's existing investment in the HDFC
Group, this is the maximum investment allowed under current regulations.

HDFC and Standard Life have a long and close relationship built upon shared values
and trust. The ambition of HDFC Standard Life is to mirror the success of the parent
companies and be the yardstick by which all other insurance companies in India are
measured.
HDFC Standard Life Insurance Company Limited is one of India's leading private life
insurance companies offering a range of individual and group insurance solutions. It
is a joint venture between Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited.

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Objectives, Scope and Purpose

Objectives

• To assess and find out the overall service and quality performance of HDFC
standard life insurance towards their employees.

• To know in which service quality performance dimension the company is


performing well and in which dimension it needs improvement.

• To know employees requirements or expectation from company.

Scope

• Restructuring of multiple dimensions of the organisation by instituting a


mechanism, which introduces and sustains changes over time.

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• Focus on work teams.

• Autonomy in planning work.

• Focus on skill development.

• Increased responsiveness to employee concerns.

Purpose

Quality work life is viewed as an alternative to the control approach of managing


people.

Therefore, organizations are required to adopt a strategy to improve the employees


quality work life to satisfy both the organizational objectives and employee needs.

Research Methodology

Research methodology, which is followed by researcher, is Descriptive study .

PRIMARY DATA:-
The primary data has been obtained by interaction with the officials and staff in the
division in the organization and also obtained through the observation of the staff
members in different departments in that particular division

SECONDARY DATA:-
1. Through the Annual reports of the corporation, from the Manuals and also from
records available in the organization. Some other data also collected from the
reports ,registers and books and from the files available in the organization

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2. Information collected from various HRM books.
SAMPLING PLAN

SAMPLE DESIGN:-
The method of sampling used was Random sampling. Random sampling from a
finite population refers to that method of sample selection which gives each possible
sample combination an equal probability of being picked up and each item in the
entire population to have equal chance of being included in the sample.

SAMPLE SIZE:-
The researcher has allowed to do the project in particular division in the
organisation. The study is limited to only that particular division.
SAMPLESIZE:50
.

Data & Analysis

Data

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE (QWL)

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Quality of work life denotes all the organizational inputs which aim at the employee
satisfaction and enhancing organizational effectiveness. By the globalization the
modern employees are experiencing distress. To meet the challenges posed by
present standards, organizational must focus their attention in bringing a balance
between work life and personal life. The underlying assumption is that work life
balance will ultimately ensure Quality of work life.

Sigmund Freud is considered to be the father figure of Psycho analysis. His


prescription for
a healthy person is a combination of “ Lieben und Arbeiten” that is Love and Work.
In present working environment the workers are looking for quality of life as a
superior human end ever. Such end ever calls for a trade off between work life and
family life. Today an employee desires work to be more meaningful and challenging
because quality is the acid test. A Quality of work life gives an opportunity for deep
sense of full filament. Employees seek a supportive work environment that will
enable them to balance work with personal interests. Such balance contributes to
superior human existence in ample measure.
Quality of work life provides a more humanized work environment. It attempts to
serve the higher order needs of workers as well as their basic needs. Quality of Work
Life indicates that the work should not have excessively negative conditions. It
should not put workers under undue stress. It should not damage or degrade their
humanness. It should not be threatening or unduly dangerous. Finally it should
contribute to, or at least leave un paired, workers abilities to perform in other life

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roles. Such as citizen, spouse and parent. That is work should contribute to general
social advancement. Employees in several companies that instituted Quality of work
life experienced better health and greater safety on the job. Other benefits included
improved employee satisfaction, morale, job interest, commitment and involvement ;
increased opportunity for in dividable growth ; greater sense of ownership and
control of the work environment development of managerial ability for circle leaders,
improved communication in the organization and greater understanding and respect
between management and workers.

The term Quality of work life has been applied to a wide variety of organizational
improvement efforts. The common elements seem to be has good man indicates,
an“ attempt to restructure multiple dimensions of the organizational and to institute a
mechanism which introduces and sustains changes overtime .Aspects of the change
mechanism are usually an increase in problem solving between the union and
management
Responsiveness to employee concerns. In every organization, people and their
behaviour assumes vital role in determining the performance and effectiveness
.while many studies concentrated on physical and financial performance of
organization. Studies on behavioural aspects seems to be inadequate. So, the
attempts must to understand the human side of the enterprise.

In the present scenario, where the world is moving from traditi on a lisation to
modernization, computerization and globalization there is an intense competition.
The situations are becoming more complex and the modern employees are
experiencing distress. To meet the challenges posed by present standards
organization must focus their attention in bringing a balance between work and
family life.
The Quality of work life movement provides a value frame work and a philosophy
which has a long term implication for the human development and enrichment. It
tries to balance both the work and family life. Hence integrated approach with regard
to Quality of work life is required for the success of an individual and an organization.
This underlines then necessity of searching studies on the nature of human relations
and the problems of human relations and the problems of human behaviour in the
organization and suggest measures to cope with the problems. Hence, an in depth
on aspects like Quality of work life can throw light on many non-identified aspects of

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human behaviour which may help in understanding the issues involved and
improving the overall performance of these organizations.

It is almost impossible today to pick up a newspaper or news-magazine without


finding a reference to quality of work life. In the search for improved productivity,
manager and executives alike are discovering the important contribution of QWL.
QWL entails the design of work systems that enhance the working life experiences of
organizational members, thereby improving commitment and motivation for
achieving organizational goals.
The Quality of working life refers to the relationship between a worker and his
environment, adding the human dimension to the technical and economic
dimensions within which work is normally viewed and designed. QWL relates to the
facilities and conditions in which workers have to work.
According to J. L Ioyd Suttle, Quality of work life is the degree to which members of a
work organization are able to satisfy important personal needs through their
experiences in the organization. More specifically, QWL may be set into operation in
terms of employees perceptions of their physical and psychological well-being at
work.

WHAT IS QWL?

Definition of QWL:
First definition 1969- 1972QWL = variable
Second definition 1969- 1975QWL = approach
Third definition 1972- 1975QWL = methods
Fourth definition 1975- 1980QWL = movements Fifth definition 1979- 1982QWL =
everything The term QWL refers to the favourableness or unfavourableness of a total
job environment for people. QWL programs are another way in which organisations
recognise their responsibility to develop jobs and working conditions that are
excellent for people as well as for economic health of the organisation. The elements
in a typical QWL program include – open communications, equitable reward
systems, a concern for employee job security and satisfying careers and
participation in decision making. Many early QWL efforts focus on job enrichment. In

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addition to improving the work system, QWL programs usually emphasise
development of employee skills, the reduction of occupational stress and the
development of more co-operative labour-management relations.
Vigorous Domestic and International competition drive organisations to be more
productive. Proactive managers and human resource departments respond to this
challenge by finding new ways to improve productivity. Some strategies rely heavily
upon new capital investment and technology. Others seek changes in employee
relations practices.
Human resource departments are involved with efforts to improve productivity
through changes in employee relations. QWL means having good supervision, good
working conditions, good pay and benefits and an interesting, challenging and
rewarding job. High QWL is sought through an employee relations philosophy that
encourages the use of QWL efforts, which are systematic attempts by an
organisation to give workers greater opportunities to affect their jobs and their
contributions to the organisation’s overall effectiveness. That is, a proactive human
resource department finds ways to empower employees so that they draw on their
“brains and wits,” usually by getting the employees more involved in the decision-
making process.

APPROACH TO QUALITY OF WORK LIFE


The Quality of work life involvement traditionally has been closely identified with the
job redesign efforts based on socio-technical systems approach. However during the
1980’s the concept of Quality of work life has been broadened to include a number of
approaches aimed at join decision making. Collaboration and mutual respect
between management and Employees , increased autonomy at work place, and self
management. Thus the Quality Circles adopted by Japanese and Indian industries
as well as democratization of work process though self-regulating autonomous
groups in the Scandinavian countries and USA are all considered part of this
movement.

Employees , increased autonomy at work place, and self management. Thus the
Quality Circles adopted by Japanese and Indian industries as well as

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democratization of work process though self-regulating autonomous groups in the
Scandinavian countries and USA are all considered part of this movement.

A Rationale (principle)

Job specialisation and simplification were popular in the early part of this century.
Employees were assigned narrow jobs and supported by a rigid hierarchy in the
expectation that efficiency would improve. The idea was to lower cost by using
unskilled workers who could be easily trained to do a small, repetitive part of each
job.
Many difficulties developed from that classical job design, however. There was
excessive division of labour. Workers became socially isolated from their co-workers
because their highly specialised jobs weakened their community of interest in the
whole product. De-skilled workers lost pride in their work and became bored with
their jobs. Higher-order (social and growth) needs were left unsatisfied. The result
was higher turnover and absenteeism, declines in quality and alienated workers.
Conflict often arose as workers sought to improve their conditions and organisations
failed to respond appropriately. The real cause was that in many instances the job
itself simply was not satisfying.

Forces For Change


A factor contributing to the problem was that the workers themselves were changing.
They became educated, more affluent (partly because of the effectiveness of
classical job design), and more independent. They began reaching for higher-order
needs, something more than merely earning their bread. Employers now had two
reasons for re-designing jobs and organisations for abetter QWL:
• Classical design originally gave inadequate attention to human needs.
• The needs and aspirations of workers themselves were changing.

Humanised Work Through QWL

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One option was to re-design jobs to have the attributes desired by people, and re-
design organisations to have the environment desired by the people. This approach
seeks to improve QWL. There is a need to give workers more of a challenge, more
of a whole task, more opportunity to use their ideas. Close
attention to QWL provides a more humanised work environment. It attempts to
serve the higher-order needs of workers as well as their more basic needs. It seeks
employ the higher skills of workers and to provide an environment that encourages
them to improve their skills. The idea is that human resources should be developed
and not simply used. Further, the work should not have excessively negative
conditions. It should not put workers under undue stress. It should not damage or
degrade their humanness. It should not be threatening or unduly dangerous. Finally,
it should contribute to, or at least leave unimpaired, workers ’abilities to perform in
other life roles, such as citizen, spouse and parent. That is, work should contribute to
general social advancement.

Job Enlargement vs. Job Enrichment

The modern interest in quality of work life was stimulated through efforts to change
the scope of people’s jobs in attempting to motivate them. Job scope has two
dimensions – breadth and depth. Job breadth is the number of different tasks an
individual is directly responsible for. It ranges from very narrow (one task performed
repetitively) to wide (several tasks). Employees with narrow job breadth were
sometimes given a wider variety of duties in order to reduce their monotony; this
process is called job enlargement. In order to perform these additional duties,
employees spend less time on each duty. Another approach to changing job breadth
is job rotation, which involves periodic assignment of an employee to completely
different sets of job activities. Job rotation is an effective way to develop multiple
skills in employees, which benefits the organisation while creating greater job
interest and career options for the employee.

Job enrichment takes a different approach by adding additional motivators to a job to


make it more rewarding. It was developed by Frederick Herzberg on the basis of his

26
studies indicating that the most effective way to motivate workers was by focusing on
higher-order needs. Job enrichment seeks to add depth to a job by giving workers
more control, responsibility and discretion over hoe their job is performed.
Its general result is a role enrichment that encourages growth and self-actualisation.
The job is built in such a way that intrinsic motivation is encouraged. Because
motivation is increased, performance should improve, thus providing both a more
humanised and a more productive job. Negative effects also tend to bereduced, such
as turnover, absences, grievances and idle time. In this manner both the worker and
society benefit. The worker performs better, experiences greater job satisfaction and
becomes more self-actualised, thus being able to participate in all life roles more
effectively. Society benefits from the more effectively functioning person as well as
from better job performance.

Applying Job Enrichment

Viewed in terms of Herzberg’s motivational factors, job enrichment occurs when the
work itself is more challenging, when achievement is encouraged, when there is
opportunity for growth and when responsibility, feedback and recognition are
provided. However, employees are the final judges of what enriches their jobs. All

27
that management can do is gather information about what tend to enrich jobs ,try
those changes in the job system and then determine whether employees feel that
enrichment has occurred.
In trying to build motivational factors, management also gives attention to
maintenance factors. It attempts to keep maintenance factors constant or higher as
the motivational factors are increased. If maintenance factors are allowed to decline
during an enrichment program, then employees may be less responsive to the
enrichment program because they are distracted by inadequate maintenance. The
need for a systems approach in job enrichment is satisfied by the practice of gain
sharing.
Since hob enrichment must occur from each employee’s personal
viewpoint, not all employees will choose enriched jobs if they have an option. A
contingency relationship exists in terms of different job needs, and some
employees prefer the simplicity and security of more routine jobs.

Core Dimensions: A Job Characteristics Approach

How can jobs be enriched? And how does job enrichment produce its desired
outcomes? J. Richard Hack man and Greg Oldham have developed a job
characteristics approach to job enrichment that identifies five core dimensions –skill
variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Ideally, a job must
have all five dimensions to be fully enriched. If one dimension is perceived to be
missing, workers are psychologically deprived and motivation may be reduced.
The core dimensions affect an employee’s psychological state, which tends to
improve performance, satisfaction and quality of work and to reduce turn over and
absenteeism. Their effect on quantity of work is less dependable. Many managerial
and white-collar jobs, as well as blue-collar jobs, often are deficient in some core
dimensions. Although there are large individual differences in how employees react
to core dimensions, the typical employee finds them to be basic for internal
motivation. The dimensions and their effects are shown in the following figure and
discussed in greater detail here.
In one instance a manufacturer set up production in two different ways.
Employees were allowed to choose between work on a standard assembly

28
line and at a bench where they individually assembled the entire product.
In the beginning few employees chose to work at the enriched jobs, but
gradually about half the workers chose them the more routine assembly
operation seemed to fit the needs of the other half.

The Human Resource Department’s Role

The role of human resource department in QWL efforts varies widely. In some
organisations, top management appoints an executive to ensure that QWL and
productivity efforts occur throughout the organisation. In most cases, these
executives have a small staff and must rely on the human resource department for
help with employee training, communications, attitude survey feedback, and similar
assistance. In other organisations, the department is responsible for initiating and
directing the firm’s QWL and productivity efforts.
Perhaps the most crucial role of the department is winning the support of key
managers. Management support – particularly top management support appears to
be an almost universal prerequisite for successful QWL programs. By substantiating
employee satisfaction and bottom-line benefits, which range from lower absenteeism
and turnover to higher productivity and fewer accidents, the department can help
convince doubting managers. Sometimes documentation of QWL can result from
studies of performance before and after a QWL effort. Without documentation of
these results, top management might not have continued its strong support.
The policies and practices of the department also influence motivation and
satisfaction indirectly. Rigorous enforced safety and health programs, for example,

29
can give employees and supervisors a greater sense of safety from accidents and
industrial health hazards. Likewise, compensation policies may motivate and satisfy
employees through incentive plans, or they may harm motivation and satisfaction
through insufficient raises or outright salary freezes. The motivation and satisfaction
of employees act as feedback on the organisation’s QWL and on the department’s
day-to-day activity.

Motivation

Motivation is a complex subject. It involves the unique feelings, thoughts and past
experiences of each of us as we share a variety of relationships within and outside
organisations. To expect a single motivational approach work in every situation is
probably unrealistic. In fact, even theorists and researches take different points of
view about motivation. Nevertheless, motivation can be defined as a person’s drive
to take an action because that person wants to do so. People act because they feel

30
that they have to. However, if they are motivated they make the positive choice to act
for a purpose – because, for example, it may satisfy some of their needs.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is the favourableness or unfavourableness with which employees


view their work. As with motivation, it is affected by the environment. Job satisfaction
is impacted by job design. Jobs that are rich in positive behavioural elements – such
as autonomy, variety, task identity, task significance and feedback contribute to
employee’s satisfaction. Likewise, orientation is important because the employee’s
acceptance by the work group contributes to satisfaction. In sort, each element of the
environmental system, can add to, or detract from, job satisfaction.

Rewards Satisfaction and Performance

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A basic issue is whether satisfaction leads to better performance, or whether better
performance leads to satisfaction. Which comes first? The reason for this apparent
uncertainty about the relationship between performance and satisfaction. Whether
satisfaction is going to be improved depends on whether there wards match the
expectations, needs and desires of the employee as shown at the bottom of the
above figure. If better performance leads to higher rewards and if these rewards are
seen as fair and equitable, then results in improved satisfaction .On the other hand,
inadequate rewards can lead to dissatisfaction. In either case, satisfaction becomes
feedback that affects one’s self-image and motivation to perform. The total
performance-satisfaction relationship is a continuous system, making it difficult to
assess the impact of satisfaction on motivation or on performance, and vice-versa.

Promotion

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A promotion takes place when an employee moves to a position higher than the one
firmly occupied .His / Her responsibility, status and pay also increases. Promotions
are of two types.

1. Vertical promotions:- under which the employees are promoted from one rank to
the next higher rank in the same department.

2. Horizontal promotions:- under which employees may be promoted to higher rank


on the other departments.

The advantages of having promotion schemes


• They provide an opportunity to the present employees to move into jobs that
provide greater satisfaction and prestige.

• They generate within on organization motivational, conditions for better work


performance and desired behaviour of all its members.
• Finally, they save as an orderly, logical and prompt source of recruitment for
management to fill vacancies as they arise.

• They generate within on organization motivational, conditions for better work


performance and desired behaviour of all its members.
• Finally, they save as an orderly, logical and prompt source of recruitment for
management to fill vacancies as they arise.

Career Planning

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If an organization wants to retain its employees it must satisfy their aspirations for
growth and development of advancement in their career .A career plan is a blue print
in which the entire career of employees is mapped out from the point of their entry in
to the point of their retirement from the organization. Career planning is mostly done
for supervisory and managerial positions.
Career planning is an integral part of manpower planning.

ADVANTAGES OF CAREER PLANNING


1. It motivates employees to avail of the training & development facilities. They are
convinced that promotions will not fall in their laps merely by luck or through
connection.
2. It increases employees loyalty to the organization. By this they can easily integrate
their goals with organization goals.

3. It encourages employees to remain in the organization. By this the labour turnover


is reduced.

4. It creates organizations better image in the employment market which helps


organization to attract competent people.

5. It contributes to manpower planning as well as to organizational development and


effective achievements of corporate goal.
The basic concept underlying the Quality of work life is what has come to be known
as “humanization of work”. It involves basically the development of an environment

34
of work that simulates the creative abilities of the workers generates co-operation
and interest in self growth.”

JOB DESIGN

Job design include job enlargement, job rotation & job enrichment
a. Job enlargement :- Job enlargement as a concept deals with expansion of the job
contents by Allowing Employees inspect their work , affect minor repairs on the work
and equipment and select the iron work methods or ‘set-ups’. These refers as to
vertical enlargement.’ Another is ‘horizontal enlargement’ under this scheme one
simply adds a larger numbers of some what similar tasks to the present job.
b. Job rotation :- It refers to systematically moving employee from one job to another.
From the point of view of an organization job rotation helps develop a common
culture because of wide and common exposure and at the same time infuses “fresh-
blood” in the task.
c. Job enrichment :- It refers to the process of making jobs more interesting and
satisfying, adding to that sense of achievement, increasing responsibility and
providing opportunities for advancement and growth.

AUTONOMOUS WORK TEAMS

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An autonomous work team is one which can plan, regulate and control its own work
world. The management only specifies the goals that too in collaboration with the
team. The team organizes the contents and structure of its job, evaluates its own
performance, establishes its speed and chooses its production method. It makes its
own internal distribution of tasks and decides its own membership. Autonomous
team approach increases satisfaction and reduces turnover and absenteeism.

Analysis

36
1) Visually appealing physical facilities

 From the graph it is clearly seen that the respondents are fall in
satisfaction range.

 Highest frequency is observed in satisfactory level as well as in less


satisfactory level.

 So, for visual appearing facility employees are having satisfactory level.

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2) Showing sincere interest in solving a employee’s problem.

 From the graph it is clearly seen that the respondents are fall in
satisfaction range.

 So, for showing sincere interest in solving a employee’s problem


employees are having satisfactory to moderate satisfactory level.

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3) Company always being willing to help employees.

 From the graph it is clearly seen that the respondents are fall in
moderate satisfactory and satisfactory range.

 Highest frequency is observed in moderate satisfactory level.

 So, for these parameter employees are having good satisfactory level.

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4) The behavior of employers instilling confidence in their
employees.

 From the graph it is seen that the respondents are fall in satisfactory
and moderate satisfactory range.

 Highest frequency is observed in satisfactory level.

 So, for these parameter employees are having moderate satisfaction.

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5) Employers being consistently courteous with their
employees/peers.

 From the graph it is clearly seen that the respondents are fall in
satisfaction range mostly.

 Highest frequency is also observed in satisfactory level as well as in


lmoderate satisfactory level.

 So, for parameter employees are satisfied.

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6) Company’s policies towards
remunaration/promotion/increament.

 From the graph it is clearly seen that the respondents are fall in
satisfaction range and less satisfaction range.

 Highest frequency is observed in satisfactory level.

 So, for these parameter employees are having comparative less


satisfactory level.

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7) Level of job satisfaction based on service provided like
external and internal training, extra curricular programs
etc.

 From the graph it is clearly seen that the respondents are fall in
satisfaction range and less satisfaction range.

 Highest frequency is observed in satisfactory level and less satisfactory


level.

 So, for these parameter employees are having comparative very less
satisfactory level.

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Today’s workforce consists of literate workers who expect more than just
money from their work.
In the modern scenario, QWL as a strategy of Human Resource Management is
being recognised as the ultimate key for development among all the work systems,
not merely as a concession. This is integral to any organisation towards its whole
some growth. This is attempted on par with strategies of Customer Relation
Management.

 Strategy and Tactics


Over the years, since industrial revolution, much experimentation has gone in to
exploiting potential of human capital in work areas either explicitly or implicitly.
Thanks to the revolution in advanced technology, the imperative need to look into
QWL in a new perspective is felt and deliberated upon. Major companies are
tirelessly implementing this paradigm in Human Resources Development (some call
it People’s Excellence).

Globalisation has lowered national boundaries, creating a knowledge-based


economy that spins and spans the world. Major economies are converging

44
technologically and economically, and are highly connected at present moment. The
new global workplace demands certain prerequisites such as higher order of thinking
skills like abstraction system thinking and experimental inquiry, problem-solving and
teamwork. The needs are greater in the new systems, which are participative
ventures involving workers managed by so-called fictional proprietors.

 Men Counted
In simple terms, all the above requirements can be easily achieved by providing
improved quality of work life to the workers available on rolls. Workers are often
referred to as teams or groups in general parlance and whatever the do go to the
credit of the teamwork.
The concept of teamwork has evolved from the organised toil that has its own social
dimensions. Good teams can hardly be imported from outside. They usually occuras
an indigenous incidence at the workplace and nurturing the same over time is the
responsibility of management. Here, it may also be discerned that the composition of
available workers in no more a local phenomenon as in the past. Mobility is caused
by migration beyond culture barriers and isolation, relocation and globalised
deployment. This phenomenon has become universal and is causing great changes
in the work environment at factories as well as offices. The new influx of skilled
workers seeking greener pastures is even questioning the skills of new employers
and there by restructuring the new environs on par with those of best in the world,
unwittingly though.

 Money Matters
For good QWL, cash is not the only answer. Today, the workers are aware of the job
requirements of job as also the fact that the performance of the same is measured
against the basic goals and objectives of the organisation and more importantly,
wages are paid according to the larger picture specific to the industry and the
employer’s place in the same.

45
The increased share of workers in wages and benefits through legislation as well as
competitive interplay of superior managements in various fields of industry and
business on extensive levels has reshaped the worker’s idea of quality of work life.
Moreover, other things being equal, the employers are increasingly vying with their
rivals in providing better working conditions and emoluments. This may be owing to
many reasons besides the concern for the human angle of workers, like the
employer’s tendency to climb on the bandwagon, to reap to the desired dividends or
to woo better talent into their fold as skill base addition and other non-economic
inputs like knowledge bases. Doubtlessly, the increased tendency of recruiting
knowledge bases is giving the modern managements payoffs in myriad ways. Some
of them are intended potentials for product innovations and cost cuttings. Talking of
product, it may appear far-fetched to some that product is being assessed in the
market for its quality and price by the environment created in the areas where
workers and customers are dealt and transact, like ambience in facilities / amenities
as also the company’s pay scales. This goes to prove that QWL of manufacturer /
service provider is synonymous with the quality of product.

 Non economic – ‘Job Security’


The changing workforce consists of literate workers who expect more than just
money from their work life. Their idea of salvation lies in the respect they obtain in
the work environment, like how they are individually dealt and communicated with by
other members in the team as well as the employer, what kind of work he is
entrusted with, etc. Some of these non-economic aspect are: Self respect,
satisfaction, recognition, merit compensation in job allocation, incompatibility of work
conditions affecting health, bullying by older peers and boss, physical constraints like

46
distance to work, lack off legible working hours, work-life imbalances, invasion of
privacy in case of certain cultural groups and gender discrimination and drug
addiction. One or more of the problems like above can cast a ‘job-insecurity’
question, for no direct and visible fault of the employer. Yet, the employer has to
identify the source of workers problems and try to mitigate the conditions and take
supportive steps in the organisation so that the workers will be easily retained and
motivated and earn ROI. The loss of man-hours to the national income due to the
above factors is simply overwhelming.
Employer should in still in the worker the feeling of trust and confidence by creating
appropriate channels and systems to alleviate the above shortcomings so that the
workers use their best mental faculties on the achievement of goals and objectives of
the employer.
To cite some examples, employers in certain software companies have provided in
restructure to train the children of workers in vocational activities including computer
education, so that the workers need not engage their attention on this aspect.
Employee care initiatives taken by certain companies include creation of Hobby
clubs, Fun and Leisure Clubs for the physical and psychological well- beingness of
workers and their families. After all, the workers are inexorably linked to the welfare
of their families, as it is their primary concern.
Dual income workers, meaning both spouses working are the order of the day. The
work life balance differs in this category and greater understanding and flexibility are

47
required with respect to leave, compensation and working hours in the
larger framework.

 Teamwork
Teamwork is the new mantra of modern day people’s excellence strategy. Today’s
teams are self-propelled ones .The modern manager has to strive at the group
coherence for common cause of the project. The ideal team has wider discretion and
sense of responsibility than before as how best to go about with its business. Here,
each member can find a new sense of belonging to each other in the unit and
concentrate on the group’s new responsibility towards employer’s goals. This will
boost the cosiness and morale of members in the positive environment created by

each other’s trust. Positive energies, free of workplace anxiety, will garner better
working results. Involvement in teamwork deters deserters and employer need not
bother himself over the detention exercises and save money on motivation and
campaigns.

 Boss Factor
Gone are the days when employers controlled workers by suppressing the initiative
and independence by berating their brilliance and skills, by designing and entrusting

48
arduous and monotonous jobs and offer mere sops in terms of wages and weekly
off. Trust develops when managers pay some attention to the welfare of the workers
and treat them well by being honest in their relations. The employer should keep in
mind that every unpaid hour of overtime the worker spends on work is an hour less
spent with the family.

New performance appraisals are put into vogue to assess a worker’s contribution
vis-à-vis on employer’s objectives and to find out the training and updating needs
and levels of motivation and commitment. As observed in some advanced
companies, the workers themselves are drawing their benefits by filing appraisal
forms and drawing simultaneously the appropriate benefits by the click of the mouse
directly from their drawing rooms, courtesy e-HR systems. In addition, there are quite
a number of channels for informal reviews. Feedback on worker’s performance, if
well interpreted and analysed, could go a long way in improving ethics at workplace.
 Involvement and Communication
Multi-skilling and exposing workers to different lines of activity in the unit indirectly
leads to the greater involvement and better job security of worker in the organisation.
The employer too, can make use of the varied skills to any altered situations of
restructuring and other market adaptations. Thus, the monotony of work life can be
alleviated. The employer, armed with the depth of cross-trained human resources,
need not go hunting for new talent and thus save on the unspent pay packets, which
can be spent usefully on the amenities for workers. No doubt, rivals should be
envying him for this edge.

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The change should be apparent in mutual trust and confidence towards effective
understanding of the needs of worker and employer. The new knowledge-based
workers are mostly young in the fields of technology and management. They are
more forth coming in trusting the boss and older peers. Now, all modern
managements are cognisant of the innate desire of workers to be accepted as part of
the organisation for identity and other social reasons.
Effective dialogue is put into play between management and those who execute
through well-organised communication channels paving the way for improved co-
operation and participation on emotional level. The decision making level is nose
diving to the floor level manager, where the poor guy has to think of n number of
quick decisions on behalf of the organisation. Unless the team is behind and
involved with commitment, the manager cannot implement the new tasks in
production, distribution, peoples excellence, customer relations, etc., thanks to the ‘e’
factor prefixed to the names of majority of departments. Logically, harmony plays its
part in cost efficiency. Successful managers are those who listen to their workers.

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 Influences
Overwork is tolerated in emerging industries unlike government departments apart of
the game and work culture. This is so, what with the soaring competition among the
tightly contested players. The point is empowerment of workforce in the area of
involvement.

All said and one, the workers are considered as the invisible branch ambassadors
and internal customers in certain industries .It is evident that most of the
managements are increasingly realising that quality alone stands to gain in the
ultimate analysis. Restructuring the industrial relations in work area is the key for
improving the quality of product and the price of the stock. Without creating
supportive environment in restructured environment, higher quality of work cannot be
extracted. It is already high time the older theories of industrial relations should be
unlearnt.

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Conclusion

Quality work life basically is all about employee involvement, which consists of
methods to motivate employees to participate in decision making. This help in
building in good relationship.

HDFC Standard Life Insurance Company Ltd. is one of India's leading private
insurance companies, which offers a range of individual and group insurance
solutions.

Researchers’ main aim is to assess and find out the overall service and quality
performance of HDFC standard life insurance towards their employees, to know in
which service quality performance dimension the company is performing well and in
which dimension it needs improvement and to know employees requirements or
expectation from company.

Research methodology used in analysis and data collection is descriptive study .The
primary data has been obtained by interaction with the officials and staff. Secondary
data is obtained through the Annual reports of the corporation, from the Manuals and
also from records available in the organization. And other information is collected
from various HRM books. The method of sampling used was Random sampling. The
study is limited to only that particular division and sample size is 50.

HDFC needs to improve on mainly these three factors i.e. Visual appearing facility,
Policies related to remuneration, promotion etc. and job satisfaction. HDFC should
maintain these four factors i.e. showing sincere interest in solving employee’s

52
problem, company’s always willing to help employees, behaviour of employers
instilling confidence in employees.

How true and difficult is to paraphrase the profound truth contained in the words of
one of the greatest human beings of the modern world. The harsh reality of modern
life is that Quality of Work Life (QWL) has taken a beating because most of us are
working harder than ever. On average people in the developed countries spend an
astonishing 14to 15 hours a day against the accepted 8 to 9 hours. What is very
disturbing is that the trend is on the rise. Burn out; stress leading to health hazards is
the natural offshoot. The concept of lifetime employment or job security through hard
work has been on a decline since more and more people are on short-term contracts
and lack security of long-term employment.
Although traditional work structures seem to be dissolving, this hasn’t necessarily
resulted in more flexibility for the workers. Employers, by and large, are still reluctant
to absorb employees on a permanent basis before they have ‘proved their worth’.
The psychological pressure on the employee is tremendous and their lives are
characterised by a pronounced conflict between professional and private lives.
Lesser employees doing greater work make the work monotonous and gruelling for
the employee. The implication of all this is that it leaves the worker with less and less
time for interests, family and leisure time in general.
It is not uncommon to see people who aspire to have work and personal life in
synchronisation. The work life balance has become the buzzword for the present
generation. Thus in an ideal world, most people would like their output assessed by
the results they achieve at work and not by the hours they spend slaying away at
their desk. Thus, in turn, would leave them free to pursue their personal interests
outside work. Only a handful of employees have understood this intrinsic desire of
employees and have turned it into a competitive advantage. Occupational
Psychology assumes a key role as it contributes to work models but also with the
thorough study of factors underlying the work/life balance. The study of work and
family life is a relatively recent field. They argue out a case for alternative work
models.
Workplace flexibility is increasingly becoming important both for the employers as
well as the employees. A good fit between people’s personal and work roles can go
along way in resolving conflicts. In fact researchers claim that by helping to manage

53
employee’s work/life conflicts the company actually increases “psychological
availability for work” of an employee. This is at least true of some learning
organisations that are open to such novel HR practices. They look at flexible work
arrangements as an opportunity for more efficient recruitment, decrease in staff
turnover and absenteeism. Very importantly it helps them to project an improved
corporate image.

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Recommendations

Following recommendation can be made on quality work life of HDFC standard life
insurance:

 HDFC needs to improve on mainly these three factors i.e. Visual appearing
facility, Policies related to remuneration, promotion etc. and job satisfaction

 HDFC should maintain these four factors i.e. showing sincere interest in
solving employee’s problem, company’s always willing to help employees,
behaviour of employers instilling confidence in employees.

 HDFC is mainly performing tremendously well on employers being


consistently courteous with employees/peers.

 HDFC needs more focus on Job satisfaction parameter.

J Richard Hackman and J L Suttle have recommended 6 strategies to improve QWL in


organizations.

• Effective career guidance

• Reward Systems

• Role of supervision and management

• Job design

• Design and maintaining group and intergroup relationship.

• Internal and external strategies for change.

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Effective career guidance
Manpower planning is an important adjunct of business planning or corporate
planning. There cannot be effective manpower planning if there is ineffective career
planning in the organization. Career planning is an integral part of manpower
planning. Career planning is choosing an occupation, keeping in view, one’s
resources and environmental conditions. Career planning is not an event or an end
in itself, but a process, which requires continuous examination of the goal, the
strategies to be chosen, the resources and limitations on the part of the individual,
the organization and the environment. This is aimed at :

1) To improve the performance of subordinates in their present job, in terms of


results to be accomplished.

2) To prepare employees, to accept increasing responsibility in their present job.

3) To help subordinates, to grow and develop for higher level jobs.

Career planning is basically an individual’s responsibility. However in the


organizational context , it is the organization’s responsibility to guide and direct the
employee to develop and utilize their knowledge abilities and resources, towards
organization development and effectiveness.

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Reward Systems
The only way employees will fulfil your dream is to share in the dream. Reward
systems are the mechanisms that make this happen. "However, reward systems are
much more than just bonus plans and stock options. While they often include both of
these incentives, they can also include awards and other recognition, promotions,
reassignment, non-monetary bonuses (e.g., vacations), or a simple thank-you”. The
greatest management principle is that the things that get rewarded get done. "You
get more of the behaviour you reward. You don't get what you hope for, wish for or
beg for. You get what you reward." When your employees do hit the target and meet
a stretch standard you set for them, reward them immediately. Never stall. By doing
this, you help employees directly connect the reward with behaviour and higher
performance they've attained."Fail to reward the right behaviour and you will most
likely get the wrong results."

Role of supervision and management

The role of a supervisor, as differentiated from that of a manager, often is very hazy
in a multilevel organization. In some cases every level of management gets involved
in supervision and duplicates the supervision function. Often these misuses of
functions are justified on the basis of "Management by Walking Around," "Show of
Interest and Concern with the Worker," etc. These management fads and euphemisms

57
not only produce negative results, they will cause other deep-rooted problems for the
organization.

First, by managers doing the job of supervisors, managers do not have the time to
perform their own managerial duties which are essential and distinctly different.
Second, when an organization recognizes that managerial activities are not being
performed, the organization creates additional levels of management -- causing the
burden of unreasonable overhead costs. Third, the managers usurp the function of
supervisors, not allowing the supervisors to learn and strengthen themselves. No
amount of supervisory training is going to compensate for the lack of opportunity to
perform. Fourth, at best these misuses of functions are going to create many
duplications of effort.

Organizations have to realize that supervision is different from managing and that
each level requires a different set of skills and a different set of responsibilities.
Various levels of the organization are not the result of outgrowth from the previous
one. We truly do have levels if discontinuity in organizations. For example, when a
worker gets promoted to supervisor, he or she must realize that this new position is
different -- not only in superficial issues such as title, salary, benefits, perks, parking
locations, etc., but also in the nature of the work. Supervision requires learning and
performing supervisory skills.

Also, when supervisors become managers, they have to recognize the level of
discontinuity again. Managers are not glorified supervisors. Their function is
substantially different, and they too have to learn and perform these different
functions. One of the important realizations is to "let the supervisors supervise." This
simple statement is the essence of success. Those who do not understand or
practice that simple axiom are doomed to reap the results of their own doing.

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Job design
Work arrangement aimed at reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction
and employee alienation arising from repetitive and mechanistic tasks. Through job
design, organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non –monetary

rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement


in meeting the increased challenge and responsibility of one's work. Job
enlargement, job enrichment, job rotation, and job simplification are the
various techniques used in a job design exercise.

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Design and maintaining group and intergroup relationship
Internal conflict can be the most serious and destructive force an organization faces.
Decisions can take forever — personal agendas override team priorities — critical
information is not communicated — productivity is lost.

In a competitive marketplace, it is essential for successful organizations to harness


and redirect the energy consumed by conflict and redefine it as positive opportunity.
When conflicts are resolved, the growth of mutual trust and respect and an
appreciation of the problems faced by other teams have an immediate impact on the
bottom line. Barriers to inter-group effectiveness become clear and sound steps to
eliminate them can be designed and implemented with the full understanding of all
parties involved.

• Communication is stronger and more effective

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• Politics and power plays are dramatically reduced
• Commitment is strengthened
• Faster, higher-quality decisions prevail
• Action is swift and focused

 The Building Spectacular Partnerships Seminar

The theory and techniques of Grid conflict resolution provide an essential tool for
creating and maintaining synergistic relationships.

• Based on extensive and proven behavioral research, Grid


International has assisted companies in addressing and resolving
organization conflict since 1961.
• Through a series of measured activities, teams solve problems
with an emphasis on shifting the character of a relationship from
negative to overwhelmingly positive.
• The program's strength lies in its self-convincing learning and
emphasis on co-created solutions. Used between management and
union, subsidiaries, purchasers, suppliers, divisions and
departments, project teams and individuals, Building Spectacular
Partnerships provides a proven means of forging resilient, healthy,
and productive relationships.

 The Building Spectacular Mergers Seminar

Effective integration of corporate cultures is critical to a successful merger. The


reality is that over 80% of mergers fail to attain their anticipated potential due to
issues such as organization history, people, culture, and misunderstanding... and 50
percent fail outright.

Building Spectacular Mergers aids participants to explore the conditions necessary


for building a sound relationship. Basing newly developing relationships on mutual

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trust and respect lays the foundation for achieving cooperation, sound
communication, and increased productivity.

The seminar facilitates participants in diagnosing the operational and cultural


elements of the merger by unearthing, identifying, and overcoming barriers to its
success.

Structured around mutually determined goals and objectives, participants design a


collaborative strategy to achieve the full potential of a merger.

The theory and techniques of Building Spectacular Mergers are an essential


management tool for creating and maintaining a successful merger.

Internal and external strategies for change

• Designing specific strategies to enable you to shape a new business or revive


one that is tired or poorly performing.
• Diagnosing the gaps between where you are and where you want to be and
manage that change.
• Creating and implementing specific change, HR and learning strategies to
take the organisation to the next level of performance.
• Partnering with clients to reshape a business culture, simplifying the complex
and arduous process.
• Isolating and embedding specific behaviours that anables the organisation to
grow.
• Creating the matrix organisation and removing barriers to working across
silos.
• Building the precise platform upon which to develop customer retention and
acquisition strategies.

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• Facilitating Rapid Improvement initiatives with measured results.
• Motivating staff, improving Leadership, Innovation and Change skills.
• Shaping Post acquisition integration getting the new business up and running
quickly.
• Creating and designing T&D to produce learning to deliver continuous
improvement.
• Coaching staff through difficult times.
• Diagnosing complex organisational problems.
• Collecting data and developing unique methods to isolate and the remove the
root cause of problems.
• Reporting to the Top Team with options for change.
• Implementing action plans that originate from a diagnosis and analysis of
complex situations and take action with the Top Team.
• Presenting and developing training and learning strategies to help people
transition any change.
• Designing and measuring improvement metrics.
• Speaking honestly about issues and problems to be overcome.

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Limitations

Though adequate care has been taken while doing the project. This Project still
suffers from certain limitations. They are

• The Quality of work life involves a wider range. The present study examines it from
identified and selected dimensions only. However it is possible that there may be
other factors which might not have been covered in this study.
• Some respondents did not properly respond to the Questionnaire; thus to
eliminate this aspect the researcher has also conducted some personal interviews.
•The Management allowed the researcher to collect the data from the limited
respondents only.

Though the positive effect of QWL is already established, all parties of the
organization still resist to any schemes or procedure to improve QWL. The
management may feel the QWL at the present levelis satisfactory and more steps
need be taken to improve it. Employee on the other hand resist to changes with a
pre conceived notion that any scheme that the management takes up to would be to
increase production without extra cost. Another barrier to the improvement ofQWL is
lack of financial resources.

Strategies for improving QWL are self managed work teams, job redesign and
enrichment, effective leadership and supervisory behavior, career development,
alternative work schedules, job security, administrative or organizational justice and
participating management. By implementing such changes management can createa

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sense of involvement, commitment and togetherness among the employees which
paves way for better QWL

ISSUES AND CONCERNS


Our major concerns focus on how the concept of quality of work life has evolved and
the state of its application today. The issues that concern us include the vagueness
of the concept, faddism /religious experience vs. scientific/pragmatic perspective, the
focus on low-level employees, naive views of causes of individual behavior, naive
views of organizational behavior, and quality of work life and productivity.
an the other hand resist to changes with a pre conceived notion that any scheme
that the management takes up to would be to increase production without extra cost.
Another barrier to the improvement of QWL is lack of financial resources. Strategies
for improving QWL are self managed work teams, job redesign and enrichment,
effective leadership and supervisory behavior, career development, alternative work
schedules, job security, administrative or organizational justice and participating
management. By implementing such changes management can create sense of
involvement, commitment and togetherness among the employees which paves way
for better QWL.

• Vagueness of the concept:


QWL has not been firmly and clearly defined. In fact, some
proponents of QWL have talked explicitly about not developing specific
definitions. We believe this has led to continued misunderstanding
and puzzlement on the part of many managers, and it is no surprise
that concern over the fuzziness of the concept has hindered its
implementation and development.

• Fadism/religiosity vs. science:


Many of those who have discussed or advocated QWL refer to it
as a cure-all, as something that will work wonders as if by some
mystical process. In the extreme, it's viewed as some sort of religious
experience — that is, when you've got it, or when you've had it, you'll
know what it is. This contrasts with the scientific or pragmatic

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perspective that describes QWL as a couple of concepts and tools that
might be useful and that might work in certain situations. Again, the
problem is that ideologists alienate those who haven't bought into the
ideological content of the definition, which, they feel, can create
unreasonable expectations.

• Na'ive views of individual behaviour:


Recently, those who have talked about QWL in some
organizations have proposed that it will lead to greater effectiveness
because it will make workers "happy" —and that, being more satisfied,
they will produce more. Research on organizations has demonstrated
consistently for the last 25 years that satisfaction does not necessarily
lead to higher levels of performance although it may lead to decreases
in turnover and absences. Again, the expectation that happy workers
will be productive workers is misleading and therefore may be setting up
unreasonable expectations.

• Na'ive views of organizational behaviour:


A good many of those experts who have proposed QWL activities
have described a process whereby pilot projects may be run and good
ideas, having seen the light of day, will naturally spread throughout
the organization and be institutionalized or made permanent. They
also assume that projects at the lowest levels will succeed even if the
environment within the larger organization is unfavorable to them.
What we know about the systemic nature of organizations leads us to
be very skeptical about the degree of potential for highly participative
processes that are instituted at low organizational levels in
authoritarian top-down organizations. The lessons of the job-
enrichment movement in the late 1960s showed this again and again.
Similarly, to expect that pilot projects will somehow spread
throughout the organization ignores the reality that, in general, pilot

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projects tend to be encapsulated and do not get disseminated even
when they are successful.

• Focus on low-level employees:

Much QWL emphasis has been on first-level or line-operative


employees. QWL has been described as something the top tells the
middle to do to the bottom in organizations. This creates problems in
two ways: First, employees at the bottom are frequently being asked to
do things that the top is unwilling to do; specifically, to use
participative decision making. This inconsistency or "Do what I say,
not what I do" approach clearly has some inherent drawbacks. Middle
managers or technical personnel have just as severe QWL problems as
those of line-operative employees. To assume that only the person on
the assembly line is concerned with QWL ignores other large groups of
people who are entitled to the same level of consideration.

• Quality of work life and productivity:

The actual relationship between quality of work life efforts and


productivity is often ignored. Some assume that QWL activities will
inevitably lead to increased productivity. In many cases, this is simply
not true. Such activities may lead to higher levels of commitment, lower
levels of turnover, and higher quality, but not necessarily to higher
productivity. The important thing to keep in mind is that QWL and
such individual outcomes as satisfaction and productivity can be
addressed by some of the same kinds of actions, but they aren't in a
direct cause-and-effect relationship. Careful analysis of each activity
is needed to determine what effect it is likely to have. It is naive to
assume that merely doing something related to QWL will lead to
higher productivity.

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Bibliography
• http://www.docsto.com
• http://www.mbaguys.com
• http://www.scribd.com
• http://www.wikipedia.com

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