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Southeast University

Department of Textile Engineering

Industrial Attachment
(03rd October, 2010 to 27th November, 2010)

Beximco Textiles Limited

Beximco Industrial Park
Sarabo, Kashimpur, Gazipur

Prepared by:
Name Student Id Batch
Rakibul Alam 2007000400052 4th
Sumaia Rashid 2007000400007 4th
Southeast University

Department of Textile Engineering

Supervising Faculty:
Professor Syed Fakhrul Hassan
Department of Textile Engineering
Southeast University
Banani, Dhaka
Cell No.: 01711-698261

Supervising Officer:
Mr. Muhammad Shahzad Shaukat
DGM, Head of Factory
Bextex Limited (Denims)
Beximco Industrial Park
Sarbo, Kashimpur, Gazipur
Southeast University

Department of Textile Engineering

Supervising Faculty’s Approval


Professor Syed Fakhrul Hassan

Department of Textile Engineering
Southeast University
Cell No.: 01711-698261
Letter of Transmittal


Professor Syed Fakhrul Hassan

Department of Textile Engineering
Southeast University
Banani, Dhaka-1212

Subject: Submission of Industrial Attachment.

Dear Sir,
With due respect & humble, we are the students of Department of Textile Engineering, Southeast
University have been successfully concluded our industrial training program. In this stage we are
submitting my Industrial Attachment on “Fabric Manufacturing Technology at Beximco Textiles
Ltd.” as a part of our B.Sc. in Textile Engineering requirement that bears three (03) credit hours
under your supervision. We are submitting this attachment for our academic purpose only.
We therefore request and expect that, you will appreciate us with any sort of recommendation &
valued suggestion & will cordially receive this Industrial Attachment for your kind assessment.

Yours sincerely
Rakibul Alam Sumaia Rashid
Id: 2007000400052 Id: 2007000400052
Batch: 4th Batch: 4th
Department of Textile Engineering Department of Textile Engineering

Southeast University Southeast University

Firstly we would like to thank the Almighty Allah for giving us patience to conclude our intern-
ship program & finally this industrial attachment.
Preparing the internship report based on “Fabric Manufacturing Technology (Denim)”, we have
understood that it is very difficult to find out the basic and fundamental aspects of fabric manu-
facturing are largely distant from the theoretical bookish knowledge.
We express our heartfelt gratitude to Mr. Palash, Senior Manager, Human resource Department,
Beximco Textiles Division for his support in arranging internship at Beximco Textiles Ltd.
We are so much thankful to Mr. Muhammad Shahzad Shaukat, DGM, Head of Factory, Bex-
tex Ltd. (Denim) for helping us as our supervisor in the mill. Special thank to Md. Ishtiaq, Dep-
uty Manager (Dyeing/Sizing), Bextex Ltd. (Denim) for his cordial support during the period of
We are very grateful and deeply indebted to our respected teacher Professor Syed Fakhrul Has-
san, Chairman, Department of Textile Engineering, SEU for his continuous support, encourage-
ment, suggestion, guidance and constructive criticism to get through the industrial training.
We would like to pay our liberated gratitude to our honorable teacher, Mr. Emdad Sarkar, As-
sistant Coordinator, Department of Textile Engineering, who guided us in every sphere we
marched in preparing the report. Without his cordial supervision it would be almost impossible
to prepare such a large report.
We thank the management of BEXIMCO TEXTILES LTD. for giving us the opportunity to
undergo Industrial Training there.
Thus all in all it can be said that without their help it would not be possible for me to prepare this
internship report. So we would like to convey thanks notation to all who directly or indirectly
contributed and inspired me time to time in preparing the report.
Our gratitude also goes to all the employees of BEXIMCO TEXTILE DIVISION for their sin-
cere co-operation, support and valuable advice which they have provided us during the training
of two months.

Executive Summary
Bextex Ltd. is a one of the largest Textile industry in Bangladesh. It has the state of the machi-
nery & follows modern mechanism for production. Bextex Ltd. Produces fibres for woven & knit
fabric, so it is the leading composite Textile industry. There are 13 Textile industries in Bextex

Denim is the latest addition in the list of export commodities of Bangladesh. Our country started
exporting cement for the last few decades. Beximco Denim Ltd. takes the pride of part of it. The
foundation stone of the Beximco Denim Ltd. was laid on 1996. Primarily the daily production
capacity of the factory was 30,000 metres of fabric. Beximco Denim Ltd. went into operation
commercially at that year marketed its products. From the very beginning, it has maintained a
non-compromising position with its high quality. As a result, it has gained huge popularity in the
market. Due to increase of demand, company increses its capacity to provide the actual demand.

BEXIMCO Denims Ltd. was set up to capitalize on Bangladesh's growing volume of high-value-
added niche garments. Each and every consumer now knows that Beximco Denim attaches high-
est priority for maintaining its quality and services.

With the establishment of Beximco Denim Ltd. we have been able to save and directly contribute
about 500 million in local currency to the national exchequer. Moreover we have been also able
to bring reduction in the price structure with supply of quality product and creation of employ-
ment opportunity. Since the company‟s only aim is to serve our customer for their maximum
satisfaction then it has given foremost importance to:

 Sustainable price
 Guarantee of quality product

Thus its mission is to provide Bangladesh with high quality denim fabric. A team of excellent
efficient work force is in its employment who feels a homely atmosphere in the company. We try
to give them liberty to contribute their best in production of quality products and imparting high
quality services to the utmost satisfaction to its customers. They work here with perfect zeal and
responsibilities in co-operative unison. Catering to the home market our vision is to cross the
boarder and let our product to enter into world market.



If the theoretical knowledge is a glass of water then the practical knowledge would be drinking
of the water. It is always very easy to make a man understand about a firebox by showing and
lighting practically rather than describing theoretically who has not ever seen a firebox. So, for
any technical education the practical experience is the most important as well as the theoretical

As we are studying in a technical line, it is always important for us to gather the practical know-
ledge. Through our study life the only biggest chance for us to combine the theoretical know-
ledge with the practical knowledge is the „Industrial Attachment period‟ that comes only once in
the education life. So we can easily realize the importance of Industrial Attachment. And in addi-
tion the knowledge we gathered from the industrial training reflects in the report of industrial
attachment note book.

So industrial attachment is the process where the trainee can blend his theoretical knowledge
with practical knowledge increasing his/ her ability of work, skill ness, performance and attitude
and so on. It also provides sufficient knowledge about production management, productivity
evaluation, work study & efficiency, industrial management, production planning and control,
production cost analysis, inventory management, utility, maintenance and so on. Industrial at-
tachment makes us reliable to be accustomed with the industrial atmosphere and also improve
courage and inspiration to take self-responsibility.

We tried our best to prepare this note book applying our best efforts. We tried to gather all the
necessary information to make it a valuable for me as well as for everyone. We think it will help
us a lot in future in our practical life.


Company Profile

BEXIMCO Group is the largest private sector industrial conglomerate in Bangladesh engaged in
diverse business areas. BEXIMCO comprises of five publicly listed companies and sixteen
private companies.

Bextex Ltd. is the most modern composite mill in the region. Bextex Ltd. has an installed capaci-
ty of 288 high-speed air-jet looms in its weaving section, 110 high-speed air-jet looms in its de-
nim section and a high-tech dyeing and finishing section with a capacity of 100,000 yards of fi-
nished fabric per day. Beximco Denims Ltd. produces specialized finishes of denim cloth for ex-
port in finished as well as cloth only form.

NAME: Beximco Denim Ltd.

Sarabo, Kashimpur, Gazipur.
Phone: +88-8618220-7
CONTACT: Fax: 880-2-8619187
CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS: 17 Dhanmondi R/A, Road No.: 2
Dhaka -1205, Bangladesh
Phone: 880-2- 6118915, 9677701-5, 7701165

BUSINESS LINE: Manufacturing and Marketing of Denim Fa-


LEGAL STATUS COMPANY: Private Limited Company

STOCK EXCHANGE LISTING: Dhaka and Chittagong.

BANKS: 1. Sonali Bank, Local Office, Motijheel

C/A, Dhaka-1000

2. IFIC Bank Ltd., Dhanmondi Branch,


PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE: Single storied building

Concrete structure (about 30 ft high)

History of Beximco Group:

To describe the history of Beximco Denims Ltd. we would like to clarify the establisment of
Beximco Group.

1965-1975: Beximco was born

1965 New Dacca Industries Ltd.-Jute yarn Manufacturer, founded by Late Faz-
lur Rahman

1972 Bangladesh Export Import Co. Ltd.- Private STA‟s & International Trad-

1973 Beximco U.K. Branch.

1976-1989: Beximco Diversifies

1978 Beximco Foods Ltd.-Marine Food processing & Export

1979 Beximco Pharmaceuricals Ltd. – Pharmaceuticals Drug Formulation &


1980 Beximco Fisheries Ltd.- Shimp Farming & Export

1982 Expasion of jute Yarn Manufacturing-Shinepukur Jute

Spinners Ltd.

1984 Beximco Computers Ltd.-Exclusive Dealers in IBM Computers & Soft-

ware Development

1985 Beximco Apparels Ltd.-Garments Manufacturer& Export

1990 -1995: Beximco Expands

1990 Padma Textile Mills Ltd.(Phase i)

1991 Beximco Infusion Ltd.

1992 Beximco Synthetics Ltd.

1992 Padma Textile Mills Ltd.(Phase ii)

1995 Padma Textile Mills Ltd. (phase iii)

1996-1999: Beximco Preparing for the New Millennium

1996 Beximco Textiles Ltd.

Beximco Knitting Ltd.

Beximco Denims Ltd.

1998 Beximco Fashios Ltd.

1999 Shinepukur Ceramic Ltd.

Different Department of Beximco Textile Devision:

A) Production Oriented Department:

 Yarn dyeing
 Woven fabric pretreatment , dyeing and finishing
 Knitting
 Denims
 Garments
 Quality assurance
 Maintenance
- Utility
- Finishing
- Quality control

B) Supporting department:

 Personnel administration
 Procurement
 Marketing
 Finance & Accounting

 Available data on physical infrastructure was not available.
 The management should be certified by ISO 9001:2008.
Location map of Beximco Industrial Park from Southeast

University Textile Department:


Nobinagar Bipile Chakraborti


Beximco In-




New Air port



DOHS Banani

Figure 1: Location map of Beximco Industrial Park from Southeast University Textile Department

Manpower Management

Internal Communication:

Employees at Beximco Denims Ltd. have organizational freedom to work but with a certain
chain of command for quality management system and their effectiveness. The organizational
chart (Organ gram) is used to communicate concerns to the appropriate parties.

Following media is used for effective Communication:

 Telephone and PABX services

 Office Memo
 Meetings
 Cell phone
SHIFT CHANGE: There are three shifts in this industry. So the shifts are changed at every 8 hours.


1. To give dyeing program slip & weave slip.

2. To match production sample with target shade & weave structure.
3. To collect production sample lot sample matching next production.
4. To observe dyed fabric during finishing running & also after finishing.
5. To identity disputed fabrics & report to P.M/G.M. for necessary actions.
6. To discuss with P.M about overall production if necessary.
7. To sign the store requisition & delivery challan in the absence of P.M.
8. Also to execute overall floor works.
9. To maintain loading/unloading khata.
10. Any other assignment given by higher authority.

JOB SUMMARY: To plan, execute & follows up the production activities & control the
quality production with related activities.


 Overall supervision of dyeing, finishing production.
 Batch preparation & pH chock.
 Dyes & chemical requisition issue & check.
 Write Fabrics loading & unloading time from m/c
 Program making, sample checking, colour measurement
 Control the supervisors, operator, asst. operator and helper of Dyeing m/c.
 And also any other over work as & when required by the management
JOB SUMMARY: To plan, execute & follows up the production activities & control the
quality production with related activities.

1. Organization chart - Overall

Org. chart for Beximco Textiles Division (BTD)

Chief Executive

Director of Operator

Asst. Mgr. Sr. Exec.

Factory Planning

Jr. Executive. Personal Asst to

Director of Operation

GM DGM Dept. head- Dept head Dept. Head Mgr. Service Mgr. Acting Mgr. Acting
Quality As- Assignment In charge Incharge
Dept Head Dept Head su. Admin Team Ser-

BTD Organization chart – Effluent Treatment Plant

2. Effluent Treatment Plant Organization Chart

Org. chart for ETP

Executive Section Head.


Exec. Shift In charge Exec. Shift In charge Shift In charge

Shift A Shift B Shift C

BTD Organization chart -Power Generation & Utilities for BTL, BKL & BDL

3. Power Generation /Distribution/ Utilities organization chart

Dept.Head Utilities & P.Generation

Asst. Mgr. Section In charge Mgr. Head of Utilities.

P. Generation

Sr. Exec. / Exec Exec. Section Head

Shift In charge Elec Maint.
Power Distribution Support Maintce. & Operations Utilities
Shift A/B/C
Exec. In charge Mech. Maint.

Exec. Shift In charge


Mech. Maint. Shift A/B/C Exec. In charge Elect. Maint.


Exec. Shift In charge Utilities

Shift A

Exec. Shift Incharge Utilities

Shift B

Exec. Shift Incharge Utilities

Shift C

BTD Organization chart BDL



Maintenance Weaving Man- Dyeing Manager Finishing Manager Q.C Manager

Manager ager

Asst. Manager Asst. Manager Asst. Manager Asst. Manager

Shift Officer Shift Officer Shift Officer Shift Officer

Electrical Incharge Mechanical Incharge


The man power management system of Beximco Textiles Ltd. is well arranged. Every officers &
stuffs are responsible for their duty. The workers are bounded to work for minimum 8 hours.

1st shift : 6:00 A.M – 2:00 P.M

2nd shift : 2:00 P.M – 10:00 P.M

3rd shift : 10.00 P.M – 6:00 A.M

General shift : 9:00 A.M – 5:00 P.M


Products & buyers

Denim Fabrics woven of 100% cotton would be very strong and durable. Traditionally Blue De-
nim is warp faced cotton fabric with 3 x 1 twill construction with warp being dyed in a solid co-
lour and weft left un-dyed. The look and quality of the Denim Fabric shall improve after dyeing,
the process of which differs from plant to plant.

Denim is a rugged cotton twill textile, in which the weft passes under two (twi- "double") or
more warp threads. This produces the familiar diagonal ribbing identifiable on the reverse of the
fabric, which distinguishes denim from cotton duck. Denim has been in American usage since
the late eighteenth century. The word comes from the name of a sturdy fabric called serge, origi-
nally made in Nîmes, France, by the Andre family. Originally called serge de Nîmes, the name
was soon shortened to denim. Denim was traditionally colored blue with indigo dye to make blue
"jeans," though "jean" then denoted a different, lighter cotton textile; the contemporary use of
jean comes from the French word for Genoa, Italy (Gênes), where the first denim trousers were
made. . In 1864, Webster's dictionary listed the shortened English version: DENIM.

 Archaeologists found cotton fabric 5000 years old in West Pakistan.

 48% of the world's trade in fabric is in cotton, from which denim is made.
 At least 225 pair of denim jeans can be made from one bale of cotton.
 Denim is made from 48% of the world's cotton.
 At least 225 pair of denim jeans can be made from one bale of cotton.
 Denim fabric was unique in its connection with one color - blue.
 The warp yarn is traditionally dyed with the blue pigment obtained from indigo dye. In-
digo was the most significant natural dye known to mankind until the introduction of syn-
thetic dyes, at the end of the 19th century. In 1894, indigo was no longer needed - a syn-
thetic dye process was perfected.
 Denims are hard wearing, high density fabric with a higher mass per unit area.
 Gsm of denim is normally in the range of 203.46 gm/sq. meter to 474.74 gm/sq. meter .

Historical Significance of Denim:

Denim has a long history in the world of fashion. The fabric was known as a work clothing tex-
tile for a lot of history, and was popular in the frontier West. Used by the U.S. Navy for unforms,
manufacturer Levi Strauss started to manufacture work clothing from the fabric in 1853.

Denim is an important fabric that enabled people to own long-wearing, easy-care clothing that
was affordable. It was cheap, made from a plentiful fiber and came in a pleasing shade of indigo.
Because of these facts, few garments have risen to cultural resonance like a rugged pair of Amer-
ican-made jeans.
Denim fabric seems to have been reserved for work clothes, when both durability and comfort
were needed. Common uses included overalls made of blue denim, worn by mechanics and pain-

Jean fabric was a sturdy fabric, but it did not offer the added benefits of denim, such as durability
and comfort. Common uses included topcoats, vests or short jackets, and fine trousers in chest-
nut, olive, black, white and blue jean.

The U.S. Navy introduced the bell-bottomed trouser in 1817 to permit men to roll their pants
above the knee when washing down the decks, and to make it easier to remove them in a hurry
when forced to abandon ship or when washed overboard. In 1901 regulations authorized the first
use of denim jumpers and trousers, and the 1913 regulations originally permitted the dungaree
outfit to be used by both officers and enlisted with the hat of the day. 4

Jacob Davis, a Nevada tailor, designed denim jeans with copper rivets at the picket corners to
prevent seam tears. Unfortunately, Davis didn't have the money to apply for a patent to trade-
mark his invention. 3

Bavarian-born businessman Levi Strauss had started a wholesale business in 1853 in California,
supplying clothing to gold rush miners. Jacob Davis wrote him, asking him to pay for the paper-
work. On May 20, 1873, they received a patent for the invention which included the ingenious
pocket-rivet idea. Strauss and Davis began producing copper riveted "waist overalls" in blue de-
nim fabric. 3

In 1936, Levi Strauss sews a little red flag next to the back pocket of its jeans. It is the first label
sewn on the outside of a piece of clothing. 3

Denim became popular with young people in the 1950's as a symbol of teenage rebellion, nota-
bly in movies such as Rebel Without a Cause and The Wild One. Some schools in the U.S.
banned students from wearing denim fabric.

Until 1960, "waist overalls" was the traditional term used for denim pants. By the late 1950s,
however, teenage wearers were calling them jeans, so Levi Strauss officially began using the
name, too. 3

Denim has made a comeback in recent years and in every possible form. Studded denim jackets,
jeans, long skirts, pleated minis and even shirts were heavily featured on the runways of Dolce
and Gabbana, John Galliano, Mui Mui and Prada to name but a few.

The product of the factory is DENIM Fabric. Different types of denim fabrics are produced here.
They can be distinguished with color, structure, weight, types of yarn used and so on.

Right hand twill:

This refers to the direction that the denim is woven. The opposite of Left Hand twill, this weave
is much more common, as almost all jeans are woven with right hand twill. The weft (filler)
threads will be visible in upward-right diagonal lines on right-hand twill jeans. In Beximco the
followings R.H.T are made

 3/1 R.H.T
 2/1 R.H.T
Left hand twill:

This refers to the direction that the denim is woven. Left hand twill denim is softer to the touch
than right hand twill, and was originally used by Lee denim. . Left hand twill is easy to spot, as
the weft threads appear to move upward and to the left as opposed to upward and to the right.
The softness is due to the direction of the twill being in alignment with the twist direction of the
fibers in the yarn. Beximco Denim is producing the followings:

 3/1 L.H.T
 2/1 L.H.T
Broken Twill:

Instead of the twill running to the right or left, broken twill jeans (traditionally considered the
cowboy-preferred denim) contain no distinct direction of weave. The weave is instead alternated
right and left – the end effect resembles a random zig-zag. Wrangler made the first broken twill
jeans in 1964. Broken Twill was designed to combat the twisting effect that was a characteristic
regular twill (and considered a „fault‟ by many at the time). By going on both directions, the ten-
sion in the yarns is balanced in Broken Twill. Wrangler has been one of the highest user of this
kind of denim.


Term originated from the name of the town Zaytoun, aport of China. A smooth, generally lustr-
ous fabric with a thick close texture either with a warp face or filling face effect.

Satin is a weave that typically has a glossy surface and a dull back. It is a warp-dominated weav-
ing technique that forms a minimum number of interlacings in a fabric. Some definitions insist
that the fabric be made from silk. If a fabric is formed with a satin weave using filament fibres
such as silk, nylon, or polyester, the corresponding fabric is termed a satin. If the yarns used are
short-staple yarns such as cotton, the fabric formed is considered a sateen. A satin-woven fabric
tends to have a high luster due to the high number of floats on the fabric. Floats are missed inter-
lacing, where the warp yarn lies on top of the weft yarn, or vice versa. The floats tend to make
the fabric look glossier as well as give it a smoother surface. Many variations can be made of the
basic satin weave including a granite weave and a check weave. Satin weaves, twill weaves, and
plain weaves are the three basic types of weaving by which the majority of woven products are

Herringbone describes a distinctive V-shaped weaving pattern usually found in twill fabric. The
pattern is called herringbone because it resembles the skeleton of a herring fish. Herringbone-
patterned fabric is usually wool, and is one of the most popular cloths used for suits and outer-
wear. Tweed cloth is often woven with a herringbone pattern.

Beximco Denim Ltd. has got the trust of different buyers with our quality denim fabric. The buy-
ers are as follows with their frequent fabric structure desired.

Buyer Fabric design

3/1 RHT Dark Indigo
H&M 1/1 Ingido
2/1 RHT Indigo
2/1 LHT Blue Black
PVH 1/1 Dark Indigo
2/1 RHT Indigo
JC Penney 1/1 Ingido

Wearme 3/1 LHT Blue Black

2/1 LHT Blue Black
Matlan 2/1 RHT Dark Indigo
Bershka 3/1 RHT Dark Indigo
2/1 LHT Blue Black
3/1 RHT Dark Indigo
3/1 RHT Indigo
Gap 3/1 LHT Dark Indigo
3/1 LHT Indigo
3/1 RHT Dark Indigo
Levi‟s 3/1 LHT Dark Indigo
2/1 LHT Blue Black
1/1 Dark Indigo
3/1 LHT Dark Indigo
3/1 LHT Indigo
Zara 2/1 LHT Blue Black
1/1 Dark Indigo
3/1 RHT Dark Indigo
3/1 RHT Indigo
3/1 LHT Dark Indigo
Wrangler 3/1 LHT Indigo
2/1 LHT Blue Black
3/1 RHT Dark Indigo
3/1 RHT Indigo
3/1 LHT Dark Indigo
Calvin Klein 2/1 LHT Blue Black
3/1 RHT Indigo
Table 1: Buyer list of Beximco Denims Ltd.


Raw Materials

Raw material is a unique substance in any production oriented textile industry. It plays a vital
role in continuous production & for high quality fabric. For producing denim fabric rotor yarn,
indigo blue, sulphur black, sizing materials etc are used.

For the production of denim there are several types of raw materials as-

 Yarn (warp & weft)

 Dyestuff
 Size materials
 Chemicals & auxiliaries

Common Yarn Sizes for Denim

Warp yarns for bottom weight jeans typically range in size from Ne 4.0 to Ne 12.5. Finer yarns
are used for lighter weight chambray shirting fabrics and lighter weight jeans, vests, dresses, and
skirts. These yarns may range in count from Ne 12.5 to Ne 30.0.

Yarn Spinning Systems

Before the late 1970s, all denim yarns were ring spun. Today, denim fabrics have different com-
binations of ring and open-end yarns. When you hear a term such as “ring/ring, open end /open
end (OE/OE), and ring/OE,” it is referring to which yarn is in the warp and which yarn is in the
filling, respectively.

Here is the list of yarn suppliers with respect to yarn count.

Count (Ne) Suppliers/ Sources

6-7 Mahmud Textile Ltd., Beximco Textile Ltd.
9 Mahmud Textile Ltd., Dawson (PAKISTAN), Latif

12-18 Square Textile Ltd., Mahmud Textile, Fertc(Textile

19 Square Textile Ltd., Mahmud Textile Ltd., Beximco
Textile Ltd.
20-30 Square Textile(BANGLADESH), Mahmud Textile
Ltd., Beximco Textile Ltd.
32- 40 Beximco Textile Ltd., Mahmud Textile Ltd.

Table 2: source of Yarn at Beximco Denims Ltd.

Dye stuff:

In the present invention, all vat dyes may be used individually or in combination with other dyes
in a continuous process for production of yarn or fabric with ring effect dyeing. Vat dyes are in-
troduced to a treatment unit comprised of at least one reaction unit where the reducing agent is
added to a mixture comprising a dye composition, caustic soda and/or other components or addi-
tives known in the art of textile dyeing. The dye concentration in the reaction unit is lower than
feeding dye concentration so that dye precipitation does not occur, but significantly higher than
the circulating dye concentration so that the dye is reduced efficiently. Although the preferred
location for the reaction unit is before the circulation line, any location before the dip-dye tank is
within the scope of the present.
Beximco Denim is using the following dye stuffs.

 Indigo blue
 Sulphur black
 Sulphur Green
 Sulphur Yellow
 Indigo BS green
 Oxidant BRI


Sizing of the warp yarn is essential to reduce breakage of the yarn and thus production stops on
the weaving machine. On the weaving machine, the warp yarns are subjected to several types of
actions i.e. cyclic strain, flexing, abrasion at various loom parts and inter yarn friction.

With sizing the strength - abrasion resistance - of the yarn will improve and the hairiness of yarn
will decrease. The degree of improvement of strength depends on adhesion force between fiber
and size, size penetration as well as encapsulation of yarn. Different types of water soluble po-
lymers called textile sizing agents/chemicals such as modified starch, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA),
carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), acrylates are used to protect the yarn. Also wax is added to re-
duce the abrasiveness of the warp yarns. The type of yarn material e.g. cotton, polyester, linen,...
the thickness of the yarn, type of weaving machinery will determine the sizing recipe.

The sizing liquor is applied on warp yarn with a warp sizing machine. After the weaving process
the fabric is desized (washed). Beximco is using the following substances for sizing:

 Modified starch
- Amisol
- Penetrose
- Topioca
- Will Size-530
 Size CA
 M Tallow wax

Note: all the dyestuff & sizing materials used in Beximco Denims Ltd. are coming from
BASF (Germany)

Chemicals & auxiliaries:

Different types of chemicals & auxiliaries are needed for denim sizing & dyeing. In Beximco,
we are using the followings.

 Hydrose
 Sodium sulphide
 Caustic
 Albaflow PAD
 Premazol
 Triplex
 Setamol
 Tex-o-film
 Penetrose
 Textile wax
 Kollotex-5
 Avetex-K
 Subitol
 Acetic Acid
 Setamol WS
 Sodium Sulphide stone
 Glissofil Extra Soft

Note: all the chemicals used in Beximco are coming from either China or from the Bangla-
deshi distributors.


Production Planning
Sequence of Operation

The top management of Beximco Denims Ltd. is firmly dedicated to satisfy the customers. The
General Manager, Head of Factory, Plant Manager, Production Manager, Quality controller, QC
Officer are directly involved in the operations like Production, Quality Control, Sales and are
well aware of the importance of the customers and their requirements.

Top Mgt
Final Goal

Strong & active Mgmt. Review Meetings

Communications Confor-

Statutory & Regulatory require-
A realistic, achievable
Check- and approachable
Quality Policy
Policy is established.

Measurable Objectives
are targeted. Availability of Resources

Top management is responsible to ensure availability of re-

sources (man, machine & material).

Figure 2: Steps taken to meet customer satisfaction

A planned work brings success. Without planning nothing is completed within the required time.
So planning has its own importance which is intolerable, “Planning” gives a scheduled task and
„Control‟ completes it successfully. But production planning and control is not an easy task. So
BEXIMCO has a self-sufficient and high-performance department called “Production Planning
& Control”. Its Basic working procedure is as follows-

1. Taking orders from marketing division.

2. Analyzing the orders & feeling the requirements of customer.

3. Planning for production.

4. Cost analysis & lead time.

It is only a basic procedure. It may change according to the type of order. Sometimes, order is
places only for finishing the material or only for dyeing the white goods. Then some steps are
omitted from the planning procedure.

Taking orders from marketing division:

BEXIMCO marking division supplies Fabric Orders to the BTL Planning and control divi-
sion by a special format.

Analyzing the orders:

This section analyzes the orders according to buyers, Order Quantity, type of orders (i.e.
type of fabric, color to be dyed etc.), delivery date etc. Then it selects which M/C. to use, no of
M/C. to use, time required for production etc. This section plans for required quantity of fabric
need to be dyed. Dyeing balance, RFD (Ready for delivery), RFD balance, delivered fabric and
delivery balance.


The quality objectives are defined at organizational and functional levels in measurable term.
Review is conducted at a suitable time interval with proper recording system.

The Quality Objectives of Beximco Denims Ltd. is defined to develop the following areas:

 To feel the desires of the customers.

 To implement the required systems.
 To assign resources for training & place of work improvements.
 To maintain infrastructural tasks accurately.
 To build quality into every product at every stages of production line.
 To obtain a production-line with minimal errors & corrective actions.

Cost analysis

The cost of production should be as minimum as we already gave a price to customer while tak-
ing order. In this calculation all major & minor costs are involved. For privacy of company busi-
ness policy we here omit the actual costing & price simulation.
Sequence of operation:

Denim is a woven fabric. So its flow of operation should be as similar to weaving. The sequence
of operation of denim fabric production is shown below.

Yarns received from suppliers

Warp Preparation
Warping section

Dyeing & Sizing

Weaving section


Finishing section


Figure 3: Flow Chart of Denim Fabric Manufacturing


Production Operation


Warping is the process of transferring multiple yarns from individual yarn packages onto a single
package assembly. Normally, yarns are collected in a sheet form where the yarns lie parallel to
each other and in the same plane onto a beam, which is a cylindrical barrel with side flanges.
This is known as beam warping and is shown in Figure 2. For ball warp denim, the yarns are
brought together and condensed into a rope before being wound onto a relatively short cylindric-
al barrel (sometimes called the shell or log) that has no end flanges. This is shown in Figure 3. In
both cases, the supply yarn packages are placed on spindles, which are located in a framework
called a creel. Warping means winding the warp yarns parallel from package to beam with re-
quired number, length and tension. Good warping is as important as sizing. Because good quality
of warping always ensure good quality sizing and weaving, as well as good quality of fabric.
Both efficiency and profit can be increased by a good warping.
Objects of warping-

1. To prepare the pre-beam.

2. To wind the yarn from the package (got from the spinning mill – cone, cheese,
bobbin etc).
3. To wind the yarn parallel to each other.
4. To maintain the uniform length of each & every yarn.
Types of Creels:
Traveling Package Creels

These are V-shaped creels with the actively running yarn packages on the outside of the V and
the full yarn packages placed on the inside of the V. When the running packages are depleted,
the yarn spindles on the creel are rotated so that the empty packages move to the inside of the V-
creel for replenishment. The full packages move to the outside of the creel. The new yarn ends
have to be pulled forward and threaded properly in the machine before running the next warp.
The empty package positions are then replaced with new full packages while the warper is run-
ning. This eliminates lost time in creeling up new yarn packages.

Magazine Creels
These are straight-line creels with enough spindles so that each end-running has a reserve yarn
package placed beside of it. The tail end of the running package is tied to the beginning end of
the reserve package. Once the running package is depleted, the yarn transfers over to the reserve
package and the warper continues to run. This is a random method of creeling yarn packages
compared to block creeling normally used on traveling package creels.

There are two types of warping as:

Ball warping
Beam warping

As Beximco Denims Ltd. follows beam warping method, we are here going to describe about
beam warping.
Beam Warping
Beam warping maintains the yarns in an open sheet form and winds the yarns parallel to each
other onto a slightly wider flanged beam. These yarns will not go through the rope indigo dye
range, but are left “natural” and will end up either slasher dyed or in an un-dyed fabric, which
can later be piece dyed, garment dyed, or left natural. Another option would be to beam dye the
yarns using a dye other than indigo.

Figure 4: Beam warping

Machine Specifications of warping machine in Beximco Denims Ltd.:

 Machine manufacturer : West Point

 Model : B85648
 Origin : Georgia, USA
 Creel type : Magazine creel
 Creel capacity : Maxm 434 packages & Minm 317 packages
 Tensioning method : Disk & plate
 Rpm : Maxm 800 & Minm 300
 Tensioning range : Full:- 6-9 Ne; Middle:- 10-12 Ne; Normal:- 14-40 Ne
 Year of installation : 1996
Figure 5: Beam warping

Important parts of warping machine at Bextex:

In creel section:

A. bobbin stand/ package stand

B. holder
C. balloon breaker
D. yarn tensioner
E. break/ stop motion
F. yarn guide (ceramic)
G. cutter
In warping section:

A. motor
1. main/ winding motor
2. traversing motor
3. comb shift motor
4. beam clamping motor
5. suction motor
6. hydraulic pump
B. comb
C. accumulating zone
D. control board/zone
E. beam clamping and de-clamping section
F. presser roller
Warping machine maintenance:

Two types of maintenance are followed –

a. Preventing maintenance

b. breakdown maintenance

a. preventing maintenance:
- Daily (cleaning by air)
- Fortnightly (excess, lubricating, greasing)
- Monthly (greasing, parts replacement, belt tension, sharpening the teeth of beam /
- Half yearly (oil replacement – due to reduction of their viscosity)
- Yearly (brake pad replacement (while its thickness is less than 2mm) & others)
b. Breakdown maintenance: Instantly when required.

Slasher dyeing:

Traditionally, jeans are dyed to a blue color using indigo dye. Approximately 20 million tons of
indigo are produced annually for this purpose, though only a few grams of the dye are required
for each pair of trousers.

Many different types of equipment have been tried as an alternative to the dip and sky method of
the rope dye range. For some producers, slasher dyeing has become a reasonable alternative me-
thod. A slasher is a range is normally employed to apply size formulations onto warp yarns be-
fore weaving. This range (Figure 8), when used for slasher dyeing of indigo, consists of section
beams of warp yarn, which are forced into a sheet of yarn. This yarn sheet is then fed into a
scouring section where natural impurities are removed. The next section is where indigo is ap-
plied. In order to achieve fairly deep shades, the indigo is applied in a series of multiple dip and
sky applications to allow for shade build up. If the arrangement of the slasher dyeing does not
allow for multiple dip and sky applications, then only light and medium shades can be obtained
from indigo. The dye application is followed by afterwashing and drying. With some machinery
arrangement, warp size for weaving is immediately applied. In other arrangements, the warp size
is applied onto the yarns employing a separate range.

Slasher dyeing ranges have a number of advantages and unique characteristics. Slasher dyeing
employs a sheet of yarn, which is wound directly onto a warp beam rather than ropes of yarn,
which then requires additional handling. This type of dyeing works well with lightweight de-
nims. In general, these machines require less floor space, enable smaller production runs, have a
quicker turn over time, and are more flexible in their response to changes in the market. As an
overall process these ranges have lower machinery cost; therefore, lower dye costs are realized
for specific fabric types. Additionally, the slasher dyeing technique can be used for other dye
types for cotton and thus can produce a wide variety of colors other than indigo blue.

The main purpose for sizing warp yarns is to encapsulate the yarn with a protective coating. This
protective coating reduces yarn abrasion that takes place during the weaving operation and re-
duces yarn hairiness preventing adjacent yarns from entangling with one another at the weaving
machine. Also, this protective coating keeps the indigo dye from rubbing off during the weaving
process. For many years, native starches or slightly modified starches with corresponding binders
were regarded as the most economical way to size indigo warps. However, the industry shift to
garment washed denims has led to new sizing recipes. Many times the type and quantity of size
used are determined by the subsequent fabric and garment finishing operations that follow.

At the back end of the slasher range, the section beams from the beaming process are creeled.
The yarns from each beam will be pulled over and combined with the yarns from the other
beams to form multiple sheets of yarns, the number of sheets corresponding to the number of
size boxes (size applicators) on the machine.
As each yarn sheet enters a size box, the yarns are guided downward and submerged in the liquid
size. The yarn sheet leaves the size box via a set of squeeze rolls that helps control the wet pick-
up, which influences the amount of size added onto the yarn and controls the amount of penetra-
tion of the size into the yarn. After this, the yarns are pulled over steam-heated, Teflon® coated
cans or cylinders where drying takes place. At this point, the yarns are not totally dry, but are
monitored to maintain from 6-8% moisture typically. Most warp yarns for weaving denim have
7-14% size add-on (actual dry solids weight added to the original weight of the yarn). This de-
pends on what type of spinning system is used. Too much size causes yarn chaffing and exces-
sive shedding of size particles at the weaving machine, and too little size causes excessive yarn
abrasion resulting in dye streaks, clinging, broken and entangled ends resulting in low weaving
efficiencies. In many denim styles, the size is left on the fabric and acts as a stiffening agent for
cut-and-sew operations. This accounts for the stiffness of certain jeans, which are purchased by
the consumer.
All the yarns go through a set of stainless steel split rods, which help to separate them into indi-
vidual sheets, equivalent to the number of section beams in the creel. This ensures that yarns
from one sheet are adhering to yarns from another sheet. After passing through the split rods, the
warp yarns are collected into one single sheet and passed through a comb, which helps to sepa-
rate individual yarns. This expansion type of comb is adjusted to the desired loom beam width.
At this point, all the warp yarns are wound onto the loom beam. Normally, several loom beams
will be produced from a single set of section beams in the slasher creel.
Machine specifications of dyeing & sizing machine in Beximco Denims

 Machine manufacturer : West Point

 Model : 108.100
 Origin : Georgia, USA
 Creel type : Mobile/carrier
 Creel capacity : Maxm 20 beams & Minm 8 beams
 Year of installation : 1996
 Dips & skying : Maxm 6 dips; 6 skying & Minm 2 dips;2 skying.

Machine parts of dyeing & sizing machine in Beximco Denims Ltd.:

 Pre-beam creel zone

 Yarn welding area
 Accumulator BL (80 meter capacity)
 Pre-wetting zone (for regular blue & blue black temperature is 70 degree Celsius), or Mer-
cerizing tank (for regular black temperature is 80 degree Celsius), or Pre- dyeing bath (for
dark blue)
 Two washing bath (pure soft water in room is used)
 Four dye bath (dye used in room temperature)
 Three wash bath/ box (30 degree Celsius & pH is controlled)
 Pre-drying cylinder
 Size bath/ Sow box
 Post drying cylinder
 After waxing device
 Yarn leasing area
 Weavers beam winder

Some other assisting areas in the dyeing and sizing process are-

 skying zone
 dye kitchen
 size kitchen
 blower
 reserver tank
 size cooker
 beam Crain (two tank capacity)
 yarn sheet spreader roller

Generally two types of dye stuff are used to produce the desired shades. As -

o Indigo dyeing
o Sulphur dyeing
Indigo dyeing:
Indigo blue dye (vat dye) is not soluble in water in normal condition. To make water soluble, re-
duction is done by using reducing agent





Chemical structure of Indigo Blue

Reducing agent: sodium hydro sulphite (Na 2S 2O4) (trade name – hydrose)

Mechanism of dyeing with vat dye:

Vat dye is insoluble in water and cannot be applied directly in the textile material. First they are
made water soluble and then they are applied to the material. To make water soluble two steps
are required. As –

 reduction of the vat dye(indigo blue) into weak acidic leuco form
 Salt formation by neutralizing their hydroxide to give a water soluble product.
First the reduction step and second the solubilising step. Generally sodium hydro sulphite (Na 2S
2O4) is used as reducing agent and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is used as solubilising agent. The
chemical reaction is shown below –

Na 2S 2O4 + 2H2O = 2NaHSO3 + 2[H]


+ 2[H] NaOH




The soluble dye is sucked by the material and it needs oxidization to make the dye permanent on
the surface of the applied material.

Sulphur dyeing:
In 1893 the chemist Vidol make a reaction of sodium sulphide and sulphur with organic base
(paraphenyl- enediamine or paramino phenol) and produce Vidol black. This is known as sulpher
dye stuff. To develop the Black color Vidol black is oxidized by potassium di chromate on the
cloth surface during dyeing.


- It is cheap in price.
- Wet fastness is good but light fastness is not so good.
- It is insoluble in water. But reacting with Na2S (reducing agent) it produce Thiol
which is water soluble.
D-S-S-D + Na2S D-SH + SH-D
Thiols (water soluble)

Mechanism of dyeing with Sulphur dye:

There is a sulphur linkage in the molecule of sulphur dye. It is not soluble in the water. But so-
luble in the Na2S (reducing agent).Na2CO3 also can be added. The sodium sulphide (Na2S)
breaks the sulphur linkage and convert the molecules into a smaller part which is soluble in water
and also can enter inside the cellulose.
Dye – S – S – Dye Dye – SH + SH – Dye.

- SH is called thiol. This thiol having – HS group is sucked by the fibers as a soluble form. This
is called the leuco form. In the presence of air/ oxygen the dye is oxidized and converted into
insoluble form and stays on the fiber.
Dye – SH + HS – Dye Dye – S - S – Dye + H2O

Shades that are processed at Beximco Denims Ltd.:

 Regular Indigo
 Dark Indigo
 Topping
 Black
 Bottoming
 Regular Indigo:
Dyestuff used: Indigo blue

Process sequence:

 creeling
 pre-wetting/ pre-scouring
 pre-washing
 dyeing
 airing
 after washing
 pre-drying
 sizing
 post drying
 leasing
 beaming
a. creeling:

The pre-beams are creeled in the creeling zone.

b. Pre- wetting:


1. To remove the impurities remained in the yarn as oil, wax etc.

2. To wet out the yarn.
3. To improve the affinity of the stuff.
4. De-airing the yarn (to remove the air remains/ locked inside the yarn during manufactur-
Chemical used:

Wetting agent : surfactant (PrimasolNF – BASF product)

Chelating agent : de-airing is done(Trilton TB- BASF product)

Caustic soda : medium.

Chelating agent + wetting agent is found in mixed condition in packet called Tenside.

Caustic soda concentration: 500 gm/ L (mother solution)

Bath condition:

- Tenside : 6gm/ L
- Caustic : 4 – 5 gm/ L
- Temperature : 700 C
- Leveling on bath : 91%
c. Pre-washing/ rinsing:

Running ratio: 6 L/ min kg of yarn

d. Dyeing:

Ingredients: 1. Indigo solution, 2. Caustic

- Indigo solution : 100gm/ L

- Water : 281`3 L
- Indigo solid (granule) : 40 kg
- (Na 2S 2O4) : 40 kg
- NaOH( 500gpl) :64`4 L
- Tenside (100 gpl) : 10`10 L
- Trilon : 1.1 kg
- Setamol : 1.5 kg

Sequence of adding ingredients:

a. Water (auto)
b. Tenside (auto) (then stirred for 2 min)
c. Setamol (Manually) (again stirred)
d. Color (manually)
e. Caustic (auto)
f. Triolo (manu)
g. Hydro (manu)

After 10 min color preparation is done and total procedure takes 23 – 24 minutes.

e. Skying/airing:

10 – 16 seconds (oxidization time in pre-sky zone)

f. after washing:

After dyeing, washing is done to remove the excess dye from the warp yarn.

g. pre-drying:

Before entering into the sizing box the warp yarns are dried out. This is known as pre-drying.

Then sizing and other operations are done.

 Bottoming (Black then indigo):
Dyestuff used: Sulphur dye, indigo blue

Process sequence:

 creeling
 pre-dyeing (dyeing with sulpher dye)
 washing
 Dyeing with indigo
 after washing
 drying
 sizing
 post drying
 leasing
 beaming
a. creeling:

The pre-beams are creeled in the creeling zone.

b. pre-dyeing (dyeing with sulpher black)

Pre-dyeing bath condition:

- Level : 100%
- Temperature : 80 degree C
- Sulphur black : 4 g/ L
- Tenside : 4 – 5 g/ L
- Caustic : 6 g/ L

c. Washing:

As same as regular blue: 6 L/ kg of yarn

d. Dyeing with indigo:

As same as regular blue.

e. After washing:

After dyeing, washing is done to remove the excess dye from the warp yarn.

f. Pre-drying:

Before entering into the sizing box the warp yarns are dried out. This is known as pre-drying.
Then sizing and other operations are done.
 Topping (Indigo then black):
Dyestuff used: Indigo blue, Sulphur dye

Process sequence:

 creeling
 pre-wetting
 washing
 Dyeing with indigo (first three of the four dye boxes)
 Top dyeing with sulphur black (only on the fourth dye box)
 after washing
 drying
 sizing
 post drying
 leasing
 beaming
a. creeling:

The pre-beams are creeled in the creeling zone.

b. Pre- wetting:


b. To remove the impurities remained in the yarn as oil, wax etc.

c. To wet out the yarn.
d. To improve the affinity of the stuff.
e. De-airing the yarn (to remove the air remains/ locked inside the yarn during manufactur-

Chemical used:

Wetting agent : surfactant (PrimasolNF – BASF product)

Chelating agent : de-airing is done(Trilton TB- BASF product)

Caustic soda : medium.

Chelating agent + wetting agent is found in mixed condition in packet called Tenside.

Caustic soda concentration: 500 gm/ L (mother solution)

Bath condition:

- Tenside : 6gm/ L
- Caustic : 4 – 5 gm/ L
- Temperature : 700 C
- Leveling on bath : 91%

c. Pre-washing/ rinsing:

Running ratio: 6 L/ min kg of yarn

d. Dyeing with Indigo dye (first three dye bathe)

As same as indigo blue.

10 – 16 seconds (oxidization time in pre-sky zone)

e. top dyeing with sulphur black:(only on the 4th dye bathe)

Level : 81%

Sulphur black : 50 g/ L

Caustic : 20 g/ L

Reducing agent : 20 g/ L

Temperature : 85 degree C

Redox : 600 - 700

f. after washing:

After dyeing, washing is done to remove the excess dye from the warp yarn.

g. pre-drying:

Before entering into the sizing box the warp yarns are dried out. This is known as pre-drying.
Then sizing and other operations are done.


Object –

- To facilitate the weaving.

- To improve yarn characteristics like strength, uniformity in yarn diameter, removing hai-
riness etc.
Size material:

- Adhesive (starch, binder: acrylic co-polymer)

- lubricant
- softener
- antiseptic agent (CuSO4.5H2O)
- antifoaming agent
pH of the bath: generally the pH is 5 – 6.

Size add on%: It is a very important factor. For example, The size add on percentage generally
follows is – for count 9 (normal) the add on percentage is 8% and for count 9 (slub) the add on
percentage is 10 – 12 %.

The important feature to be remembered during sizing:

1. If the hairiness of the yarn is high then the concentration of the size would be high.
2. If the twist is high in the yarn then the concentration of the size would be high.
3. If the yarn (finer) count is high then the concentration of the size would be high.
4. If the yarn (coarser) count is low then the concentration of the size would be low.
5. If the temperature of the bath is high then the viscosity of the size would be less and vice
6. If the cooking time is more than the viscosity would be less.

Size recipe for 100 liters of liquor:

- Modified starch : 8 kg

- Acrylate size : 40kg

- Textile wax : 0.2 kg

- Size conc. : 8%

- Size temp. : 85°C

- Squeezing pressure : 15 KN

- Size pick up % : 9-10%

Note: One important matter always has to remember that due to sizing the length of the warp
yarn is increased by 1 – 2%.


The process of interlacing warp yarn with the inserted weft yarn in a definite order to form a fa-
bric suitable for use as a dress material or industrial purpose is called weaving. The matching
used for this purpose is called loom.
Denim clothing never goes out of style. It's attractive and durable, perfect for most casual occa-
sions. Denim is most common as the fabric in jeans, but is also used for shirts, jackets, skirts,
dresses, hats, handbags and more. Several different types of denim fabric are available depending
on the function and look people are after.

Denim has a long and varied history. It was first created by the Andre family in the city of
Nimes, France. Denim was created from a serge fabric, which is a specially woven type of cotton
twill. Denim got its name from the shortening of "serge de Nimes," which was the phrase used to
describe the fabric when it was first created.

Denim was first used as a sturdy fabric for laborers' pants. Upon its import to America, it came
to function as the trouser of choice for gold rush miners as well. Once the general public began
wearing denim, it was still primarily used in the creation of pants. However, with the technologi-
cal advancements in the textile industry, it became possible to create a thinner, more malleable
denim during the 1960s. Consequently, denim began to be used in creating thin, comfortable
shirts, on trims for clothing, on purses and in jackets.

The weaving process interlaces the warp, which are the length-wise indigo dyed yarn and the fill-
ing, which are the natural-colored cross-wise yarn. The warp thread is in the form of sheet. The
weft thread is inserted between two layers of warp sheets by means of a suitable carrier, such as
Shuttle, Projectile, Rapier, Air current, Water current, etc. The selection of carrier depends upon
the type of weaving machinery used. The two different technologies available for weaving ma-
chines are - Conventional Shuttle Weaving System which is done by Ordinary Looms or Auto-
matic Looms; and the Shuttle less Weaving System which is done by Airjet, Waterjet, Rapier, or
a Projectile weaving machine. The Conventional Shuttle loom results in lesser production due to
slow speed and excessive wear and tear of machinery. As such, now denim is generally woven
through Shuttle less Weaving System namely, Air-jet looms, rapier looms or projectile looms.

In practice, the weaving machines are named after their filling insertion systems. Based on the
filling insertion systems, the weaving machines can be classified as shuttle and shuttleless weav-
ing machines. Shuttle looms have been used for centuries to make woven fabrics. In this type of
loom, a shuttle, which carries the filling yarn wound on a quill, is transported from one side to
the other and back. In the mid 20th century, other weaving machines started to emerge that used
other forms of filling insertion mechanisms such as air, projectile, rapier and water. In reference
to shuttle looms, these machines are called shuttleless looms or shuttleless weaving machines.
Today, the shuttle looms have become obsolete and are not manufactured anymore except for
some very special niche markets. The existing shuttle looms have been replaced by the shut-
tleIess weaving machines in industrialized countries. Nevertheless, approximately 2.6 million of
the 3.2 million looms in existence throughout the world in 1998 were still shuttle looms. Howev-
er, they are being replaced by the shutteless weaving machines at a fast rate. Today, the three
most popular weaving machines are air-jet, rapier and projectile machines (Figure 1.1).
The production of a loom is generally measured by its speed in picks per minute. However, the
correct way for the purpose is to figure out the weft insertion rate. After the commercial success
of the shuttleless looms, the speed has been increased by up to 300-400% depending on reed
widths. The common projectile and rapier looms have similar speeds, which are at least 80%
above the speeds of the best shuttle machines of similar width, and the air-jet machines have
weft insertion rates 80-150% above those of the projectile looms.

Figure 6: The three most popular filling insertion devices:projectile (left), rapier (middle) and air-jet (right)

Figure 7: General Scheme diagram of a Weaving Machine

In figure-

(1) Warp beam (7) Slay

(2) Back rest roller (8) Reed
(3) Drop wires (9) Weft
(4) Motor driving the warp let-off (10) Take down roller
(5) Heald frame (11) Cloth beam
(6) Motor driving the fabric takedown

These three operations are often called the primary motions of weaving and must occur in a giv-
en sequence, but their precise timing in relation to one another is also of extreme importance and
will be considered in detail later.

Auxiliary Functions
In addition to the five basic motions of a loom there are many other mechanisms on weaving
machines to accomplish other functions. These include:

 a drop wire assembly, one wire for warp yarn, to stop the machine when a warp end is
slack or broken
 a tension sensing and compensating whip roll assembly to maintain tension in warp sheet
 a mechanism to stop the machine when a filling yarn breaks
 automatic pick finding device reduces machine downtimes in case of filling yarn brea-
 filling feeders to control tension on each pick
 pick mixers to blend alternate picks from two or more packages
 filling selection mechanism for feeding multi-type filling patterns
 filling selvage devices such as trimmers, tuckers, holders and special weave harnesses for
selvage warp ends
 filling replenishment system to provide un-interrupted filling insertion by switching from
a depleted to a full package
 a temple assembly on each selvage to keep fabric width at the beat-up as near the width
of the warp in the reed as possible
 sensors to stop the machine in the event of mechanical failure
 a centralized lubrication control and dispensing system
 a reversing mechanism to avoid bad start ups after a machine stop
 a color coded light signal device to indicate the type of machine stop from a distance
 a production recording system
Figure 7: Schematic diagram of Air jet loom

The properties of denim are as follows:

 Drivability---excellent
 Luster----good
 Texture---cotton, thus excellent for clothing
 Absorbency----excellent. Looks good wet, clings.
 Durability----excellent. Stands up to heavy wear and abuse.
 Resilience----excellent. Tough fabric, stands up to washing.
 Flammability----Can be treated to be less flammable, but is cotton.
 Fabric source----Cotton
 Examples of end use---jeans, skirts, shirts, jackets. Most popular clothing material in the
Denim can be classified as follows:

1. Stone washed

A) Single stone washed

B) Double stone washed

2. Chambray

3. Fancy with multi color denim

4. Denim with metal effect

5. Elastic denim

6. Printed denim

7. Jacquard patterned denim

8. Denim with fancy yarns

Another way of classifying denim is as follows:

 Cotton Serge: The traditional denim is 100 percent cotton serge. Additionally, denim
is often blended with other fabrics.
 Raw Denim: Raw denim is dark, unwashed fabric that is stiff and very durable. It
fades with wear in certain areas, creating a natural distressed look. It also fades with
 Selvage Denim: The premium type of raw denim fabric is selvage denim, with tight
weaving and natural edges that will not unravel. Selvage denim is more expensive
than other raw denim.
 Stretch Denim: The blend closest to pure denim is called stretch denim, which usual-
ly includes 2 or 3 percent Spandex material for a bit of give in the fabric.
 Poly-Denim: Poly-denim blends look like a dressier denim, and are more lightweight,
which makes them more convenient to wash and dry. They also are more resistant to
 Ramie-Denim: Denim is also sometimes blended with the plant fiber ramie, which
reduces wrinkling and gives the fabric a softer feel.

The total no. of looms in Beximco Denims Ltd. is 110, where 54 looms are of Tsudakoma &
another 56 looms are of Toyota. There are 2 models available of Toyota looms.

Brand Model No. of looms Origin

Tsudakoma 57-110
Toyota JAT 710 1-12 Japan
Toyota 5300 13-30 Japan
Toyota 5200 31-56 Japan
Total looms 110
Table 3: Loom of Beximco

Loom space:

Loom length 15 feet

Loom width 22 feet
Cloth beam space 6 feet
Weaver beam space 6 feet
Batching to Batching 8 feet
Actual machine space 12 X 15 feet
Table 4: loom space

Main parts of loom:

 Main motor,
 Hydraulic brake motor,
 Cutter motor,
 ELCA motor,
 Waste cutter motor,
 Heald shafts,
 Profile reed,
 Main valve,
 Main nozzle,
 Relay nozzle,
 Cam and cam shedding,
 Clutch,
 Sensor,
 Cutter,
 Pre-winder,
 Load cell,
 Back rest,
 Sensor,
 Take up roller,
 Let off roller etc

Loom motion:

Each and every machine has some certain movements or motions. A weaving is distinguished
from other machines by its specific movements or motions. These motions are divided into two
categories as follows:

 Primary motion
 Secondary motion

Primary mechanism:

Primary, essential or fundamental are designed to those motions or movements of weaving in

absence of any of them weaving is not practicable. These are fundamental or essential me-
chanisms. Without these mechanisms, it is practically impossible to produce a fabric.
It is for this reason that these mechanisms are called ‘primary’ mechanisms. The pri-
mary mechanisms are three in number.

1. Shedding 2.Picking 3. Beating

Shedding is the first and primary mechanism of Weaving. During weaving, the total warp yarns
are divided into two groups called shedding. Two groups of warp yarns are made in the loom by
raising and lowering of heald frames by the use of a Tappet. The tappets may be plain or twill
that is according to fabric structure to be made. Besides tappet shedding, there are some other
shedding mechanisms also available. Dobby shedding and jacquard shedding is also well known
to the weavers.

Figure 8 : Shedding


Picking is the second primary motion of weaving mechanism. As the shed is formed in the loom,
the weft yarns are passed through the shed by picking mechanism. Generally a shuttle with a
weft yarn in the shed. There are various types of picking mechanism available in the loom, to
pass the weft yarn through the shed. Rapier, projectile, water jet, air-jet etc. weft insertion me-
chanism is popular all over the world.


Beating is the third primary motion. When the weft yarns are laid in the shed, this weft yarn is
smoothly placed to the fell off the cloth in a regular way by the movement of the reed, which is
secured in the sley. The sley moves to & fro by gearing connection.
The above mentioned three primary motions of a loom i.e. shedding, picking, beating is per-
formed in a cyclic order and the fabric is produced. Then the fabric is passed over the front rail
and wound of the cloth roller.

Figure9: beating

Secondary Mechanisms

These mechanisms are next in importance to the primary mechanisms. If weaving is to be conti-
nuous, these mechanisms are essential. So they are called the „secondary‟ mechanisms. They are:

a. Take-up motion
b. Let-off motion.

Take-up motion

The take-up motion withdraws the cloth from the weaving area at a constant rate so as to give the
required pick-spacing (in picks/inch or picks/cm) and then winds it on to a cloth roller.

Let-off motion

The let-off motion delivers the warp to the weaving area at the required rate and at constant ten-
sion by unwinding it from the weaver‟s beam. The secondary motions are carried out simulta-

Auxiliary Mechanisms:

To get high productivity and good quality of fabric, additional mechanisms, called auxiliary
mechanisms, are added to a plain power loom. The auxiliary mechanisms are useful but not ab-
solutely essential. This is why they are called the „auxiliary‟ mechanisms. These are listed below.

a. Warp protector mechanism

b. Weft stop motion
c. Temples
d. Brake
e. Warp stop motion (Predominantly found in automatic looms)

Warp protector mechanism

The warp protector mechanism will stop the loom if the shuttle gets trapped between the top and
bottom layers of the shed. It thus prevents excessive damage to the warp threads, reed wires and

Weft stop motion

The object of the weft stop motion is to stop the loom when a weft thread breaks or gets ex-
hausted. This motion helps to avoid cracks in a fabric.


The function of the temples is to grip the cloth and hold it at the same width as the warp in the
reed, before it is taken up.


The brake stops the loom immediately whenever required. The weaver uses it to stop the loom to
repair broken ends and picks.

Warp stop motion

The object of the warp stop motion is to stop the loom immediately when a warp thread breaks
during the weaving process.

Loom motions of Bextex:


 Cam shedding produced by STAUBLI

 Total no of heald frame: Number of held shaft is eight but generally used three to six held
 Cams are driven from individual motor used only for the shedding
 RPM of the motor : 1410


 Picking is done by air.

 Picking starts at 65 degree and arrive to next end at 240 degree.
 Creel capacity/ number of pre-winder in each loom : 02

Highest 2 color can be used at a time.


 Cam beat-up mechanism is used.

 Profile reed is used.


 Positive let-off
 Individual motor is used
 There are load cell on back rest which sense the tension on the warp sheet
 The sense is transferred to the let-off motor which release required length of warp.


There are two types of take-up mechanism:

1) Mechanical take-up for unit one

2) Electrical take-up for unit two

 For unit one pick wheel of require no of teeth is used for setting PPI
 For unit two PPI can be easily set by computer. Individual motor is used for take-up.
WARP STOP MOTION: Electrical warp stop motion.

WEFT STOP MOTION: Sensor is used to stop the loom due to weft way fault.

Weft yarn path here:
Yarn package

Pre-winder/ Accumulator

Programmable filling tensioner (PFT)

Main nozzle and AIC

Filling cutter

Setting of the insertion- synchronization

Relay nozzle

Filling detector

Figure 8: Warp yarn path

Stop motion indication:

a. Red: red light is on due to warp yarn breakage.

b. Yellow: yellow light is on due to weft yarn breakage.
c. Green: green light is on due to machine stop intentionally.
d. White: white light is on due to mechanical problem.
e. Red & green together: red & green light is on due to finish of warp stop
f. Yellow & green together: yellow & green light is on due to finish of weft package.

Weaving faults:

Here we tried to introduce some fabric faults occurred in Beximco Denims Ltd. during our in-
ternship period.

Starting mark:
Causes: - Main cause is loom stoppage

Remedy: - This cannot be avoided but can be controlled by starting mark setting or starting
the loom by reversing the loom.

Reed mark:
 If any fault occur at reed
 Faulty denting in the reed


 Right selection of the reed and right denting.

Filling stop:


 If weft is failed to reach FD1

 If weft is too long and reach FD2


 Correct setting of the weft length

 Correct setting of main nozzle
 Correct setting of relay nozzle
 Proper setting of air pressure
 Proper setting of pre-winder
 Proper setting of creel position


 Excess main nozzle pressure

 Low filling tension


 Main nozzle air pressure control

 Correct setting of the PFT finger value

Double pick:


 Cutting problem of the cutter

 Faulty setting of the air pressure


 Cutter position is to be set correctly

 Air pressure should be reset
Miss pick/ broken pick:


 Excess air pressure of main nozzle


 Main nozzle air pressure should be reduced

Warp breakage:


 Bad sizing
 Low strength of the yarn
 Crossing of the warp yarn
 Loose or tight yarn


 Re knotting
 Proper sizing

As a new beam (or article) is set to a loom either by drawing cum gating or tying, it is the task of
the loom technician to check and set all necessary settings, gauging operating values through the
loom function panel and mechanical means. After all setting has been done slow running or in-
ching checks the loom function. The first meter of the fabric is made with normal running and
cut off from the loom and checked over an inspiration box against light.

Fabrics checked visually for the followings-

1. Any wrong pattern setting
2. Any wrong drawing & denting
3. Fabric width, warp & weft density
4. Any other cloth defect.
Any fault found in the fabric is corrected over the loom and is handed over to the operator for
normal running.

For all types of yarn dyed fabrics and specially designed fabric of solid dyed class the first meter
of the fabric is sent to Q.C. department for subsequent test and upon getting quality approval
from Q. C manager / weaving is started. The quality approval sheet is filed in weaving as a
From the quality card set over the loom, the technicians find out the Respective Grey fabric re-
quest form Assistant Manager‟s office for Setting –

a. pick density
b. woven design, i.e. lifting plan
c. Cut length, etc.
 Depending on the yarn count, weave design sizing beam condition the loom r.p.m. is decided
and set by changing motor pulley, if required.
 Yarn count, weave design, Drawing width, r.p.m. etc. is set to the initial condition setting
mode of the loom computer. In this state some important values like picking timing, valve
timing, let of timing etc. are set automatically.
 Beam length and cut length is also set in the weaver mode.
 According to the drawing width, measuring band position is set mechanically using the
“HELP” switch of basic operation mode. Weft feeler‟s setting, shed angle and shed timing
setting, sub-nozzle setting, temple setting, shed RS cutter setting are done mechanically as
per machine manufacturer operating manual.
 The weft patterning as worked out by design analyst or Assistant Manager is set to pattern
setting mode and in case of dobby design the worked out lifting plan is set to the dobby basic
setting mode.
 All the setting is executed by switch.

 Then the machine is run slowly by inching mechanism on run set mode. If there is no fault
found, the machine is set at normal operation speed. The air pressure is checked to corres-
pond with the picking timing.
 Sometimes to achieve higher efficiency & quality the initial condition setting values (stan-
dard) like picking timing, shedding timing & start timing, let off tension etc. are changed.
 Regular checking is also carried out during operation and different parameters are fine-tuned
as required to achieve highest possible loom running efficiency.
 To run the machine in the systematic way of “Patrolling”, shown and advised by Department
Head and guided by shift officers/in charge & senior operators.
 To repair the broken warp and weft yarn during operation in the quickies possible time so
that down time for short stops are minimized and hence running efficiency is increased.
 To use the correct yarn as weft the helpers supply that.
 To produce defect free fabrics that may come out as a result of missing ends, wrong draw-
ing/denting, pick finding failure, miss selection of weft yarn etc.

Product quality check:

The fast meter of the fabric is made with normal running and cut off from the loom and checked
over an inspection box against light.

The fabric is checked visually for –

1. Any wrong pattern setting

2. Any wrong drawing & denting
3. Fabric width, warp & weft density
4. Any other cloth defect
Any fault found in the fabric is corrected over the loom and is hand over to the operator for nor-
mal running.

O.C. sample test:

The first meter of the fabric produced with fabric swatch supplied by the customer in terms of
design, density etc.

For all type of yarn dyed fabrics and specially designed fabric of solid dyed class the first meter
of the fabric is sent to Q.C. department for subsequent test and upon getting quality approval
from Q.C. manager, weaving is started. The quality approval sheet is filed in weaving as a



A fabric finishing process is a process for providing specific quality to the fabric that is required
by the customer.

Finishing process in Stenter Machine:

Refinishing and topping:

Refinishing and topping is a repetitive finishing process to cotton fabric, TC fabric and yarn
dyed fabric. To minimize the dyeing as per customer swatch and if necessary some pigment dyes
are used for the purpose.


Key accessories: Two electronic measuring balance, two breakers, pH paper (3-12), sewing ma-
chine, pinning brush.

Figure 9: Stenter machine

Materials and chemicals used:

The materials and chemicals used in the stenter machine for the TC fabric, 100% cotton, and
twill fabric finishing as well as re-finishing process are described below. A sequence of chemical
pouring is used in the wrinkle free finished fabric to avoid unwanted chemical reaction.


 During production never touch any rotating or movable part or machine.

 Never mix two or more chemical in their concentration.
 Follow all the safety instructions mentioned form in the machine.
 Before entering into thermal area keep the blower and burner “off “.
 Always use the fiber clips to avoid selvedge folding.
 Do not touch pins bar/clip bar.
 Do not open the window of the gas burner during production.
Operation procedure:

The pilot plant (fabric) provides customer approved swatch with recipe of the white fabric to the
finishing department where as preparation department provides the bleached fabric. The finish-
ing procedure begin with the calculation of solution a amount for a particular fabric the formula
as below :

 Solution amount = fabric weight (kg) X fabric length (m) X pick up % + through con-
tent + 3% wastage

Pick up % = 60% - 70% (for white fabric)

= 50% - 55% (for colored fabric)

Through content is 80 L solution required in the through wastage is 3% of solution.

The trial process fast start with same fabric of 1 m and required chemical solution. Chemical are
measured by using balance and takes in the bucket separately. Then tinting agent is measure and
taken into a breaker to dilute with hot water. Other chemical are dilute with hot water on normal
water based upon the reference of the chemical literature book of the chemical company.

Mixing tank is filled up with 50% of water to the required solution level (100L) and the chemical
are poured separately into the tank through a piece of filter cloth. A sequence is maintained for
chemical pouring into the mixing tank for the wrinkle free finished fabric so the fabric is not
damaged by the chemical solution. Then the solution is measured to ensure the 100 L level by
using a still rolled and water is added if necessary. Chemical are stirred for five minutes by the
fan in the mixing tank and then sets to the upper tank.

The upper tank sets the solution to the trough machine which has a value at the level of 80 L the
value close automatically. At that specific level and opens when the solution level goes lower
than 80 L.

The operation fixes the one m of sample fabric on the pins on the endless chain at the feed side
starts the machine to develop it. When the trial fabric is developed it is usually impacted with the
approved sample for the parameters ( softness, hardness, stiffness, shade match etc ) ordered by
customer. Then a piece of fabric ( Max “14 X 14” ) is cut from the trial fabric to scan the shade
in the data color of pilot plant (Lab ). The shade scan is necessary to fixed out any deviation in
the fabric and also to take corrective action to overcome these fault / deviation.

If the trial fabric matches with the customer approved sample then trial ends and production de-
partment decide to go for bulk production. After every 1000 m. 1 m sample is sent to the QC for
QC tests. If the trial does not match then the recipe, temperature or the machine speed is adjusted
from the reference of parameter register, and the shade scanning report and the same trial process
repeat until it match with the customer approved sample. For the bulk production chemical solu-
tion is prepared from the formula mentioned above and poured in the mixing tank of one bath at
a time capacity of each bath is 400 L.

Production quality check:

In case of TC fabric, 100% cotton and twill fabric. The operator checks the shade in naked eyes
in the stenter machine. If any deviation is found then he informs the responsible shift officer who
take the necessary action to overcome the problem. If the officer then the departmental head pro-
duction is informed and finally he give the decision. Shade checking is not applicable for the
sanforizing process.

Fault check:

The operator check the weaving faults (.i.e. Double yarn, Warp and Weft missing, yarn contami-
nation etc.) , spinning faults ( .i.e. Dye resist mark, Stop mark, Bend mark, Chemical spot, Drop-
ping mark, Listing, Torn and Hole, Fabric structure etc.).

During process when minor fault occur within 30 m of fabric ( while running about 300-500 m
of fabric) which is not resulted from previous process and also not recorded on the process
route card, the necessary actions to be taken are as follows:
 Check the feed side batcher to make sure that thus fault did not occur from previous process.
 Stop the machine to identify whether thus faults are occurring due to machine faults or the
faults are due to the chemical (checks cleanliness of machine parameters and chemical com-
 If there is any spot on the fabric then it indicate that the sequence of the chemical pouring in
the mixing tank for the wrinkle free finished fabrics not correct and hence the chemical reac-
tion has damage the fabric.

For this the chemicals have to be mixed up in the mixing tank following the proper sequence
(reference are mentioned in the chemical composition for wrinkle free finished fabric).

Width check:

Measure fabric with by using a measuring tape. Compares with the required finished width that
is mentioned in process route card, in case of wrinkle free yarn dyed width checking is 2cm less
than the normal fabric finish fabric width.

Design the fabric bow check for yarn dyed fabric:

In the delivery side the operator checks the design and bow , adjust the machine for checking
stripe by straightening the weft of the fabric
Pin setting check (for TC and yarn dyed fabric):

Check at the delivery side if the selvedge of fabric is set in pins correctly

Clip checking (for 100% cotton and Twill fabric):

Check the feeding side (.i.e. the setting of fabric on the clips)

QC sample test:

1m sample fabric is cut from each batch (which represent the bulk) and sent to the QC lab for
test. The shade continuity card is checked with the sample for the QC sample test. QC depart-
ment does the physical test , chemical test and analysis the test and notes the result in fabric test
result for details of QC test. During scanning of twill fabric data color machine the sample must
be set vertically warp wise. Refer to specification for details of the methods of sample scanning.

Heat setting and stretching:

Heat setting is a mechanical process before dying of TC+CVC fabric to give dimensional stabili-
ty and shrinkage control. Whereas stretching is also a mechanical process before dying of all cot-
ton fabric to remove crease marks and to get required width for next process

Key accessories:

The necessaries tools/accessories used for the stenter machine are as follows :

 Sewing machine,
 measuring tape,
 White papers.

Material and chemical used:

Sometimes wetting agent (.e.g. mixture of surface active compound) are used as chemical for the
heat setting and stretching process.

Calendaring process:

In fabric finishing process, calendar plays an important roll in achieving effect like smoothing,
luster effects. In this process fabric is passed through a machine in which heavy roller (bowis)
rotate in contact under mechanical or hydraulic pressure.

Four type of calendaring are done here

a) Chintz calendar (smoothing effect with paper roll and steel roll)
b) Ironing (soft, smoothing and glazing effect with steel roll)
c) Calendaring for smooth surface (mating effects with cotton)
d) Calendaring (soft and smoothing effect with cotton roll, paper roll and steel roll)

Process requirement:


Material and chemical used:

Sometimes wetting agent (.e.g. mixture of surface active compound) are used as chemical
for the heat setting and stretching process.

Safety measure:

 During production never touch any rotating or movable part or machine.

 Never mix two or more chemical in their concentration.
 Follow all the safety instructions mentioned form in the machine.

Machine setup:

Described below is the machine set up for the stenter machine for Denim fabric finishing, re-finishing

Machine set up parameter Actual parameter range

Steam pressure for steel bowl As required
Pressure for cotton bowl (50-100) K/N
Pressure for paper bowl (50-200) K/N
Temperature (50-240) °C
Speed (30-70)_ m/min
Tension roller setting position 1,2,3 depends on the bowl used
Seam distance setting 71-120
Table 5: M/c set up for stenter

Operation procedure:

 The operator feed in fabric manually through guide, tension and bowl end roller.
 The machine is started.
 According to the degree of flattening the surface pressure of bowl and the speed are adjusted.
 Due to the construction and nature of the steel bowl and resilient bowl, the fabric ic stretched
and compressed which is passed through the nip. Thus smoothness of fabric configuration is
 In case of steel roller the fabric passed through a pair of (air cooling) situated at the back of
the machine.
 The fabric is rolled in the delivery side batch roller or plate.
 Then the fabric is send to the next stage of finishing or to the inspection department.

QC sample test:

1m sample fabric is cut from each batch (which represent the bulk) and sent to the QC lab for
test. The shade continuity card is checked with the sample for the QC sample test. QC depart-
ment does the physical test, chemical test and analysis the test and notes the result in fabric test
result for details of QC test. During scanning of twill fabric data color machine the sample must
be set vertically warp wise. Refer to specification for details of the methods of sample scanning.

Machine faults:

Machine faults Response

Compensator problem Electrical/Mechanical engineer should called
Air pressure valve problem Mechanical engineer should called
Rubber belt surface checking or rough sur- Mechanical engineer should called
face problem
Batching roller , feed roller compensator , Mechanical engineer should called
felt moving steam problem etc
Table 6: M/c faults of stenter

The daily and weekly cleaning works for stenter machine are described below-

Daily works:

 Clean the reeves that can be reached from the outside of the machine. A minimum of once
per shift.
 Clean the entire upper filters every 4 hours.
 Clean the heat exchanger a day of the heat recovery system.
 Run the machine once a day to the maximum and minimum width.
 Clean all the lower filters of the chambers check the right function of additional device such
as Malho, Bianco, E and L etc.

Weekly works:

Prior to lengthy machine downtime (week end), clean with a mixture of soap-flux and talcum

Quality Assurance

The top management of Beximco Denims Ltd. ensures customer satisfaction through the ladder
mentioned below a continuous attempt for being customer is focused.





Product design & development of production line

Fixing up of product components & finally realize product

Survey for CUSTOMER’S DESIRES & expectations

Quality Policy

The company‟s quality policy is obviously defined by the top management, which is considered
with objectives. The objectives are communicated throughout the organization and reviewed pe-
riodically in the management review meetings.

All the employees of Beximco Denims Ltd. are usual to conform to the company‟s “Corporate
Quality Policy” and to expose hard work to produce quality fabric for gaining highest possible
customer satisfaction.
The top management of Beximco Denims Ltd. is committed to ensure that the quality policy:

“We are dedicated to provide denim fabrics, focused on product devel-

opment & higher adoption rate from collection towards a relationship of
trust for highest possible satisfaction of customer by studying their ex-

We try to improve our product constantly and system through efficient

utilization of resources and reviewing our quality objectives.”
The head of factory is responsible for making sure that each & every department at Beximco De-
nims Ltd. makes plans and implements monitoring program at a suitable time interval, measure-
ment and analysis activities that are necessary to assure conformity of the product. This proce-
dure ensures:
 Continual monitoring on processes effecting quality are made, planned and implemented.
 Any sort of improvement & inspection needed for the process.
 Defects that are occurred at every stages of production.
Customer Satisfaction:

Feedback from customer is achieved through continual investigation. This feedback are some-
times in the form of customer complains. This data analysis during are done in the management
review meeting and appropriate corrective action is taken to eliminate all complains. Statistical
Technique is used for this purpose. All the regular customers are requested to post their construc-
tive advice twice in every year.

Marketing Manager is responsible for ensuring that customer communication is maintained and
that customer satisfaction data is collected, analyzed and used according to customer communi-
cation and satisfaction. Customer Feedback (including customer satisfaction, measurement data
and customer complaints) is utilized in the Management Review process.


Lab is the heart of a dyeing industry. An efficient lab can increase the efficiency of dyeing. So

lab in-charge is sometimes called Pilot. Before bulk production a sample for approval from buyer

is sent to buyer. Lab supplies the recipes to the floor. The lab is the first centre where the quality

product production starts.

Purpose of Lab:

 Get color approval from buyer.

 Recipe supply to the floor.
 Shade correction.
 Minimize the deviation between bulk & lab.
Quality assurance system can be divided into following steps:

On line Quality assurance system and

Off line Quality assurance system.

Following type of QA test for raw material are performed at BDL,

 Yarn quality verification

 Dyes quality verification
 Chemical quality verification
Apart from the above mention quality verification test, BTL QA lab also analysis swatch sup-
plied by the customer and submits report as and when required.

Safety Issues:

The floor personnel are instructed to follow the safety guide lines given bellow during the opera-
tion –

 Smoking is strictly prohibited in the factory and laboratory premises.

 Adequate fire extinguishers crowbar and other safety equipment are available. Lab assistant
are trained and instructed to use thus in case of emergency.
 Follow the safety instruction and guidelines while operating the machine.
 Take necessary safety precaution (e.g. use of hand gloves) while handling chemical and other
hazardous materials.
 Be aware of the volatile chemical and be very cautious while mixing or transferring such ma-
terials and chemical.

Yarn quality verification:

Machine / apparatus used N/A

Machine / apparatus manufactured by N/A
Person responsible Quality assurance executive
Frequency Every lot report is checked
Procedure - Every lot is accomplishing by a yarn quality re-
port. This report is compared with the BTL yarn
quality requirement chart.
- Yarn quality of each lot is checked using ran-
dom sampling by machine available in the pad-
ma textile mills ltd (sister concern).
Performance standard BDL yarn quality requirement chart.
In case of non conformity Lot is returned
Document / form used  Yarn quality requirement chart
 Yarn verification form
 Non confirming yarn return form

Table 7: Yarn quality verification

Dyes quality verification:

 Consistency with previous approved lot

 Minimum fastness requirement-
Change in Staining
Performance standard
Wash :4 4

Water :4 4

In case of non conformity Lot is returned.

Document / form used Vat dyes shade continuity register.

Table 8: Dyes quality verification

Chemical quality verification

Concentration of soda ash:

Machine / apparatus used Burette, pipette, beaker, balance

Machine / apparatus manufactured by N/A
Person responsible Lab assistant
Frequency Every new lot also as and when required
Method Titration with standard acid (HCl)
Reagent 1 (N) HCl, Methyl orange indicator
Procedure o Take 5.3 gm soda ash and dissolved it in 100 ml
distill water.
o Take 10 ml of that solution + 10 ml distill water
and 2-3 drops of Methyl orange indicator.
o Titrate with 1(N) HCl.

Result = Burette reading × 10

Performance standard 80-100 %

In case of non conformity Rejected

Table 9: Chemical quality verification

Concentration of Caustic soda
Machine / apparatus used Burette, pipette, beaker, balance
Machine / apparatus manufactured by N/A
Person responsible Lab assistant
Frequency Every new lot also as and when required
Method Titration with standard acid (HCl)
Reagent 1 (N) HCl, Phenolphthalein indicator Ethanol.
Procedure  Add 8.3 ml of HCl in 100 ml distill water.
 Dissolved 4 gm caustic soda in 100 ml water
 Take 10 ml of that caustic soda solution in a beaker and
2-3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator.
 Titrate with 1(N) HCl.

Result = Burette reading × 10

Performance standard 90-100 % or as required
In case of non conformity Rejected
Table 10: Test for Concentration of Caustic soda

Sample analysis procedure

Parameter checked Count, concentration, composition, weave, type of dye
used and finished type.
Machine / apparatus used Pick, counter, weighing machine, gas burner etc.
Machine / apparatus manufactured by N/A
Person responsible Lab assistant
Frequency As and when requisite by marketing department.
Procedure Applicable test for swatch analysis process are as follows:
- Physical tests
- Fabric analysis
Refer to the following section for detailed procedure.
In case of non conformity QA executive is informed in case of non conformity of the
swatch analysis report with our procedure range. Market-
ing division is subsequently notified about inability to rep-
licate the given swatch.
Document / form used Swatch analysis report.

Table 11: sample analysis procedure

Absorbency test

Machine / solution used N/A

Machine / solution manufactured by N/A
Person responsible QA lab assistant
Frequency Every thousand meter
Procedure A full width mercerized fabric is taken. 3 samples are cut
from that piece, one from left, one from right and one from
center. The size of the sample is (1.3-2.5) cm.
Each of the sample is up to 5 cm showing every single cm.
the samples are than dipped in the solution (0.5 gm reac-
tive dyes is dissolve in 200 cc water) for 1 min. generally
one or less than one cm is dipped in the solution and it is
expected that the minimum performance standard.
Performance standard Minimum 3 cm
In case of non conformity Padding with wetting agent or rewash or rebleach.

Table 12: Absorbency test

Size test:

Chemical used: Iodine solution.

Preparation of Solution: First 0.1(N) iodine is prepared. From that 1ml solution is taken and 99ml water
is mixed to make it 100 ml.

Preparation of Iodine Solution: Dissolve 10 gm of potassium iodide in 100 ml water. Add 0.65 gm
iodine and shake up complete dissolution. Fill with water ethanol upto 1litre

Application of iodine solution: Put the fabric sample 1minute into the iodine solution. Rinse shortly
with cold water. Dab with filter paper and compare immediately with violet scale .

Acceptable range:

- Minimum 6
- Maximum up to 9

Pick up%:

Machine / solution used N/A

Machine / solution manufactured by N/A
Person responsible QA checker or inspector
Frequency After change of padder, every month following maintenance
and/or whenever required.
Procedure  Make 3 polythene bag (previously weight denoted BL,
BA, BR) L, C and R thus will be use to hold the sample
taken during the pickup check. L, C & R represent the po-
sition from where the sample is taken. Looking down the
machine from the face end in the same direction as the fa-
bric is running, left hand side of the machine will de-
signed as L, center C & right hand side is R.
 Stop the machine when seam level the nip of the padder
and cut three samples from the fabric each approximately
3 square inch.
 Place the sample into the bag and seal the bag tightly to
prevent the moisture loss. Then weigh each of the bag
with the sample inside and record the weight (WL, WC,
 Take the sample out of the bags. Dry the entire sample
and the bag on an oven.
 When dried take the bag out of the oven and allow them
to cool, then take the sample out of the oven and imme-
diately place them in a correct bag.
 Aloe further cooling of the samples (for 5 min) and re-
weight the bag with the sample inside and record the
weight (DL, DC, DL)
(W-B) – (D-B)
Liquor pickup percentage= ×100

Performance standard - Singe = (80-100) %

- Scour & Bleach = (110-120)%
- Mercerized = (90-100)%
- Stenter = (50-70) %
In case of non conformity Inform mechanical maintenance personnel / relevant area in
charge for corrective action.
Table 13: Pick up% test

Whiteness test:

 Done in data color.

 Range 70-80% (The denim fabric).
Yellowness test:

 Tested in data color .

 Range 3- 3.5 (Fabric to be dyed).
Less than 1.5 (White fabric).

Core PH Test: Used for yarn dyed fabric(As yarn dyed fabric is died previously, so it is not possible to
test PH in dyed fabric).

 10 gm yarn dyed fabric is taken in beaker.

 250 ml hot water is added(90C).
 Again warm up.
 Then conditioning until it is cold.
 PH test by PH meter.
Shade check
Machine Spectrophotometer
Machine manufactured by Data color international.
Person responsible QA lab assistant
Frequency Every thousand
Procedure  Collect sample from dyeing after every thousand meter.
 Measure the sample by spectrophotometer.
 Print out the result.
 Make shade continuity card.
 Samples are also compared visually with approved lab
Performance standard ΔE value 1.0-1.5
In case of non conformity Inform QA executive who take the following necessary
If shade is too light or :Rematch or stripe respectively
If shade is lighter :Topping at finishing or dyeing
If shade is darker :Re-wash or Re-CPS
Table 14: Shade check

Wash fastness test (for dark shade only)

Machine used Gyro wash
Machine manufactured by James . H . Heals and company, England
Person responsible QA lab assistant
Frequency Every order
Procedure Method BS 1006 ref:C06 C2S
Performance standard For color change – 4C
For color staining- 4S
In case of non conformity Re wash
Table 15: Wash fastness test

Rubbing Fastness:
Machine used Crock meter
Machine manufactured by
Person responsible QA lab assistant
Frequency Every order
Procedure Method BS 1006 ref: X 12
Performance standard Non peach Peach
Dry 4 3
wet 3 2
In case of non conformity Re-wash or spiral finish with softener which improve crock
Table 16: Rubbing fastness test
Physical test:

Marketing division sends swatch to the QA department according to the customer requirement.


Construction (no of ends and picks) and weave is determined using pick counter or counting


Count is calculated by using quadrant balance.

Tensile strength test:

Machine used Alphatens tensile tester & Titan universal strength tester.
Machine manufactured by James . H . Heals and company, England.
Person responsible QA lab assistant
Frequency Every order
Procedure According to customer‟s requirement and / or as specified
in the BDL quality stander specification.
Performance standard According to BDL quality stander specification

In case of non conformity To increase tensile strength re-mercerized (increase of 5

%to 10%) and re finish.

Table 17: Tensile strength test

Abrasion resistance:

Machine used Nu-Martindal abrasion and pilling tester.

Machine manufactured by James. H. Heals and company, England.
Person responsible QA lab assistant
Frequency Whenever required.
Procedure BS-5690 ref: Breakdown and according to customer re-
Performance standard Maximum ends breakage per 20000 revolutions.
In case of non conformity Re-singing, Re-washing and Re-finishing.
Table 18: Abrasion resistance test

Fabric pH:

Machine used Metller Toledo

Machine manufactured by Metller Toledo AG
Person responsible QA lab assistant
Frequency Whenever required.
Procedure AATCC 81 - 1996
Performance standard According to customer requirements.
In case of non conformity Re-wash or Re finish with acid (in case of reactive dyed
Table 19: Fabric pH test




Maintenance is the actions taken to prevent a device or component from failing or torepair nor-
mal equipment degradation experienced with the operation of the device to keep it in proper
working order.

Types of maintenance:

Reactive maintenance
Preventive maintenance
Predictive maintenance
Capital replacement

Beximco Denims Ltd. follows all types of maintenance those described above.

Preventive Maintenance:

Preventive Maintenance refers to only a part of a good maintenance programmed. It consists of

routine actions taken in a planned manner to prevent break-down and to ensure operation accura-
cy to the extent it is economically and practically possible to do so. Lubrication and inspection
are the two constituents of preventive maintenance. Lubrication insures long life and safe work-
ing of equipment without mishaps. Inspection tries to detect faults in a equipment and facility so
that repairs and replacement may be undertaken before the faults assume the proportion and
shape of a break down.

Reactive/Break-down maintenance:

Breakdown maintenance practice allows a machine or facility to run without much of routine at-
tention, till it actually, breaks down to be then put back into commission. Type: gravity, place
and time of breakdown are of a random nature. This practice, therefore, leads to disruption of
production plans. It also makes it impossible to plan the workload and distribution of mainten-
ance work force for a balanced attention of all equipment. It increases over time payment and
involves prolonged down time due to non- availability of requisite man-power and spares. This
practice, consequently, accepts a lower level of organizational efficiency, and cannot be recom-
mended as general practice for all types of equipment.
It is, however, an economical way of maintaining certain non-critical items whose repair and
down time costs are less this way than with any other system of maintenance.

Predictive/Planned Maintenance:

Planned maintenance represents advancement over the above mentioned types of maintenance
practices. Briefly stated, planned maintenance visualizes the work contained in a future job, de-
termines the best method to be adopted and sills required for its execution; estimates the time,
material and cost involved assigning jobs of individuals; programs the work to specific times pe-
riods on the basis of priority and after ascertaining production requirements; and arranges for
availability of material tools and man-power and for release of machines in time. Planned main-
tenance also provides for a system of feedback of information for necessary changes in the origi-
nal plan.
Capital Replacement:

A replacement may have to be affected when -

a) An equipment ages to the extent that the costs of maintaining in the required condition provide
gain that is less than those realizable from investments in a new unit.

b) Changes in quality and quality of the product and / or emergence better machine in the market
render the original unit obsolete. Process of discarding old equipment and installing a new one in
its place is a continuous feature of an industry because of its dynamic nature that is reflected
through the improvements in product quality, increase in the volume of sales, general technolo-
gical development and deterioration of the existing equipment. Maintenance department of a
company has therefore, to assume the responsibility for evolving a long-range replacement poli-
cy commensurate with the company‟s objectives and growth.

Maintenance activities for their optimum performances at their following points:

1. Routes of different utilities like water, stem, gas, electricity, compressed air, etc.
2. Dyestuff & chemical dosing system.
3. Drainage system of waste water, color & chemical.
4. Driving arrangement of different machineries.
5. Power transmission to different machineries.
6. Fabric guiding system through the machineries.
7. Cleanliness of machine parts.
Manpower of maintenance:

Position No. of Person Department

B.Sc. Engr. 1 Elect. & Mechanical.

Foreman 2 Elect. & Mechanical

Fitter 2 Elect. & Mechanical

Assistant Fitter 2 Elect. & Mechanical

Welder 2 Elect. & Mechanical

Helper 6 Elect. & Mechanical

Table 20: Manpower for maitenance
Maintenance tools & equipments:

1. Pliers
2. Inside Calipers
3. Outside Calipers
4. Digital Multi Meter
5. Heating Shoulder
6. Hammer
7. Philes etc.

Maintenance Schedule for dyeing section:

Inspection Action Frequency

Pump/Dosing Inspect & check oil

pump Weekly

Plaiter & plaitor Inspect & check noise level. Everyday


Water level indica- Inspect & check its function Everyday


Loading/Unloading Inspect & check gears condition & Everyday

winch noise level etc.

Heat exchanger Inspect & check heating & cooling weekly

actuator & valve system inspect for change as necessary

with compressed air/vacuum

Filter screen Inspect & check as necessary Every 8 hours

Safety guards Inspect all location to aware that Daily

guards are in place

Fans & Drives Clean screens at motor suctions check weekly


Belts & Blankets Check for wear Damage trucking weekly

alignment &Tension impact.

Connecting seem to be sure Edges are

in line.

Sensors limit Impact for correct operation weekly

switches gauge

Gear boxes Check oil level, noise small operation weekly

Control cabinet Inspect & clean next filters. weekly

Checks that all lights are operational

make sure cabinet in clean inside ,

check A/C unit to clean

Table 21: maintenance schedule of dyeing section

Weaving section is always under air suction for fluff. Thus here break down maintenance is fol-
lowed. As the looms were installed a few days ago & comparatively new, maintenance is less
required here than the dyeing section.

Inventory control

Inventory in a wider sense is defined as any idle resource of an enterprise in order to meet ex-
pects of demand or distribution. It is commonly used to keep hold inventory of various kinds to
as cushion between supply & demand.

Frequency of inventory control:

- Monthly inventory control

- Annual inventory control
Scope of inventory control:

 Raw materials
 Dyes store
 Others chemicals store
 Finishing fabric
 spare parts
 General store
 Capital equipment
 Accessories
 Stationary
 Maintenance parts.

Inventory system for raw materials:

 Raw materials partially received from production planning & directly from head office.
 Material Receiving & Inspection Report (MRIR) is prepared. Received quantity is mentioned
& noted down.
 Submitted to QC department. Some are OK & few rejected.
 Entry of data of goods in DATATEX.
 Goods are arranged according to OK or rejected group.
 Department gives store requisition to warehouse.
 As per requisition materials supplied & this record is noted down.

Stages of grey fabric inventory control:

 After production
 Grey inspection
 Warehouse
 Batch preparation
 Dye house.
Stages of finished fabric inventory control

 Finishing section
 After final inspection
 Warehouse.

 The inventory system of BDL covers the whole inventories.

 The space is noticed to be insufficient considerably.
 An expansion of space is thus desired for sound inventory.



Source of Utility

 Electricity : PDB & Generator

 Gas : TITAS
 Water : Pumps
 Compressed air : compressor
 Steam : Boiler


Water is supplied in different sections continuously by using submersible and centrifugal



Boiler is mainly used to produce and deliver steam to different section as required. In Bextex
Ltd. Many boilers are used to produce and deliver steam to different section.


Nos. : 02

Type : Fire tube

Capacity : 6 tons / hr

Working Pressure : 8 Kg

Origin : India

2. Name : BORDERER
Nos. : 01

Type : Fire tube

Capacity : 4.5 tons / hr

Working Pressure : 8 Kg

Origin : Scotland
3. Name : SHELLMAX
Nos. : 01

Type : Fire tube

Capacity : 4 tons / hr

Working Pressure : 8 Kg

Origin : India


Compressor is mainly used to deliver compressed air to different section as required. In Bextex
Ltd. five compressors are used to produce and deliver compressed air to different section.


Name : BOGE

Nos. : 05

Capacity : 774 ltr air compression / sec

Origin : Germany


Effluent Treatment Plant

The effluent generated from different sections of a textile industry must be treated before they
are discharged to the environment. Various chemicals and physical means are introduced for this

 Capacity : 150m3/ hr
 Cost : Tk. 1.175 / Kg

Figure 10: ETP Plant

Product Quality Checked:

o Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)

o Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
o Total suspended solids
o Total dissolved solids
o Color
o pH, etc.
Chemicals Used in ETP:

o Ferrous-Sulphate-(FeSO4-7H2O)
o Hydrochloric-Acid (HCL)
o Lime
o Polymer
o Sodium-Hypo-Chloride (NaOCl)
o Urea-Fertilizer

Flow diagram of ETP:

Waste water

Collection Sump

Dissolved Air Floatation unit Sludge Thickener

Aeration Tank Sludge Drying Bed

Settling Tank Sludge Management

Clear water tank

Multimedia filter


Figure 11: ETF flow diagram


Bextex Ltd. is the largest and most versatile business conglomerate in the private sector in Ban-
gladesh. Bextex Ltd. is committed to the best human workplace practices. Their goal is to conti-
nuously improve their Human resource policies and procedures through education, training,
communication and employees involvement. Right from inception the policy of the company has
been to provide total customer satisfaction by offering quality denim fabric in time. with an ob-
jective to up the quality and the value of merchandise. To meet the manufacturing to quality and
promote delivery. Beximco Denims Ltd. decided to integrate the manufacturing process in a
planned manner. Over the year the entire process has been integrated by importing sophisticated
machinery from world-renowned manufacturers. According to their capacity they have an
enriched production team which is very rare in other factories of Bangladesh. The working envi-
ronment of Bextex Ltd. is very cordially & friendly. All of the executives & employees of Bex-
tex Ltd. are very much cordial & they always appreciate the learners.

The goal of Bextex Ltd. is to get high production & to maintain the quality of the product at a
minimum cost. There is no non-woven m/c in Bextex Ltd. But Bextex Ltd. is able to produce all
types of knit structure. There is no person to input the self shade of different types of lot every-
day in the spectrophotometer but for accuracy of the recipe, it is very important to input the self
shade of different lot of dyes in a regular basis. In dyeing lab Bextex Ltd. is using digital pipeting
system I think their accuracy will increase to a maximum level. For dyeing they are using Thies
m/c but those are not latest

Some suggestions:

 During the transport of the fabric in the weaving floor and, fabrics are grubby for the contact
with floor. This makes the fabric/part of the fabric dirty. It may require more scour-
ing/bleaching agent or may create stain making it faulty.
 The dyeing floor is dirty most of the time; it should be cleaned all the time.
 The upper shed of the dyeing floor is a bit broken which causes water fall when raining.
 The illumination of the dyeing shade should be enhanced. It may exert the worker fatigued.
 More skilled labor should be used in a project as BTL. Much time the dosing pipelines are
clogged due to the careless dosing of chemicals.
 The m/c stoppage time should be analyzed and minimized. The maintenance should be car-
ried out when the m/c is out of action (wherever possible)
 Air pressure is a great problem of BDL. Most of the time it fails meeting the exact demand.

Limitations of the report:

 Because of secrecy act, the data on costing and marketing activities has not been supplied &
hence this report excludes these chapters.
 We had a very limited time. In spite of our willing to study more details it was not possible to
do so.
 Some of the points in different chapter are not described as these were not available.
 The whole process is not possible to bind in such a small frame as this report, hence our ef-
fort spent on summarizing them.

We have completed our industrial attachment successfully by the grace of Allah. Industrial at-
tachment sends us to the expected destiny of practical life. The completion of the two months
Industrial attachment at Beximco Denims Ltd. we have got the impression that factory is one of
the most modern export oriented composite complex in Bangladesh. Though it was established
only a few years ago, it has earned “very good reputations” for its best performance over many
other export oriented textile mills.

During our training period, talking with the clients of this mill we knew that the mill is fulfilling
the country‟s best export oriented white finished fabric as well as very good colored fabric due to
its modern machinery & good management system.

Mill is settled with utility to give all convenient supports to the productions for twenty-four
hours. It had self-power generator system to satisfy total power consumptions of the mill.

We are enough fortunate that we have got an opportunity of having a training in this mill. During
the training period we are received co-operation and association from the authority full & found
all man, machines & materials on appreciable working condition. All stuffs & officers were very
sincere & devoted their duties to achieve their goal.

Finally we would like to wish Beximco Denims Ltd. to have a blast & thanks to administration
of Beximco Denims Ltd. for their cordial attitude to us.

List if Figures

Figure 1: Location map of Beximco Industrial Park from Southeast University Textile
Department.............................................................................................................................. 13
Figure 2: Steps taken to meet customer satisfaction ................................................................. 31
Figure 3: Flow Chart of Denim Fabric Manufacturing ............................................................. 33
Figure 4: Beam warping........................................................................................................... 36
Figure 5: Beam warping........................................................................................................... 37
Figure 6: The three most popular filling insertion devices:projectile (left), rapier (middle) and
air-jet (right) ........................................................................................................................... 50
Figure 7: General Scheme diagram of a Weaving Machine ..................................................... 50
Figure 8: Warp yarn path ........................................................................................................ 59
Figure 9: Stenter machine ........................................................................................................ 65
Figure 10: ETP Plant ................................................................................................................. 94
Figure 11: ETF flow diagram .................................................................................................... 95

List if Tables

Table 1: Buyer list of Beximco Denims Ltd. .............................................................................. 24

Table 2: source of Yarn at Beximco Denims Ltd. ...................................................................... 27
Table 3: Loom of Beximco ........................................................................................................ 54
Table 4: loom space ................................................................................................................. 54
Table 5: M/c set up for stenter ................................................................................................ 69
Table 6: M/c faults of stenter................................................................................................... 70
Table 7: Yarn quality verification ............................................................................................ 74
Table 8: Dyes quality verification ............................................................................................ 75
Table 9: Chemical quality verification ..................................................................................... 75
Table 10: Test for Concentration of Caustic soda .................................................................... 76
Table 11: sample analysis procedure ....................................................................................... 76
Table 12: Absorbency test ........................................................................................................ 77
Table 13: Pick up% test ............................................................................................................ 78
Table 14: Shade check ............................................................................................................. 79
Table 15: Wash fastness test .................................................................................................... 79
Table 16: Rubbing fastness test ................................................................................................ 79
Table 17: Tensile strength test.................................................................................................. 80
Table 18: Abrasion resistance test ............................................................................................ 80
Table 19: Fabric pH test ........................................................................................................... 81
Table 20: Manpower for maitenance ....................................................................................... 84
Table 21: maintenance schedule of dyeing section .................................................................. 86