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New Criticism

.Is still a real presence and probably will remain so for some time to come

.Criticism: means evaluating and judging

Literary theory: Interpretive tool, that helps us to think more deeply insightfully in any
.literary text

Study literature Form and Contents

Close Reading: Text is a self-contained and self-referential unit, we can get the meaning,
and the ideas how the text itself

Formalism: Russian school emerged in 1920, and 1930.This theories focus on the text
.itself, without caring about historical background

(New Criticism: American version of (Formalism 1944-1950

:(The biographical-historical)
Beginning of 20c.The history and the life of its author, is the text loyal to its history, and
.not related to literature

Authorian intention :
.The writer's goal and mean of his literary text

: The text itself

To focus on our attention on the literary work as the sole source of evidence for
interpreting it

New Criticism school doesn't care about: The life and times of the author and the spirit of
the age, certainly they are not interested the literary historian, they think it can't provide
.any information to the literary work in analyzing the text itself

For example :We can't know or guess the author's intention of his work ,because
sometimes literary text doesn't live up to author's intention .Sometimes the critic discuss
. it more meaningful ,rich, and complex than the author realized

Intentional fallacy: new critics said that the author's intention is not the same (meaning)
.of text itself, related to the author

Readers' feelings or opinion about a text itself may be produced by some personal
association from past experience rather that by the text
Effective fallacy: The refuses of the text and its effect on its readers ,related to the object

:The text meaning actually represents by formal elements

,Form: Symbols, images, metaphors, rhythm, meter, point of view, settings
.Plot, the and characterizations of literary works
Content: plot, summary, themes, analysis

The literary language: is very different from scientific language and from everyday
language, depends connotation: on the implication, association, suggestion, and evocation of
.meanings and shades of meaning
.It's expressive: it communications tone, attitude, and feeling
It organizes linguistic recourses into a special arrangement, a complex unity, to create an
.aesthetic experience, a world of its own

Organic unity: New criticism judged the quality of a literary work ,if a text has an organic
unity, then all of its formal elements work together to establish its theme, or the meaning of the
.work as a whole

Close reading: The scrupulous examination of the complex relationship between a text's
formal elements and its theme, and it's how the text's organic unity was established by the New

Poem page 143 "There is a Girl Inside" by Lucille Clifton

.Apply it under New Criticism elements
• The poem is probably the tension between youth and age
• Tension between what the speaker feels like on the inside and what she
looks like on the outside.
• The alternation of the language of the youthful vitality (girl ,randy-which
means sexually free or assertive "green tree"," green girl"," blossom " )
• Language of aging and decay (bones, old woman, kindling ,which is
old ,dried –up wood used for starting fires gray hairs )
• She feels awaits the "girl inside "herself ,the girl that she is still ,despite
her "bones"
• Timeless youth is a paradox because, on the literal level of biology, time
and youth are mutually exclusive: the passage of time inevitably results in aging.
• The speaker believes can overpower age:"blossom, lovers, .harvest,
honey and thyme, wood, wild, and wonder".

According to the new criticism school, they try to defense two terms to prove that they're
object, which called Objective criticism
• Intrinsic criticism :To donate that New Criticism stayed within the
confidence of the text itself
• Extrinsic criticism: It goes outside the literary text for the tools needed
to interpret it.
New critics have a single, objective meaning. The best reading of a literary work by
establishing, that all former readings were in some way inadequate to understand the
text's theme.

For Marxism, getting and keeping economic power is the motive behind all social and
political activities, they can't ignore economic life, the class of any author is very
.important to them, so they build society under economic elements

Economic status: The material and historical background of the author decide the theme
and implied meaning of the text, so the main concern and Marxism school is the author

.The superstructure of social ideological realities: Philosophy, arts, religion, and media
.The superstructure of social ideological realities: Government

Historical situation: The Marxist terminology, economic conditions are referred to as

.material circumstances and the social, political, ideological atmosphere
They ignored any spiritual elements, religion, principles, they believe in materials
. and social upper and lower economic class

:Marxism divided people in ways much more significant that differences in

:Religion, race, ethnicity, or gender .To put them simply
Have: middle class
Have-nots:poor class _____________between the BOURGEOISIE those who control
.The world's natural , economic, and human resources
PROLETARIAT: The majority of the global population has always performed the
.manual labor, and the factory work

They gathered in the group text as a group because they have one suffering, same
.problem, regardless the differences