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Topic 8 Cell Respiration and Photosynthesis

8.1 Cell Respiration


8.1.1 State that oxidation involves the loss of electrons from 1
an element, whereas reduction involves a gain of
electrons; and that oxidation frequently involves gaining
oxygen or losing hydrogen, whereas reduction
frequently involves losing oxygen or gaining hydrogen.
Electron transfer is called oxidation – reduction.
Oxidation = loss of electrons
= gain O2 or losing H2
Reduction = gain in electrons
= loss of O2 or gain H2
OIL RIG
8.1.2 Outline the process of glycolysis, 2 In the cytoplasm, one hexose
including phosphorylation, lysis, sugar is converted into two
oxidation and ATP formation. three-carbon atom compounds
(pyruvate) with a net gain of
two ATP and two NADH + H+.
Step 1 - Glucose is phosphorylated. Two phosphate groups are added to glucose to form hexose
biphosphate. These two phosphate groups are provided by two molecules of ATP.
Step 2 - Lysis of hexose biphosphate. Hexose biphosphate splits into two molecules of triose phosphate.
Step 3 - Each triose phosphate molecules is oxidised. Two atoms of hydrogen are removed from each
molecule. The energy released by the oxidation is used to add another phosphate group to each molecule.
This will result in two 3-carbon compounds, each carrying two phosphate groups. NAD+ is the hydrogen
carrier that accepts the hydrogen atoms lost from each triose phosphate molecule.
Step 4 - Two pyruvate molecules are formed by removing two phosphate groups from each molecule.
These phosphate groups are given to ADP molecules and form ATP.
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of cells. Two ATP molecules are used and 4 ATP molecules are
produced. Therefore there is a net yield of two ATP molecules. Also, two NAD+ are converted into NADH
+ H+ during glycolysis.

SUMMARY OF GLYCOLYSIS:
– One glucose is converted into two pyruvates.
– Two ATP molecules are used per glucose but four are produced so there is a net
yield of two ATP molecules.
– 2 NAD+ are converted into 2 NADH + 2H+

Pyruvate can now go either into aerobic or anaerobic pathways of respiration.


Aerobic and anaerobic respiration both start with glycolysis.
8.1.3 Draw and label a diagram showing the structure 1
of a mitochondrion as seen in electron
micrographs.
Matrix: Watery substance that contains ribosomes and many enzymes. These enzymes are vital
for the link reaction and the Krebs cycle.
Inner membrane: The electron transport chain and ATP synthase are found in this membrane.
These are vital for oxidative phosphorylation.
Space between inner and outer membranes: Small volume space into which protons are
pumped into. Due to its small volume, a high concentration gradient can be reached very quickly.
This is vital for chemiosmosis.
Outer membrane: This membrane separates the contents of the mitochondrion from the rest of
the cell. It creates a good environment for cell respiration.
Cristae: These tubular projections of the inner membrane increase the surface area for oxidative
phosphorylation.
8.1.4 Explain aerobic respiration, 3 In aerobic respiration (in mitochondria in
including the link reaction, the Krebs eukaryotes), each pyruvate is
cycle, the role of NADH + H+, the decarboxylated (CO2 removed). The
electron transport chain and the role remaining two-carbon molecule (acetyl
of oxygen. group) reacts with reduced coenzyme A,
and, at the same time, one NADH + H+
is formed. This is known as the link
reaction.

In the Krebs cycle, each acetyl group


(CH3CO) formed in the link reaction
yields two CO2. The names of the
intermediate compounds in the cycle are
not required. Thus it would be
acceptable to note:
, and so on.
One turn of the Krebs cycle produces:
– 2CO2
– 3 NADH + H+
– 1 FADH2
– 1 ATP (by substrate level phosphorylation)
*Remember we produced 2 pyruvates from 1 glucose so this cycle happens twice.

ATP Yield Per Glucose Molecule Oxidized

Substrate-level phosphorylation:
Glycolysis = +2ATP
(1 per pyruvate molecule – made 4 but is cost 2)

Krebs Cycle = +2ATP

About 2 ATP used for shuttling Electrons from NADH2 produced during glycolysis into the
mitochondria = -2ATP

Oxidative phosphorylation:
Electron Transport Chain =
Each NADH = 3ATP X 10 NADH2 = +30 ATP
Each FADH2 = 2ATP X 2FADH2 = +4ATP

About 36 ATP Maximum per glucose


8.1.5 Explain oxidative phosphorylation in terms of chemiosmosis. 3

8.1.6 Explain the relationship between the 3Limit this to cristae forming a
structure of the mitochondrion and its large surface area for the electron
function. transport chain, the small space
between inner and outer
membranes for accumulation of
protons, and the fluid matrix
containing enzymes of the Krebs
cycle.
1. Explain the process of aerobic respiration including oxidative phosphorylation.

glucose converted to pyruvate (two molecules);


by glycolysis;
pyruvate enters the mitochondria;
pyruvate converted to acetyl CoA / ethyl CoA;
by oxidative decarboxylation / NADH and CO2 formed;
fatty acids / lipids converted to acetyl CoA;
acetyl groups enter the Krebs cycle (accept acetyl CoA);
+
FAD / NAD accepts hydrogen (from respiratory substrates) to form NADH / FADH2;
FADH2 / NADH donates electrons / hydrogen to electron transport chain

electrons release energy as they pass along the chain;


oxygen final electron acceptor;
production of water;
builds up proton gradient / protons pumped across inner membrane;
protons flow into matrix of mitochondria through ATPase;
ATP produced;
produces 36 / 38 ATP (per glucose);
2. Which is not a product of the Krebs cycle? C
A. CO2 D. ATP
+
B. NADH + H
C. Pyruvate
3. How many ATP molecules (net yield) are produced per molecule of glucose as a
direct result of glycolysis? A
A. 2 D. 38
B. 4
C. 10

4. Explain the similarities and differences in anaerobic and aerobic cellular


respiration.
aerobic requires oxygen and anaerobic does not utilize oxygen;
similarities:

3 max
both can start with glucose;
both use glycolysis;
both produce ATP/energy (heat);
both produce pyruvate;
carbon dioxide is produced;
(both start with glycolysis) aerobic leads to Krebs' cycle and anaerobic
leads to fermentation;
differences:

5 max
anaerobic:
(fermentation) produces lactic acid in humans;
(fermentation) produces ethanol and CO2 in yeast;
occurs in cytoplasm of the cell;
recycles NADH (NAD+);

aerobic cellular respiration:


pyruvate transported to mitochondria;
further oxidized to CO2 and water (in Krebs' cycle);
produce a larger amount of ATP (36-38 ATP) / anaerobic produces less ATP (2);
can use other compounds / lipids / amino acids for energy
5.Anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen while aerobic respiration
requires oxygen.
(a) State one final product of anaerobic respiration. ATP
(1)
(b) Complete the table showing the differences between oxidation and
reduction.
(2)
Reaction Oxidation Reduction
Electrons gained or loss of electrons gain of electrons;
lost
Oxygen or hydrogen gain of oxygen / loss of oxygen /
gained or lost loss of H+ / hydrogen gain of H+ / hydrogen;

(c) The structure of a mitochondrion is shown in the electron micrograph


below.

Name the parts labelled A, B and C and state the function of each.

A – matrix: site for Krebs' cycle / link reaction / ATP synthesis;


B – inner membrane/cristae: site of oxidative phosphorylation / e–
transport
chain / increase surface area / ATP synthesis;
C – inter membrane : H+ / proton build up;
or
C – outer membrane: determines which substances enter the
mitochondrion

6. (a) (i) Identify the cell organelle shown in the micrograph below. mitochondrion
(1)
(ii) Identify the structure labelled I above and explain how it is adapted
for the organelle to function efficiently.

crista;

folded membrane;
provides large surface area
moves protons to inter membrane space from matrix
(b) Describe the role of acetyl CoA in the metabolism of lipids.

fatty acids oxidized / broken down;


form two-carbon atom (acetyl) fragments;
which are passed to Krebs' cycle to be metabolized
7. Which way do the protons flow when ATP is synthesized in mitochondria? B
A. From the inner matrix to the intermembrane space
B. From the intermembrane space to the inner matrix
C. From the intermembrane space to the cytoplasm
D. From the cytoplasm to the intermembrane space
8. What accumulates in the inter-membrane space of the mitochondrion during
electron transport? C
A. ATP D. Oxygen
B. Electrons
C. Protons (hydrogen ions)

9. Explain chemiosmosis as it occurs during cell respiration.


ATP synthesis is coupled to electron transport / H+ movement;
occurs over the (inner) mitochondrial membrane;
electrons are transported through carriers;
energy released by electron transport;
protons / H+ pumped across the membrane;
ATP synthetase transports H+;
uses energy to make ATP;
10. What is the sequence of stages during the conversion of glucose into pyruvate in
glycolysis? C
A. lysis phosphorylation of sugar oxidation
B. lysis oxidation phosphorylation of sugar
C. phosphorylation of sugar lysis oxidation
D. phosphorylation of sugar oxidation lysis
11. Which of the following produce ATP in mitochondria? D
A. The movement of protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space
B. The movement of protons from the intermembrane space to the
cytoplasm
C. The splitting of water molecules and the movement of electrons to oxygen
D. The movement of protons from the intermembrane space to the matrix

12. How many molecules of acetyl CoA (ethanoyl CoA) does the oxidation of the fatty
acid stearic acid produce? C
C 3H
C 2H

C 2H

C 2H

C 2H

C 2H

C 2H

C 2H

C 2H
S t e a r i c a c i d
C 2H

C 2H

C 2H

C 2H

C 2H

C 2H

C 2H

C 2H

C O O H

A. 2 D. 18
B. 6
C. 9

8.2 Photosynthesis
8.2.1 Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a chloroplast as seen in
electron micrographs.
8.2.2 State that photosynthesis consists of 1 These should not be called “light” and
light-dependent and light-independent “dark” reactions.
reactions.

8.2.3 Explain the light-dependent reactions. 3 Include the photoactivation of


photosystem II, photolysis of water,
electron transport, cyclic and non-
cyclic photophosphorylation,
photoactivation of photosystem I, and
reduction of NADP+.

8.2.4 Explain photophosphorylation in terms of chemiosmosis. 3

8.2.5 Explain the light-independent 3 Include the roles of ribulose


reactions. bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase,
reduction of glycerate 3-phosphate
(GP) to triose phosphate (TP),
NADPH + H+, ATP, regeneration of
RuBP, and subsequent synthesis of
more complex carbohydrates.
13. Explain the reasons for
(a) a large area of thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast.

more chlorophyll / photosystems;


so more light absorbed;
(b) low rates of photosynthesis in plants growing beneath trees, where the
light has already passed through the trees’ leaves.
insufficient light / poor absorption hence low rate of photosynthesis;
higher leaves absorb majority of red and blue wavelengths;
only green / orange / yellow wavelengths available for lower leaves

(c) large amounts of RuBP carboxylase in the chloroplast.

catalysis of reaction in the Calvin cycle;


RuBP carboxylase not very effective so much needed / reference
to photorespiration;
used for carbon fixation;
carbon fixation is vital to the plant / carbon dioxide needed
for photosynthesis;

14. State two products of the light dependent reaction of photosynthesis.


ATP, reduced NADPH / NADPH2 / NADPH + H+ and O2

15. (a) State the main photosynthetic pigment in plants. chlorophyll (a)

(b) State the two materials used to convert carbon dioxide to organic
molecules in plants. ATP;
NADPH / hydrogen;
water;
RuBP;
Rubisco;

(c) Explain two ways in which the rate of photosynthesis can be measured.
production of oxygen;
(because) oxygen is a by product of the reaction;
count bubbles of oxygen (from pondweed);
measure the volume of oxygen;
use of oxygen probe find oxygen concentration;
or:
measure carbon dioxide uptake;
(because) carbon dioxide is a raw material of the reaction;
measure colour change of pH indicator / other method;
use of carbon dioxide probe to find carbon dioxide concentration;
or:
measure increase in biomass;
(because products) used in production of cell walls and new tissue;
harvest replicate samples at time intervals for biomass determination

16. (a) State the site of the light-independent reactions in photosynthesis. stroma
(of chloroplast)

The absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b are shown in the graph
below.

(b) On the graph below, draw the action spectrum of photosynthesis for a
green plant. peak at about 450 and at 650 nm and follows pattern of
absorption spectrum

(c) Explain photophosphorylation in terms of chemiosmosis


electron transport causes proton/hydrogen ion pumping;
protons inside thylakoids;
accumulation of protons / H+ / drop in pH;
protons leave through proton channel (to stroma);
ATP synthetase / enzyme catalyses phosphorylation of ADP
c h l o r o p h y l l b

c h l o r o p h y l l a

A b s o r b a n c e

4 0 0 5 0 0 6 0 0 7 0 0
W a v e l e n g t h / n m
17. Explain the reactions involving the use of light energy that occur in the thylakoids
of the chloroplast.
chlorophyll/photosystem absorbs light;
electron raised to higher energy level / photoactivated;
splitting of water/photolysis replaces electron;
passing of excited electrons between chlorophyll molecules in photosystems;
electron passed from photosystem II to carriers (in thylakoid membrane);
production of ATP in this way is called photophosphorylation;
electron causes pumping of protons into the thylakoid;
proton gradient used by ATPase to drive ATP production;
electron passes to photosystem I at end of carrier chain;
electron re-excited and emitted by photosystem I;
electron passed to / used to reduce NADP+;
NADPH + H+ / reduced NADP produced;
cyclic photophosphorylation using photosystem I
electron carriers and ATPase only;

18. Explain how the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis rely on light-


dependent reactions.

light-independent reaction fixes CO2;


to make glycerate 3-phosphate;
glycerate 3-phosphate / GP / phosphoglyceric acid becomes reduced;
to triose phosphate / phosphoglyceraldehyde / glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate;
using NADPH;
using ATP;
ATP needed to regenerate RuBP;
ATP is made in light-dependent reactions;
light causes photoactivation / excitation of electrons;
flow of electrons causes pumping of protons into thylakoid;
ATP formation when protons pass back across thylakoid membrane;
electrons are passed to NADP/NADP+;
NADPH produced in the light dependent reactions

19. How is the proton gradient generated in chloroplasts during photosynthesis? A


A. Flow of electrons from carrier to carrier in the thylakoid membrane
causes pumping of protons across the thylakoid membrane.
B. Light causes protons to flow through protein channels in the thylakoid
membrane.
C. Light splits water molecules in the stroma, causing the release of protons.
D. Protons are pumped across the thylakoid membrane using energy from
ATP.

20. Why is the action spectrum for photosynthesis similar to the absorption spectra of
photosynthetic pigments? C
A. Photosynthetic pigments have the same optimum temperature as the
enzymes used in photosynthesis.
B. Plants absorb the same photosynthetic pigments for use in
photosynthesis.
C. Only wavelengths of light absorbed by pigments can be used in
photosynthesis.
D. The amount of energy absorbed by photosynthetic pigments is equal to
the activation energy for photosynthesis.
21. (a) Draw and label the structure of the chloroplast as seen in the electron
microscope.
3)
(b) Explain the relationship between the structure of the chloroplast and its
function

The stroma - Contains many enzymes, including rubisco, which are important for the reactions of the
Calvin cycle.
The thylakoids - Have a large surface area for light absorption and the space within them allows rapid
accumulation of protons.

Also look at the following while you are reviewing:

Paper 1
New specimen - #28, 29 and 30
2008 - #26, 27 and 28
2007 - #26

Paper 2
New specimen – Part B #5b and 5c
2008 Part B 7c
2007Part B 6c