ANALYSIS
By
LOUIS BRAND, Ch.E., E.E., Ph.D.
PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS
UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI
CHAPTER I
VECTOR ALGEBRA
ARTICLE
1. Scalars and Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2. Addition of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Subtraction of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Multiplication of Vectors by Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5. Linear Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. Collinear Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7. Coplanar Points 12
8. Linear Relations Independent of the Origin. . . . . . . . . . 18
9. Centroid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
10. Barycentric Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
11. Projection of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
12. Base Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
13. Rectangular Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
14. Products of Two Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
15. Scalar Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
16. Vector Product . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
17. Vector Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
18. Vector Triple Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
19. Scalar Triple Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
20. Products of Four Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
21. Plane Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
22. Spherical Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
23. Reciprocal Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
24. Components of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
25. Vector Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
26. Homogeneous Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
27. Line Vectors and Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
28. Summary: Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Problems . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
CHAPTER II
MOTOR ALGEBRA
29. Dual Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
30. Dual Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
31 Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
xi
xii CONTENTS
ARTICLE PAGE
32. Motor Sum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
33. Scalar Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
34. Motor Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
35. Dual Triple Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
36. Motor Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
37. Reciprocal Sets of Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
38. Statics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
39. Null System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
40. Summary: Motor Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
CHAPTER III
VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE
41. Derivative of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
42. Derivatives of Sums and Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
43. Space Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
44. Unit Tangent Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
45. Frenet's Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
46. Curvature and Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
47. Fundamental Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
48. Osculating Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
49. Center of Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
50. Plane Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
51. Helices . .
. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
52. Kinematics of a Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
53. Relative Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
54. Kinematics of a Rigid Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
55. Composition of Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
56. Rate of Change of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
57. Theorem of Coriolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
58. Derivative of a Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
59. Summary: Vector Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Problems . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
CHAPTER IV
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
60. Vector Functions of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
61. Dyadics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
62. Affine Point Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
63. Complete and Singular Dyadics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
64. Conjugate Dyadics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
65. Product of Dyadics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
66. Idemfactor and Reciprocal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
67. The Dyadic 4) x v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
68. First Scalar and Vector Invariant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
69. Further Invariants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
CONTENTS xiii
ARTICLE PAGE
70. Second and Adjoint Dyadic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
71. Invariant Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
72. Symmetric Dyadics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
73. The HamiltonCayley Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
74. Normal Form of the General Dyadic . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
75. Rotations and Reflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
76. Basic Dyads . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
77. Nonion Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
78. Matric Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
79. Differentiation of Dyadics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
80. Triadics . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
81. Summary: Dyadic Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
CHAPTER V
DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS
82. Gradient of a Scalar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
83. Gradient of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
84. Divergence and Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
85. Differentiation Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
86. Gradient of a Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
87. Functional Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
88. Curvilinear Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
89. Orthogonal Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
90. Total Differential . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
91. Irrotational Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
92. Solenoidal Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
93. Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
94. First Fundamental Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
95. Surface Gradients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
96. Surface Divergence and Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
97. Spatial and Surface Invariants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
98. Summary: Differential Invariants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
CHAPTER VI
INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS
99. Green's Theorem in the Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
100. Reduction of Surface to Line Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
101. Alternative Form of Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
102. Line Integrals . . . . 222
103. Line Integrals on a Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
104. Field Lines of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
105. Pfaff's Problem . . . . . . . 230
106. Reduction of Volume to Surface Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . 233
107. Solid Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
xiv CONTENTS
ARTICLE PAGE
108. Green's Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
109. Harmonic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
110. Electric Point Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
111. Surface Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
112. Doublets and Double Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
113. Space Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
114. Heat Conduction . . . . . 247
115. Summary: Integral Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
CHAPTER VII
HYDRODYNAMICS
CHAPTER VIII
GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE
CHAPTER IX
TENSOR ANALYSIS
ARTICLE PAGE
145. The Summation Convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
146. Determinants . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
147. Contragredient Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
148. Covariance and Contravariance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
149. Orthogonal Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
150. Quadratic Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
151. The Metric . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 339
152. Relations between Reciprocal Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
153. The Affine Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
154. Dyadics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
155. Absolute Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
156. Relative Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
157. General Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
158. Permutation Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
159. Operations with Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
160. Symmetry and Antisymmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
161. Kronecker Deltas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
162. Vector Algebra in Index Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
163. The Affine Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
164. Kinematics of a Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
165. Derivatives of e` and E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
166. Relation between Affine Connection and Metric Tensor . . . . . 361
167. Covariant Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
168. Rules of Covariant Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
169. Riemannian Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
170. Dual of a Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
171. Divergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
172. Stokes Tensor . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 372
173. Curl . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
174. Relation between Divergence and Curl . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
175. Parallel Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
176. Curvature Tensor .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
177. Identities of Ricci and Bianchi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
178. Euclidean Geometry . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
179. Surface Geometry in Tensor Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
180. Summary: Tensor Analysis . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 392
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
CHAPTER X
QUATERNIONS
VECTOR ALGEBRA
AB=DC=u, AD=BC=v.
A vector symbol between vertical bars, as I AB I or I u 1, de
notes the length of the vector. We shall also, on occasion, denote
the lengths of vectors, u, v, F by the corresponding letters u, v, F
in italic type. Bars about real numbers denote their positive mag
nitudes: thus I 3 1 = 3.
The preceding definition of a vector is adequate for the elemen
tary applications to Euclidean space of three dimensions. For
purposes of generalization, however, it is far better to define a
vector as a new type of numbera hypernumberwhich is given
by a set of real numbers written in a definite order. Thus, in our
ordinary space it will be seen that, when a suitable system of
reference has been adopted, a vector can be represented by a set
of three real numbers, [a, b, c], called the components of the vector.
With this definition the zero vector is denoted by [0, 0, 0]. In
order to complete this definition of a vector, a rule must be given
to enable us to compute the components when the system of refer
ence is changed.
§2 ADDITION OF VECTORS 3
(1) AB + BC = AC.
We shall regard this equation as the definition of vector addition.
The sum of two vectors, u, v, therefore is defined by the following
triangle construction (Fig. 2a) :
Draw v from the end of u; then the vector directed from the begin
ning of u to the end of v is the sum of u and v and is written u + v.
C
FIG. 2a Fia. 2b
Since any side of a triangle is less than the sum of the other
two sides,
lu+vl _ lul +lvl,
the equal sign holding only when u and v have the same direction.
Vector addition obeys both the commutative and associative laws:
(2) u+v = v+u,
(3) (u + v) + w = u + (v + w).
In the parallelogram formed with u and v as sides (Fig. 2b),
u+v=AB+BC=AC, v+u=AD+DC=AC.
This proves (2). In view of this construction, the rule for vector
addition is called the parallelogram law.
To find u + v when u and v are line vectors whose lines intersect
at A, shift the vectors along their lines so that both issue from A
(Fig. 2b) and complete the parallelogram ABCD; then
3 3 9
u+v=AB+AD= AC.
4 VECTOR ALGEBRA §2
B
Fia. 2c FIG. 2d
0
Fia. 3a Fia. 3b
If 0 is chosen as a point of reference, any point P in space may
be located by giving its position vector OP. Any vector AB may
6 VECTOR ALGEBRA §4
be expressed in terms of the position vectors of its end points
(Fig. 3b),
AB = AO + OB = OB + (OA),
and, from (3),
(4)
4  4
AB = OB  OA.
4. Multiplication of Vectors by Numbers. The vector u + u is
naturally denoted by 2u; similarly, we write u + (u) = 2u.
Thus, both 2u and 2u denote vectors twice as long as u; the
former has the same direction as u, the latter the opposite direc
tion. This definition is generalized as follows:
The product au or ua of a vector u and a real number a is defined
as a vector a times as long as u, and having the same direction as u,
or the opposite, according as a is positive or negative. If a = 0,
au=0.
In accordance with this definition,
a(u) = (a)u = au, (a)(u) = au.
These relations have the same form as the rules for multiplying
numbers. Moreover, the multiplication of a vector by numbers is
commutative (by definition), associative, and distributive:
(1) au = ua,
(2) (a/3)u = a(/3u),
(3) (a + a)u = au + (3u.
The product of the sum of two vectors by a given number is also
distributive:
(4) a(u + v) = au + av.
The proof of (4) follows immediately from the theorem that the
corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional. Figure 4
applies to the case when a > 0.
The quotient u/a of a vector by a number
u+V av a (not zero) is defined as the product of u
v
U au by 1/a.
Fia. 4 The developments thus far show that:
As far as addition, subtraction, and multi
plication by numbers are concerned, vectors may be treated formally
in accordance with the rules of ordinary algebra.
§5 LINEAR, DEPENDENCE 7
In space of three dimensions, four vectors ul, u2i u3, u4 are al
ways linearly dependent. For (a) if three of the vectors are co
planar, they are linearly dependent, and the same is true of all
four; and (b) if no three vectors are coplanar", we can construct a
FIG. 5a FIG. 5b
(2)

OP =
OA + A OB
1 + A
§6 COLLINEAR POINTS 9
(3)
OPaOA
=
+aOB
a+0

In particular, if X = 1, P is the midpoint of AB.
In the following we shall denote the position vectors of the
points A, B, C, , P by a, b, c, , p. Thus if C divides AB
in the ratio /3/a,
c=ash(3b
(4)
a+0
Thus the midpoint of AB has the position vector (a + b).
2
When the points C, D divide a segment AB internally and ex
ternally in the same numerical ratios ±X, we have
a+Ab a  Xb
c =1+x, d=
1x
If we solve these equations for a and b, we find that the points
A, B also divide the segment CD in the same numerical ratios
f(1  X)/(l + X). Pairs of points A, B and C, D having this
property are said to be harmonic conjugates; either pair is the
harmonic conjugate of the other.
A useful test for collinearity is given by the following:
THEOREM. Three distinct points A, B, C lie on a straight line
when, and only when, there exist three numbers a, /3, y, different from
zero, such that
(5) aa+/3b+yc=0, a+$+y=0.
Proof. If A, B, C are collinear, C divides AB in some ratio /3/a;
hence on putting y =  (a + ,B) in (4) we obtain (5). Conversely,
from (5) we can deduce (4) since a + y 0; hence C lies
on the line AB.
From (5) we conclude that C, A, B divide AB, BC, CA, re
spectively, in the ratios S/a, y/l3, a/y whose product is 1.
If an equation of the form (5) subsists between three distinct non
collinear points, we must conclude that a = (3 = y = 0. For at
least one coefficient y = 0; and from
as+3b=0, a+/3=0,
we have a = b (A coincides with B) unless a = 0 = 0.
10 VECTOR ALGEBRA §6
Another criterion for collinearity may be based on the statical
addition of line vectors (§ 2).
THEOREM. The points A, B, C are collinear when the line vectors
AB, BC, CA are statically equal to zero:
E " B
Fia. 6b Fia. 6c
By hypothesis
2a + 3c 2b + d
p 5 3
hence
 5d = lOb  6a _
6a + 9c = 10b + 5d and
4
PQ +QR+RP =0,
and I', Q, R are collinear.
12 VECTOR ALGEBRA §7
Fia. 7a
Thus R divides AB in the ratio S/a. The product of the division ratios
y//3, a/y, /3/a is 1.
14 VECTOR ALGEBRA §7
These equations state that A', B', C' divide BC, CA, AB in the ratios y/fl,
a/y, fl/a, whose product is 1. Incidentally, A', B', C' divide SA, SB, SC in
the ratios a/a, fl/S, y/3 whose sum is 1.
Conversely, let us assume that A', B', C' divide BC, CA, AB in the ratios
y/$, a/j, fl/a whose product is 1. Then we have equations (i), (ii), (iii).
From these we find that the vectors as + (0 + y)a', fib + (y + a)b', yc +
(a + fl)c' are all equal to as + lb + yc; the point,
s
as+pb+yc
(iv)
a + fl + y
is therefore common to the lines AA', BY, CC'.
Note. From (i), (ii), (iii) it is easily proved that the three pairs of lines
BC, B'C'; CA, C'A'; AB, A'B' meet in the points P, Q, R given by
(Qy)p=Rbyc,
(v) (y  a)q = yc  aa,
(afl)r=as/3b.
From these equations we deduce the linear relation,
(vi) (fiy)p+(ya)q+(aa)r=0,
in which the sum of the coefficients is zero. The points P, Q, R therefore lie
on a line s. Thus to every point S given by (iv) we have a corresponding
line s whose points P, Q, R are given by (v)the polar of S relative to the
triangle ABC.
Example 4. Let ABC and A'B'C' be two triangles, in the same or different
planes, so that the vertices A, B, C correspond to A', B', C', and the sides
AB, BC, CA correspond to A'B', B'C', C'A'. We then have (Fig. 7d)
P
FIG. 7d
From these equations we find in the usual manner the points P Q, R in which
BC, B'C'; CA, C'A'; AB, A'B' intersect:
(i) Jr =
fib
 yc =
fl_y '6',
fl'b'
 y'c/
yC  as y'C'  a'a'
(ii) q = y_a y,_«,
1
(iii)
_«a3b «a'fl'b'
at  of
Hence
(iv) (l;  'y)p + (y  a)q + (a  6)r = 0,
(v) 'y')p + ('y'  a')q + (a'  6')r = 0;
either equation shows that P, Q, R are collinear.
To prove the converse, we may start with the expressions (i), (ii), (iii) for
p, q, r. These ensure that P, Q, R are collinear; but, in order that (iv) and
(v) determine the same division ratios for P, Q, R, we must have
,.y' 'y'a'
= h,
y y  a a 
or
FIG. 7e
arc said to be opposite; and the three points in which they meet are called
rliagon<zl points. In the complete quadrangle ABCD (Fig. 7e) the pairs of
opposite sides (BC, AD), (CA, BD), (AB, CD), meet at the diagonal points
L, :11, N, respectively.
The properties of this configuration of points and lines must all be con
sequences of the fact that A, B, C, D are coplanar points, that is,
_aa+13b yc+Sd
a+13 'Y+s
We here assume that no two of the scalars a, fl, y, S have a zero sum; the
diagonal points L, M, N are then all in the finite plane. But if for example,
a + 0 = y + S = 0, AB and CD are parallel, and N is the point at infinity
in their common direction.
To find the points X1, X2 where LM cuts AB and CD, we seek linear rela
tions connecting 1, m, a, b and 1, m, c, d, respectively.
Thus, from (ii) and (iii),
('Y+a)m (S +y)1 as /3b
a/3 a0 '
(0+y)1(S+S)m yc  Sd
(vi) X2
yS yS
Equations (iv) and (v) show that N and X1 divide AB in the ratios '6/a
and /3/a; hence N, X1 are harmonic conjugates of A, B.
Equations (iv) and (vi) show that N and X2 divide CD in the ratios S/y
and S/y; hence N, X2 are harmonic conjugates of C, D.
Equation (v) shows that X1 divides LM in the ratio (y + a)/(3 + y);
and (vi) shows that X2 divides LM in the ratio (S + 5)/(3 + y) _
(y + a)/(3 + y); hence X1, X2 are harmonic conjugates of L, M.
We may now state the following harmonic properties of the complete quad
rangle in the
THEOREM. Two vertices of a complete quadrangle are separated harmonically
by the diagonal point on their side and by a point on the line joining the other
two diagonal points.
Two diagonal points are separated harmonically by points on the sides passing
through the third diagonal point.
18 VECTOR ALGEBRA §8
From (ii), (iii), (iv) we next find the points X1, Y1, Z1 in which AB, BC, CA
are cut by LM, MN, NL, respectively; thus
as  $b 3b  yc yc  as
$1 = y1 = Z1 =
a/3 I
0y ,
ya
Since
tive with DCB, CDA, BAD, ABC from A, B, C, D, respectively. Hence the
coliesponding sides of these triangles intersect in four lines a, b, c, d (only d,
the line X1Y1Z1, is shown in Fig. 7e). These lines are the polars of A, B, C, D
with respect to the triangle LMN (ex. 3).
Corresponding to the complete quadrangle given by four points A, B, C, D,
we now have a complete quadrilateral given by four lines a, b, c, d. In these
configurations the roles of points and lines are interchanged (Fig. 7f):
The quadrangle has four vertices A, B, C, D and six sides consisting of three
opposite pairs (BC, AD), (CA, BD), (AB, CD) which meet in the three diag
onal points L, M, N.
The quadrilateral has four sides a, b, c, d and six vertices consisting of three
opposite pairs (bc, ad), (ca, bd), (ab, cd) which lie on the three diagonal lines
1, m, n.
The quadrangle and quadrilateral have the same diagonal triangle LMN or
lmn; the sides 1, m, n are opposite the vertices L, M, N.
with the numbers ml, m2i , mn, respectively. Denote any one
of these "weighted" points by the symbol m.iPi; then, if the sum
of the numbers mi is not zero, the centroid of the entire set is defined
as the point for which the sum of all the vectors m1P*Pi is zero. The
defining equation for the centroid is thus
EmiQPi = 0,
we have, on subtraction from (1),
2;mi(P*Pi
 QPi) = Timi(P*Pi + PQ) = (2;mi)P*Q = 0;
hence P*Q = 0, and Q coincides with P*.
If the position vectors of P*, Pi are written p* and pi, (2) be
comes
(3) (2;mi)P* = Emipi.
The centroid of the points miP1 is not altered when the numbers
mi are replaced by any set of numbers cmi proportional to them;
for, in (2), the constant c may be canceled from numerator and
denominator. In particular, if the numbers mi are all equal, we
may replace them all by unity; the centroid of the n points then
is called their mean center and is given by the equation:
(4)
3 1 
OP* _  ZOP1, or p* _  Zpi.
1
n n
In finding the centroid P* of any set of weighted points miP1,
we may replace any subset of points for which the sum of the
weights is a number m' 0 0 by their centroid P with the weight
m'. For, if V and 1", respectively, denote summations extended
over the points of the subset and over all the remaining points,
we may write (3) in the form,
(2;'mi + Z"mi)P* = 7,'mipi + E"miPi,
or
(m' + I"mi)P* = m'p' + E"mipi.
§9 CENTROID 21
This equation shows that P* is also the centroid of the point m'P'
and the points miPi not included in the subset.
Finally, let us consider the nature of a set of n points miPi
(?Pi F4 0) for which Ximi = 0.If we attempt to find a point P*
which satisfies
(5) ZmiP*Pi = 0 when Xmi = 0,
we find that there are two possibilities.
(a) For any arbitrary choice of the points miPi, subject only to
the condition Emi = 0, there will in general be no point P* that
will satisfy (5). Thus in the cases n = 2, 3, 4, equations (5) imply,
respectively, that P1 and P2 coincide; P1, P2, P3 are collinear;
P1, P2, P3, P4 are coplanar. Hence, if these conditions are not
fulfilled, P* does not exist.
(h) If, however, a point P* can be found which satisfies (5), any
point whatever will serve (§ 8). In fact, we see, from (2), that
the existence of P* implies that
(6) ,6dmiOPi = 0 1mi = 0,
for any choice of 0. In particular, we may take any one of the
given points Pi as origin. Thus, if we take 0 at P1, (6) becomes
V
miP1 Pi = 0, 2; mi = m1 0.
i=2 i=2
Hence, from the defining equation (1), we see that P1 is the cen
troid of the points m2P2, m3P3, . . . , mnPn. Precisely the same
conclusion may be drawn for P2, P3, , Pn. We now can answer
N a M2
Fia. 9a FIG. 9b
Example 3. Mean Center of Four Points A, B, C, D. Let L1, L2; M1, M2;
N1, N2 be the midpoints of A B, CD; BC, DA; AC, BD, respectively (Fig. 9b).
To find P* we may replace A, B, C, D by 2L1 and 2L2, or by 2M1 and 2M2,
or by 2N1 and 2N2. Therefore P* is the midpoint of the segments L1L2,
M1M2, N1N2. The bisectors of the three pairs of opposite sides of the quad
§ 10 BARYCENTRIC COORDINATES 23
rangle ABCD (which may be plane or skew) intersect at P* and are there
divided in half.
If A, B, C, D are not coplanar, they determine a tetrahedron. Let A', B',
C', D' be the mean centers of the triads BCD, CDA, DAB, ABC. Then P*
is the centroid of A and 3A', B and 3B', C and 3C', D and 3D', and hence
divides each of the segments AA', BB', CC', DD' in the ratio of 3/1. The
preceding result also shows that the bisectors of the three pairs of opposite
sides of the tetrahedron meet at P*.
Example 4. The sum of n vectors AiB1 (i = 1, 2, , n) is given by
Z(bia;) =nb*na* = n(b*  a*)
where A* and B* are the mean centers of the initial points Ai and the terminal
points Bi, respectively; hence
2;A;Bi = n A*B*.
In particular,
4 
A1B1 + A2B2 = 2 A*B*,
where A*, B* are the midpoints of A1A2 and B1B2, respectively.
10. Barycentric Coordinates. If P is any point in the plane of
33 3
the reference triangle ABC, the vectors AP, BP, CP are linearly
dependent (§ 5) ; hence
«(p  a) + /3(p  b) + y(p  c) = 0,
p=as+9b+ic
(1)
«+6 + y
The denominator is not zero; for, if
a+a+y=0, then aa+(3b+yc=0,
and A, B, C would be collinear, contrary to hypothesis. Thus P
is the centroid of the weighted points aA, $B, yC. The three
numbers a, /3, y are called the barycentric coordinates of P; as they
all may be multiplied by the same number without altering p,
their ratios determine P. The vertices of the reference triangle
have the coordinates A(1, 0, 0), B(0, 1, 0), C(0, 0, 1); the unit
point (1, 1, 1) is the mean center of A, B, C.
If P is a point in space and ABCD a reference tetrahedron, the
vectors AP, BP, CP, DP are linearly dependent (§ 5); hence
«(pa)+$(ppb)+y(pc)+a(pd) =0,
as+Ab+yc+Sd
(2) p
a+O+y+S .
24 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 12
R
Fia. 12a FIG 12b
Q parallel to e2 and e3, e3 and el, el and e2 (Fig. 12b), its edges
will be parallel to el, e2, e3, and
el, e2, e3 and with their directions positive are called the coordi
nate axes. The numbers u', u2, u3 often are called the components
of u on these axes.
The components of a zero vector are all zero; for, since el, e2, e3
are linearly independent, u = 0 implies u' = u2 = u3 = 0.
If A is any scalar,
(2) Au = Aulel + Au2e2 + Au3e3.
If v = vie1 + v2e2 +.v3e3,
(3) u + v = (u1 + v')el + (u 2 + v2)e2 + (u3 + v3)e3
With the bracket notation, (2) and (3) become
(4) A[ul, u2, u3] = [Au', Au2, Au3],
(5) [ul, u2, u3] + [v', v2, v3] = [u' + v1, u2 + v2, u3 + v3].
To multiply a vector by a number, multiply its components by that
number; to add vectors, add their corresponding components. In par
ticular,
(6) [u', u2, u3] = [u', u2, u3],
(7) [ul, u2, u3]  [v', v2, v3] = [u'  v', u2  v2, u3  v3].
If u = v, then u  v = 0; hence
(8) U=V implies u' = v', u2 = v2, u3 = v3.
When referred to the same basis, equal vectors have their corresponding
components equal.
13. Rectangular Components. Let i, j, k denote a dextral sys
tem of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. From an origin 0
draw the coordinate axes x, y, z with positive directions given by
i, j, k (Fig. 13). Any vector u now is determined by giving its
components u1, u2i u3 on these rectangular axes:
(1) u = uli + u2j + u3k.
Draw OP = u from the origin, and let OP1, OP2i OP3 be its
orthogonal projections on the axes. Then ul is the length of OPI,
taken positive or negative according as OPI has the direction of
i or i; hence
u1 = I u I cos (i, u),
§ 13 RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS 27
R
Fic. 13
(4) OP=xi+yj+zk,
P has the rectangular coordinates (x, y, z). Since P1P2 = OP2
28 VECTOR ALGEBRA §13
(ab) k a +2 b \ b+c
2
c+a\
C
shows that the perpendicular bisectors of the triangle ABC meet in a point K,
the circumcenter of the triangle.
For the orthocenter H and circumcenter K the individual terms of the fore
going equations vanish; for example,
(a  0, (a  0.
P R'
Fta. 15c Fia.15d
The center N of the ninepoint circle has the position vector n given by
4n =a+b}c+h=3g+h=2h+2k,
in view of ex. 4. Therefore the center N of the ninepoint circle is collinear
with the mean center G of the triangle, its orthocenter H, and circumcenter K.
Moreover N bisects the segment HK.
16. Vector Product. The vector product of two vectors u and v,
written u x v, is defined as the vector,
(1) uxv= Jul Ivlsin(u,v)e,
where e is a unit vector perpendicular to both u and v and forming
with them a dextral set u, v, e. If u and v are not parallel, a right
handed screw revolved from u towards v will advance in its nut
towards u x v.
When u and v are parallel, e is not defined; but in this case
sin (u, v) = 0 and u x v = 0. Moreover, if u and v are not zero,
u x v = 0 only when sin (u, v) = 0. Hence, for proper vectors,
(2) uxv = 0 means u I I v.
In particular u x u = 0.
From (1) we see that
(u)xV = ux(v) _ uxv, (u). (v) = uxv,
(3) (au) x ((3v) = a# u x v.
The last result is obvious when a and /3 are positive numbers; the
other cases then follow from the equations
preceding.
If u and v are interchanged in (1), the
scalar factor is not altered, but e is reversed;
hence
(4) vxu = uxv.
Vector multiplication is not commutative.
FIG. 16 Draw u and v from the point A, and let p
be a plane perpendicular to u at A (Fig. 16).
Then u x v may be formed by a sequence of three operations:
(P) Project v on p, and obtain v';
(M) Multiply v' by I u I, and obtain I u I v';
(R) Revolve I u I v' about u through +90°
316 VECTOR PRODUCT
The resulting vector agrees with u x v in magnitude, for I V,
I v I sin (u, v), and also in direction (upward in the figure). We is
dicate this method of forming u X v by the notation,
(5) u X v = RMPV.
This means that v is projected, and the projection multiplied, an
finally revolved as previously described. Now each of these ope
ators is distributive: operating on the sum of two vectors is the sarr.
as operating on the vectors separately and adding the result:
hence
RMP(v + w) = RM(Pv + Pw)
= R(MPv + MPw) = RMPV + RMPvc
Thus, from (5),
(6) ux (v + w) = uxv + uxw, (V + W) Xu = vxu + wxu
Vector or "cross" multiplication is distributive. By repeated appli
cations of (6) we may expand the vector product of two vecto
sums just as in ordinary algebra, provided that the order of th,
factors is not altered. For example,
(a+b)x(c+d) =axc+axd+bxc+bxd.
If c 7d 0 in the equation,
axc=bxc, or (ab)xc=0,
we can conclude either that a  b = 0 or that a  b and c are
parallel. We cannot "cancel" c to obtain a = b unless a  b and
c are not parallel.
We shall see in § 18 that in general, (u x v) x w P6 u x (v x w).
Since the unit vectors i, j, k form a dextral orthogonal set, we
have the cyclic relations.
(7) ixj=k, jxk=i, kxi=j; ixi=jxj=kxk=0.
Hence, if we expand the product,
u x v = (u1i + u2j + u3k) x (v1i + v2j + v3k),
we obtain
(8) u x V = (u2v3  u3v2)i + (u3v1  u1v3)j + (ulv2  u2v1)k.
36 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 16
V1 V2 V3
4
Check. If we take u = AC = [4, 1, 5], u x e again has the preceding value.
OP=OA+AP=[1,2,1]+$[3,2,2]=$[21,10,17],
OQ = OC + CQ = [1, 2, 1] + $[1, 6, 4] _ $[13, 6, 25].
Check. The distance PQ = .
V
U
FIG. 17a Fia. 17b
associate such an area with a vector of magnitude A, normal to its
plane, and pointing in the direction a righthanded screw would move
if turned in the given sense. Thus the parallelogram whose sides
38 VECTOR ALGEBRA $ 17
are the vectors u, v (Fig. 17b) and whose sense agrees with the
rotation that carries u into v is associated with the vector u x v;
for its area is
A = Iul Ivlsin(u,v) = Iuxvl.
All plane areas associated with the same vector will be regarded
as equal. The sum of two plane areas associated with the vectors,
u, v, is defined as the plane
area associated with u + v.
A directed plane is a plane
associated with a definite nor
mal vector, say the unit normal
n. A circuit in a directed plane
is positive when it is counter
clockwise relative to n; a clock
wise circuit is negative.
Consider now a plane area A
associated with the vector u.
The projection of A on a di
Fm. 17c rected plane p is A' = A cos 8
(Fig. 17c).The circuital sense
of A is projected on A'. We shall give A' the sign corresponding
to its circuit on p, and call this signed area the component of A
on p. Since I u = A and (n, u) = 8 or ir  0,
n u = u I cos (n, u) = A cos 0 or A cos 8
according as (n, u) is acute or obtuse. In both cases n u gives
the component of A on p:
(1) compp A = n u.
THEOREM. When the vector areas of the faces of a closed poly
hedron are all drawn in the direction of the C
outward normals, their sum is zero.
Proof. Any polyhedron may be subdi
vided by planes into a finite number of A
tetrahedrons. Let ABCD (Fig. 17d) be one FIG. 17d
such tetrahedron. If we imagine ABC to
lie in the plane of the paper while D is above the paper, the out
ward vector areas of the triangular faces,
DAB, DBC, DCA, ABC,
§ 17 VECTOR AREAS 39
rected plane of unit normal n (Fig. 17e), and suppose that the
circuit P1P2 . Ph is positive. In the D
figure n points up from the plane of
the paper, so that a positive circuit is
counterclockwise. Choose an origin 0
at pleasure above the plane (towards P
the reader), and let r1, r2, , rh ''
denote the position vectors of the ver
tices. These vectors are the edges of P,
a pyramid having 0 as vertex and the Fla. 17e
given polygon as base. The triangular
faces of this pyramid have as their outward vector areas 2r1 x r2i
ire X r3, , irh x r1, while the outward vector area of the base is
An. From the preceding theorem the sum of these vector areas
is zero; hence
(2) An = (r1 x r2 + r2 x r3 + ... + rh x r1).
i
As the vertex 0 approaches the plane of the base, the terms on
the right of (2) vary continuously, but their sum is always An.
Hence when 0 is in the plane of the polygon, (2) remains valid.
If 0 is any origin of rectangular coordinates in the plane, let the
vertices of the polygon be (x1, yl), (x2, y2), , (xh, yh) taken in
counterclockwise order. Now n = k, and
x1 x2
r1 X r2 = (x1i + yll) X (x2i + y2i) = k,
Y1 Y2
40 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 18
(3) 2A = I xl
x2 + I x2 x3 + . ... + Xh
xl
Y1 Y2 I f y2 Y3 I I Yh Y1 J
Example 1. The sum of the outward vector areas of the triangular prism
(Fig. 17f) is
uxw +vXw  (u +v) xw = 0.
The vector areas of the triangular bases cancel, for
they are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.
Example 2. To find the area A of a triangle
u whose vertices are (a, 0, 0), (0, b, 0), (0, 0, c), put
FIG. 17f r1 = ai, r2 = bj, r3 = ck in (2); then
An = (abk + bci + caj), A = 11/a2b2 + b2c2 + OA
i
Example 3. To find the area of the polygon whose vertices in counter
clockwise order are (1, 2), (5, 4), (3, 7), (5, 5), (1, 3), we form the
array,
(x) 1 5 3 5 1 1
(y) 2 4 7 5 3 2,
repeating the first column. Then, from (3),
2A = 6+47+20+20+1 =82, A =41.
18. Vector Triple Product. The vector (u x v) x w is perpendic
ular to u x v and therefore coplanar with u and v; hence (§ 5),
(u x v) x w = au + /3v.
But, since (u x v) x w is also perpendicular to w,
aU 0.
All numbers a, that satisfy this equation must be of the form
a = A v w, = X u w, where X is arbitrary. Thus we have
(uxv)xw =
In order to determine X, we use a special basis in which i is col
linear with u, j coplanar with u, v; then
u = u1i, V = v1i + v2j, w = wli + w2j + w3k.
Substituting these values gives, after a simple calculation, A = 1
We therefore have the important expansion formulas,
(1) (uxv)xw = uWV
wx(uxv) = wvu wuv.
§ 19 SCALAR TRIPLE PRODUCT 41
(6) [uvw] = v1 v2 v3 .
W1 W2 W3
When [abc] 0,
(4) [abc]d = [dbc]a + [adc]b + [abd]c
gives d explicitly in terms of the basis a, b, c.
21. Plane Trigonometry. If the vectors a, b, c form a closed
triangle when placed end to end (Fig. 21),
(1) a+b+c=0.
We shall denote the lengths of the sides by a, b, c and the interior
angles opposite them by A, B, C; then the
angles (b, c), (c, a), (a, b) are equal, respec
tively,to7r A,7rB,,rC.
From the identity,
a
FIG. 21 (a+b) (a+b) =
we obtain the cosine law for plane triangles:
(2) c2 = a2 + b2  tab cos C.
Cyclical interchanges of the letters in (2) give two other forms of
this law.
On multiplying (1) first by a x, then by b x, we find
(3) bxc = cxa = axb.
Division by abc gives the sine law for plane triangles:
sin A sin B sin C
(4)
a b c
Let a, /3, y denote the sides (arcs of great circles) opposite the
vertices, A, By C. The interior dihedral angles at these vertices
also are denoted by A, B, C. We shall consider only spherical
triangles in which the sides and angles are each less than 180°.
Now
(1)
e3 e' = 0, e3 e2 = 0, e3 e3 = 1.
The superscripts applied to the base vectors are not exponents,
but mere identification tags. By use of the Kronecker delta 6j, de
fined as
when i=j
(2) ' 0 when i 5 j,
equations (1) condense to
(3) ei e' = Si (i, j = 1, 2, 3).
Consider the three equations in the first column of (1). The
second and third state that e' is perpendicular to both e2 and e3,
§ 23 RECIPROCAL BASES 47
(4) el = e2 x e3 e2 = e3 x el e3 = el x e2
[ele2e3] [ele2e3] [ele2e3]
e2 and e3 being derived from el by cyclical permutation. From
the symmetry of equations (1) in the two sets e1, ei, we have also
e2xe3 e3xel elxe2
(5) el = [ele2e3] , e2 = [ele2e3] , e3 = [ele2e3] .
(7) [u1, u2, u31 + [v1, v2, u31 _ [u1 + v1, u2 + v2, u3 + vJ
A simple expression for the scalar product u v is obtained when
u and v are referred to different, but reciprocal, bases. Thus, if
we compute
J (u'e1 + u2e2 + u3e3) . (vie1 + v2e2 + v3e3)
u . V = (ulel
l + u2e2 + u3e3)  (vlel + v2e2 + v3e3)
we obtain, by virtue of equations (23.1),
(8) u V = u1V1 + u2V2 + u3e3 = u1v1 + u2e2 + u3V3.
We next compute the components of u x v, relative to bases e2
and ei. Using covariant components gives
u x v = (uie' + u2e2 + u3e3) x (v1e1 + v2e2 + v3e3)
U2 U3 u3 u1 u1 U2
e2 x e3 + e3xel + e1xe2
V2 V3 V3 V1 V1 V2
U2 U3 e1 U3 u1 e2 e3
V2 V3 V3 V1 E E
or, more compactly,
(9) u x v = E1
(10) uxv=E
50 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 25
W1 w2 w3 W1 w2 w3
The first formula of (12) may be written
(13) [uvw][e1e2e3] = v el v . e2 v  e3 f
U X S7 = [uvw] =
(2)
ab
By direct substitution, (2) is seen to be a solution of equations (1).
A vector is also determined when its scalar products with three
known noncoplanar vectors are given. For example, if
(3) u  e1 = u1, u  e2 = u2, u  e3 = u3,
and the sets et, e i are reciprocal, we have, from (24.2),
(4) u = ulel + 112e2 + u3e3.
By direct substitution, (4) is seen to be a solution of equations (3).
26. Homogeneous Coordinates. Coordinates of a point, line or
plane are called homogeneous if the entity they determine is not
altered when the coordinates are multiplied by the same scalar.
A coordinate that depends upon the choice of origin 0 bears the
subscript 0; such coordinates are written after those independent
of the origin. In equations r denotes any position vector from 0
to the entity in question, whereas r1i r2 denote position vectors
to points R1, R2 given in advance. In this article we use Latin
letters for vectors, Greek for scalars.
Point Coordinates. If r = OA, we write r = ao/a. The "equa
tion" of the point A is then
(1) ra = ao,
and its homogeneous coordinates are (a, ao). Note that (Xa, Xao)
determine the same point; hence the coordinates (a, ao) depend
on three independent scalars: "there are o03 points in space."
Plane Coordinates. The equation of a plane through R1 and
perpendicular to the vector a is (r  r1) a = 0; or, on writing
ao=r1a,
(2) r a = ao.
The homogeneous coordinates of the plane are (a, ao). Since
(Xa, Xao) determine the same plane, the coordinates (a, ao) de
pend on three independent scalars: "there are oo 3 planes in space."
52 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 26
r=Qoaa aob x b
54 VECTOR ALGEBRA §26
Two Lines. If Rl and R2 are points on the lines (a, ao), (b, bo),
the lines are coplanar when and only when the vectors r1  r2,
a, b are coplanar. Since
(13) (r1
X o+ AA v=
Po + Yo
0 becomes X' p +lz'+v
op 'YP
=0,
where X' = Xap/ao, u' = flP/0o, d = vyp/yo Let the student prove that
x'+A '+v'=0.
27. Line Vectors and Moments. A vector which is restricted to
lie in a definite line is called a line vector. If f is the vector, and
(1) r x f = fo, (f fo = 0)
the equation of its line of action, the line vector is completely
specified by the Pliicker coordinates f, fo.
The vector fo is called the moment of f about the point 0. If
f=AB,
(2) fo = OA x AB
is twice the vector area of the triangle OAB (§ 17); fo remains con
stant as f is shifted along its line of action.
If the origin is shifted from 0 to P, the moment of f about P
is PA x AB = (PO + OA) x AB; hence
(3) fp = fo + PO x f.
If s is any axis through P with the unit vector e, the component
of fp on s, namely, e fp (15.6), is called the moment of f about the
axis s. We speak of moment about an axis because e fp is inde
56 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 27
(4)
is a u v
e a dextral set.
58 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 28
Laws :
UXV = `VxU, Ux(V+w) = uxv+uxw.
If u, v 0, u x v = 0 implies that u l v and conversely.
l
Expansion rule:
ux(vxw) =
Cross multiplication is not associative.
The box product, u x v w or [uvw], is numerically equal to the
volume of a "box" having u, v, w as concurrent edges; its sign is
+ or  according as u, v, w form a dextral or sinistral set. The
value of u x v w is not affected by a change in cyclical order of
the vectors, or by an interchange of dot and cross. If u, v, w 54 0,
[uvw] = 0 implies that u, v, w are coplanar, and conversely.
A set of three vectors ej forms a basis if E = [ele2e3] 0. To
every basis there corresponds a unique basis ei such that ej e'
= S1; such bases are called reciprocal. If the indices i, j, k form
a cyclical permutation of 12 3,
e,xek ei x ek
ei = ei = [ele2e3] ; [ele2e3][e'e2e3] = 1.
[e1e2e3]
U x v = E1 U2 E ul
V3 v2 v3
Ut
vl
U1 u2 U3 u2 u3
[uvw] = E1 I V1 V2 V3 E 1vi I
W1 W2 W3 w2
When the basis ej is selfreciprocal (ei = ei), its vectors
w3 form a
mutually orthogonal set of unit vectors; E = 1, if the basis is dex
tral, E = 1, if sinistral. A dextral selfreciprocal basis is written
PROBLEMS 59
ap = ao+POa, by = bo+POxb, yP =
The moment of the line vector (f, fo) about the point P is
fp = r x f, where r is any vector from P to its line of action. The
moment of (f, fo) about an axis through P is the component of fp
on this axis; if the axis is given by the unit line vector (e, eo), this
axial moment
PROBLEMS
1. If ABC is any triangle and L, M, N are the midpoints of its sides, show
that, for any choice of 0, a
 3 3 3 4
OA + OB + OC = OL + OM + ON.
3 3
 , > 9
2. If OA' = 3 OA, OB' = 2 OB, in what ratio does the point P in which
AB and A'B' intersect divide these segments?
3. Show that the midpoints of the four sides of any quadrilateral (plane
or skew) form the vertices of a parallelogram.
4. P and Q divide the sides CA, CB of the triangle ABC in the ratios
4 3
x/(1  x), y/(1  y). If PQ = X AB, show that x = y = X.
5. E, F are the midpoints of the sides A B, BC of the parallelogram A BCD.
Show that the lines DE, DF divide the diagonal AC into thirds and that AC
cuts off a third of each line.
6. OAA', OBB', OCC', ODD' are four rays of a pencil of lines through 0
cut by two straight lines ABCD and A'B'C'D'. If C and D divide AB in
the ratios r and s, C' and D' divide A'B' in the ratios r' and s', prove that
r/s = r'/s'.
7. The points A, B, C and A', B', C' lie, respectively, on two intersecting
lines. Show that BC', CB'; CA', AC'; AB', BA' intersect in the collinear
points P, Q, R (Pascal's Theorem).
60 VECTOR ALGEBRA
8. Lines drawn through a point P and the vertices A, B, C, D of a tetra
hedron cut the planes of the opposite faces at A', B', C', D'. Show that the
sum of the ratios in which these points divide the segments PA, PB, PC, PD
is 1. [Equation (10.2), with e =  (a + 0 + y + S) may be written
as+8b+yc+ad+ep =0, a+i9+y+s+e =0.
From this we conclude, as in § 7, ex. 3, that a' _ (aa + ep)/(a +,E), etc.]
9. The line DE is drawn parallel to the base AB of the triangle ABC and
is included between its sides. If the lines AE, BD meet at P, show that the
line CP bisects AB.
10. The points P, Q, R divide the sides BC, CA, AB of the triangle ABC
in the ratios a/(1  a), l3/(1  0), y/(1  y). If P, Q, R are collinear,
xp+yq+zr=0, x+y+z=0;
putting p = (1  a)b + ac, etc. in this equation, we obtain a linear relation
in a, b, a whose coefficients have a zero sum. Show that this implies that the
separate coefficients vanish; hence deduce the Theorem of Menelaus (§ 7, ex. 2):
afy/(1  a) (1  p)(1  y) = 1.
11. Using an argument patterned after that in Problem 10, prove Carnot's
Theorem:
If a plane cuts the sides AB, BC, CD, DA of a skew quadrilateral ABCD
in the points P, Q, R, S, respectively, the product of the ratios in which
P, Q, R, S divide these sides equals 1.
12. Id a plane quadrilateral ABCD, the point P in which the diagonals
AC, BD intersect divides these segments in the ratios 4/3 and 2/3, respec
tively. In what ratio does the point Q, in which the sides AB, CD meet,
divide these segments? 0
13. If el = O 1, e2 = OE2i e3 = 0 3E
form a basis, the reciprocal set
el, e2, e3 are vectors perpendicular to the planes OE2E3, OE3E1i OE1E2 and
having lengths equal to the reciprocals of the distances of El, E2, E3 from
these planes, respectively. Prove this theorem.
14. Prove that a necessary and sufficient condition that four points
A, B, C, D be coplanar is that
[dbc] + [add] + [abd]  [abc) = 0.
15. Show that the shortest distance from the point A to the line BC is
Iaxb +bxc +cxal/Ib  cI.
16. If the vectors el, e2, e3; el, e2, e3 form reciprocal sets, show that
the vectors e2 x e3, e3 x el, el x e2; e2 x e3, e3 x e1, el x e2 do likewise.
17. Prove the formulas:
(a) [a x b, bxc, c x a] = [abc]2,
(b) (bxc) (a x d) +(c x a) (b x d) +(a x b) (c x d) =0,
(c) (bxc) x (a x d) +(c x a) x (b x d) +(a x b) x (c x d) = 2[abc]d,
(d) (da) (bc)+(db) (ca)+(dc) (ab)=0,
(e) (ad) x (bc)+(bd) x (ca)+(cd) x (ab) =2(a x b+b x c+c x a).
PROBLEMS 61
18. Find the shortest distance between the straight lines AB and CD when
(a) A(2, 4, 3), B(2, 8, 0); C(1, 3, 5), D(4, 1, 7),
(b) A(2, 3, 1), B(0, 1, 2); C(1, 2, 5), D(3, 1, 0).
19. Show that the lines AB, CD are coplanar, and find the point P in which
they meet:
A(2, 3, 4), B(2, 3, 0); C(2, 3, 2), D(2, 0, 1).
4
[CD is parallel to CP = AP  AC = XAB  AC; find X and then P from
>
OP = OA + XAB.]
4
20. If the points P, Q, R divide the sides BC, CA, AB of the triangle ABC
in the same ratio, show that A, B, C and P, Q, R have the same mean center.
21. If the vectors OA, OB, OC lie in a plane and are equal in length, prove
that
OA + OB + OC = OH,
where H is the orthocenter of the triangle ABC. [§ 15, ex. 4.]
22. The power of a point P with respect to a sphere of center C and radius r
is defined as (CF)2  r2. Prove that the power of P with respect to a sphere
having AB as diameter is PA I'B.
23. Prove that the sum of the n2 powers of n given points, P1, P21 , P,,,
with respect to the n spheres having for diameters the n segments joining the
given points to a variable point P in space, is constant. [Am. Math. Monthly,
vol. 51, p. 96.1
24. The lines (a, ao), (b, bo)'are coplanar; then a bo + b ao = 0 (26.14).
Show that they determine the plane (a x b, ao b) if a x b 0 0; and the point
aoxbo) if 00.
Solve Problem 19 using these results.
25. Show that the three planes (a, ao), (b, $o), (c, yo) meet in the point,
([abc], aobxc +Rocxa +yoaxb),
provided [abc] 0 0.
26. Show that the three points (a, ao), (0, bo), (y, co) determine the plane,
(a bo x co + 0 co x ao + y ao x bo, [aobocol),
provided aboxco +3coxao +yaoxbo 0 0.
27. The points P, Q, R divide the sides BC, CA, AB of the triangle ABC
in the ratio of 1/2. The pairs of lines (AP, BQ), (BQ, CR), (CR, AP) inter
sect at X, Y, Z, respectively. Show that the area of the triangle XYZ is
1 /7 of the area of ABC. [Twice the vector area of XYZ is y x z + z x a +
xxyl
When P, Q, R divide the sides in the ratio t/1, the area of XYZ is
(1  t)2/(1 + t + t2) times the area of ABC.
62 VECTOR ALGEBRA
28. Using (26.16), prove that
(a) If four points (a, ao), (0, bo), (y, co), (S, do) lie on a plane, the vectors
ao/a, , do/S are connected by a linear relation in which the sum of the
coefficients is zero;
(b) If four planes (a, ao), (b, 3o), (c, yo), (d, So) pass through a point, the
vectors a/ao, , d/So are connected by a linear relation in which the sum
of the coefficients is zero, provided ao, Qo, 'yo, So 54 0.
29. If a sphere S with a fixed center cuts two concentric spheres S1, S2i
prove that the distance between the planes of intersection SS, and SS2 is
independent of the radius of S. Extend this theorem to cover the case when
S fails to cut one or both of the concentric spheres. [Consider the radical
planes SS1, SS2.1
30. Prove that the radical planes of the three spheres (r  c1)2 = P1 (1 =
1, 2, 3) meet in the line
J
`C1 X C2 + C2 X C3 + C3 X c1, 2c1(e2  e3  P2 + A3) + cycl.;,
their radical axis. Consider the case when e1 X C2 + C2 X C3 + C3 X cl = 0.
31. A plane system of forces Fi acting through the points ri is equivalent
to a single force F = 2;Fi. When all the forces Fi are revolved about these
points through an angle B, show that their resultant F also revolves through
B about the point f (the astatic center) given by
F X M  (11ri Fi)F
t= F
2 where M = 'ri x Fi.
When the forces are parallel (Fi = Xie), show that the astatic center is the
centroid of the weighted points Xiri.
32. P* is the centroid of a set of n weighted points miPi for which Tmi = in.
Prove the Theorems of Lagrange:
MOTOR ALGEBRA
29. Dual Vectors. The vector f, bound to the line whose equa
tion, referred to the origin 0, is
(1) rxf = fo,
is completely determined by the two vectors f, fo, its Plucker co
ordinates. These obviously satisfy the relation,
(2) f fo = 0.
The vector f does not depend upon 0; but fo, the moment of f
about 0, becomes
(3) fp=fo+POxf,
when the origin is shifted from 0 to P.
We now amalgamate f and fo into a dual vector.
(4) F=f+efo
where a is an algebraic unit having the property e2 = 0. If
f = 1, F is called a unit line vector. The unit line vectors,
A=a+eao,
stand in onetoone correspondence with the c0 4 lines of space.
A line vector F of length X always may be written F = XA, where
A is a unit line vector. Unit line vectors depend upon four in
dependent scalars, general line vectors upon five.
Finally, for applications in mechanics, we consider dual vectors
F without the restriction (2). The vectors f, fo then involve six
independent scalars. The dual vector (or the entity it represents)
then is called a motor, provided its resultant vector f is independent
of the choice of 0, while its moment vector fo changes in accord
ance with (3) when the origin is shifted to P.
Line vectors are thus special motors for which f fo = 0; for
unit line vectors also f f = 1.
63
64 MOTOR ALGEBRA § 30
If the function f(x) has the derivative f'(x), we define its value
for the dual argument X = x + Ex' by writing down its formal
Taylor expansion and setting E2 = E3 = = 0; thus
(5) Ax + Ex') = AX) + Ex'f' (x)
In particular,
(6) sin (x + Ex') = sin x + Ex' cos x,
(7) cos (x + ex') = cos x  ex' sin x.
When x = 0, we have sin Ex' = Ex', cos ex' = 1; consequently (6)
and (7) have the form of the usual addition theorems of the sine
and cosine. Note also that sine X + cost X = 1.
31. Motors. We now can characterize a motor as a dual multiple
of a unit line vector. Thus, on multiplying the unit line vector
A = a + Eao (a a = 1, a ao = 0) by the dual number X + EX',
we obtain the dual vector,
(1) M = m + Emo = (X + EX') (a + Ea.o).
On equating the real and dual parts of both members, we obtain
(2) m = Xa, mo = Xao + A'a.
To show that M is a motor we need only verify that mo transforms
in accordance with (29.3):
(3) MP =mo+POxm.
In view of (2), this result follows from
this shows that the axis passes through the point Q given by
f mxmo
(9) r=OQ= ;
At all points on its axis M has the same moment µm, a fact also
apparent from (7). Only for points P on the axis is the moment mp
parallel to m.
Motors for which m 0 (A 0) are called proper. Proper
motors are screws if m mo 0 0 (A, A' 0 0) ; line vectors if m mo =
0 (A 0 0, A' = 0). Only proper motors have a definite axis.
If m = 0, mo 0 0 (A = 0, A' 0), M = emo is pure dual; then
mo is not altered by a change of origin. In this case M is called
a couple of moment mo. A couple may be regarded as a screw of
infinite pitch with an axis of given direction but arbitrary position
in space.
Finally if m = 0, mo = 0, the motor M = 0, then A = A' = 0
from (2). Hence M = 0 only when its dual length A + eA' = 0.
Our classification of motors is therefore as follows:
Screw 0;1
} Proper
Line vector
Couple (m=0,
Zero (m=0, m0 =0):A=0,A' =0.
§ 32 MOTOR SUM 67
mp+nr = mo+no+POx(m+n)
THEOREM 1. The sum of two line vectors is a line vector only when
their axes are coplanar and their vectors have anonzero sum.
Proof. If M and N are line vectors, M + N is a line vector
when and only when
m+n 0, and (m + n) (mo + no) = 0.
Since m mo = 0, n no = 0, the latter condition reduces to
(2)
which is precisely the condition (26.14) that the axes be coplanar.
THEOREM 2. If two line vectors intersect, their sum is a line vector
through the point of intersection.
THEOREM. In order that the axes of two proper motors cut at right
angles, it is necessary and sufficient that their scalar product vanish.
Proof. We express the motors in the form,
M = (a + ea )A, N = (0 + E#')B,
where A, B are unit line vectors along their axes and a0  0.
Then
M  N = [a$+
and, since the first factor is neither zero nor pure dual, M N = 0
implies A B = 0, and conversely.
We denote the dual part of M N by
(6)
As previously noted, this is von Mises' definition of the scalar
product. In common with M  N, the product M c N is commu
tative and distributive with respect to addition. The preceding
calculation shows that
AoB = 
hence A o B = 0 implies p' = 0 or sin p = 0, that is, the line
vectors intersect or are parallel, and conversely. The same cri
terion applies to line vectors aA, OB of arbitrary length. Conse
quently a necessary and sufficient condition that two line vectors
1V ,JI be coplanar is that M e N = 0. This is the condition (26.14).
Writing the motor M = (a + ea')A gives
(a+ea')2=a2+2eaa'
as the square of its dual length; and M o M = 2aa'. Evidently
M o M = 0 implies that M is a line vector (a' = 0) or a couple
(a = 0).
34. Motor Product. The motor product of the motors M =
m + ano, N = n + eno is defined as the dual vector obtained by
distributing the product (m + emo) x (n + eno), namely,
(1) MxN = mxn + e(mxno +moxn).
When the origin is shifted to P, the dual part of M x N becomes
LxM N = LxM N = 0,
in exact analogy with vector products.
With von Mises' definition of a scalar product, the preceding
triple product becomes
(5) LxMoN = (lxm)  no + (lxmo +loxm)  n;
this is the dual part of L x M N. Equations (2), (3), (4) also
apply to L x M o N.
We now propose to find under what conditions L x M N = C
when L, M, N are proper motors. If the axes of L, M, N are all
parallel, l x m= m x n= n x 1= 0 and L xM N= 0. If their
axes are not all parallel, choose the notation so that 1 x m 0.
Then L x M is a proper motor whose axis cuts the axes of L and M
at right angles. The condition L x M N = 0 then holds when
and only when the axis of N cuts the axis of L x M at right angles.
§ 36 MOTOR IDENTITIES 73
Now
a
(2) a =
hence, if the point (a, ao) is fixed and ($, bo) varies over all null
lines through (a, ao), (,l, bo) always will lie in the plane whose co
ordinates are (amo  ao x m, ao mo).
Next, let the null line be common to the planes (a, ao), (b, Rio);
its coordinates are (a x b, a00  aob) from (26.10). Since it is a
null line,
(5) m (a(3o  aob) + mo a x b = 0.
This may be written
(6) (mao  mo x a) b = m a $o;
hence, if the plane (a, ao) is fixed and (b,,30) turns about all null
lines in (a, ao), (b, Qo) always will pass through the point whose
coordinates are (m a, mao  mo x a).
Equations (3) and (5) are not altered by an interchange of the
two points or two planes; hence the same is true of (4) and (6).
Therefore:
If the null plane of point A passes through B, the null plane of B
passes through A.
If the null point of plane a lies on b, the null point of b lies on a.
From the preceding results:
(7) Point (a, ao)  null plane (amo  ao x m, ao mo) ;
(8) Plane (b, Ro)  null point (m b, mao  mo x b).
Indeed, if we solve
b=amo  aoxm,
for (a, ao), we obtain the null point in (8). Note also that ao b
= a0o; let the student interpret this relation in the light of (26.16).
When M is a line vector, the null lines are lines that intersect
its axis. Then (7) gives the plane through the point and M (26.11);
and (8) 'the point on the plane and M (26.12).
If M is a screw (m mo F!5 0), not only are points associated
with planes, but also lines with lines in general. For if A is any
unit line vector not in the null system of M or parallel to its axis,
we can determine uniquely a unit line vector B, its conjugate, such
that
(9) M = aA + (3B,
80 MOTOR ALGEBRA § 40
where a = m mo/A o M from (2). Any line vector C that cuts two
conjugate lines is a null line; for
MoC = aAoC+$B°C = 0.
In view of this property we may characterize conjugate lines as
follows: The conjugate of a line A is the line B: (i) which is common
to the null planes of all points on A, or (ii), which contains the null
points of all planes through A. With this point of view, null lines
are selfconjugate. Along a line parallel to the axis of M, the
moment of M is constant; since the null planes of its points are
all parallel, we may say that its conjugate is at infinity.
40. Summary: Motor Algebra. The number X = x + ex' is
called dual if x and x' are real and a is a unit with the property
E2 = 0. If x 0, the dual number is proper. Operations with
dual numbers are carried out as in ordinary algebra and then
e2, E3 , . set equal to zero. Division, however, is only defined for
.
ap = ao + PO a.
A motor M = m + emo is a dual multiple of a unit line vector,
M = (X + EA')A = (X + EA') (a + eao)
now m mo = 0 only when A' = 0. A shift of origin to P changes
the moment vector as before:
mp=mo+P0xm,
but m mp = m mo is invariant.
Motors for which X F 0 are said to be proper. Proper motors
are screwf when X' 0 0, line vectors when A' = 0. Proper motors
have a definite axis given by the unit line vector A. When X = 0,
A' 0 0 we have a pure dual motor emo; it is called a couple of
moment mo. The moment of a couple is a free vector, determined
in direction but not in position.
When X = A' = 0 (X + EX' = 0), the motor reduces to zero.
§ 40 SUMMARY: MOTOR ALGEBRA S1
PROBLEMS
1. If A is a unit line vector, show that the screw M = (A + ea')A may be
expressed as the sum of a line vector and a couple whose moment is parallel
to the line vector, namely,
M = aA + eµm,
where A= X'/X is the pitch of the screw.
2. Prove that the axes of the motors M, N and M + N either are parallel
or have a common normal.
3. Express the screw M = 2i + e(i + j + k)
(a) As the dual multiple of a unit line vector.
(b) As the sum of a line vector and a couple whose moment is parallel to
the line vector.
(c) Find the equation of the axis of M.
 ,
4. In the tetrahedron OABC, el = OA, e2 = OB, e3 = OC. If the forces
Pet, Qe2, Re3; P'(e3  e2), Q'(e1  e3), R'(e2  el)
acting along its six edges are equivalent to the motor m + emo, show that
they are uniquely determined by the six equations:
9. If ABCD are the vertices of a skew quadrilateral and PQRS are the mid
points of its sides taken in order, show that the motor equivalent to the forces
AB, BC, CD, DA is also equivalent to four times the couple formed by PQ
and RS.
10. If the moment of the motor M about each of the six edges of a tetra
hedron is zero, show that M = 0. [Cf. (38.2)].
11. If the origin 0 is taken on the axis of a screw M of pitch µ show that
the equation of the null plane of the point Ti is
If the limit du/dt exists for the value t, u(t) is said to be differen
tiable at t. Then we may write Au/.t = du/dt + h where h > 0
as At * 0; hence
At (du
0u = dt + h) ). 0, as At > 0,
At At At
(2) dt (f u) = f dt + dt u.
d du
u12=2u'dt
1
If I u I is constant, the condition follows: conversely, the condition
implies that I u I is constant.
88 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 43
uX 
du
dt
= ue x  +e u de\J = u2e X de
Cdu
dt dt
 dt
Example 2. If rl, r2 are the distances of a point P on an ellipse from the foci,
rl + r2 = const. On differentiating this equation with respect to a, we have,
from (5),
drl dr2
ds
+ ds
= (RI + R2) T = 0.
92 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 45
dB
__ (2) = TN,
77 ds
dN
(4)
ds
dB
ds
Nxd8
From (5), we see that the curvature K and torsion r are the
components of the Darboux vector on the binormal and tangent,
respectively. From (4), it is clear that both K and r have the
dimensions of the reciprocal of length; hence
p=1/K, a=1/r
94 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 45
have the dimensions of length and are called the radius of curva
ture and the radius of torsion, respectively.
Since N, by definition, has the same direction as dT/ds, the
curvature K is never negative. If K vanishes identically,
dT dr
ds =0,
T=ds=a, r=as+b,
where a and b are vector constants. The curve is then a straight
line. Conversely, for a straight line, T is constant and K = 0.
The only curves of zero curvature are straight lines. For a straight
line the preceding definition fails to determine N. We therefore
agree to give N any fixed direction normal to T, and as before
define B = T x N. Since B is also constant, dB/ds = 0 and T = 0.
For a straight line the Darboux vector is zero.
The torsion may be positive or negative. As P traverses the
curve in the positive direction, the trihedral TNB will revolve about
T as a righthanded or lefthanded screw, according as r is posi
tive or negative. The sign of r is independent of the choice of
positive direction along the curve; for, if we reverse the positive
direction, we must replace
dT dN ' dB dT dN dB
s, N, By
by
8) T, N,
,
 B,
T, ds , ds , ds ds , ds ds '
and equations (4) maintain their form with unaltered K and r.
If r vanishes identically, dB/ds = 0, and B is a constant vector;
hence, from
dr
BT=B 0, B (r  ro) = 0,
ds
f=ST+ dT SZ
ds
= ST + S2KN,
dT dN
+(2saK+a2K)N+S3K
ds CAS
Hence
t x y= S3KB, t x It y= S6K2T,
and, since t = IsI 0,
xr
(1), (2) K= I T=
It t I 3 Itt x I2
(3) K = (x2 
I xy + yx I
y2)
ds
= +
(K1T1 + 71B1) N2 + (K2T2  T2B2) . N1
T1N1  B2  T2N2 B1;
and, since K1 = K2, T1 = T2 for the same value of s,
 = 0, f (s) = C, a const.
ds
But at the point s = 0, the trihedrals coincide, and
C=f(0)=1+1+1=3.
Hence for any value of s, f(s) = 3, an equation that implies that
each scalar product in (1) equals one; consequently,
T1 = T2, N1 = N2, B1 = B2.
From the first of these equations,
dr1 dr2
' rl = r2 + a;
ds ds
and a, the vector constant of integration, is zero, since r1 = r2
when s = 0. Therefore r1(s) = r2(s), and the curves coincide.
98 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 48
50. Plane Curves. For plane curves the torsion is zero and
Frenet's Formulas reduce to
dT dN
(1) = KN = KT.
ds ds
Since dT/ds is always directed towards the concave side of a plane
curve, the same is true of N. The osculating plane at any point P
is the plane of the curve; and, if K 0 0, the center of curvature P1
is given by
(2) rl = r + pN.
we have, on integration,
r  c = pN, or Ircl2 =p2
This is the equation of a circle of radius p and center c.
FIG. 50c
The intrinsic equation of a plane curve is the relation connecting s and ',
say s = s(4,). For the are sl along its involute we have, from (i),
Example 5. The tractrix is a plane curve for which the segment of any
tangent between the point of contact and a fixed line is constant. In Fig. 50e
the fixed line is the xaxis, the constant length c, and, if r = OP, rl = OP1,
r1=r+cT.
Hence if we differentiate with respect to s,
ds,
i = T + cKN;
F iu. 50e
on multiplying by j we have
sink,
or
ds
d = c tan V,.
Ifs =Owhen# 0, this gives
s = c log sec
If s = POP is the arc along the helix, and s1 = POP1 the arc
along the normal section r1 through P0, we have, on differentiating
(4) twice with respect to s,
ds1
(5) T=T1+cosae
ds
dsl 2
(6) KN = K1N1
C ds
From (5),
ds1 2 =
(T  e cos a)  (T  e cos a)
ds
= 1 2cos2a+C082a sing a;
(8) K = K1 sin2 a.
(10) s1 = s sin a,
the constant of integration being zero, since both s and s1 are
measured from thesame point Po.
The only twisted curve of constant curvature and torsion is the
circular helix. For, since K/r is constant, such curves are helices;
and, from (8), K1 is constant; that is, the normal section is a
circle.
The circular helix is the only twisted curve for which the Darboux
vector is constant. For from (3) we see that 6 is constant when
and only when K and r are constant.
108 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 52
s
_ ItXrI _ a
r
b
II I3 a2 +b2' ItxiI2 a2+ b2
(2) v=
§ 52 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 109
dv v2
(5) a= T+ N.
dt p
These results may also be deduced directly from the equation r = rR of the
circle if we make use of (44.2) and (44.3).
Example 2. Uniformly Accelerated Motion. If a particle has a constant
acceleration a, and r = TO, v  vo when t  0, we have, on integrating dv/dt =
a twice;
v = at + vo, r = jat2 + vot + TO.
The path is the result of superposing the displacement "'ate, due to the accelera
tion, upon TO + vot due to rectilinear motion at constant velocity vo. It is
easily shown to be a parabola having its axis parallel to a. At the vertex of
the parabola, v is perpendicular to a; the condition v a = 0 gives t =
a vo/a a for the time of passing the vertex.
53. Relative Velocity. In § 52, we have seen how to find the
velocity v of a particle P relative to any given reference frame .
If ' is a second reference frame, in motion with respect to ,
how is the velocity v' of P relative to a' related to v?
At any instant t let P coincide with the point Q of a'. At a
later.instant t1 = t + At, let P and Q have the positions P1, Q1;
§ 53 RELATIVE VELOCITY 111
here Q is a fixed point of a', and its motion is due to the motion
of ' relative to a. Then
PP1 is the displacement of P relative to ,
,,q
Fia. 53b
4
QP cuts the circle at point q, plane q will intercept plane p on flying with the
ground speed eq over the track QY parallel to eq; for pq, the velocity of plane
q relative to plane p, has the direction QP. Interception occurs at I after a
flying time of QI/eq (or PI/ep) hours.
Interception is impossible if the airspeed circle of plane q fails to cut the
ray. If the circle cuts the ray in just one point, as in Fig. 53b, plane q can
intercept p on only one track. But if the circle cuts the ray in two points,
say ql and q2, plane q can intercept p along two different tracks, parallel to
eql and eq2, respectively.
Example 3. Plane Returning to a Carrier. An airplane p leaves a carrier
a at 0 and patrols along the track OY while the carrier follows the course
OX with constant speed of v miles per hour (Fig. 53c). If the fuel in the tank
allows the plane T hours of flying time at a given air speed, at what point B
must the plane turn in order to rejoin the carrier at A, T hours after its depar
ture? Find also the time ti, the heading, and the ground speed vl on the leg
out; and the time t2, the heading, and the ground speed v2 on the leg back.
Solution. Let the vectors es and ew give the velocities of carrier and wind.
With to as center describe a circle having the known air speed of p as radius
the airspeed circle. If this circle cuts the ray through e in the direction OY
at pl, epl is the velocity of plane p on the leg out (ground speed vl = epl).
§ 53 RELATIVE VELOCITY 113
The course of plane p relative to the carrier s is out and back along the same
straight line. Now sp1 is the velocity of p relative to s on the leg out; hence
the velocity of p relative to s on the leg back is a vector sp2 whose direction is
opposed to sp1. Thus the point p2 is at the intersection of the airspeed circle
with the line pis prolonged, and ep2 is the velocity of p on the leg back (ground
speed V2 = ep2).
p2
Fro. 53c
After T hours the carrier will travel the course OA = T es. The return track
of p is along a line BA parallel to ep2. Thus p travels t1 = OB/ep1 hours on
the track OB, t2 = BA/ep2 on the track BA, rejoining the carrier after
t1 + t2 = T hours.
On the two legs the plane has the speeds ul = spli u2 = sp2i relative to the
carrier. At any time carrier and plane lie on a line parallel to p18p2. When the
plane is at B, the farthest point out, the carrier is at C(BC 11 pisp2). The dis
tance r = CB is called the radius of action of the plane. Relative to the carrier
the plane travels the course CB out, BC back; hence
+_=T, r= T
r
u1
r UIU2
U1 + u2
U2
t1 = r =T u1 U2+ u2 t2=r=T u1
.
U1 u2 u1 + u2
These times agree with those previously given; for
t1==, CB OB  = BA
t2 = BC _
spl epl 8P2 ep2
ous by local bad weather, the plane may be directed to land at an alternative
airport A. If the fuel supply allows T hours flying time to the plane, how far
may the plane fly on the track OY in order still to reach the port A by changing
its course?
This problem is reduced to the one preceding if the airport A is regarded
as a carrier traveling from 0 to A with the uniform velocity OA/T. Lay off
es = OA/T and proceed precisely as in the carrier problem. The line CB,
drawn parallel to pisp2, fixes the farthest point B at which the plane can change
its course and still reach the airport A. The time t1 when the turning point is
reached is given in ex. 3.
54. Kinematics of a Rigid Body. We shall now investigate the
velocity distribution of the particles of a rigid body moving in any
manner.
Consider first a rigid body having a fixed line or axis; its motion
is then a rotation about this axis. The position of the body at
r=OQ+QP=ze+pR,
where R is a unit vector perpendicular to the axis and revolving
with the body. Since ze and p are constant during the motion of
P, the velocity of P is
dr dR do do (do \
V p e J x (ze + pR)
dt = do dt = p dt e x R = 
that is,
(2) v = wxr.
The velocity of any particle of a body revolving about a fixed axis is
equal to the vector product of the angular velocity and the position
vector of the particle referred to any origin on the axis.
Let us next consider a rigid body having one fixed point 0. Let
i be a unit vector fixed in the body, j a unit vector in the direction
of di/dt (perpendicular to i) and k = i x j. Then we may write
di dk di dj dj
dt
=aj, =xj+ix=ix
dt dt dt dt
If we now write
w=ak  ii,
these equations assume the same form:
di dj dk
wxjf =
dt = wxl' dt = dt
r=OP=xi+yj+zk,
where x, y, z remain constant during the motion. Hence the ve
locity of P is given by
dr di dj dk
=xd6+ydt+zdt = wx(xi+yj+zk),
dt
(3) V = co x OP.
Let A be any point of the rigid body, and denote its velocity
relative to by VA. Consider a second reference frame ' having
a translation of velocity VA relative to . Then the motion of the
body relative to a' is an instantaneous rotation about an axis
through A, since A has zero velocity relative to '. The velocity
of any particle P of the body is therefore
vy = wxAP,
relative to a', and, consequently,
(4) VP = V.4 + wxAP,
relative to R. Moreover, for any other point Q of the body,
(4)' VQ = vA + w x AQ;
and, on subtracting this from (4), we get
VP = VQ + 0) x QP.
The content of these equations is stated in the following
THEOREM 1. If A is any point of a free rigid body, the velocities
of its points are the same as if they were compounded of an instan
taneous translation VA and an instantaneous rotation w about an
axis through A; and w is the same for any choice of A.
Thus the instantaneous velocity distribution of a rigid body is
determined by two vectors, its angular velocity w and the velocity
VA of any point A of the body. These may be combined into the
velocity motor,
(5) V = Co + EVA;
for, from (4),
(6) VP= VA +PA xw,
in accordance with (31.3).
If w VA 0 0, the motor Visa screw. Since w VP = CO VA,
the velocities of all particles of the body have the same projection
on Co. The axis of V is called the instantaneous axis of velocity;
its equation, from (31.8), is
(wxv4)xw
(7) rxw = (origin A),
ww
118 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 54
All points of the instantaneous axis have the velocity VQ; for, if R
is another of its points,
Example. Rolling Curve. Let the curve r roll without slipping over a
fixed curve r1 (Fig. 54c). The points A and Al were originally in contact;
and, if I is the instantaneous point of
contact, let s = arc Al, sl = arc All.
The conditions for pure rolling are
(1) S = Si, T = Tj at I. Vt=V
If I is regarded as a moving particle, its ve Al
locity relative to fixed and moving frames
attached to r2 and r is the same; for Fia. 54c
dsl ds
VI = Ti = T = Vj.
dt dt
Here N is ir/2 in advance of T and p and P1 are positive when N points to the
respective centers of curvature (in Fig. 54c, P1 < 0, p > 0 and w < 0).
r
(0>0;p1>0,p<0 6)>O;p1<0,p<0
Fla. 54d
120 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 55
But, since AS  AR = RS = PQ = u,
> >
§ 56
du du
(3) d = + 0).U;
dt
in particular
du
(4) =wxu if u is fixed in a'.
dt
When u = w, the angular velocity of the frame a', we have,
from (3),
dw d'w
(5)
dt dt
In general, the trihedral TNB has, at every instant, a screw motion: a combina
tion of the angular velocity S about an axis through Q and the velocity vQ
along this axis. The velocity of translation vanishes when and only when the
curve is plane (r = 0); then S = KB, PQ = pN. For plane curves TNB has, at
every instant, a pure rotation of angular velocity KB about the center of
curvature.
§ 57 THEOREM OF CORIOLIS 123
d'r' d'v'
r' = AP v'= a
dt , dt
If w is the angular velocity of ' with respect to , we have, on
differentiating,
 3
r = OA + r',
twice with respect to the time, and, on making use of (56.3),
dr'
V =VA+
dt
= VA +wxr'+v',
dr' dv'
a=aA+axr'+wx+ / dw
J
dt dt
(a dt
a A+ a x r' + w x ((o x r' + V) + w x v'+ a'
a4+axr'+wx(wxr')+2wxv'+a'.
The velocity and acceleration of the point Q of the frame j' with
which P momentarily coincides are called the transfer velocity and
transfer acceleration of P. To find them, put v' = 0, a' = 0 in the
foregoing equations; thus
VQ = VA + wxr',
aQ = aA + ax r' +wx
Our equations now read
(1) V=vQ+V',
(2) a=aQ+2wxv'+a'.
Equation (1) restates the theorem on the composition of velocities
already proved in § 55. Equation (2) shows that an analogous
theorem for the composition of accelerations is not in general true;
124 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 57
where a' and v' are the acceleration and velocity relative to the earth. We
shall integrate (i) by successive approximations under the initial conditions
= 0, v' = 0 when t = 0 and with g regarded as constant.
1. If we neglect the term in w,
a' = g, v' = gt, =zgt2.
Fla. 57b
The first and second terms give deflections to the south and east; the third
shows that the particle in t seconds falls through a distance
z = 2gt2  I t4w2g cost X.
mA (t + At)  mA (t)
At
+ OB
 At OA X m(t + At),
and hence, if rA ° OA,
AMA dmA drA
xm.
c l.o At dt  + dt
Relative to the frame a, we therefore define
dM dm dmA drA
(2) m)
dt dt dt + dt
To verify that dM/dt is a motor, we must show that
dmP drp dmA dr,4 ) dm
dt + dt x m = dt 
+ dt
x m + PA X
dt
§ 58 DERIVATIVE OF A MOTOR 127
( 8)
d
dt
(M x N) = Mx
dN
dt +
N
dM
dt
.
dV = a+e(aA +VAXW).
The axis of this motor is called the instantaneous axis of acceleration; its equa
tion may be written from (31.8).
128 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 59
Hence, referred to A,
(iii) d do+E(vPxf+APxdt/
let the reader show that (i) and (iii) are consistent.
Example 3. The moving trihedral TNB at the point P of a space curve
r = r(s) may be regarded as a rigid body having the velocity motor,
V=S+Evp=8+ET,
as the point P traverses the curve with unit speed. The three line vectors
T = T, N = N, B = B through P are fixed in the trihedral; hence, from (4),
B =VxB.
ds =VxT, dN =VxN,
These are Frenet's Formulas in motor form. Written out in full they become
dB
rft = SXB;
ds
K is the curvature, r the torsion of the curve; and the Darboux vector
o = TT + KB is the angular velocity of the moving trihedral as its
vertex traverses the curve with unit speed (ds/dt = 1). For plane
curves r = 0.
If t denotes time, a particle P traveling along the curve r = r(t)
has the velocity and acceleration,
dr dv d2r
v a
dt '  dt dt2
PROBLEMS
1. If r and x are the distances of a point on a parabola from the focus and
directrix, r  x = 0. Show that (R  i)  T = 0, and interpret the equation.
2. Prove that the tangent to a hyperbola bisects the angle between the
focal radii to the point of tangency. [Cf. § 44, ex. 2.1
3. An equiangular spiral cuts all vectors from its pole 0 at the same angle a
(R T = cos a). If (r, 0) are the polar coordinates of a variable point P on
the spiral, show that
(a) ds/dr = sec a, s  so = (r  ro) sec a;
1 dr
(b) = cot a, log r = (9  Bo) cot a;
rd0 ro
r  C = pN  TIB.
dp
ds
Hence, prove that
d (ldP)
pr+ ds r ds
0
Prove that r x v = h, a vector constant; hence, show that the motion is plane
and that r = OP sweeps out area at a constant rate (Law of Areas).
134 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE
22. When mf(r) = ymM/r2 in Problem 21 the particle P is attracted
towards a mass M at 0 according to the law of inverse squares:
dv
(a)
dt
=  k R (k
Show, in turn, that
(b) rxv = h
(c) h = r2 R x dR ,
=kdR,
(d) dt xh
(e) v x h = k(R + e),
where a is a constant vector. From (b) and (e),
r x v h = h2, r vxh = kr(1 +acose)
where 0 = angle (e, r); thus obtain the equation of the orbit,
hz/k
(f)
1 + e Cos 0
and, hence,
h/2 k a'
(g) T2/a3 = 4,r2/yM (Kepler's Third Law).
(See Brand's Vectorial Mechanics, § 177.)
23. If the plane Ax + By + Cz = 1, fixed in space, is referred to rectan
gular axes rotating with the angular velocity w = [wl, w2, w3], show that
rdA dB dC]
[A, B, C] x [WI, (02Y w3].
l dt ' dt ' dt =
24. A particle P has the cylindrical coordinates p, p, z (cf. § 89, ex. 1). If
P moves in the pzplane so that dp/dt and dz/dt are constant while the plane
itself revolves about the zaxis with the constant angular speed dip/dt = w,
find the acceleration of P,
(a) By direct calculation.
(b) By use of the Theorem of Coriolis.
25. A real, everywhere convex, closed plane curve with a unique tangent at
each point is called an oval. It can be shown that an oval has just two tangents
parallel to every direction in the plane. The distance between these tangents
is the width of the curve in the direction of the perpendicular. Prove that
the perimeter of an oval of constant width b is 7rb (Barbier's Theorem).
CHAPTER IV
Let a', a2, a3 denote the set reciprocal to a,, a2, a3 (§ 23); then,
if we write
f(ai) = b1, xt = r at,
f(r) may be written in either of the forms:
(6) f(r) = r (albs + a2b2 + a3b3),
(7) f(r) = (b,al + b2a2 + b3a3) r.
These formulas represent the most general linear vector function.
61. Dyadics. In linear vector functions of the form,
f(r) = alb, r+a2b2.r+...+anbn.r,
we now regard f (r) as the scalar product of r and the operator,
(1) = alb, + a2b2 + ... + anbn.
Assuming the distributive law for such products, we now write
(2) f (r) = ' r.
Following Willard Gibbs, we call the operator 4) a dyadic and each
of its terms aib1 a dyad. The vectors ai are called antecedents, the
vectors bi consequents.
While a b is a scalar and a x b a vector, the dyad ab represents
a new mathematical entity. Gibbs regarded ab as a new species
of product, the "indeterminate product." We shall find indeed that
this product conforms to the distributive and associative laws, but
is not commutative (in general ab 0 ba).
Since r follows. in (2), we call r a postfactor. If we use r as a
prefactor, we get, in general, a different linear vector function:
g(r) = r 4).
If X is any scalar,
(10) (Xa)b = a(Xb),
expand by the distributive law, and collect the terms which have
the same antecedent: thus
4) _ (a1 ei + a2e2 + a3e3)bi = elf, + e2f2 + e3f3,
where f;
We also may reduce 4) to the sum of three dyads by expressing
each consequent bi in terms of the basis el, e2, e3, and then ex
panding and collecting terms which have the same consequent;
then 4) assumes the form,
4) = giei + 92e2 + 93e3
nite point Q. If, when P ranges over all space, Q does likewise,
this transformation is called affine; the dyadic 4) then is called
complete.
Important properties of an affine point transformation follow at
once from the equations,
4) (a+b) =
which characterize a linear vector function. Since  0 = 0, the
transformation leaves the origin invariant. Lines and planes are
transformed into lines and planes. Thus, for variable x, the
Line r = a + xb  Line r' = a' + xb';
and, for variable x, y, the
Plane r = a + xb + yc  Plane r' = a' + xb' + yc'.
The transformed equations always represent lines and planes when
4) is complete; for we shall show in § 70 that b 54 0 implies b' F6 0,
and b x c 5xI 0 implies b' x c' 54 0.
63. Complete and Singular Dyadics. Given an arbitrary basis,
e1, e2, e3, we can express any dyadic in the form,
(1) 4) = glee + 92e2 + g3e3
If we express r in terms of the reciprocal basis,
r = xle' + x2e2 + x3e3,
then, by virtue of the equations, et e' = St,
4) r = x1g1 + x282 + x383
When g1, g2, g3 are noncoplanar, r' = 4) r assumes all possible
vector values as r ranges over the whole of space. If we put
3 a
r = OP, r' = OQ, the dyadic defines an affine transformation
r' _ ( r of space into itself; 3dimensional Pspace goes into
3dimensional Qspace. A dyadic having this property is said to
be complete. A complete dyadic cannot be reduced to a sum of
less than three dyads; if, for example, we could reduce 4) to the
sum of two dyads, ab + cd, all vectors r would transform into
.vectors r' = a b r + c d r parallel to the plane of a and c.
140 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 63
If, however, g1, g2, g3, are coplanar, but not collinear, we can ex
press each gi in terms of two nonparallel vectors f1, f2, and reduce
c to the sum of two dyads:
(2) 4, = f1h1 + f2h2.
r)
§ 65 PRODUCT OF DYADICS 143
Equations t2), (3), (4) follow from these results by the definition
of equality. In the proofs of (2) and (3), definition (1) justifies
the first and last steps; in the proof of (3), (1) is applied in every
step.
In order to compute a product explicitly, we first find the
product of two dyads. By definition,
4)°=I.
With these definitions,
(12) 4)m . 4,n = Pm+n, (4)m) n. _ 4)mn,
(3) (r(P)v,
When 4, = I, these give
(4)
(Ixv) = r = vxr.
Since these equations hold for any r,
(6) Ixv = vxI,
(7) (I x v), _ Ixv.
Thus I x v is antisymmetric and planar; it transforms all vectors f
into vectors perpendicular to v.
Since
aibi (I x v) = aibi x v, (I x v) aibi = v x aibi,
the definitions (1) give
(8) (P (Ixv) _ xv, (Ixv)  4) = vx(F.
Consequently, the operations v x and x v on vectors or dyadics
may be replaced by dyadic products (I x v) and (I x v).
For any vectors u, v, r we have
[I x (u x v)] r = (u x v) x r = (vu  uv)  r,
and hence
(9) 1 x (u x v) = vu  uv.
§ 68 FIRST SCALAR AND VECTOR IN\'AItIANT 147
I I. e3 = el x e2[e'e2e3], e3 = el x e2/[ele2e3]
Thus (i) and (ii) give a handy compendium of the properties of reciprocal
vector sets.
Proof. We have
v)
i ;
ij
u)
or, with regard to (20.1),
(U V)
Denote the right member of (2) by f (A) ; then the cubic equation,
The cubic (3) may have three real roots (not necessarily dis
tinct) or one real root and two conjugate complex roots. To find
the invariant direction corresponding to a root A1i we consider in
turn the three cases in which 4)  X1I is singular.
1. If 4  X11 is planar, let 4'  A1I = ch + dk; then the post
factor r1 = h x k reduces the right member to zero and gives the
invariant direction for A1. If 4)  X1I has more than two dyads,
the cross product of any two nonparallel consequents will be nor
mal to their plane and give a vector parallel to r1.
If Al is real, r1 is a real vector. But if Al is complex, say Al =
a + i(3, then r1 = a + ib is also complex. Then, on equating the
real and imaginary parts of
(5) 4) (a + Zb) _ (a + ia) (a + Zb),
we have
(6) (D a = as  $b, 4) b = #a + ab.
§ 71 INVARIANT DIRECTIONS 155
X1 = 1, X2 =
+
= w, X3 =
1 2 = w2.
2
For X1 = 1,
4, all=i(ji)+j(kj)+k(ik)
is planar its consequents are all normal to
r1=(ji)x(kj)=i+j+k,
which is the corresponding invariant direction.
For X2 = w, the consequents of
4 X21=i(jwi)+j(kwj)+k(iwk)
are all normal to
r2 = (jwi)x(kwj) =i+wj+w2k.
For X3 = w2, the consequents of
4' X3I=i(jw2i)+j(kw2j)+k(iw2k)
are all normal to
r3 = (j  w2i) x (k  w2j) = i + w2j + wk.
72. Symmetric Dyadics. The characteristic numbers of a sym
metric dyadic are all real.
Proof. If X1 = a + i(3 is a complex multiplier and rl = a + 2b
the corresponding invariant direction of the symmetric dyadic 4),
we have (§ 71)
,D(a+ib) = (a+ii)(a+ib);
c a = as (3b, 4 ) b = 0a+ab.
Since cD is symmetric, b (D a=a 4) b; hence
or =0.
But a and b are real vectors, and a a + b b is positive; hence
(3 = 0, and X1 is real.
The invariant directions corresponding to two distinct character
istic numbers of a symmetric dyadic are perpendicular.
Proof. From the equations,
4 rl = X1rl, `k r2 = X2r2 (X1 0 X2),
and
r2,
we deduce
(X1  X2)rl r2 = 0, rl r2 = 0.
§ 72 SYMMETRIC DYADICS 1,57
a a y
for .4 4)1 = I. Moreover,
(6) 4'2 = f7ii + yajj + a$kk
and, by direct multiplication,
(7) 4)" = a"n + a"jj + y"kk.
If 4) is symmetric and 4)" = 0, then 4) = 0. Moreover, if
r 4 r = 0 for every r,  = 0; for, if we choose r = i, j, k in
turn, a=/3=y=0.
Example 1. For the symmetric dyadic,
(D = i(j +k) +j(k +i) +k(i +j),
w1 = 0, v2 = 3, 93 = 2, and the characteristic equation,
2+3XX3=(2a)(1+x)2=0,
has the roots, X1 = 2, X2 = X3 = 1.
§ 72 SYMMETRIC DYADICS 159
For X1 = 2,
XiI=i(2i+j+k)+j(2j+k+i)+k(2k +i+j),
The consequents are all normal to
(2i+j+k)x(2j+k+i) =3(i+j+k);
hence r1 = i + j + k.
For a2=X3= 1,
X2I= (i + j + k) (i + j + k)
is linear. Hence any vector in the plane perpendicular to i + j + k is an
invariant direction.
If we choose the unit vectors,
p2 =r2 =e (r2I
hence, if we introduce the dyadic,
(9) e fp2dm.
For example,
i.
f(r2x2)dm= f(y2 +z2)dm
is the moment of inertia about the xaxis. Thus K effects a synthesis of the
moments of inertia of a body about all axes through 0.
This dyadic also has the property that, for any pair of perpendicular unit
vectors el, e2,
 el . K . e2 = f (el r) (r . e2) dm
160 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 73
j=f j) dm = fxydm.
The inertia dyadic K is evidently symmetric. Hence we always can find
three mutually perpendicular axes x, y, z through 0 such that
(10) K=Ali+Bjj+Ckk.
These axes are called the principal axes of inertia at 0, and A, B, C are the
moments of inertia of the body about these principal axes. The principal
axes are characterized by the property that the product of inertia for any pair
is zero.
The ellipsoid,
C= I.
If we multiply these equations in order by I, 4), 42, (3 and add,
the first members camel, and we get
(5) te3I  (P24) + (P1 cy  (1,3 = 0.
§ 73 THE HAMILTONCAYLEY EQUATION 161
12
a i'i' + j'j' + 2
ti
k'k' ,
cr2
+ 2 + = 1.
r2
(D11 X22
(8) 'P2 = + + X33,
1 = P22 032
(9)
'P13
('P 12
'23 033
(10) I= 0 1 0
0 0 1
becomes
(P11  X 'P12 'P13
and
c'4) 'c a'4 a
b
follow in the same way. On multiplying these equations, we have
(ii) P1P1P2P2P3P3 = 1
Now let R2'R3i R3R1, R'R2 meet BC, CA, AB in the points S1, S2, S3 which
divide the respective sides in the ratios al, 02, 03. Then by the Theorem of
Menelaus (§ 7, ex. 2)
P2P3°1 =  1r P3P1Q2 =  1r P1P20'3 =  1
the element in the ith row and jth column of A B is the sum of the
products of the elements in the ith row of A by the corresponding
elements in the jth column of Bthe "rowcolumn rule."
The foregoing rules for the sum and product of dyadics in non
ion form are precisely the classic definitions for the sum and prod
uct of square matrices. These definitions may be extended to rec
tangular matrices with m rows and n columns (m X n matrices).
1. The sum A + B of two m X n matrices is them X n matrix
obtained by adding their corresponding elements.
2. The product of an m X p matrix A and a p X n matrix B is
the m X n matrix C = AB, whose element in the ith row and jth
column is
P
(1) cjj = E airbrj.
r=1
This formula suggests the usual product rule with the order of the
factors preserved.
The derivative of the dyadic (D = 2;aibi is evidently the sum of
the derivatives of its dyads. If 4, is given in the nonion form
(77.1))
'P12
d(
(2) 'P22
dt
'P32
(3) dt dt;
d ds d(F dr
(4)
dt dt dt dt
172 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 81
Conversely, from (2) we may deduce (1). Thus from either (1) or
(2) we may conclude that 4) = T.
Using a given basis ei and its reciprocal ei to form basic dyads,
we have seen in § 76 that the 32 = 9 components of a dyadic are
of 22 = 4 types. For a triadic 4), the 33 = 27 components are of
23 = 8 types; for, for each vector in the basic, triads may be
chosen from the set ei or e' giving 23 types; and, for a given type,
each index on the base vectors may be chosen in three ways, giving
33 components.
Similarly, we define a tetradic as the sum of tetrads Maibicidi.
Two tetradics 4), I are equal when either (1) or (2) holds good.
A tetradic has 34 = 81 components of 24 = 16 types.
We shall speak of scalars, vectors, dyadics, triadics, collec
tively as tensors of valence 0, 1, 2, 3, The equality of two
tensors of valence n, say 4) = 'Y, depends upon the equality of
two tensors of valence n  1, as required by equations (1) or (2).
81. Summary: Dyadic Algebra. A linear vector function f(r) is
characterized by the properties,
f(a + b) = f(a) + f(b), f(Xa) = Xf(a).
(D r0;
(+'1')r=
r = (I' r);
I (idemfactor) : I r = r;
i (reciprocal) : c (I)1
= 4'1 4 = I;
4) xv: Taibixv if 4) = Eaibi;
V x (D: My x aibi.
Every dyadic may be reduced to the sum of three dyads,
4) =al+bm+cn,
in which either antecedents or consequents may be an arbitrary
noncoplanar set. In this form, the principal invariants of 4) are:
Dyadic: 4, = bxcmxn+cxanxl+axblxm = (D2;
Vector: = axl+bxm+cxn,
*= (b x c) x (m x n) + cycl
Scalar: (P1 =
'P2 = `I'1 = (b x c) (m x n) + cycl,
(P3 = [abc][lmn],
4PO
503  <02X +
P1A2
 A3 = 0 (characteristic equation).
The invariant direction rl makes (4)  X11) r1 = 0.
If 4) is symmetric its multipliers Ai are all real; and, if Al A2i
rl 1 r2. A symmetric 4) always may be reduced to the form,
`1) = A1u + A2JJ + X3kk;
the multipliers Ai need not be distinct.
Any dyadic 4) can be reduced to the normal form,
(P = ai'i + $j'j + yk'k,
in which a, 0, y all have the same sign; i, j, k and i', j', k' are two
dextral sets of orthogonal unit vectors.
When  is complete, the point transformation, r' = 4) r,
changes lines into lines and planes into planes, preserves paral
lelism, and alters all volumes in the ratio 'P3/1. It preserves
lengths when and only when 41 = 4,; it is then a rotation if
03 = 1, a rotation followed by a reflection if p3 = 1.
PROBLEMS
1. Prove that
abxc +bcxa +caxb = [abc)I.
2. For any dyadic 4> show that
U.4> v  v 4> u =4. uxv.
3. If 4> has the characteristic numbers X1, X2, X3 and the corresponding in
variant directions r1i r2, r3, prove that 4)" (n an integer) has the characteristic
numbers X', 02, 03 corresponding to the salve invariant directions.
4. If 4> has the characteristic numbers X1, X2, 1\3 for the directions r1r r2, r3,
prove that 4>2 has the characteristic numbers X2X3, X3X1, X1X2 corresponding to
the directions r2 x r3i r3 x r1, r1 x r2. [Cf. (70.2).]
5. If 4, = 4,, prove that *2 = 4>2,,, + = 4 and h = cir >k2 = v2, 4,3 = v3
6. Prove that the scalar invariants of 4' = 4>2 are
01 = 'c1  2'P2, 2 = 'P2  2'vl'P3, '3 = 'P3
[Use Prob. 3 and (71.4).]
PROBLEMS 17 5
E(a`.c1)(b`d,).
1I j_1
Prove that
(a)
19. If the forces acting on the body of Problem 18 have the moment sum
M about 0, the equation of motion is dH/dt = M. Show, from (56.3), that
dH
dt
=K dw
dt
+wxK w.
Let K = Aii + Bjj + Ckk (72.10) when referred to the principal axes of
inertia (fixed in the body). Then if w = [WI, w2i w3], M = [Ml, M2, M3] re
ferred to these axes, deduce Euler's Equations of Motion:
Awl  (B  C)w2w3 = M1,
Bm2  (C  A )w3w1 = M2,
(A  B)w1w2 = M3
20. In Problem 19 show that d7'/dt = M w (the energy equation).
21. In Problem 18, suppose that the only forces acting on the body are its
weight W and the reaction R at the support 0; then if the center of mass is at 0,
W passes through 0 and M = 0. Prove in turn that
(a) H is a constant vector.
(b) T is a constant scalar.
PROBLEMS 17 7
DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS
af of of
= cos a + cos i3 + cos y;
ax ay az
or, since
e i = cos a, e j = cos a, e  k = cosy,
=
(3) e
A \1 ax+iafy +kaz/
The vector in parenthesis is called the gradient of f (r) and is writ
ten grad f or
49 19
(4) Vf
ax+jay+kc3z
Vf is a vector point function; thus, when (3) is written as
df
(5)
ds
the direction enters only through the factor e. The directional
derivative of a scalar function at a point P is the component of its
gradient at P in the given direction. The gradient Vf at P effects a
synthesis of all the directional derivatives of f at P. In effect, the
vector of replaces the infinity of scalars df/ds.
When P varies along a curve tangent to e at P1, f(r) is a func
tion of the are s = P1P along the curve, and df/ds is still given
by (2) ; for, at P1, dr/ds = e (44.1), and hence
dx/ds = cos a, dy/ds = cos a, dz/ds = cos y.
Since df/ds, as defined by (1), does not depend upon any specific
choice of coordinates, (5) shows that the gradient Vf has the same
property. In fact, we determine Vf by giving the directional de
rivatives df /dsi in three noncoplanar directions e1. For, since
ei Of = df/dsi are the covariant components of Vf, we have,
from (24.2),
df
(6) of = el + e2 df + e3 df .
(7)
(9) Vx=i, Vy = j, Vz = k.
If f is a function f(u, v, w) of variables which themselves are func
tions of x, y, z, we have
df of du of dv of dw
ds au ds av ds aw ds
or, in view of (5),
Vu Of
+Vvaf +Vwaf1
\ au av aw
vf=afi+Of
ax ay
j.
Vf =OrlR1+_R2,
where R1, R2 are unit radial vectors from 01, 02 directed to the point in ques
tion.
The families of curves u = c, v = c cut at right angles when Cu Cv = 0.
For example, the ellipses rl + r2 = c and hyperbolas r,  r2 = c cut orthogo
nally since (R1 + R2) (R1  R2) = 0
of of of
3) xf = rotf = ix+
ax
jx+kx__.
ay az
we obtain from (1) its gradient of in nonion form with the matrix:
az
afl af3 af2 afl
fl f2 f3
(8) V =axai+j+k,
a
ay
a
az
(11) V X VV = 0.
= V(V . g)  V2g.
Note that, if we regard V as an actual vector and expand
V x (V x g), but keep the V's to the left of g, we obtain V(V g) 
(V V)g, the correct result.
The proofs of (11), (13), and (14) depend upon changing the
order of differentiations in mixed second derivatives; this is always
valid when the derivatives in question are continuous.
186 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS § 85
vP = vo } w x OP = vo + w x r.
Hence, from (3),
rotvp = rot(wxr) = ix(wxi) + =3w w =2w;
the rotation of the velocity of the particles of a rigid body at any instant is equal
to twice its instantaneous angular velocity.
If this limit exists for all rays drawn from P1, f(r) is said to be
differentiable at P1. When referred to a constant basis, f(r) is dif
ferentiable when all its scalar components are differentiable.
If f(r) is given as a function f(x, y, z) of rectangular coordinates,
df of dx of dy of dz
ds Ox ds+ay ds+azds
Since dx/ds = e  i, etc., we have, just as in § 83,
df
(2) = e vf,
ds
of of of of
(3) Vf=i+j+k=i,.
ax ay az axr
t
Here Vf, the gradient of f (grad f) is tensor point function of va
lence v + 1; of effects a synthesis of all the directional derivatives
(valence v) of the tensor f. Thus, if f is dyadic, the triadic of
replaces the infinity of dyadics df/ds.
of is independent of the choice of coordinates. At any point, of
is completely determined when df/dsi is given for three non
coplanar directions ei:
df
of = e1df + e2  + e3 
df
(4)
ds1 ds2 dsi '
for, if we put df/dsi = ej Vf, the right member becomes I of
= Vf.
When f(r) is a vector, we obtain from the dyadic of the invari
ants div f and rot f by putting dots and crosses, respectively, be
tween the vectors of each term. Similarly, if f(r) is any tensor of
valence v > 0, we obtain from of the further invariants,
of + j x of + k x of _ it % Of ,
(6 ) Vx f = ix
ax ay Oz axr
J r = J Vw J x Vv.
§ 88 CURVILINEAR COORDINATES 193
(18) Vxf= 1 [(rv x rw) X flu + [(rw x ru) x f]v + [(ru x rv) x f]w }.
J
194 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS § 89
When the triple products in (18) are expanded, the brace becomes
(rw r71 f).u  (r rw f)u. + (r.u rw f)  (rw ru f)v
+ (rv ru f) w  (ru r f) w
= rw(rv f)u  rv(rw f), + ru(rw f)  rw(ru f) 1,
1 1 1
(5) Vf = afu + bf + cf
U V W
1 i18 a
(6) V f =UVW (VW a f) F a (WU b f)
Lou
+_
Ua Vb We
1 a a 8
(7) Vxf =
UVW au av aw
FIG. 89a
curves for p are rays perpendicular to the zaxis; for p, horizontal circles cen
tered on the zaxis; for z, lines parallel to the zaxis. The element of volume
dV =Pdpdpdz.
From (8), the Laplacian is
 8 (Pgp) +
1 1
(13) V2g =
P aP Pa
g = log P, Pgv = 1; hence log p satisfies Laplace's Equation V2g = 0. Such
a function is called harmonic.
Example 2. Spherical Coordinates. The spherical coordinates of a point
P(x, y, z) are its distance r = OP from the origin, the angle 0 between OP
and the zaxis, and the dihedral angle ' between the xzplane and the plane
z OP (Fig. 89b). They are related to rectangular coordinates by the equations:
(14) x = r sin 0 cos p, y = r sin 0 sin gyp, z = r cos 0.
From r = ix + jy + its, we have
rr = [sin 8 cos p, sin B sin gyp, cos 0],
rs = [r cosBcosgyp,rcos©singyp, rsin0],
r, = rsin0cos p, 0].
90 TOTAL DIFFERENTIAL 197
since these vectors are mutually perpendicular and [rrror,] > 0, spherical co
ordinates form an orthogonal system which is dextral in the order r, 0,
Moreover,
(15) U=jrr1, V=Irol=r, Iiir,rsin o;
(16) J = UVIV = r2 sin 0.
The level surfaces r = a, 0 = b, = c are spheres about 0, cones about the
zaxis with vertex at 0, and planes through the zaxis. The coordinate curves
Fia. 89b
for r are rays from the origin; for B, vertical circles centered at the origin;
for gyp, horizontal circles centered on the zaxis. The element of volume dV
= 72sin0drdodrp.
From (8), we now have
1
(17) V2g isin 0 (r2gr) + (sin 0 go) + 9
r2 sin 0 or aB sin 0 0`°
(fl, f2 f3
_ dx+=
where «(x, y) is a function of x and y as yet undetermined. Hence
x afl a« /' af2 a«
app
ay ,, ay ay
dx+,
Ixo ax ay
or
a
_J
49Z 1o
xafl
 dx +  _
az az
a«
f
f2(x, y, z) = f2(x, y, z)  f2(xo, y, z) +
xaf3
 dx +
ax az
 , or
ay
Instead of three equations (3) for gp(x, y, z), we now have two
equations,
a« a«
(5) = f2(xo, y, z), = f3(xo, y, z)
ay az
for «(x, y), with the condition aft/az = af3/ay. The problem has
been reduced from three to two dimensions.
f
On integrating a«/ay = f2 with respect to y, we have
v
(6) a= f2(xo, y, z) dy + #(z),
bo
y
dy +
dz
,
d
da
(7)
dz = f3 (xo, y0, z)
We now have one equation (7) to determine $(z); and
ffi
D irect substitution shows that Vip = f; and, if
Yo
Y z
is a second func
tion for which V4, = f, V(¢  cp) = 0, and 4  (p is a constant.
Thus (9) gives the solution of equations (3), determined uniquely
except for an additive constant.
There are evidently five other forms for ,p which may be obtained
from (9) by permuting 1, 2, 3 and making the corresponding per
mutation on x, y, z; for example,
z
Moreover, xo, yo, zo may be given any values that do not make the
integrands infinite.
200 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS §91
91 92 93
 Zaf + J dz  as = f3,
(ax ay/Zp ay
.
aJ2
92 =  f fi (x, y, z) dz, 93 = 0,
zo
z
g2 f x(z  y) dz =
0
 Zxz2 + xyz, ga = 0.
(2)
vanish. In case (ii), the rows of the matrix are dx/dt, dy/dt, dz/dt
multiplied by at/au and at/av, respectively, and all of its two
rowed determinants vanish identically. We exclude these cases
by requiring that the matrix (2) be, in general, of rank two; then,
at least one of its tworowed determinants,
yu zu zu xu _ I xu
(3) A = B = C Yu ,
yv zv Zv xv xv yv
is not identically zero.
Even when the matrix in general is of rank two, the three de
terminants A, B, C, all may vanish for certain points u, v. Such
points are called singular, in contrast to the regular points, where
at least one determinant is not zero.
If we introduce the position vector to the surface,
(4) r = xi + yj + zk = r(u, v),
(5)
and the condition for a regular point may be written
(6) ru x r, / O.
204 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS §94
and
(2)
The are s along the curve is defined as in (43.4) :
fro' ds
t t dt; and
dt
=
ru x rv 12 = EG  F2
n= ruxrt =
ruxrv
E H
then dS = n dS. At every regular point the vectors ru, r, n form
a dextral set; for
(12) [rurvn] = H = VEG > 0.
206 DIFFERENTIAL INVAItIANTS § 95
(7) ru Grad f =
of
au , r Grad f = 
of
av
t In surface geometry we shall write of for the surface gradient.
96 SURFACE DIVERGENCE AND ROTATION 207
(Rot g) f  g Rot f.
§ 97 SPATIAL AND SURFACE INVARIANTS 209
here the set e', e2, n is reciprocal to el, e2, n and df/dn denotes
the derivative of f in the direction of n. Moreover, if v > 0,
df df df df
(2) V
ds.l ds2 do do
df df df df
(3) Vxf = elx+e2x+nx=
dsl ds2 do
V8xf +nx.
do
From (1), we see that the tensors of valence v + 1,
(4) nx Vf = nx V j,
are the same over the surface; therefore both may be written
n x Vf. Thus n x Vf may be computed solely from the values of f
on the surface.
The same is true of the invariants obtained from n x Vf by dot
ting and crossing in the first position. Since
(5) nxVf = nxafu+nxbft,,
from (96.1), this process yields
(n x a) fu + (nxb) f = n (a x fu + b x f,) = n V. x f,
n208f nV8 f.
Here n V8f means that n is dotted into the second vector from
the left in each term of V8f. These invariants remain the same
when computed from the corresponding spatial quantities. Thus we
verify at once, from (3),
(6)
and, from (1) and (2),
(7) nVfnV.f=n2V8fnV8f.
210 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS § 97
(10) II{(rvxf)u(ruxf)v}.
1 1
= { (r,, P)u  (ru P) v } q + p (rvqu  rugv),
H H
that is,
(12) n V x (pq) = (n rot p)q + p n x Vq.
For future use we compute the invariant (10) when f = ng and
g is an arbitrary tensor:
Now
Grad g = agu + bg (95.5),
2
n Grad n = (an. + n=0 (96.9) ;
hence, on putting f = n in (10), we have
1
n Div n = { (r x n)u  (ru x n) v } .
H
Thus, with f = ng,
(13) n? Vf  n V f = Grad g  (Div n) ng.
98. Summary : Differential Invariants. Let f (r) be a tensor
point function of valence v; its derivative at the point P and in
the direction of the unit vector e is defined as
df f (r + se)  f (r)
 = lim (s > 0).
ds s  o s
If df/dsi denote the directional derivatives corresponding to three
noncoplanar unit vectors ei, the gradient of f, namely,
df
grad f = Vf = e' + e2 + e3 ,
ds 1 2 63
has the property,
df
 =e V.
ds
Vf, a tensor of valence v + 1, thus gives a synthesis of all the
directional derivatives of f at point r. If the vectors ei are i, j, k,
Vf = if., + jfv + kfz (fz = of/ax, etc.).
From Vf (valence v + 1) we derive the invariants V f (valence
v  1) and V x f (valence v) by dotting and crossing in the first
position. When f is a vector (v = 1),
V f = div f, the divergence of f,
V x f = rot f, the rotation of f.
When r is a function r(u, v, w) of curvilinear coordinates
Vf = Vu fu + Vv fv + Vw f.W,
Vr = Vu ru + Vv r + Vw rw = I.
212 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS § 98
The sets Vu, Vv, Vw and ru, r',,, ru, are reciprocal. With J =
we have
J Vf = (r x ru, f)u + cycl,
J V f = (r, x ru, f)u + cycl,
ru r ru,
J V x f = ((r x ru,) x f)u + cycl = a/au a/av a/aw
At a regular point,
E>0,
and the unit surface normal is defined as n = ru x
The derivative of a tensor f (r) along any surface curve tangent
to the unit vector e at the point (u, v) is
df
ds
the set a, b, n is reciprocal to ru, r, n.
The surface gradient,
V8f = Grad f = a fu + b f,,,
PROBLEMS 213
sin 0 a0 a0
1 a2f
sine 0 5;i
=0.
10. Prove that
1 1
vC T =
 (3RR  I)
where R is a unit radial vector.
11. If f is a vector point function, prove that
V (Vf), = grad div f; V x (Of), _ (V rot f),.
12. If Vf is antisymmetric, prove that rot f is constant and that the dyadic
Vf itself is constant.
13. If X is a scalar point function, prove that
V(,I) = VXI, V V. (XI) = VX, V x (XI) = VX x I.
14. If f is a vector point function, prove that
V (I x f) = rot f, v x (I x f) = (Vf),  I div f.
15. For the dyad fg prove that
V V. (fg) = (div f)g + f Vg, V x (fg) _ (rot f)g  f x Vg.
In particular, if r is the position vector,
V V. (rr) = 4r, V x (rr) _ I x r.
16. If is a constant dyadic, prove that
div 4 . r = 91; rot e r = + (§ 69).
17. If the scalar function f(p, gyp) in plane polar coordinates is harmonic,
prove that f(p', tip) is also harmonic.
18. If the scalar function f(r, 0, Sp) in spherical coordinates is harmonic,
prove that r 'f (r ', 0, gyp) is harmonic.
PROBLEMS 215
28. The position vectors from 0 to the fixed points P1, P2 are r1, r2.
(a) If f = (r  r1) x (r  r2), show that
divf =0, rotf =2(r2 r1).
(b) Prove that
V(rrl) (rr2) =2rr1r2.
29. If f(u, v) is a vector function defined over the surface r = r(u, 1'), prove
that
H Div f =n (ruxf r, xfu).
30. If the vector f(u, v) is always normal to the surface r = r(u, v), prove
that Rot f is tangent to the surface or zero.
31. If u, v, w are curvilinear coordinates, prove the operational identities:
a a a
'le = ruxrw+ru,xru+ruxrv;
[rurvru7
au av aw
a
(ruxr,,)xV =rv  ruav;
a
ru.V =_.
a
au au
CHAPTER VI
INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS
(1) J I1
CIQ
x  y) dx dy = f (P dx F Q dy),
Fra. 99a
f
Then, if a horizontal line cuts C in the points (x1, y), (x2, y),
a
f f aQ dx dy = {Q(x2, Y)  Q(xi, y)) dy
fQ(X2,
a
= y) dy + fQ(xiy) dy
= fQ(x, y) dy.
216
§ 99 GREEN'S THEOREM IN THE PLANE 217
And, if a vertical line cuts C in the points (x, yl), (x, y2),
b
If ay
dy dx = f I P(x, Y2)  P(x, Y1)) dx
fb( yl) dx  P(x, y2) dx
J6
=  fP(x, y) dx.
On subtracting this equation from the preceding, we get (1).
We now can extend this formula to more general regions that
may be divided into a finite number of subregions which have the
property that a line parallel to the x or yaxis cuts their boundary
Proof. Since
1
n x Vf = { (ref),}, dS = H du dv,
II
fn x Vf dS = { (r ,f).u  du dv,
s'
IS,
where S' is the region of the uvplane which contains all parameter
values u, v corresponding to points of S. We now may apply
FIG. 100b
where the circuit integral is taken about the curve C', which forms
the boundary of S', in the positive sense, that is, in the direction
of a rotation of the positive uaxis into the positive vaxis. If we
regard u and v as the functions of the are s on the curve C, it
becomes
/
I \
du
ds
dv
ruf+rf)ds =ic Tfds, ds
du dv dr
ru ry = T,
ds + ds A
the positive unit tangent along C. Formula (1) thus is established.
220 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS §100
(3) ffl.VxfdsfT.fds,
(4)
f (n z Vf  n V f) dS = if T X f ds.
When f is a vector function, (3) becomes Stokes' Theorem:
(3)' fn.rotfds=fT.fds ,
(5) fnx Of dS = 0,
§ 101 ALTERNATIVE FORM OF TRANSFORMATION 321
(6) fn.VxfdS=0,
(7) f(n'4Vf_nV.f)dS=0.
Example 1. Put f = r in (4) and (7); then, since grad r = I, div r = 3,
f
Thus, if f = Vu x Vv, div f = 0, and we may take g as uVv or vVu; hence
(3) f(vs.f+Jn.f)ds =
f
f f f=
Div n is called the mean curvature of the surface (§ 131).
Surfaces for which J = 0 are called minimal surfaces; for such
surfaces the integrands on the left reduce to the first term.
On the plane, n = k, a constant vector, and Div n = 0; then
J = 0 in (2), (3), and (4). When f is a vector, these equations
become (if we write dA for dS) :
(6) fDivfdA
(7) JRotfdA = fm f ds,

where m is the external unit normal to the closed plane curve
forming the boundary. We may deduce (6) from (7) by replacing
rf
fbykxf;for
Rot (k x f) = k Div f,m x (k x f) = km f.
102. Line Integrals. When f(r) is a vector, consider the line
integral,
(1) J'f.dr=
o
to

dr
dt
dt,
Jcu
t
f dr
dt
dt= pT
TO
fdrf
dr dt
dt dr
 dr.
ar
,,
r
dr
Let us consider under what conditions the line integral (1) is in
dependent of the path Cthat is, when its value is the same for
all paths from Po to P.
We shall call a closed curve reducible in a region R if it can be
shrunk continuously to a point without passing outside of R.
Thus in the region between two concentric spheres all closed
curves are reducible. However in the region composed of the
points within a torus, all curves that encircle the axis of the torus
are irreducible. A region in which all closed curves are reducible
is called simply connected. Thus the region between two concen
tric spheres is simply connected, whereas the interior of a torus
is not.
If f is continuously differentiable, and rot f = 0 in a region R,
the line integral of f around any reducible closed curve in R is zero;
for we can span a surface S over R that lies entirely within R
(shrinking the curve to a point generates such a surface), and
then, by Stokes' Theorem,
ff . dr = fn. rotfdS=0.
We may now prove the
THEOREM. If f is a continuously differentiable vector, and rot f
= 0 in a simply connected region, the line integral J'f dr between
any two points of the region is the same for all paths in the region
joining these points.
Proof. If C1 and C2 are any two curves POAP, POBP joining
PO to P, the line integral of f around the circuit POAPBPO is zero;
for all closed curves in a simply connected region are reducible.
Hence
J oA P
fPBP,
P Po
f dr=0.
224 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 103
Under the conditions of this theorem, the line integral (1) from
a fixed point Po to a variable point P of the region depends only
upon P; in other words the integral defines a scalar point function,
and hence
d(P + se)  p(r)
= lim p(r = e f(r).
ds s o s
Since e  Vp = e f for any e,
(3)
f
When S is a portion of the level surface u(x, y, z) = c of a scalar
function, Vu on the surface is parallel to the surface normal and
the condition n rot f = 0 may be written
(1) 0.
Just as in § 101, we may now prove the
THEOREM 1. If f is a continuously differentiable vector, and
n rot f = 0 in a simply connected portion S of a surface, the line
integral ff dr between any two points of S is the same for all
surface curves joining these points.
Under the conditions of this theorem the line integral,
r
(2) p(r) = f dr,
ra
Grad cp = el
d + e2 d = ele1 f + e2e2 f.
ds1 ds2
Since f = (ele1 + e2e2 + nn) f,
(4) Grad 'P = ft,
the projection of f on the tangent plane at P. We have thus
proved the
(10) v= 
If z is present, au/az = uz is not identically zero; hence, on multi
plying (9) by k , we have k f X dr = uz dv and
kxf dr
uz
,
228 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 104
Of
2(Vuz)X(kxf) k
uZ uZ
(f V i )k + (k Vu,)f f2
2
ui uz
kXf fZ  cu 1 a
Vu rot = _ (f  Vu) = 0.
uZ uZ uZ az
If u(x, y, z) contains x or y, we may replace k and uz in (10) by
i and ux or j and uv.
With the values of it and v thus obtained, we now have, from
theorem 2 of § 103,
(k x f)c 1
Vu X Vv = Vu x Grad v =  V it X =  Vu x (k X f) = f,
uZ uZ
v= f(aY_2xY_Ydx=axY_?J_x?J
= xy(a  x  y) = xyz.
With u = x + y + z, v = xyz, we may readily verify that f = Vu x vv.
105. Pfaff 's Problem. Since rot f is solenoidal, we have from
theorem 3 of § 104,
(1) rot f = Vu x Vv = rot (u Vv),
rot (f  uVv) = 0;
hence (§ 91) f  uVv is the gradient Vw of a scalar, and
(2) f = Vw + uvv.
When f is a continuously differentiable vector, we may find three
scalars u, v, w so that (2) holds good. The determination of these
scalar functions is known as Pfaff's Problem. We proceed to give
a simple and direct solution.
Assuming the truth of (2), we at once deduce (1); hence
(3) Vu rot f = 0, Vv rot f = 0,
so that both It and v satisfy the same partial differential equation :
V. rot f = 0. Let v = a be some integral of the system dr x rot f
= 0; then Vv rot f = 0. Now on the surface v = a we have,
from (2),
TT=
T = KN.
For a surfacenormal field
T rot T = 0, (T x rot T) X T = rot T,
and, from (7), we have
(8) rot T = KB, rot T I = K.
The Darboux vector of a surfacenormal field of curves is there
fore 8 = rT + rot T.
Example. Find u, v, w so that
f = [2yz, zx, 3xy] = Vw + u Vv.
Solution. rot f = [2x, y, z]; since the system,
dx _ dy _ dz
2x y z
has the solution z/y = a, we take v = z/y. On the surface v = a, z = ay;
hence
w =ff dr = f (2yz dx + zx dy + 3xy dz)
2axy2 = 2xyz.
Now u is given by
[2yz, zx, 3xy] = [2yz, 2zx, 2xy] + u[0, z/y2, 1/y],
whence u = xy2. Thus our solution is
u = xy2, v = z/y, w = 2xyz.
Since f U. rot f = 0, u, v, and w must be functionally related; in fact w = 2uv.
The total differential equation,
(i) 2yzdx+zxdy+3xydz =0,
is thus equivalent to
dw + udv = 3udv + 2vdu = 0,
and has the integral u9 = C, or x2yz3 = C.
106 REDUCTION OF VOLUME TO SURFACE INTEGRALS 233
*_y
FIG. 106
silting of all the points (x, y, z1), and an upper portion S2 con
sisting of the points (x, y, z2). We suppose also that the points
for which zl = z2 form a closed curve separating Sl from S2 (Fig.
106). The equations of Sl and S2 may be taken as z = zl(x, y),
z = z2(x, y).
Now let f (x, y, z) be a tensor function of valence v whose scalar
components have continuous partial derivatives throughout V.
Then, if the volume integral of of/8z over V is written as a triple
integral with the element of volume dV = dx dy dz, we may effect
a first integration with respect to z,
(i) ff az dx dy dz
whe re the double integrals are taken over the common projection
A of Sl and S2 on the xyplane.
234 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS §106
Over S2 (z = z2) this vector has the direction of the external nor
mal n; but over Sl (z = zl) it has the direction of the internal
normal n. Hence, if we denote the vector element of area in
the direction of the external normal by dS = n dS,
n dS = ± (k  izz  jzy) dx dy, k . n dS = fdx dy,
where the plus sign applies to S2 and the minus to S1. The two
integrals over A now may be combined into a single integral over
8, so that we may write
(1)
j/,f dx dy dz =f I
(5) fv.fdv=Jn.fds,
(6) fv<fdv = JnxfdS.
integral
surface.
f
When f is a vector, (5) is known as the divergence theorem; the
n f dS then is called the normal flux of f through the
ffdV =f = fncodS.
Hence
Vr* = i 0 nr2 dS.
107. Solid Angle. The rays from a point 0 through the points
of a closed curve generate a cone; and the surface of a unit sphere
about 0 intercepted by this cone is called the solid angle & of the
cone.
The reciprocal of the distance r = OP is a harmonic function
(§ 89, ex. 2) ; hence
1 1 R
div grad
r
= 0, and grad
r
=  r2
is a solenoidal vector.
Let us now apply the divergence theorem to the vector f = R/r2
in the region interior to a cone of solid angle 0 and limited exter
nally by a surface S, internally by a small sphere a about 0 of
radius a. Within this region f is continuously differentiable,
div f = 0 and fn f dS = 0. The external normal n =  R over
0', and over the conical surface n R = 0; hence
a R 1 Sa
(1) J r2 dS =,a2 dS = a2 = S2,
where Sa is the area cut from or by the cone. Note that the ratio
Sa/a2 is independent of the radius and may be computed with
a=1.
If S is a closed surface, we have
nR 14r, 0 inside of S
(2)
2
dS =
r l0, 0 outside of S.
When 0 is outside of S, f is continuously differentiable throughout
its interior, and the foregoing result is immediate. In this case
§ 108 GREEN'S IDENTITIES 237
dil denoting the solid angle subtended by dS. The integral over v
is therefore
J(o E2 + 1
E ate)
ar dS
dSt + E f a
ar
M= Ef a
or
dg,
Rr
j
for the integrand remains finite if we use the spherical element of
volume dV = r2 sin 0 dr dB d4p. We thus obtain Grreen's third iden
tity:
(3) Jr v2r dV + i dip
\r do
d it
do r/
dS.
fDivfdA
the divergence theorem in the plane. With f = (p Grad ¢, we find
 flog p
\
v2cp dA =
R
d d J
log p  log p ds + ,. (P do log p  log p ds.
c do do do
On the circle p = E,
d d 1 1 dip aP
do
log p
dp
log p
p E ' do
=
 ap ' ds = E d6;
where
f\ log E   
ap
E dB = E log c
(2)
f\odn  dn/dS=0.
(3) do dS = 0.
240 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 109
4irv(P) =
or, in view of (3),
r f do dS
+ r2 JCp dS;

(6) f p dS.
r
c'(P) = 4r2
Since the surface of the sphere is 47rr2, we have the
MEAN VALUE THEOREM. The value of a function, harmonic in a
region R, at any point P is equal to the mean of its values on any
sphere about P as center and lying entirely within R.
This theorem shows that a function which is harmonic in a
closed bounded region R, but not constant, attains its extreme
values only on the boundary. For let P be a frontier point of the
set for which cp attains its minimum value m. If P were an interior
point of R, there would be a sphere about P, lying within R, on
which V > m at some points; hence the mean value of c over the
sphere would be greater than (p(P) = m.
If in Green's first identity (108.1) we take cp = 4' and assume
that (p is harmonic in R, we have
(7) fi o1 2 dV
=
 is do
dS.
§ 110 ELECTRIC POINT CHARGES 241
(1) F = el2 R f
r2
(4)
r1
e2
r2 r,
en/
(2)' E_ 1 dS.
r
In integrals, such as this, the subscript on V may be omitted on
the understanding that the variation is at dS.
From (1) and (2), we see that cp and E are continuous at all
points P not on the surface. At such points cp is harmonic; for
/'
vp"p = I crop dS = 0.
s r
At a point P on the surface, the integrals for <p and E are im
proper since r passes through zero. However it can be shown t
that if v is piecewise continuous on S, p is defined on S and is
everywhere continuous. Moreover, as P approaches a surface
point Q from the positive side (toward which n points) or the nega
tive side, under general conditions E approaches limiting values
E+ and E_, such that
(4) E+  E_ = 47rv n,
where o and n are the surface density and unit normal at Q. Thus
the normal component of E experiences a jump of 4irv as P passes
through the surface.
112. Doublets and Double Layers. The potential at P due to
a charge e at Q and a charge +e at Q' is (110.7)
e e //1 1
QQ'PG r
t See O. D Kellogg, Foundations of Potential Theory, Berlin, 1929, Chapter
3, §5.
244 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 112
1
(1) P=QimQje(QQ')PQQQ,PQ} =m  OQ  ;
frallction r
for the limit of the in the second member is the directional
derivative of 1/r in the direction of m.
A continuous distribution of doublets over a surface with mo
ments everywhere in the direction of the normal n is called a
double layer. If /in dS is the moment of the doublet at the surface
element dS at Q, the potential of the double layer at an outside
point P is
1
(2) _
fs r
where r = PQ. Since
1
dS=dSl
r r2
(3) 1P _ f s
Ada
rs
At a point Q where µ is continuous and the surface has contin
uous curvature, it can be shown * that cp has definite limits cp+, (p_
t In the case of a magnetic shell, u is called the density of magnetization.
* See 0. D. Kellogg, op. cit., Chapter 6, § 6.
113 SPACE CHARGES 245
r
so that we also may write
(6) E = Vp x 1 µn x VQ 1 dS.
r s
Consequently the intensity due to a double layer has, besides the
scalar potential gyp, also a vector potential A (§ 92) :
(7) E = rot pA,
w(P) dS d (1
47rr do r/ dti.
Comparison with (111.1) and (112.2) shows that p may be regarded as the
potential due to a surface change of density a = (d'/dn)/4a and a double
layer of moment density IA = c/4,r.
(1) (P
= I aT
(2) E fp
X ©p dV =  Vpp.
Since P lies outside of V, 1/r and its first partial derivatives are
continuous for all positions of Q within V; hence, in computing
Vpcp, we may differentiate (1) under the integral sign.
When P lies within the charged region V, the integrals for
and E are improper since r passes through zero. But it can be
shown ¶ that, when p is piecewise continuous, (p and E exist at the
points of V and are continuous throughout space. Moreover the
potential p is everywhere differentiable, and E =  Vptp.
The equation (110.8) also may be proved for space charges;
namely,
(3) fn.EdS = 47r f p dV,
the integral on the right covering all space charges within S. The
closed surface S may either completely enclose the charged region
V or cut through it. If S encloses no charges, the integral (3) is
zero.
When p is continuously differentiable, it can be shown that E
has the same property. Now if Sl is any closed surface enclosing
a subregion Vl of V, the divergence theorem shows that
at
cpT dV = fcp aT
at
dV.
V 2T r dr (r2T r), dr
(r2)__O, T= r + B.
A and B may be determined from the conditions T = Tl when r = rl, T = T2
when r = r2.
In addition,
J"T2ofds=
(C)
l
Jrl
(B'.) f(vs.fiJn.f)ds=fm.fds,
(BI X) f(Vsxf+Jllxf)dS = f mxfds.
On a plane, n is constant, and J = 0; if we write dA for dS, the
B' transformations become
fv3.fdA
(Px) fvsxfdA=fmxf(1s.
When f is a vector, (P  ) is the divergence theorem in the plane.
If f (r) is a continuously differentiable vector and rot f = 0 in a
simply connected region of 3space, the line integral of f  dr is in
dependent of the path, and
r
f=V , p(r) = f dr.
ro
I n x r dS = I JTr2ds.
ff x dr = kf f div f dx dy
nx(cxr)dS=2Vc
is
where V is the volume enclosed by the surface S.
7. The closed surface S encloses a volume V. If the vector f is everywhere
normal to S, prove that rot f dV = 0.
V
R
(b)
r
dV = flog r n dS.
12. If p and q are vector functions, prove that
(a)
13. If r = PQ, the solid angle subtended at P by the surface S (over which
Q ranges) is
i
Slp =  n VQ  dS (107.1),
is r
252 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS
where V0l /r is computed at Q. Prove that
Vp12p
1TXVQdS
r ra
If C and C' are two simple loops, linked as in a chain, show that the preceding
double integral is ±4a, the sign depending on the sense of C'.
15. Show that tangential forces of constant magnitude o acting along a closed
plane curve C are equivalent to a couple of moment 2QA, where A is the vector
area enclosed by C. What is the moment of the couple when C is a twisted
curve? [Put f = r in (100.4).]
16. Let f(r) be a solenoidal vector function. Prove that f = rot g (§ 92)
where
t
"OD
g = r X fxi(,r) dX or r x j Xf(ar) dX
o t
provided the integrals exist. (The integrand of the former may become infi
nite at the lower limit.)
In particular if f(r) is homogeneous of degree n 0 2, f(,\r) = X"f(r) and
g is given by g = (f x r) /(n + 2). Prove this formula directly by making use
of r Vf = of and (85.6).
CHAPTER VII
HYDRODYNAMICS
x
Fla. 116
part toward which n points acts upon the other part with the fort(
F,, per unit of surface at P. The dyadic.,
(3) c= i Fx + j Fy + k F=,
is called the stress dyadic at P; it effects a synthesis of all surfac(
forces at P by means of the relation,
(4)
(1) fRdv+fn.ds=o ,
in  1) dS = f v 4dV,
frx(n.4)ds= xrdS= 
(1) and (2) become
f(R + V )dV=0,
f[PRxr+ V.(xr)]dV = 0.
256 HYDRODYNAMICS § 117
XZ YZ ZZ
where, by virtue of its symmetry,
(7) Xy = Yx, YZ = Zy, Zx = XZ.
The normal components of stress Xx, Yy, ZZ occur in the principal
diagonal, whereas the tangential components, or components of
shear, are equal in pairs. More specifically, in perpendicular
planes, the components of shear perpendicular to their line of inter
section are equal.
Since 4) is symmetric, we always can find three mutually or
thogonal vectors i, j, k, so that
(8) 4) = a ii + j3 jj + y kk
Then i, j, k give the principal directions of stress, and a, are
the principal stresses at the point in question.
§ 119 FLOATING BODY 257
rxnpodS  f rnpl dS = 0.
S,+A
We consider in turn the integrals in (1) :
fgdm = W, the weight of the body;
fpondS = po in dS = 0;
258 HYDRODYNAMICS § 120
f v
gxrdm = gx f v
rdm = gxmr* = Wxr*,
ojnxrdS = po Ifrot r dV = 0,
s s
=gx pr dV = g x m1r= W1 x r.
vt
Thus (2) reduces to W x (r*  r) = 0; this states that the center
of mass of the body and of the displaced liquid are on the same vertical.
120. Equation of Continuity. Let p and v denote the density
and velocity of a fluid at the point P and at the instant t. Con
sider the mass of fluid dV within a fixed but arbitrary closed
surface S. This mass is increasing at the rate,
a ap
dV =
at J at dV'
§ 120 EQUATION OF CONTINUITY 259
the time differentiation being local. This rate must equal the rate
at which fluid is entering S, namely,  in pv dS, where n de
notes the outward unit normal. Hence
OP OP ap
+
at +° \l OP
+ k OZ
gives the time rate at which the density of a moving fluid particle
is changing. We thus obtain the important relation,
dp OP
(2) + v  op'
dt at
From (85.2),
div (pv) = v  Vp + p div v;
(6) in  v dS = fdiV v dV = 0;
(1) f(R_a)Pdv_fnpds=o,
(2) frx(R  a)pdV  f rXn pdS = 0,
5 121 EULERIAN EQUATION FOR A FLUID IN MOTION 261
f {(Ra)pVp}dV=0,
f {r x (R  a)p + rot (pr) } dV = 0.
Since these integrals vanish for any choice of S, the integrands are
identically zero. From (85.3), rot (pr) = (Vp) x r; the equations
of motion are therefore
(3) (R  a)p  Vp = 0,
(4) rx(Ra)prxVp=0.
When (3) holds good, (4) is identically satisfied and may be
omitted. The Eulerian Equation of Motion is therefore
1
(5) a=RVp.
P
dt
I=v,
is simply an identity.
The.lines of the fluid which at any instant are everywhere tan
gent to v are called its streamlines. They are not the actual paths
of the fluid particles except when the flow is steady, that is, when
v is constant in time (av/at = 0). The streamlines have the dif
ferential equation v x dr = 0.
Example. Revolving Fluid. If the fluid is revolving with constant angular
velocity w = wk about a vertical axis, its velocity distribution is that of a
rigid body; hence, with the origin on the axis of revolution, we have, from
4
(54.3), vp = w x OP, or simply v = w x r. Then a = w x v, and (9) becomes
(i) wx(wxr) = V(Q+P).
Now
co x (w x r) = r  (ww  w2I)
 2v{r (w2I  ww) r} (85.14)
 1 w2 v(r2  z2)
 2w2 0(x2 + y2);
hence, from (i),
V[Q + P  2W2(x2 + y2)1= 0,
rot av
 vxroty = 0,
at
arot V
= rot (v x rot v)
at =
(rot v) Vv  v  V rot v  (rot v) (div v),
when we make use of (85.6) and (84.13) ; and, since
arot y drot y
at dt '
drot y
(3) dt + (rot v) (div v) = (rot v) Vv.
d (w _ co
and
drovof = dro Dor of
for arbitrary displacements dro, we have
(2) vol = vor vf.
In particular, when f = ro, we have
(3) I = vor vro,
so that the dyadics vor and vro are reciprocal. Consequently, if
we multiply (2) by vro as prefactor, we have
(4) of = vro vof
An element of fluid volume dVo is altered by the transformation
(1) in the ratio J/1, where J denotes the third scalar invariant of
vro (§ 70) : thus
(5) dV = J dVo.
If we use rectangular coordinates,
axo/ax ayo/ax azo/ax
P PO
f B
v dr f dro
and, since ro and t are independent variables,
Ao
Bo
(Vor) v;
f v6 dr = jOdro { (Vor) v
a
fo
LBdr V( Q+P2v2);
§ 125 IRROTATIONAL MOTION 267
in particular,
d
(2)
dt
fv.dr=0.
The last result is Kelvin's
CIRCULATION THEOREM. If the body forces have a potential and
p = f(p) or constant, the circulation over any closed curve moving
with the fluid does not alter with the time.
125. Irrotational Motion. When the body forces have a poten
tial and p = f(p) or constant, Cauchy's Equation (123.11) shows
that, if the vorticity of a fluid vanishes at any instant, it will
remain zero thereafter. Then rot v = 0 in space and time, and
the motion is termed irrotational. In any simply connected por
tion of the fluid, we may express v as the gradient of a scalar
(§ 102) ; thus
fr
(1) v = Vs , P= v dr,
ro
(2) p02(p = 0.
dt 
For an incompressible fluid, dp/dt = 0, and V2(P = 0; then <p is a
harmonic function.
268 HYDRODYNAMICS § 126
(4) Q+P+1 2
 at = f (t)
an arbitrary function of the time; and, if the flow is steady,
Q + P + 2 v2 is an absolute constant.
Every harmonic function cp represents some irrotational flow of
an incompressible liquid whose velocity v = VV. The problem
consists in finding a solution of V2V = 0 which conforms to the
given conditions. For example, in a flow with central symmetry,
<p must be a function of r alone; hence, from (89.17),
v2 V 1d 2 d`pl
r2dr Cr drJl
0, r dr=b,r
2 =a,
d`p a
Now v = aR/r2 where R is a unit radial vector; and the flux per
second through any sphere of radius r about the origin is constant:
47rr2 (a/r2) = 47ra. When this flux is given, a is determined. The
value of b is immaterial, since it disappears in v =  vcp; as it is
customary to have <p vanish at infinity, we choose b = 0.
126. Steady Motion. A flow is said to be steady when it is in
variable in time. Then all local time derivatives are zero. Thus
ap/ at = 0, and the equation of continuity (120.1) is simply
(1) div (pv) = 0.
Also av/at = 0 and the streamlines are also lines of motion. The
Eulerian Equation (122.2) now becomes
(2) vxroty = v(Q+P+1v2).
If T is a unit tangent along a streamline (T x v = 0) or a vortex
line (TX rot v = 0), T v X rot v = 0; hence T V(Q + P + 2v2) _
0, or
d
(3) (Q + P + Zv2) = 0 along a stream or vortexline.
ds
3126 STEADY MOTION 269
(5) gz + p + v2 = const
P 2
along a streamline. If z, p, v are known at the section A0
(zo, po, vo), we have, from (5),
(6) Pg(zZ)+(ppo)+zP(v2 vo)=0.
For a thin tube we may take vA = v0A0, and (6) becomes
2
(7) p  po = Pg(zo  z)  Pvo C2  1) .
2
270 HYDRODYNAMICS § 127
127. Plane Motion. When the flow is the same in all planes
parallel to a fixed plane it and the velocity has no component
normal to Tr, the motion is said to be plane. Such motion is com
pletely determined by the motion in 7r, which may be taken as
the xyplane. Velocity, density, and pressure are all functions of
x and y alone; and, for any tensor function f(x, y), we have, from
(97.1),
Of
grad f = Grad f + k  = Grad f;
49Z
and, similarly,
div f = Div f, rot f = Rot f.
The flux across any curve C in the xyplane is defined as the
volume of liquid per second crossing a right cylindrical surface of
unit height based on C. For an observer
who travels the curve in the positive sense
of s, the flux crossing C from (his) right to
left is
(1) fkxT.vds=fvxk.dr.
x here k, T, k x T are unit vectors along the
FIG. 127 zaxis, the tangent and normal to the curve
(Fig. 127).
In any simply connected portion of the fluid the flux across a
plane curve joining two points will be independent of the path,
provided
k rot (v x k) = 0 (§ 103, theorem 1).
§ 127 PLANE MOTION 271
From (85.6),
rot (v x k) = k  Vv  k div v = k div v.
For an incompressible fluid, div v = 0 (120.5) and F will be inde
pendent of the path. Hence
(2) ¢(r)
ro
i =ij
ax
3
app
ay
a,k
ay
491P
ax
272 HYDRODYNAMICS 5 127
The streamlines are the lines y = const, and the flow has the constant ve
locity t3' = a in the direction of x.
(b) n = 2: w = az2 = a(x2  y2) + i2axy.
The equipotential and streamlines are the two families of equilateral hyper
bolas,
x2  y2 = const, xy = const.
Since the streamline xy = 0 may be taken as the positive halves of the xaxis
and yaxis, these may be considered as fixed boundaries and the motion re
garded as a steady flow of liquid in the angle between two perpendicular
walls. The velocity at any point is zb' _ 2a2; its magnitude varies directly
as the distance from the origin.
(c) n = 1: w = a/z = a(x  iy)/(x2 + y2).
The equipotential and streamlines are two families of circles:
x/(x2 + y2) = const, y/(x2 + y2) = const,
tangent to yaxis and xaxis, respectively, at the origin. The velocity w'
= a/22 becomes infinite at the origin.
Example 2. With the complex potential,
w = V(z +a2/Z) = V(reie + a2r 'e'°), (V real),
a2
= V r + a2
r
cos B, >G= V ra2a2r sin 0.
The streamline 4, = 0 includes the circle r = a and the xaxis sin 0 = 0.
Since w' = V(1  a2/z2), the complex velocity,
/ 2b'=V(1a22/.V
as z + oo.
Therefore we may regard the motion as a flow to the left about an infinite
cylindrical obstacle of radius a. At a great distance from the obstacle, the
flow has a sensibly uniform velocity  Vi.t
When body forces are neglected, the Bernoulli Equation (126.4) gives
p/p + 1v2 = const. From the symmetry of the flow about the cylinder, it is
clear that the total pressure exerted by the fluid on the cylinder is zero. We
shall consider this matter for cylinders of arbitrary section in the next article.
128. KuttaJoukowsky Formulas. Consider an incompressible
fluid flowing past an infinite cylindrical obstacle of arbitrary cross
section. The flow, in a plane perpendicular to the generators of
the cylinder, is assumed to have the sensibly uniform velocity v
at a great distance from the obstacle. Then, if the motion is
t See Lamb, Hydrodynamics, Cambridge, 1916, p. 75, for the streamlines.
274 HYDRODYNAMICS § 128
steady and irrotational, and the body forces on the fluid are neg
lected, we have, from (126.4),
(1) p=K v  v,
where K is an absolute constant.
If n is a unit internal normal to the boundary C of the obstacle
(Fig. 128),
(2) F =jnpds, M =frxnpds
c c
give the resultant force and moment about the origin exerted by
Ay
0 x
FIG. 128
in ds = 0, Jr x n ds = J rot r dA = 0,
from (101.5), (101.7), we have
(3) F=
2 J
When the flow is given by the complex potential w = + i4,, we
shall compute these integrals after converting them into circuit
integrals in the complex zplane.
The vectors r = xi + yj and r = xi  yj correspond to z and
its conjugate 2:
r z = x + iy = r(cos d + i sin 0) = re'6,
7 2 = x  iy = r(cos 0  i sin 0) = ret0.
§ 128 KUTTAJOUKOWSKY FORMULAS 275
By definition,
r1 r2 = r1r2 cos (02  01), r1 x r2 = rlr2 sin (02  01)k;
hence
Thus r1
r 1 r2 ' it 1 x rk =
2 12
r2 and r1 x r2 k correspond to the real and imaginary
rre,(B2B,)
= 202
parts of 21z2:
(4) r1 r2  (R(21x2) = 2 (21z2 + x122),
(5) r1 x r2 . k 9(202) = 2 (21z2 
Note also that k x r ti iz; for the multiplications by k x and
i (= eia/2) both revolve a vector in the xyplane through 7r/2.
When r1 and r2 are perpendicular or parallel we have, respec
tively,
(6) r1 r2 = 0  21z2 + z122 = 0,
c
The moment M, normal to the plane, is completely specified by
the scalar,
2 P
c
and, since
k r x (k x T) ds = (k x r) (k x T) ds = r dr '' 01(2 dz),
M P v v 0? (2 dz) vi 2 dz.
2 c 2
P G1 c
t The real and imaginary parts of any complex number z are (R(z) _
2(z + 2) and 4(z) = 2(z  2). Note also that the conjugate of a product is
the product of the conjugates: z = 2122.
276 HYDRODYNAMICS § 128
F = 
P
i
JV2 dz, M dz
2 2 c
for the corresponding complex force and moment. Finally we form
F and replace v2z dz in M by its conjugate v2z dz; thus
(8)
P
j J02 dz= P
z dw 2dz,
2JC 2 c dz
P (dw 2
v2
(9) M =  2 6l z dz =  a? dz) z dz,
C 2 C \
since v = dw/dz (127.10). These integrals exist if dw/dz remains
finite over C.
Now, outside of C, v is an analytic function which approaches
v at infinity. The Laurent series for v therefore has the form:
(10) 2' = P. + al/z + a2/z2 + a3/z3 + .. .
If C. is a large circle of radius R about the origin and enclosing C
we have, by Cauchy's Integral Theorem,
We thus find
(11) y = 27ri al, µ = 27ri a2.
We now can compute the integrals in (8) and (9) in terms of
v,,, y, and /2. From (10), we have
v2
= v2 + 2a1v /z + (2a25 + a12 ) /z2 + .. .
When this series is substituted in (8) and (9), all integrals vanish
except fdz/z = 2rri; hence
(12) F=2i ipyv,,, F = ipyv,,;
Vv.
dt \p/ = P
P Po
defines the stream function. The curves 4, = const are the stream
lines (v x dr = 0). If the motion is also irrotational, both stream
function and velocity potential are harmonic (V2# = 0, V2V = 0),
and V4, = k x VV. This is the vector equivalent of the Cauchy
Riemann Equations which guarantee that w = p + iii is an ana
lytic function of the complex variable z = x + iy in the plane of
motion. The complex potential w therefore has a unique derivative
dw/dz; and the negative of its conjugate gives the complex velocity
vector: v = w'.
280 HYDRODYNAMICS
PROBLEMS
1. A mass of liquid is revolving about a vertical axis with the angular speed
f(r), where r is the perpendicular distance from the axis. With cylindrical
coordinates r, 0, z (we replace p, p in § 89, ex. 1 by r, 0 to avoid conflict with
the notation of Chapter VII), let a, b, c be unit vectors in the directions of
r,., rg, rZ (Fig. 89a). If the angular velocity w = f(r)c, prove that
F + v 7F = 0 [Cf. (120.3).]
at (pA) + as (pAv) = 0.
7. A gas flows from a reservoir in which the pressure and density are po, po
into a space where the pressure is p. If the expansion takes place adiabatically,
p/py = const. (y is the ratio of specific heats), show that
P= y p
y1p
Neglecting body forces and the velocity of the gas in the reservoir, show that
the velocity v of efflux when the motion becomes steady is given by
y=1
v2 = 2y 7?0
1  (p/po) 7 } .
y  1 PO
Z = za.+(r2a2) r 5 a,
a2`
Z = Z. +w2a2
 1! 1  2J , r a.
2 \ r
Prove that the bottom of the vortex (r = 0) is a distance w2a2/g below the
general level (r = oc) of the liquid.
9. If the vorticity is constant throughout an incompressible fluid, prove
that V2v = 0. [Cf. (84.14).]
10. When the motion of an incompressible fluid is steady, deduce from
Helmholtz's Equation (122.6) that w Vv = v Vw.
11. If an incompressible liquid in irrotational motion occupies a simply
f
connected region, show that
fv2dv
= dodS'
where p is the velocity potential and the normal derivative dp/dn is in the
direction of the external normal to the bounding surface. [Cf. (108.1).]
12. Prove Kelvin's theorem: The irrotational motion (v) of an incompres
z
p
[Put vi = v + v'; then div v' = 0 and n v' = 0, where n is the unit nor
mal vector to the boundary S. Show that Ti = T + T'.]
282 HYDRODYNAMICS
13. Under the conditions of Problem 11, show that if
(a) v = const. over the boundary, or
(b) dip/dn = 0 over the boundary,
then V is constant throughout the region and v = 0.
Hence show that the irrotational motion of a liquid occupying a simply
connected region is uniquely determined when the value of either w or d'p/dn
is specified at each point of the boundary.
14. If the body forces have a potential Q, the integrals,
represent the kinetic and potential energy of the fluid within the region of
integration. Show that for an incompressible fluid
d(T[U)_
15. Assuming that the earth is a sphere of incompressible fluid of constant
density p and without rotation, show that the pressure at a distance r from its
center is
p = 2gpa(1  r2/a2),
where a is the radius of the earth.
[If y is the constant of gravitation, the attraction on a unit mass at the
distance r is
47rtipr3/r2 = gr/a
where g is the attraction when r = a; hence the body force grR/a has the
potential 'gr2/a.]
Compute the pressure at the center if p is taken equal to the mean density
of the earth, (pg = 5.525 X 62.4 lb./ft.3).
16. In example 1 of § 127, consider the motion when n = r/a(0 < a < r).
Since the lines 0 = 0, 0 = a are parts of the same streamline = 0, we have
the steady irrotational motion of a liquid within two walls at an angle a. Find
the radial and transverse components of v at any point (r, 0).
17. Discuss the plane, irrotational motion when the complex potential
w = rp + i¢ (§ 127) is given by z = cosh w. Show that the equipotential lines
and streamlines are the families of confocal ellipses and hyperbolas:
xz y2
1,
c2 cosh' v + c2 sinh2 ,p 
x2 2
GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE
T
T points upward
from paper
FIG. 130
(8) k = do
ds
T, t = do
ds
nxT,
we may therefore state
THEOREM 1. At a given point of a surface, the normal curvature
and geodesic torsion are the same for all surface curves having a
common tangent there.
Since cos p = n N, we see from (6) that the curvature K =
k/cos rp is completely determined by T and N at the point con
sidered, provided p 56 a/2. But, since T and N determine the
osculating plane at the point (§ 48), we have
THEOREM 2. All curves of a surface passing through a point and
having a common osculating plane, not tangent to the surface, have
the same curvature there, namely, the curvature of the plane curve cut
from the surface by the osculating plane.
§ 131 THL DYADIC vn 285
do do
(1) Grad n = e
ds
+ e'
 = e(ke  te') + e'(k'e' + t'e).
ds'
This dyadic is symmetric, since its vector invariant, Rot n = 0
(96.8). We have, in fact,
(2) Rot n =  (t + t')n = 0, t' =  t;
(3) Vn = k ee  k'e'e'  t(ee' + e'e).
For brevity, here and elsewhere in this chapter, we use V instead
of Grad since no misunderstanding is possible. We state the re
sult (2) as
THEOREM 1 (Bonnet). The geodesic torsions associated with any
two perpendicular tangents at a point of a surface are equal in magni
tude but opposite in sign.
From (1) we find that the first and second scalar invariants of
On are  (k + k') and kk' + tt'. We write
(4) J = k + k' =  Div n,
J is called the mean curvature and K the total curvature of the sur
face at P. Since On and its invariants are point functions over
the surface, the values of J and K are independent of the choice
of e; we therefore have
THEOREM 2. For any pair of perpendicular tangents at P, k + k'
and kk' + tt' have the same value.
From (3), we have
(6) k= t= eVne';
§ 131 THE DYADIC Cn 287
kr=c,
n
 Irc12 = 1/k2;
ds UdVn / e,
ds ds
Since dVn/ds is the same along all surface curves having the common tangent
e at a point, the same is true of the expressions,
(15)
ds  27t and + y(k  k'),
ds
we obtain
(6) yr = E as + Flab + ba) + G bb,
where
(7) E = ru ru, F = ru rv, G = rv r,
are the coefficients of the first fundamental form,
(8) dr dr = E due + 2F du dv + G dv2,
defined in § 94.In fact (8) follows from (6) when we form
dr yr dr and note that a . dr = du, b dr = dv, from (3).
If we compute
(vn)  (vr) = (anu + bn,) (rua +
we obtain, in similar fashion,
(9)  Vn = L as + M(ab + ba) + N bb,
where
L =  nu ru = n ruu,
(10) M = nu r _ nv ru = n ruv,
where
(13) e = nu nu, f = nu n,,, 9=nn
From (12), we obtain the third fundamental form,
(14) do do = e due + 2f du dv + g dv2,
by computing the product dr  (Vn)2 dr.
The quantities (7), (10), and (13) are known, respectively, as
the fundamental quantities of the first, second, and third orders.
If e1, e2 are unit vectors in the principal directions at P,
Vr = e1e1 + e2e2,
Vn = k1 e1e1  k2 e2e2,
(on)2 = ki e1e1 1 k2 e2e2,
and, on multiplying these equations in turn by K = k1k2, J. _
k1 + k2, 1, and adding, we get
(15) (on)2+JVn+KVr=0.
This is the HamiltonCayley Equation for the planar dyadic Vn;
for its first and second scalar invariants are J, K, and Vr is the
idemfactor in the tangent plane. Substituting from (6), (9), and
(12) for the dyadics in (15), we obtain the following relations be
tween the fundamental quantities:
(16) eJL+KE=0, f JM+KF=0,
gJN+KG=0.
Example 1. From the reciprocity of a, b, n and ru, r,., n,
r,, x H
(17) , bnxru,
ru x r,, n; hence
(18)
ruxrv n
K = (a x b) . (nu x ne,) = nu x nv a
ruxr, n
292 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE
Since the cross products in these equations are all parallel to n, these equa
tions may be written also in the vector form:
(19) J ru x r,. = nu x r,, + ru x n,.,
(20) K ru x rn = nu x nv.
If we multiply these equations by (ru x r,;) , apply (20.1), and introduce
the fundamental quantities from (7) and (10), we have
(21) J(EG  F2) = GL  2F31 + EN,
(22) K(EG  F2) = LN  312.
These values of J and K also may be found from
(9) Vn = a(La + Mb) + b(Ma + Nb),
by making use of (18).
Example 2. The surface z = z(x, y), with the position vector,
r=xi+yl+z(x,y)k,
can be written in the parametric form
x=u, y=v, z=z(u,v).
If we denote the partial derivatives z.,, zy, zxx, zxy = zyx, zyy by p, q, r, s, t,
respectively, we have
ru=rx=i+pk, r,, =ry=l+qk;
hence, from (7),
E = 1 + p2, F = pq, G = 1 + q2;
H=EGF2=1+ p2+g2;
Hn=ruxru= pi  gl+k.
Furthermore,
ruu = rk, ru = sk, r,.y. = tk;
hence, from (10),
L=r/H, M=s/H, N=t/H.
We may now compute the mean curvature J from (21), the total curvature
K from (22):
(23)
T (1+q2)r2pgs+(1+p2)t
(1 + p2 + q2)
rt  s2
(24)
K = (1+p2+q2)2
The principal curvatures k1, k2 are the roots of the quadratic (131.10):
(25) k2  Jk + K = 0.
§ 134 TIHE' FIELD DYADIC 293
de1
= w2 x e1 = t2n + y2e2
ds2
We now have, from (95.8),
de1 de1
Grad e1 = e1
ds1 + e2 ds2
and, since the trihedral e1e2n has the angular velocity  (de/ds) n
relative to ee'n, the angular velocity of e1e2n along C is
dB dB\
(10) w asn=to  ke'F y
ds n'
/ w n Xe1,
hence
de1 \
ds ds
dO \ dO
The left member of (11) shows that y  dB/ds is the same for all
surface having e as common tangent vector.
296 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § 134
X
u _ cv , v
(Pa
(15) Y1 =
H S
av E} ya = G 1 }
l iau G av
\1
These formulas also follow at once from (8) when the foregoing values of el
and e3 are used.
The subscript 3 refers to the curves u = const when they cut the curves
v = const at an arbitrary angle; when this angle is it/2, we use the subscript 2.
§ 135 GEODESICS 297
where p, the angle (N, n), is taken positive in the sense of T. Since
dT/ds = KN,
dT
(2) xn = KNXn = KSin VT = yT;
ds
and, as dT/ds is unaltered by a change in positive direction, y must
change sign with T (§ 130).
A surface curve for which y = 0 is called a geodesic. Thus, if a
straight line can be drawn on a surface, it is necessarily a geodesic
since K = 0. If a geodesic is curved (K 0), y = 0 implies sin <p
= 0 and <p = 0 or 7r. We thus have
THEOREM 1. Along a curved geodesic the principal normal is
always normal to the surface.
Along a curved geodesic,
dip
(3) k = K COS p = ±K, t = T +  = T;
ds
These differential equations of the second order show that the geo
desics on a surface form a twoparameter family. In general, a
geodesic may be determined by two conditions, by specifying (a)
298 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE a 1:35
FT
Fia. 135
fT e1 ds = fn rote,dS=0,
for any sectionally smooth closed curve lying entirely within S.
Writing 0 = angle (e1, T) gives
(2) fcos 0 ds = 0
as the integral equivalent of (1). This formula leads to
THEOREM 1. An arc of a geodesic that is one of the curves of a
geodesic field is shorter than any other surface curve joining its end
points and lying entirely within, the field.
Proof. Let AI'B be a geodesic arc of the field and AQB any
other curve of surface covered by the field (Fig. 136a). Applying
(2) to the circuit APBQB formed by these arcs, we have
f ds +
PB BQA
Q
_A'
B!
B
A
we have
(n rot P  Q n x R)e, + (n rot Q + P n x R)e2 = 0.
This equivalent to the two equations:
(7) n rot P = n  QxR,
(8) n rot Q = n R x P.
These are the Equations of Codazzi.
We next put Ve, = Re2  Pn in (2) and obtain
(n  rot R)e2  (n 
Replacing vet and Vn by the foregoing values, we have
(15) yi+yi++h'=0.
2
ds2
dye
ds1
d11
Equation (14) states the same property for the e2field that (13)
states for the elfield. To show this, change the subscripts 1, 2
in (13) into 2, 1 (n x e2 = e1) ; then, since
k1 = k1i t2 = t1, y1 = 71, ds_1 = ds1,
we obtain (14).
138. Lines of Curvature. The curves on the surface which are
everywhere tangent to the principal directions (§ 131) are called
lines of curvature. Along a line of curvature the geodesic torsion
is zero (t = 0), and the torsion z =  dcp/ds.
From (130.7), we have do/ds = kT along lines of curvature.
Their differential equation is therefore
dr do dr do
= 0, or = 0;
(1) dsxds n'dsxds
for (dr/ds) x (dn/ds) is always parallel to n. In particular, the
parametric curves are lines of curvature, if
ruxnu = 0, 0;
§ 138 LINES OF CURVATURE 303
But y2/k2 = tan P2; hence X02 = (N2, n) is constant along a ruling,
and N2 as well. This property lends plausibility to the fact that
the developable surface may be bent into a plane (after certain
cuts are made) without stretching or tearing.
304 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE §138
and
so that tij = 0.
Example. A surface of revolution about the zaxis has the parametric
equations,
z = u cos v, y = u sin v, z = z(u),
where u, v are the plane polar coordinates (p, gyp). These give the vector
equation,
r = u R(v) + k z(u),
where R is a unit radial vector (R k = 0). Now
ru=R+kz', r =uP;
ruXr k  z'R
n = ru x r _ (t + z,2)
z" z'
nu =  (1 + z,2)2
ru, n + , r,,.
u(1 z'2)=
306 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § l39
The last equations show that the parametric lines (the parallels and meridians
of our surface) are the lines of curvature, and that the principal curvaturv
are
Z/1
z'
kl =
(1 + z) 1'
k2 =
u(1 + z,2)z
Consequently,
z' z"
(4) K = k l k2 = u(l + z,2)2
Let us apply these results to find K and J for the torus generated by revolv
ing the circle,
(ua)2+z2=b2,
about the zaxis. On differentiation, we find
au 1 +z'2
b2 b2
zt =
z z2
z" _ 
2
3
hence, from (4) and (5),
_u  a a2u
J
K b2u bu
(6) K_
b(a+bcose)'
Cos0 J ba+bcos0
+
cos0
1
(1) 1Y1 f yz
+ dyl
 + K = 0,
ds1 ds2
yj
/
Vi, / ae
y3VG (95.7).
av
(3) K
1 ja
 H 1av (yl
1/E)  a
au
(I"\/G' ) +
020
au av.
in which II = 1/EG  F2, yl and 73 are given by (134.15), and
F
(4)
\/EG EG
When the parametric curves are orthogonal, 0 = it/2 and F = 0,
II = EG. Equations (134.15) now give
1 aE/av 1 aG/au
(5) 73
yl =  21i NIT '  211 \/G
and Liouville's Formula becomes
1 I aG a / 1 aE)l
aau (il_
(6) h'
211 au + av \II a v f
From (3), we obtain an immediate proof of
THEOREM 2 (Gauss). The total curvature K of a surface depends
only upon ' e coefficients E, F, G of the first fundamental form and
their fir f .,and second partial derivatives with respect to u and v.
This iu.idamental theorem was first proven by Gauss after long
and t' iious calculations. Gauss's name of "Theorema egregium"
(La' n egregius means literally "out of the herd") for this result
shows that he was fully aware of its importance.
Example. To find a surface of revolution of constant negative total curva
ture, we set K = 1/a2 in (138.4). The resulting differential equation,
2z'z" 2u
(1 + z'2)2
a2 '
308 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § 140
1 + z'2 a2
A or cost i = u2
a2 + A,
where >G = tan l z' is the inclineftion of the tangent to the uaxis (Fig. 139).
If we impose the condition u = a when 4, = 0, A = 0 and u = a
Now
dz dz du
= = tank a sin 0 = a(sec ¢  cos 0,
d,k du dik
FIG. 139
Theorem,
fKdS= 
f(.  ds,
Let us first apply (2) to the figure bounded by two geodesic arcs
APB and AQB meeting at A and B. Then denoting the interior
angles at the corners by A and B (Fig. 140a), we have
that is, the area of a spherical triangle equals the area of a spherical octant times
the angular excess in right angles.
are made about two adjoining polygons, their common side is traversed in oppo
site directions. Now for each Si we have, by Bonnet's Theorem (2),
fKdS 2irf  (a 
for the integrals f y ds over adjoining sides cancel in pairs since y changes
sign with change of direction. In each polygon the number of interior angles
equals the number of sides; hence 2;2:7r = 2eir, where e is the total number of
sides or edges. Moreover the sum of the interior angles about any vertex is
27r; hence TdIai; = 2v7r, where v is the total number of vertices. We thus
obtain
(6) fe+v=1 KdS.
is,
From the right member of (6) we see that the number on the left is independent
of the manner in which S is subdivided into polygons. From the left member
we conclude that cb K dS is not altered when S is deformed into another
completely regular surface.
If S can be continuously deformed into a sphere, we have
(7) fK dS = 47rr2 = 4a
(9) f"KdS=ffKb(a+bcoso)dedv =
0
2
f
0
2"
cos e do dv, = 0;
Since
Hence f will undergo a parallel displacement along the curve C when and only
when
de
(11) y+  =0.
If f is tangent to C (or, more generally, when 0 remains constant), f will
undergo a parallel displacement along C only when C is a geodesic.
THEOREM. If a tangential surface vector is given a parallel displacement about
a smooth closed curve C, it will revolve through an angle,

if ds fy ds
FIG. 141
Proof. Let el denote the unit vectors along the incident rays
and e2 the unit vectors along the refracted (or reflected) ray (Fig.
141). If µi denotes an absolute refractive index, µ1 sin 01 =
µ2 sin 02 (Snell's Law) and e1, e2, n are coplanar; hence,
(µ2e2  µ1e1) x n = 0 and nrot (µ2e2  µ1e1) = 0,
by the theorem following (97.10). For the reflected ray (§ 75),
e2 = (I  2nn) e1 and n  rot (e2  e1) = 0.
In either case: n rot e1 = 0 implies n  rot e2 = 0
142. Developable Surfaces. A developable surface (§ 138) is the
envelope of oneparameter family of planes. The limiting line of
intersection of two neighboring tangent planes is a line, or ruling,
on the surface. A developable is therefore a ruled surface. The
equation of a ruled surface may be written
(1) r = p(u) + ve(u),
§ 142 DEVELOPABLE SURFACES 315
Then
qu = pu + Xue + Xeu = (a + Xu)e + (S + x)eu;
and, if we choose X = ,6,
(6) qu = (a  {3u)e.
If a = l3u along C, qu = 0 and q is constant. Then (4) repre
sents a cone of vertex q if the vectors e(u) are not coplanar, a plane
if they are coplanar.
In general, however, a 0 $u; then (6) shows that q(u) traces a
curve having e as tangent vector. The surface (4) then is gener
ated by the tangents of the curve q = q(u); it is the tangent surface
of this curve.
Developable surfaces are planes, cylinders, cones or tangent surfaces.
316 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE §143
(1) fJnds=Jmde.
Next put f = r in (101.4) ; then, since Or = I  nn, Rot r = 0,
and we have
(2) fr x Jn dS =Jrxmds.
These equations admit of a simple mechanical interpretation:
THEOREM 1. The normal pressures Jn (per unit of area) over any
simply connected portion of surface S bounded by a closed curve C
are statically equivalent to a system of unit forces (per unit of length)
along the external normals to C and tangent to S.
Consider, now, a soap film with a constant surface tension q per
unit of length and subjected to an unbalanced normal force pn
per unit of area. Since any portion of the film bounded by a
closed curve C is in equilibrium, we must have
n=
f n no over
and has the first integral uz'/1/1 + z'2 = C. Solving for z', we have z' _
C/1/u2  C2; hence
=Ccoshz Ck.
z + k =Ccoshr C , u
This represents a catenary in the uzplane; when revolved about the zaxis
it generates a surface known as the catenoid. Catenoids are the only minimal
surfaces of revolution.
318 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § 143
a a
nu = (u2 + a2)2 rv, nv = (u2 + a2)2 ru.
27211 + i = 0, 2y1t1  
ds2
= 0.
144 SUMMARY: SURFACE GEOMETRY 319
Since K = ti,
dK = 2t1
dt1
_ 472K,
dK = 2t1
dt1
= 4y1K;
dsl ds1 ds2 ds2
dK dK
VK = el  + e2  = 4K(y1e2  72e1) = 4K n x R (134.3).
dsl ds2
fK d S= fdo  ds,
PROBLEMS
1. If u, v, are plane polar coordinates r, 0, prove that the surface obtained by
revolving the curve z = f(x) about the zaxis has the parametric equations:
x = u cos v, y = u sin v, z = z(u).
2. A straight line, which always cuts the zaxis at right angles, is revolved
about and moved along this axis. The surface thus generated is called a conoid.
If u and v are plane polar coordinates in the xyplane, show that the conoid
has the parametric equations:
x = u cos v, y = u sin v, z = z(v).
a2
t =,
y2
b2
2z
is elliptic or hyperbolic, according as the terms on the left have the signs (+, +)
or (+, ). Show that the corresponding parametric equations are
x = au cos v, y = bu sin v, z = Zcu2;
x = au cosh v, y = bu sinh v, z =. 4cu2.
From (132.21) and (132.22) deduce the values of K and J and from (132.25)
find the principal curvatures. Check with (138.4) and (138.5).
PROBLEMS 323
When z = av, show that the resulting right helicoid is minimal (§ 143);
and that its principal curvatures are fa/(u2 + a2).
11. Show that the curvatures J and K have the dimensions of (length) 1
and (length) 22. Verify this in Problems 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
12. The position vector of a twisted curve r is given as a function ro(s) of the
are. The surface generated by its tangents is
r=rc(v)+uT(v)
where v = s and u is the distance along a tangent measured from r. Show that
this tangent surface has the curvatures K = 0, J = z/i u Jx. What are the
principal curvatures?
13. If a parabola is revolved about its directrix, show that the principal
curvatures of the surface of revolution satisfy the relation 2k1 + k2 = 0.
[With the notation of § 138, ex., the parabola has the equation z2 _
4a(u  a) when the directrix is the zaxis and u = 2a at the focus.]
14. The vectors a, b, n and ru, r,,, n form reciprocal sets of vectors over the
surface r = r(u, v) [Cf. § 95]. Hence show that any vector f(u, v), defined over
the surface, may be written
f
15. Prove that
FN  GM FM  EN
II, a I
H2 H2
[Use Prob. 15.]
E F G = 0.
L M N
27. Show that the parametric curves are lines of curvature when, and only
when, F = 0, M = 0.
28. In the notation of § 132, ex. 2, prove that the lines of curvature on the
surface z = z(x, y) have the differential equation,
dy2 dx dy dx2
1 + p2 pq 1 + q2 = 0.
PROBLEMS 325
29. Show that the hyperbolic paraboloid of Prob. 4 has the parametric
equations:
x = 2a(u + v), y = 2b(u  v), z = cuv.
Prove that the differential equations of its asymptotic lines and lines of
curvature are, respectively,
dvl2 a2 + b2 + c2y2
du dv = 0,
\du / a2 + b2 + c2u2
and find the uvequations of the asymptotic lines and lines of curvature.
30. If the parametric curves on a surface are its lines of curvature, show that
nu = kiru, nv = k2rv.
31. Two surfaces that have the same normal lines are called parallel. Sur
face points on the same normal are said to correspond; thus
r(u, v) = r(u, v) + An(u, v)
determines corresponding points on the parallel surfaces S and S. Prove that
the distance X between the parallel surfaces is constant.
[If we take the lines of curvature of S as parametric curves,
ru = (1  Aki)ru + Xun, rv = (1  Xk2)rv + Xn
(Prob. 30); and, on cross multiplication,
ffn = (1  Xki)(1  Ak2)Hn + Xu(1  Xk2)n x rv + X ,(l  Xkl)ru x n.
Now ii = En where e = ±1; and as n, ru, r are mutually orthogonal,
H = E(1  Xki)(1  Xk2)H, Xu = Xv = 0.1
32. Prove that the lines of curvature on parallel surfaces correspond and
that the corresponding principal curvatures satisfy the equations,
_ Ekl Eke
kl T2 =
1  Xkl ' 1  xk2
Hence the mean and total curvature of S are given by
_
J _ 1rJ+X2K'
E(J  2XK) K
K
 1xJ+x2K
33. Show that surfaces parallel to a surface of revolution are also surfaces
of revolution.
34. Prove the "Theorema egregium" of Gauss by establishing Baltzer's
formula for the total curvature K:
Fuv  UGuu Evv 2Eu Fu  2Ev 0 U Ei, Gu
H4K=I Fv2Gu E F ZEv E F
F G 'Gu F G
326 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE
Method. From (132.10) and (132.22) show that
H4K = [ruurx][rv,;r r,;]  [ruvrurv]2.
Using (24.14), the right member becomes
ruu rvv ruu ru ruu rv ruv ruv ruv ru ruv rv
ru rvv E F ruv ru E F
rv rvv F G ruv rv F G
In both determinants the upper left element has the cofactor EG  F2; hence
we may replace these elements by ruu rvv  ruv ruv and 0, respectively.
Now, by differentiating
u1 = u, u2 = v; D1 = aau , D2 = ava ;
9 9 9
that is, g"p is the reduced cofactor of gap in det gap.
(c) h11=L,h12=M,h22=N;h=LNM2;
(d) Daep  Dpea;
(e) Dagpy + Dogy.  D.rgap = 2ey Daep.
(f) Daep = ey(Dagp , + Dpgya  Dygap) + nhap (summed over y = 1, 2).
(g) e" = g"pep (summed over (3 = 1, 2). [Cf. § 145.]
36. The Christoffel symbols Papa, g, y = 1, 2) for a surface r = r(ul, u2)
having gap du" dup as first fundamental form (§ 132) are computed from the
equations:
Pap = ey . Daep.
PROBLEMS 327
= ey (
ds2 + raA ds ds
summed over a, 0, y = 1, 2. Hence prove that the equations of a geodesic
on a surface are
y dua B
+ rad =0 (Y = 1, 2).
d3 ds ds
a 8
1 T = ep ds , = ep ds2 + Daeg d , Vr = eyes. Cf. Prob. 36. ]
CHAPTER IX
TENSOR ANALYSIS
(2) eijkarasat
aer8t = ijkarL
a8
atk
(2) will beestablished when the right members are shown to have
this same property. Now
Eijkarasat = eijkasarat =  ejikasa r aki
s t
ia2 ja3 kEr8tbsrbjbk
= a1
= Erst(albi)(aabj)(a3kbk)
r 8
=
ErstC1C2Ct3,
where
(15) c% = aabj = aib1 F a2b2 f a2b33.
From (15), we see that the element in the ith row and jth column
of the product ab is given by the sum of the products of the corre
sponding terms in the ith row of a and the jth column of bthe
socalled "rowcolumn" rule.
Since the value of a determinant is not altered by an interchange
of rows and columns, we also can compute ab by "rowrow,"
"columnrow," and "columncolumn" rules. For example, the
product
1 2 3 1 1 1
a1 al al a1 a2 a3 1 0 0
2
(16) a2 a2 a2 ai a2 a3 0 1 0 = 1.
1 z 3 3 3 3
a3 a3 a3 a1 a2 a3 0 0 1
The basis ei, reciprocal to ei, thus is transformed in the same way
as ui. To find the transformation for the components ui, multiply
(1) by u ; then, from (24.4),
(4) ui = cu
a transformation cogredient with (1). Thus quantities written
with subscripts transform in the same way (cogrediently); and
quantities written with superscripts also transform in the same
waybut the latter transformations are contragredient to the former.
Thus the position of the index indicates the character of the
transformation.
A vector u is said to have the contravariant components ui, the
covariant components ui. These terms suggest variation unlike and
like that of the base vectors ei; in other words, the transformation
(1) is regarded as a standard. Thus [u', u2, u3] and [U1, u2i u3]
are two ways of representing the same vector u; in the first it is
referred to the basis ei, in the second to the reciprocal basis e'
[u1, u2, u3J often is called a contravariant vector, [u1, u2, u3] a co'
variant vector. Actually, the vector u is neither contravariant or
covariant, but invariant.
By using the properties of the reduced cofactors,
eir'Yr
i r i
(5) = Yi = ai,
we may solve equations (1) to (4) for the original base vectors and
components (§ 146). Thus the equations,
(6) ei = c,ei, ui = ciuj, et = 'Yie', uz  yiu',
have the solutions,
(7) ei = ?j6j, ui = Yiui; e' = c ,%J, ut = c ui.
Note that the matrices c, y in (7) are the matrices cz, y' of (6)
transposed. To be quite clear on this point the reader should
write out equations ei = (.'e; and et = c;ei in full.
From (1) and (3), we find that
ei ' e' = cier yie8 = ciYaSr = c 'Yr = 31j,
which shows that the new bases have the fundamental property
of reciprocal sets.
336 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 149
in the variables u1, u2, u3; and, since u u > 0 when u 0, this
form is positive definite. Moreover, u v is given by the associated
bilinear (polar) form in ui, vj.
From (2), we have
(3) I
UI= gijl(itljr
UV _ gijuw'
(4) Cos (u, V) =
lUl VI VgijuiujVVgijvivi
Thus, when the six constants gij are known, we can find the
lengths of vectors and the angles between them when a fixed unit
of length is adopted. The quantities gjj, since they make measure
ments possible, are said to determine the metric of our 3space; and
gijuiuj is called the metric (or fundamental) quadratic form.
152. Relations between Reciprocal Bases. The discriminant c'
the metric form is
911 912 913
(2) Si.
u= ei,
(3) ei = gije'
We may solve these equations for ej by multiplying by gik and
summing on i; thus
k j = e k,
9ikei = 9ikgijej = 3je
or, if we interchange i and k,
(4) ei = 9kiek
From (4), we have also
ei ej = gkiek ej = gkiak = gji
(5) gij = ez
e' = 9'i
Making use of (3) and (4), we now have, for any vector u,
(6)
(7) ui = ei u = gijuj
The equations enable us to convert contravariant components of a
vector to covariant and vice versa.
Finally, from (24.14), we have
(8) g = det gij = det (e1 ej) = [eie2e312 = E2,
in (7) are invariant; for example, on using (1) and (4), we have
T'16x.e i ckek = 3,h6kTr8e1,ek
= YrYsjTrsc'eh
i r = Thkehe b,
from the properties of reduced cofactors (146.8).
The coefficients gij of the metric quadratic form are tensor com
ponents; for, from (151.1),
(8) 9ij = ei ' ej = (tier) ' (cjes) = c' jug,.
in agreement with (5). The same is true of gij; for, from (152.5),
9i7
(9) = e ' e' = (Yrer)  (Yses) = Y:Y39r8,
in agreement with (4). Again, if we define b, S transforms
as a mixed tensor,
(10) ei ej = (Yrer)  (c;es) = Yrc;a8.
Indeed, gij, gij and b are all components of the same tensor,
(11) gijeiej = gijeiej = beiej = 8jeiej = eiei = eiei,
namely, the idemfactor (§ 66). In fact, if we use the formulas,
(12) ei = girer, ei = girer (§ 152),
Since eiei and eiei represent the same tensor, the order of the
indices in its mixed components, the Kronecker deltas, is im
material.
Any component of T may be expressed in terms of components
of another type by means of the metric form. For example, we
have, from (7) and (12),
Tit = ei,T.ej = 9trer'T'ej = 9irT,J,
= 9'r ei'T er =
girgjs er  T  e8 =
girgj8Trs
155. Absolute Tensors. We next define absolute tensors with
respect to the centeredaffine group of transformations: xi = cxj
344 TENSOR ANALYSIS
Scalars p(x', x2, x3) which have one component in each coor(li
nate system given by
(1)
gxl, x2, x3) = P(x', x2, x3)
are said to be absolute tensors of valence zero.
Vectors have three components, and these may be of two types
u,, ui. The laws of transformation,
(2) 2li = ciuj, ui = Yu
characterize absolute tensors of valence one. The vector itself,
u = uiei = uiei,
is invariant to the transformation: u = u.
Dyadics have 32 = 9 components, and these may be of 22 = 4
types: Ti;, Tij, T'j, Tij. If these components transform, respec
tively, like the products ujv;, uivj, uiv;, uivj of components of two
absolute vectors, they are said to form absolute tensors of valence
two. The dyadic itself,
SaSbS,'Trsteaebec
= Trstereset = T.
Note that the indices on the base vectors in T have the same order
as the indices on the component but occupy opposed positions.
We may solve the 27 equations (3) for the original components
Trst by multiplying by yayby, and summing; we thus find
j k (5) r s t
yaybycTijk = SaSbScTrst = Tabc
In similar fashion we find, from (4),
(6) yaCbCkijk = brbbb 'r = Tab`.
156. Relative Tensors. When the coordinates are subjected to
an affine transformation,
(1) xi = Cr, ;xti
= yrxr (c = det c s 0),
the transformation equations, for all tensor components thus far
considered contain only the coefficients c, y. More generally, we
may have equations of transformation, such as
(2) T.jk = CNCr j
i t r ,
which involve the Nth power of the determinant c. In this case
the quantities in question are said to be components of a relative
tensor of weight N. When N = 0, equations (2) reduce to (155.4)
for an absolute tensor. As a consequence of (2), the relative tensor
T = Trseere8et becomes
(3) T = cNT
when the transformation (1) is effected.
The law of transformation of a tensor component is determined
by
(i) its valence: the number of its indices;
(ii) its type: the position of its indices from left to right;
(iii) its weight: the power of c that enters into the transforma
tion equations.
346 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 157
axr
yr 
axi
axr
=r z;
348 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 157
the Jacobians,
axi axi
(6) det  = y, det  = c, and yc = 1.
axr axr
A tensor of weight N, with respect to the affine group, trans
forms according to the pattern,
CNyTy3CtkTrst.
(7) TU'.k =
In view of (5) and (6), this equation may be written
ax axi ax' axt
(8) Ti'k at
IN axr axs axk
Now, by definition, a set of 33 functions Tr. $t is said to form a tensor
of valence 3 and weight N with respect to the general transforma
tions (1) provided the components transform according to the
pattern (8). This equation becomes (7) when the transformation
is affine and constitutes a natural generalization of (7). The cor
responding equation for a tensor of any valence or type is now
obvious. In particular, for contravariant and covariant compo
nents of an absolute vector,
axi _ axr
(9), (10) uy =axr ur, ii = ax ur.
i
Since the new tensor components are linear and homogeneous
in terms of the old components, we have the important result: If
the components of a tensor vanish in one coordinate system, they
vanish in all coordinate systems.
More generally, tensor equations maintain their form in all co
ordinate systems. If any geometrical or physical property is ex
pressed by means of an equation between tensors, this equation
in an arbitrary coordinate system expresses the same property.
Although the coordinates themselves are not vector components
in the general group (1), their differentials dxi are the components
of a contravariant vector; for, from (1),
(11) dxi =  
axi
ax'
dxI +
axi
ax2
axi
axi
axi
dx2 +  dx3 =  dxr.
axr
We regard the differentials dxr as the prototype of contravariant
vectors; and the rule of total differentiation gives the correct pat
tern for their transformation.
§ 157 GENERAL TRANSFORMATIONS 349
The base vectors ei thus transform after the pattern in (10) and
therefore merit a subscript.
The base vectors ei must transform after the pattern in (9),
namely,
a. t
(15) ey =  er;
axr
for, since er e8 = S8,
axr axj axr axj axj
ei
49V ax8 a.2'i ax' axi
and the sets ei, e' are also reciprocal.
We now can show that
(16) gij = gij = S
ax
E
for the proof of (147.2) applies when we replace c; by axe/a.V.
Moreover, E' = e' e2 x e3 is a relative scalar of weight 1.
The permutation tensor is defined by
(2) e1  ej x ek eiejek = ei ej x ek eiejek.
These triadics are equal absolute tensors. For, if we put
ei = gireT) ej = 9ise3,
ek = gkter,
Since E and E' are relative scalars of weight 1 and 1, Eijk and
Eijk are components of relative tensors of weight  1 and 1. This
is the theorem of § 156; the former proof still holds when obvious
changes are made.
159. Operations with Tensors. The three basic operations on
tensors are addition, multiplication, and contraction.
1. Addition of tensor components of the same valence, weight, and
type generates a tensor component of precisely the same char
acters.
Example. If Pij, Qij are both of weight N,
ax N axr ax"
Fij + Qij _ ax
 (Pre + Qr.)
a.ri azj
Hence Tit = Pij + Qij transforms in exactly the same manner as Pij and Qij.
2. Multiplication of tensor components of valence m1i m2, of
weight N1, N2, and of arbitrary type generates a tensor component
of valence m1 + m2i of weight N1 + N2, and of a type which is
defined by the position of the indices in the factors.
§ 159 OPERATIONS WITH TF''\SORS 351
all
=38T'st = al'
T ur.
ax,* axr "` = ax"
A tensor component may also be contracted with respect to two
indices on the same level; we need only raise or lower one index
and then contract as previously.
Example 2. To contract the absolute component V% on the indices i, j
we first lower the index j
4 !r
T.jk = T..k9i*;
setting i = j now gives the covariant vector
!
Vk = T ::..kgir = T ..kgij.
We may also obtain this vector by lowering the index i and setting i = j:
Tick = Tt"k = V" k9ri
Contraction on a pair of indices is equivalent to the scalar multi
plication of the corresponding base vectors in the complete tensor.
In the preceding examples, T = T!.ke,e ek,
u = Ti'.keiej ek = r'.ks;ei = T .,ei,
v = T:'.kei ejek = Tt'.kgi,ek
352 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 160
The proof that contraction produces tensors follows from the equa
tion :
T'.'.keie;ek = TY?.keie,ek.
When the new base vectors on the left are expressed in terms of
the old, this becomes an identity; and, since scalar multiplication
is distributive with respect to addition, it remains an identity when
base vectors in the same position are multiplied on both sides.
Thus, in ex. 2,
V = T'.kgiiek = v.
Those definitions show that S b and bay can only assume the
values 0, 1, 1; they are evidently alternating in both upper and
lower indices. Their precise values in any case are as follows:
If both upper and lower indices of a generalized delta consist of
the same distinct numbers chosen from 1, 2, 3, the delta is 1 or 1
according as the upper indices form an even or odd permutation
of the lower; in all other cases the delta is zero.
This rule is a direct consequence of the properties of the epsilons.
We have, for example,
012 32 23 13 o.
12 = 1, 023   1, 011 = 021 ;
= EijkEabkujvawb
= SabUjva'Uib (161.2)
= uj(viwj  vjwi)
= (u w)vi  (u  V)wi;
hence
u X (v X w) = (u w)v  (u v)w.
The box product u x v w is given by either of the absolute
scalars,
ul u2 U3
W1 W2 W3
U1 u2 u3
w1 w2 w3
in agreement with (24.12).
356 TENSOR ANALYSIS § m3
where
(4) Di =axia  _axa
 a
axi axa
_ axb
Da;
axi
The differential operator Di transforms like a covariant vector (hence
the subscript). In (3), Da acts on both scalar and vector factors
following; hence, from (1),
axk
e ( a2xb eb+raber
axa axb
Although the Irk are not tensor components for general trans
formations, we shall see that the index notation still serves a use
ful purpose. j
Since e1 = D;r (157.13),
(7)
P4  \axk k/ \ax1' \4924
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