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Copyrighted Mates. DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY MARTIN LIPSCHULTZ The perfect aid for better grades Covers all course fundamentals and supplements any class text Teaches effective problem-solving Features fully worked problems Ideal for independent study THE ORIGINAL AND MOST POPULAR COLLEGE COURSE SERIES AROUND THE WORLD Copyrighted Material SCHAUM’S OUTLINE OF THEORY AND PROBLEMS or DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY BY MARTIN M. LIPSCHUTZ, Ph.D. Professor of Mathematics University of Bridgeport SCHAUM’S OUTLINE SERIES McGraw-Hill New York San Francisco Washington, D.C, Auckland Bogoté Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi San Juan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto Copyright © 1969 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 37985, 11 12 13 1415 SH SH 89 Preface This book is designed to be used for a one-semester course in differential geometry for senior undergraduates or first year graduate students. It presents the fundamental concepts of the differential geometry of curves and surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space and applies these concepts to many examples and solved problems. The basic theory of vectors and vector calculus of a single variable is given in Chapters 1 and 2. The concept of a curve is presented in Chapter 8, and Chapters 4 and 5 discuss the theory of curves in E*, including selected topics in the theory of contact, a very natural approach to the classical theory of curves. Considerable care is given to the definition of a surface so as to provide the reader with a firm foundation for the treatment of global problems and for further study in modern differential geometry. In order to accomplish this, background material in analysis and © point set topology in Euclidean spaces is presented in Chapters 6 and 7. The surface is then defined in Chapter 8 and Chapters 9 and 10 are devoted to the theory of the non- intrinsic geometry of a surface, including an introduction to tensor methods and selected topics in the global geometry of surfaces. The final chapter presents the basic theory of the intrinsic geometry of surfaces in E°. Numerous illustrations are presented throughout the book to help the reader visually, and many graded supplementary problems are included at the end of each chapter to help the reader test his understanding of the subject matter. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the help of Martin Silverstein and Jih-Shen Chiu who made many useful suggestions and criticisms. I am also grateful to Daniel Schaum and Nicola Monti for their splendid editorial cooperation and to Henry Hayden for typographical arrangement and art work for the figures. Finally I wish to express my appreciation to my wife Sarah for carefully typing the manuscript. MARTIN M. LipscHuTZ Bridgeport, Conn. March 1969 CONTENTS Chapter J VECTORS Addition of vectors. ‘Multiplication of a vector by a scalar. Linear dependence and independence. Bases and components. Scalar product of vectors. Orthogonal vectors. Orthonormal bases. Oriented bases. Vector product of vectors. Triple products and vector identities. i EEE EEaE Chapter. 2 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE ..............-..5+ 21 Lines and planes. Neighborhoods. Vector functions. Bounded functions. Limits. Properties of limits. Continuity. Differentiation. Differentiation formulas. Fune- tions of class C™, Taylor’s formula. Analytic functions. LE Chapter 3 CONCEPT OF A CURVE Regular representations, Regular curves. Orthogonal projections. Implicit rep- resentations of curves. Regular curves of class C™. Definition of are length. Are length as a parameter. a Chapter 4 CURVATURE AND TORSION ............0.:0:00eeeeeeeeees seeeee 61 Unit tangent vector. ‘Tangent line and normal plane, Curvature. Principal normal unit vector, Principal normal line and osculating plane. Binormal. Moving tri- hedron. Torsion. Spherical indicatrices. EEE EEE Chapter § THE THEORY OF CURVES ..........0.00.00c0eeceeeee eee ete eens 80 Frenet equations. Intrinsic equations. The fundamental existence and unique- ness theorem. Canonical representation of a curve. Involutes. Evolutes. Theory of contact. Osculating curves and surfaces. —_—_— See Chapter 6 ELEMENTARY TOPOLOGY IN EUCLIDEAN SPACES ........... 102 Open sets, Closed sets. Limit points, Connected sets. Compact sets. Continuous mappings. Homeomorphisms. Chapter 7% VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A VECTOR VARIABLE sees Linear functions. Continuity and limits, Directional derivatives, Differentiable functions. Composite functions, Functions of class O™. Taylor's formula. Inverse function theorem. 121 Chapter. 8) CONCEPT OF A SURFACE —— Regular parametric representations. Coordinate patches. Definition of a simple . surface. Tangent plane and normal line. Topological properties of simple surfaces. CONTENTS Chapter 9 FIRST AND SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORMS ................. aVal First fundamental form. Are length and surface area. Second fundamental form. Normal curvature. Principal curvatures and directions. Gaussian and mean curva- ture. Lines of curvature. Rodrigues’ formula. Asymptotic lines. Conjugate families of curves, THEORY OF SURFACES— TENSOR ANALYSIS ................ 201 Gauss-Weingarten equations. The compatibility equations and the theorem of Gauss. The fundamental theorem of surfaces. Some theorems on surfaces in the large. Elementary manifolds. Tensors. Tensor algebra. Applications of tensors to the equations of surface theory. \ Chapter 10 i Chapter JJ = INTRINSIC GEOMETRY ...............0000cccccceecseeeeeeeseeees 227 Mappings of surfaces. Isometric mappings. Intrinsic geometry. Geodesic curvature. Geodesic coordinates. Geodesic polar coordinates. Arcs of minimum length. Sur- faces with constant Gaussian curvature. Gauss-Bonnet theorem. AppendixI EXISTENCE THEOREM FOR CURVES ...................0000000 263 AppendixII EXISTENCE THEOREM FOR SURFACES .................0000005 264 INDEX 267 _ Chapter 1 Vectors INTRODUCTION Differential geometry is the study of geometric figures using the methods of calculus. In particular the introductory theory investigates curves and surfaces embedded in three dimensional Euclidean space E°. Properties of curves and surfaces which depend only upon points close to a particular point of the figure are called local properties. The study of local properties is called dif- ferential geometry in the small. Those properties which involve the entire geometric figure are called global properties. The study of global properties, in particular as they relate to local properties, is called differential geometry in the large. Example 1.1. Let @ and B be two points near a point P on a curve I in a plane and let Cop be the circle through P,Q and R, as shown in Fig. 1-1. Now consider the limiting position of the circles Cog as Q and R approach P, In general, the limiting position will be a circle C tangent to T at P. The radius of C is the radius of curvature of T at P. The radius of curvature is an example of a local property of the curve, for it depends only on the points on T near P. Fig. 1-1 Fig. 1-2 Example 1.2. 7 The Moebius strip shown in Fig. 1-2 is an example of a one-sided surface. One-sidedness is an example of a global property of a figure, for it depends on the nature of the entire surface. Observe that a small part of the surface surrounding an arbitrary point P is a regular two-sided surface, i.e. locally the Moebius strip is two-sided. We first investigate local properties of curves and surfaces and then apply the results to problems of differential geometry in the large. We begin with a review of vectors in E°. VECTORS By Euclidean space H* we mean the set of ordered triplets a= (qi, @2,ds) with a1, a2,@3 real. A vector is a point in E% and in general will be denoted by a,b, c,x,y,... or P,Q,R,.... The negative of a vector a is the vector —a defined by —a = (—ai,—d2,—as). The zero vector is the vector 0 = (0,0,0). The length or magnitude of a vector a= (a1,d2,@3) is the real number |a| = /a;+o3+ a3. Clearly |a|=0 and |a|=0 if and only if a=0.