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The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan

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Copyright © 2002 by The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan


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Original Japanese language edition published by the Japan Ports and Harbours Association.

Printed in Japan
PREFACE

Preface
This book is a translation of the major portion of the Technical Standards and Commentaries of Port
and Harbour Facilities in Japan (1999 edition) published by the Japan Port and Harbour Association,
stipulated by the Ordinance of the Minister of Transport, which was issued in April 1999. The translation
covers about two thirds of the Japanese edition.
Japanese islands have a long extension of coastline, measuring about 34,000 km, for the total land area
of some 380,000 square kilometers. Throughout her history, Japan has depended on the ports and harbors
on daily living and prosperity of people there. Japan did not develop extensive inland canal systems as
found in the European Continent because of its mountainous geography, but rather produced many harbors
and havens along its coastline in the past. Today, the number of officially designated commercial ports and
harbors amounts to about 1,100 and the number of fishing ports exceeds 3,000.
After 220 years of isolation from the world civilization from the 17th to 19th centuries, Japan began to
modernize its society and civilization rapidly after the Meiji revolution in 1868. Modern technology of port
and harbor engineering has been introduced by distinguished engineers from abroad and learned by many
ambitious and capable young engineers in Japan. Ports of Yokohama, Kobe, and others began to
accommodate large ocean-going vessels in the late 19th century as the Japanese economy had shown a
rapid growth.
Japanese engineers had drafted an engineering manual on design and construction of port and harbor
facilities as early as in 1943. The manual was revised in 1959 with inclusion of new technology such as
those of coastal engineering and geotechnical engineering, which were developed during the Second
World War or just before it. The Japanese economy that was utterly destroyed by the war had begun to
rebuild itself rapidly after the 1950s. There were so many demands for the expansion of port and harbor
facilities throughout Japan. Engineers were urged to design and construct facilities after facilities. Japan
has built the breakwaters and the quays with the rate of about 20,000 meters each per year throughout the
1960s, 1970s, and 1980s.
Such a feat of port development was made possible with provision of sound engineering manuals. The
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (formerly the Ministry of Transport up to January 2001)
which was responsible for port development and operation, revised the basic law on ports and harbors in
1974 so as to take responsibility for provision of technical standards for design, construction, and
maintenance of port and harbor facilities. The first official technical standards and commentaries for port
and harbor facilities were issued in 1979, and published by the Japan Port and Harbour Association for
general use. The technical standards were prepared by a technical committee composed of government
engineers within the former Ministry of Transport, including members of the Port and Harbour Research
Institute and several District Port Construction Bureaus that were responsible for design and construction
in the field. Its English version was published by the Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute in
1980, but it introduced only the skeleton of the Japanese version without giving the details.
The Technical Standards and Commentaries for Port and Harbor Facilities in Japan have been revised
in 1988 and 1999, each time incorporating new technological developments. The present English
translation endeavors to introduce the newest edition of 1999 to the port and harbor engineers overseas. It
is a direct translation of essential parts of Japanese edition. Many phrases and expressions reflect the
customary, regulatory writings in Japanese, which are often awkward in English. Some sentences after
translation may not be fluent enough and give troubles for decipher. The editors in charge of translation
request the readers for patience and generosity in their efforts for understanding Japanese technology in
port and harbor engineering.
With the globalization in every aspect of human activities, indigenous practices and customs are forced
to comply with the world standards. Technology by definition is supposed to be universal. Nevertheless,
each country has developed its own specialty to suit its local conditions. The overseas readers may find
some of Japanese technical standards strange and difficult for adoption for their usage. Such conflicts in
technology are the starting points for mutual understanding and further developments in the future. The
editors wish wholeheartedly this English version of Japanese technical standards be welcomed by the
overseas colleagues and serve for the advancement of port and harbor technology in the world.

January 2002

Y. Goda, T. Tabata and S. Yamamoto


Editors for translation version

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

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CONTENTS

CONTENTS

Preface

Part I General
Chapter 1 General Rules .................................................................................................................................................1
1.1 Scope of Application .............................................................................................................................1
1.2 Definitions ...............................................................................................................................................2
1.3 Usage of SI Units ...................................................................................................................................2
Chapter 2 Datum Level for Construction Work .........................................................................................................4
Chapter 3 Maintenance ....................................................................................................................................................5

Part II Design Conditions


Chapter 1 General .............................................................................................................................................................7
Chapter 2 Vessels ..............................................................................................................................................................9
2.1 Dimensions of Target Vessel ...............................................................................................................9
2.2 External Forces Generated by Vessels ...........................................................................................16
2.2.1 General .....................................................................................................................................16
2.2.2 Berthing.....................................................................................................................................16
[1] Berthing Energy..................................................................................................................16
[2] Berthing Velocity ................................................................................................................17
[3] Eccentricity Factor..............................................................................................................20
[4] Virtual Mass Factor ............................................................................................................21
2.2.3 Moored Vessels .......................................................................................................................22
[1] Motions of Moored Vessel..................................................................................................22
[2] Waves Acting on Vessel.....................................................................................................22
[3] Wind Load Acting on Vessel ..............................................................................................23
[4] Current Forces Acting on Vessel........................................................................................24
[5] Load-Deflection Characteristics of Mooring System ..........................................................25
2.2.4 Tractive Force Acting on Mooring Post and Bollard..................................................................25
Chapter 3 Wind and Wind Pressure ..........................................................................................................................28
3.1 General..................................................................................................................................................28
3.2 Wind .......................................................................................................................................................29
3.3 Wind Pressure......................................................................................................................................30
Chapter 4 Waves ..............................................................................................................................................................32
4.1 General..................................................................................................................................................32
4.1.1 Procedure for Determining the Waves Used in Design.............................................................32
4.1.2 Waves to Be Used in Design ....................................................................................................32
4.1.3 Properties of Waves..................................................................................................................33
[1] Fundamental Properties of Waves .....................................................................................33
[2] Statistical Properties of Waves...........................................................................................37
[3] Wave Spectrum..................................................................................................................38
4.2 Method of Determining Wave Conditions to Be Used in Design .................................................40
4.2.1 Principles for Determining the Deepwater Waves Used in Design ...........................................40
4.2.2 Procedure for Obtaining the Parameters of Design Waves ......................................................41
4.3 Wave Hindcasting................................................................................................................................42
4.3.1 General .....................................................................................................................................42
4.3.2 Wave Hindcasting in Generating Area ......................................................................................42
4.3.3 Swell Hindcasting......................................................................................................................46
4.4 Statistical Processing of Wave Observation and Hindcasted Data .............................................47
4.5 Transformations of Waves .................................................................................................................49
4.5.1 General .....................................................................................................................................49
4.5.2 Wave Refraction........................................................................................................................49
4.5.3 Wave Diffraction........................................................................................................................52
[1] Diffraction ...........................................................................................................................52
[2] Combination of Diffraction and Refraction..........................................................................69
4.5.4 Wave Reflection ........................................................................................................................70

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

[1] General .............................................................................................................................. 70


[2] Reflection Coefficient ......................................................................................................... 71
[3] Transformation of Waves at Concave Corners, near the Heads of Breakwaters,
and around Detached Breakwaters ................................................................................... 72
4.5.5 Wave Shoaling.......................................................................................................................... 74
4.5.6 Wave Breaking ......................................................................................................................... 75
4.6 Wave Runup, Overtopping, and Transmission............................................................................... 80
4.6.1 Wave Runup ............................................................................................................................. 80
4.6.2 Wave Overtopping .................................................................................................................... 84
4.6.3 Wave Transmission .................................................................................................................. 90
4.7 Wave Setup and Surf Beat ................................................................................................................ 91
4.7.1 Wave Setup .............................................................................................................................. 91
4.7.2 Surf Beat................................................................................................................................... 92
4.8 Long-Period Waves and Seiche ....................................................................................................... 93
4.9 Waves inside Harbors ........................................................................................................................ 94
4.9.1 Calmness and Disturbances..................................................................................................... 94
4.9.2 Evaluation of Harbor Calmness ................................................................................................ 94
4.10 Ship Waves .......................................................................................................................................... 94
Chapter 5 Wave Force ................................................................................................................................................. 100
5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 100
5.2 Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall ............................................................................................... 100
5.2.1 General Considerations .......................................................................................................... 100
5.2.2 Wave Forces of Standing and Breaking Waves ..................................................................... 101
[1] Wave Force under Wave Crest........................................................................................ 101
[2] Wave Force under Wave Trough..................................................................................... 105
5.2.3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves .......................................................................... 106
5.2.4 Wave Force on Upright Wall Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks..................... 109
5.2.5 Effect of Alignment of Breakwater on Wave Force ................................................................. 110
5.2.6 Effect of Abrupt Change in Water Depth on Wave Force ....................................................... 110
5.2.7 Wave Force on Upright Wall near Shoreline or on Shore........................................................111
[1] Wave Force at the Seaward Side of Shoreline .................................................................111
[2] Wave Force at the Landward Side of Shoreline ...............................................................111
5.2.8 Wave Force on Upright Wave-Absorbing Caisson ..................................................................111
5.3 Mass of Armor Stones and Concrete Blocks ................................................................................ 112
5.3.1 Armor Units on Slope.............................................................................................................. 112
5.3.2 Armor Units on Foundation Mound of Composite Breakwater ............................................... 117
5.4 Wave Forces Acting on Cylindrical Members and Large Isolated Structures ......................... 119
5.4.1 Wave Force on Cylindrical Members...................................................................................... 119
5.4.2 Wave Force on Large Isolated Structure ................................................................................ 121
5.5 Wave Force Acting on Structure Located near the Still Water Level........................................ 122
5.5.1 Uplift Acting on Horizontal Plate near the Still Water Level .................................................... 122
Chapter 6 Tides and Abnormal Water Levels....................................................................................................... 127
6.1 Design Water Level........................................................................................................................... 127
6.2 Astronomical Tide ............................................................................................................................. 128
6.3 Storm Surge ....................................................................................................................................... 128
6.4 Tsunami .............................................................................................................................................. 130
6.5 Seiche ................................................................................................................................................. 133
6.6 Groundwater Level and Permeation .............................................................................................. 135
Chapter 7 Currents and Current Force ................................................................................................................... 138
7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 138
7.2 Current Forces Acting on Submerged Members and Structures .............................................. 138
7.3 Mass of Armor Stones and Concrete Blocks against Currents ................................................. 140
Chapter 8 External Forces Acting on Floating Body and Its Motions ........................................................... 142
8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 142
8.2 External Forces Acting on Floating Body ...................................................................................... 143
8.3 Motions of Floating Body and Mooring Force ............................................................................... 145
Chapter 9 Estuarine Hydraulics ................................................................................................................................ 148
9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 148
Chapter 10 Littoral Drift .................................................................................................................................................. 154
10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 154
10.2 Scouring around Structures ............................................................................................................. 161
10.3 Prediction of Beach Deformation .................................................................................................... 163

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CONTENTS

Chapter 11 Subsoil ...........................................................................................................................................................167


11.1 Method of Determining Geotechnical Conditions .........................................................................167
11.1.1 Principles.................................................................................................................................167
11.1.2 Selection of Soil Investigation Methods ..................................................................................168
11.1.3 Standard Penetration Test ......................................................................................................168
11.2 Physical Properties of Soils .............................................................................................................168
11.2.1 Unit Weight of Soil...................................................................................................................168
11.2.2 Classification of Soils ..............................................................................................................169
11.2.3 Coefficient of Permeability of Soil ...........................................................................................169
11.3 Mechanical Properties of Soils ........................................................................................................170
11.3.1 Elastic Constants ....................................................................................................................170
11.3.2 Consolidation Properties .........................................................................................................170
11.3.3 Shear Properties .....................................................................................................................173
11.4 Angle of Internal Friction by N-value ..............................................................................................175
11.5 Application of Soundings Other Than SPT....................................................................................176
11.6 Dynamic Properties of Soils .............................................................................................................178
11.6.1 Dynamic Modulus of Deformation ...........................................................................................178
11.6.2 Dynamic Strength Properties ..................................................................................................180
Chapter 12 Earthquakes and Seismic Force ...........................................................................................................182
12.1 General................................................................................................................................................182
12.2 Earthquake Resistance of Port and Harbor Facilities in Design ................................................182
12.3 Seismic Coefficient Method .............................................................................................................184
12.4 Design Seismic Coefficient ..............................................................................................................184
12.5 Seismic Response Analysis .............................................................................................................190
12.6 Seismic Deformation Method ..........................................................................................................192
Chapter 13 Liquefaction .................................................................................................................................................195
13.1 General................................................................................................................................................195
13.2 Prediction of Liquefaction .................................................................................................................195
13.3 Countermeasures against Liquefaction .........................................................................................199
Chapter 14 Earth Pressure and Water Pressure ...................................................................................................200
14.1 Earth Pressure ...................................................................................................................................200
14.2 Earth Pressure under Ordinary Conditions ...................................................................................200
14.2.1
Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil under Ordinary Conditions .......................................................200
14.2.2
Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil under Ordinary Conditions ..................................................201
14.3 Earth Pressure during Earthquake .................................................................................................202
14.3.1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil during Earthquake....................................................................202
14.3.2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil during Earthquake...............................................................204
14.3.3 Apparent Seismic Coefficient ..................................................................................................204
14.4 Water Pressure ..................................................................................................................................205
14.4.1 Residual Water Pressure ........................................................................................................205
14.4.2 Dynamic Water Pressure during Earthquake..........................................................................205
Chapter 15 Loads .............................................................................................................................................................207
15.1 General................................................................................................................................................207
15.2 Deadweight and Surcharge .............................................................................................................207
15.3 Static Load ..........................................................................................................................................207
15.3.1
Static Load under Ordinary Conditions ...................................................................................207
15.3.2
Static Load during Earthquake................................................................................................208
15.3.3
Unevenly Distributed Load ......................................................................................................208
15.3.4
Snow Load ..............................................................................................................................208
15.4 Live Load ............................................................................................................................................209
15.4.1 Train Load ...............................................................................................................................209
15.4.2 Vehicle Load ...........................................................................................................................209
15.4.3 Cargo Handling Equipment Load ............................................................................................209
15.4.4 Sidewalk Live Load .................................................................................................................209
Chapter 16 Coefficient of Friction ................................................................................................................................210
16.1 General................................................................................................................................................210

Part III Materials


Chapter 1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 211
1.1 Selection of Materials........................................................................................................................ 211

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

1.2 Safety of Structural Elements .......................................................................................................... 211


Chapter 2 Steel ............................................................................................................................................................... 212
2.1 Materials ............................................................................................................................................. 212
2.2 Steel Meterial Constants Used in Design Calculation ................................................................. 212
2.3 Allowable Stresses ............................................................................................................................ 212
2.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 212
2.3.2 Structural Steel ....................................................................................................................... 212
2.3.3 Steel Piles and Steel Pipe Sheet Piles ................................................................................... 213
2.3.4 Steel Sheet Piles .................................................................................................................... 214
2.3.5 Cast Steel and Forged Steel................................................................................................... 214
2.3.6 Allowable Stresses for Steel at Welded Zones and Spliced Sections .................................... 214
2.3.7 Increase of Allowable Stresses............................................................................................... 215
2.4 Corrosion Control .............................................................................................................................. 216
2.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 216
2.4.2 Corrosion Rates of Steel Materials ......................................................................................... 216
2.4.3 Corrosion Control Methods..................................................................................................... 217
2.4.4 Cathodic Protection Method ................................................................................................... 217
[1] Range of Application........................................................................................................ 217
[2] Protective Potential .......................................................................................................... 218
[3] Protective Current Density ............................................................................................... 219
2.4.5 Coating Method ...................................................................................................................... 220
[1] Extent of Application ........................................................................................................ 220
[2] Applicable Methods.......................................................................................................... 220
[3] Selection of Method ......................................................................................................... 220
Chapter 3 Concrete ....................................................................................................................................................... 221
3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 221
3.2 Basics of Design Based on the Limit State Design Method ....................................................... 221
3.3 Design Based on Allowable Stress Method .................................................................................. 223
3.4 Concrete Materials ............................................................................................................................ 224
3.5 Concrete Quality and Performance ................................................................................................ 225
3.6 Underwater Concrete ....................................................................................................................... 227
Chapter 4 Bituminous Materials ................................................................................................................................ 228
4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 228
4.2 Asphalt Mat ........................................................................................................................................ 228
4.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 228
4.2.2 Materials ................................................................................................................................. 228
4.2.3 Mix Proportioning.................................................................................................................... 229
4.3 Paving Materials ................................................................................................................................ 229
4.4 Sand Mastic Asphalt ......................................................................................................................... 229
4.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 229
4.4.2 Materials ................................................................................................................................. 230
4.4.3 Mix Proportioning.................................................................................................................... 230
Chapter 5 Stone ............................................................................................................................................................. 231
5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 231
5.2 Rubble for Foundation ...................................................................................................................... 231
5.3 Backfilling Materials .......................................................................................................................... 231
5.4 Base Course Materials of Pavement ............................................................................................. 232
Chapter 6 Timber ........................................................................................................................................................... 233
6.1 Quality of Timber ............................................................................................................................... 233
6.1.1 Structural Timber .................................................................................................................... 233
6.1.2 Timber Piles............................................................................................................................ 233
6.2 Allowable Stresses of Timber .......................................................................................................... 233
6.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 233
6.2.2 Allowable Stresses of Structural Timber ................................................................................. 233
6.3 Quality of Glued Laminated Timber ............................................................................................... 233
6.3.1 Allowable Stress for Glued Laminated Timber ....................................................................... 233
6.4 Joining of Timber ............................................................................................................................... 233
6.5 Maintenance of Timber..................................................................................................................... 233
Chapter 7 Other Materials ........................................................................................................................................... 234
7.1 Metals Other Than Steel .................................................................................................................. 234
7.2 Plastics and Rubbers ........................................................................................................................ 234
7.3 Coating Materials .............................................................................................................................. 236

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CONTENTS

7.4 Grouting Materials .............................................................................................................................237


7.4.1 General ...................................................................................................................................237
7.4.2 Properties of Grouting Materials .............................................................................................237
Chapter 8 Recyclable Resources .............................................................................................................................238
8.1 General................................................................................................................................................238
8.2 Slag ......................................................................................................................................................238
8.3 Coal Ash..............................................................................................................................................239
8.4 Crashed Concrete .............................................................................................................................240

Part IV Precast Concrete Units


Chapter 1 Caissons .......................................................................................................................................................241
1.1 General................................................................................................................................................241
1.2 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................242
1.3 Floating Stability ................................................................................................................................242
1.4 Design External Forces ....................................................................................................................243
1.4.1 Combination of Loads and Load Factors ................................................................................243
1.4.2 External Forces during Fabrication .........................................................................................249
1.4.3 External Forces during Launching and Floating......................................................................249
1.4.4 External Forces during Installation..........................................................................................250
1.4.5 External Forces after Construction..........................................................................................250
[1] Outer Walls.......................................................................................................................250
[2] Bottom Slab......................................................................................................................251
[3] Partition Walls and Others................................................................................................253
1.5 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................254
1.5.1 Outer Wall ...............................................................................................................................254
1.5.2 Partition Wall ...........................................................................................................................254
1.5.3 Bottom Slab.............................................................................................................................254
1.5.4 Others .....................................................................................................................................255
1.6 Design of Hooks for Suspension by Crane ...................................................................................255
Chapter 2 L-Shaped Blocks ........................................................................................................................................256
2.1 General................................................................................................................................................256
2.2 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................256
2.3 Loads Acting on Members ...............................................................................................................257
2.3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................257
2.3.2 Earth Pressure ........................................................................................................................258
2.3.3 Converted Loads for Design Calculation.................................................................................258
2.4 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................259
2.4.1 Front Wall................................................................................................................................259
2.4.2 Footing ....................................................................................................................................259
2.4.3 Bottom Slab.............................................................................................................................259
2.4.4 Buttress ...................................................................................................................................260
2.5 Design of Hooks for Suspension by Crane ...................................................................................260
Chapter 3 Cellular Blocks ............................................................................................................................................261
3.1 General................................................................................................................................................261
3.2 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................261
3.2.1 Shape of Cellular Blocks .........................................................................................................261
3.2.2 Determination of Dimensions ..................................................................................................261
3.3 Loads Acting on Cellular Blocks......................................................................................................262
3.3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................262
3.3.2 Earth Pressure of Filling and Residual Water Pressure..........................................................262
3.3.3 Converted Loads for Design Calculation.................................................................................264
3.4 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................264
3.4.1 Rectangular Cellular Blocks ....................................................................................................264
3.4.2 Other Types of Cellular Blocks................................................................................................265
Chapter 4 Upright Wave-Absorbing Caissons ......................................................................................................267
4.1 General................................................................................................................................................267
4.2 External Forces Acting on Members ..............................................................................................267
4.3 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................269
Chapter 5 Hybrid Caissons .........................................................................................................................................270
5.1 General................................................................................................................................................270
5.2 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................270
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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

5.3 Design External Forces .................................................................................................................... 271


5.4 Design of Members ........................................................................................................................... 271
5.4.1 Section Force.......................................................................................................................... 271
5.4.2 Design of Composite Slabs .................................................................................................... 271
5.4.3 Design of SRC Members ........................................................................................................ 271
5.4.4 Design of Partitions................................................................................................................. 271
5.4.5 Design of Corners and Joints ................................................................................................. 271
5.4.6 Safety against Fatigue Failure ................................................................................................ 272
5.5 Corrosion Control .............................................................................................................................. 272

Part V Foundations
Chapter 1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 273
Chapter 2 Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations ........................................................................................ 274
2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 274
2.2 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Sandy Ground ..................................................................... 274
2.3 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Clayey Ground .................................................................... 275
2.4 Bearing Capacity of Multilayered Ground ..................................................................................... 276
2.5 Bearing Capacity for Eccentric and Inclined Loads ..................................................................... 277
Chapter 3 Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations ............................................................................................. 280
3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 280
3.2 Vertical Bearing Capacity................................................................................................................. 280
3.3 Lateral Bearing Capacity .................................................................................................................. 281
Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Pile Foundations ................................................................................................ 284
4.1 Allowable Axial Bearing Capacity of Piles ..................................................................................... 284
4.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 284
4.1.2 Standard Allowable Axial Bearing Capacity............................................................................ 284
4.1.3 Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity of Single Piles...................................................................... 285
4.1.4 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Loading Tests ........................................... 285
4.1.5 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Static Bearing Capacity Formulas ............ 286
4.1.6 Examination of Compressive Stress of Pile Materials ............................................................ 288
4.1.7 Decrease of Bearing Capacity Due to Joints .......................................................................... 288
4.1.8 Decrease of Bearing Capacity Due to Slenderness Ratio ...................................................... 288
4.1.9 Bearing Capacity of Pile Group .............................................................................................. 288
4.1.10 Examination of Negative Skin Friction .................................................................................... 290
4.1.11 Examination of Settlement of Piles ......................................................................................... 291
4.2 Allowable Pulling Resistance of Piles ............................................................................................ 291
4.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 291
4.2.2 Standard Allowable Pulling Resistance .................................................................................. 292
4.2.3 Maximum Pulling Resistance of Single Pile............................................................................ 292
4.2.4 Examination of Tensile Stress of Pile Materials...................................................................... 293
4.2.5 Matters to Be Considered for Obtaining Allowable Pulling Resistance of Piles...................... 293
4.3 Allowable Lateral Bearing Capacity of Piles ................................................................................. 293
4.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 293
4.3.2 Estimation of Allowable Lateral Bearing Capacity of Piles ..................................................... 295
4.3.3 Estimation of Pile Behavior Using Loading Tests ................................................................... 295
4.3.4 Estimation of Pile Behavior Using Analytical Methods ........................................................... 295
4.3.5 Consideration of Pile Group Action......................................................................................... 301
4.3.6 Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles ............................................................................. 301
4.4 Pile Design in General ...................................................................................................................... 304
4.4.1 Load Sharing .......................................................................................................................... 304
4.4.2 Load Distribution..................................................................................................................... 305
4.4.3 Distance between Centers of Piles......................................................................................... 305
4.4.4 Allowable Stresses for Pile Materials...................................................................................... 305
4.5 Detailed Design ................................................................................................................................. 306
4.5.1 Examination of Loads during Construction ............................................................................. 306
4.5.2 Design of Joints between Piles and Structure ........................................................................ 307
4.5.3 Joints of Piles.......................................................................................................................... 308
4.5.4 Change of Plate Thickness or Materials of Steel Pipe Piles................................................... 308
4.5.5 Other Points for Caution in Design ......................................................................................... 308
Chapter 5 Settlement of Foundations ..................................................................................................................... 310
5.1 Stress in Soil Mass ........................................................................................................................... 310
5.2 Immediate Settlement....................................................................................................................... 310
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CONTENTS

5.3 Consolidation Settlement .................................................................................................................310


5.4 Lateral Displacement ........................................................................................................................312
5.5 Differential Settlements ....................................................................................................................312
Chapter 6 Stability of Slopes ......................................................................................................................................314
6.1 General................................................................................................................................................314
6.2 Stability Analysis ................................................................................................................................315
6.2.1 Stability Analysis Using Circular Slip Surface Method ............................................................315
6.2.2 Stability Analysis Assuming Slip Surfaces Other Than Circular Arc Slip Surface...................316
Chapter 7 Soil Improvement Methods .....................................................................................................................318
7.1 General................................................................................................................................................318
7.2 Replacement Method ........................................................................................................................318
7.3 Vertical Drain Method .......................................................................................................................318
7.3.1
Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................318
7.3.2
Determination of Height and Width of Fill................................................................................319
[1] Height and Width of Fill Required for Soil Improvement ..................................................319
[2] Height and Width of Fill Required for Stability of Fill Embankment ..................................319
7.3.3 Design of Drain Piles...............................................................................................................319
[1] Drain Piles and Sand Mat.................................................................................................319
[2] Interval of Drain Piles .......................................................................................................320
7.4 Deep Mixing Method .........................................................................................................................322
7.4.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................322
[1] Scope of Application.........................................................................................................322
[2] Basic Concept ..................................................................................................................323
7.4.2 Assumptions for Dimensions of Stabilized Body.....................................................................323
[1] Mixture Design of Stabilized Soil......................................................................................323
[2] Allowable Stress of Stabilized Body .................................................................................324
7.4.3 Calculation of External Forces ................................................................................................325
7.5 Lightweight Treated Soil Method ....................................................................................................326
7.5.1 Outline of Lightweight Treated Soil Method ............................................................................326
7.5.2 Basic Design Concept.............................................................................................................326
7.5.3 Mixture Design of Treated Soil................................................................................................327
7.5.4 Examination of Area to Be Treated .........................................................................................328
7.5.5 Workability Verification Tests ..................................................................................................328
7.6 Replacement Method with Granulated Blast Furnace Slag ........................................................328
7.6.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................328
7.6.2 Physical Properties of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag ...........................................................328
7.7 Premixing Method..............................................................................................................................329
7.7.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................329
[1] Scope of Application.........................................................................................................329
[2] Consideration for Design..................................................................................................329
7.7.2 Preliminary Survey ..................................................................................................................329
7.7.3 Determination of Strength of Treated Soil...............................................................................330
7.7.4 Mixture Design of Treated Soil................................................................................................330
7.7.5 Examination of Area of Improvement......................................................................................331
7.8 Active Earth Pressure of Solidified Geotechnical Materials........................................................333
7.8.1 Scope of Application ...............................................................................................................333
7.8.2 Active Earth Pressure .............................................................................................................333
[1] Outline ..............................................................................................................................333
[2] Strength Parameters ........................................................................................................334
[3] Calculation of Active Earth Pressure................................................................................334
[4] Case of Limited Area of Subsoil Improvement .................................................................335
7.9 Sand Compaction Pile Method (for Sandy Subsoil) .....................................................................336
7.9.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................336
7.9.2 Sand Volume to Be Supplied ..................................................................................................336
7.9.3 Design Based on Trial Execution ............................................................................................338
7.10 Sand Compaction Pile Method (for Cohesive Subsoil) ...............................................................339
7.10.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................339
[1] Scope of Application.........................................................................................................339
[2] Basic Concept ..................................................................................................................339
7.10.2 Strength and Permeability of Sand Piles.................................................................................339
7.10.3 Shear Strength of Improved Subsoil .......................................................................................339
7.10.4 Stability Analysis .....................................................................................................................340
7.10.5 Examining Consolidation.........................................................................................................341

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Part VI Navigation Channels and Basins


Chapter 1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 345
Chapter 2 Navigation Channels ................................................................................................................................ 346
2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 346
2.2 Alignment of Navigation Channel .................................................................................................. 346
2.3 Width of Navigation Channel ........................................................................................................... 347
2.4 Depth of Navigation Channel .......................................................................................................... 348
2.5 Length of Navigation Channel at Harbor Entrance ...................................................................... 348
2.6 Calmness of Navigation Channel ................................................................................................... 348
Chapter 3 Navigation Channels outside Breakwaters ....................................................................................... 350
3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 350
3.2 Width of Navigation Channel ........................................................................................................... 350
3.3 Depth of Navigation Channel .......................................................................................................... 350
Chapter 4 Basins............................................................................................................................................................ 351
4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 351
4.2 Location and Area of Basin ............................................................................................................. 351
4.2.1 Location .................................................................................................................................. 351
4.2.2 Area of Basin Used for Anchorage or Mooring ....................................................................... 351
4.2.3 Area of Basin Used for Ship Maneuvering.............................................................................. 352
[1] Turning Basin................................................................................................................... 352
[2] Mooring / Unmooring Basin ............................................................................................. 353
4.3 Depth of Basin ................................................................................................................................... 353
4.4 Calmness of Basin ............................................................................................................................ 353
4.5 Timber Sorting Pond ......................................................................................................................... 354
Chapter 5 Small Craft Basins ..................................................................................................................................... 355
Chapter 6 Maintenance of Navigation Channels and Basins .......................................................................... 355
6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 355

Part VII Protective Facilities for Harbors


Chapter 1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 357
1.1 General Consideration ..................................................................................................................... 357
1.2 Maintenance....................................................................................................................................... 357
Chapter 2 Breakwaters ................................................................................................................................................ 358
2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 358
2.2 Layout of Breakwaters ...................................................................................................................... 358
2.3 Design Conditions of Breakwaters ................................................................................................. 359
2.4 Selection of Structural Types .......................................................................................................... 359
2.5 Determination of Cross Section ...................................................................................................... 362
2.5.1 Upright Breakwater ................................................................................................................. 362
2.5.2 Composite Breakwater ........................................................................................................... 363
2.5.3 Sloping Breakwater................................................................................................................. 363
2.5.4 Caisson Type Breakwater Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks ........................ 364
2.6 External Forces for Stability Calculation ........................................................................................ 364
2.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 364
2.6.2 Wave Forces........................................................................................................................... 365
2.6.3 Hydrostatic Pressure .............................................................................................................. 365
2.6.4 Buoyancy ................................................................................................................................ 365
2.6.5 Deadweight............................................................................................................................. 365
2.6.6 Stability during Earthuakes ..................................................................................................... 365
2.7 Stability Calculation........................................................................................................................... 365
2.7.1 Stability Calculation of Upright Section................................................................................... 365
2.7.2 Stability Calculation of Sloping Section .................................................................................. 369
2.7.3 Stability Calculation of Whole Section .................................................................................... 369
2.7.4 Stability Calculation for Head and Corner of Breakwater ....................................................... 369
2.8 Details of Structures ......................................................................................................................... 370
2.8.1 Upright Breakwater ................................................................................................................. 370
2.8.2 Composite Breakwater ........................................................................................................... 371
2.8.3 Sloping Breakwater................................................................................................................. 372

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CONTENTS

2.8.4 Caisson Type Breakwater Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks.........................372


2.9 Detailed Design of Upright Section .................................................................................................372
2.10 Breakwaters for Timber-Handling Facilities ..................................................................................372
2.10.1
Breakwaters for Timber Storage Ponds and Timber Sorting Ponds .......................................372
2.10.2
Fences to Prevent Timber Drifting ..........................................................................................373
2.11 Storm Surge Protection Breakwater ...............................................................................................373
2.12 Tsunami Protection Breakwater ......................................................................................................373
Chapter 3 Other Types of Breakwaters ..................................................................................................................376
3.1 Selection of Structural Type .............................................................................................................376
3.2 Gravity Type Special Breakwaters..................................................................................................377
3.2.1 General ...................................................................................................................................377
3.2.2 Upright Wave-Absorbing Block Breakwater ............................................................................378
[1] General.............................................................................................................................378
[2] Crest Elevation .................................................................................................................378
[3] Wave Force ......................................................................................................................379
3.2.3 Wave-Absorbing Caisson Breakwater ....................................................................................379
[1] General.............................................................................................................................379
[2] Determination of Target Waves to Be Absorbed..............................................................380
[3] Determination of Dimensions for Wave-Absorbing Section .............................................380
[4] Wave Force for Examination of Structural Stability ..........................................................380
[5] Wave Force for Design of Structural Members ................................................................380
3.2.4 Sloping-Top Caisson Breakwater............................................................................................380
[1] General.............................................................................................................................380
[2] Wave Force ......................................................................................................................381
3.3 Non-Gravity Type Breakwaters .......................................................................................................382
3.3.1 Curtain Wall Breakwater .........................................................................................................382
[1] General.............................................................................................................................382
[2] Wave Force ......................................................................................................................384
[3] Design of Piles .................................................................................................................384
3.3.2 Floating Breakwater ................................................................................................................384
[1] General.............................................................................................................................384
[2] Selection of Design Conditions ........................................................................................385
[3] Design of Mooring System ...............................................................................................385
[4] Design of Floating Body Structure....................................................................................386
Chapter 4 Locks..............................................................................................................................................................388
4.1 Selection of Location .........................................................................................................................388
4.2 Size and Layout of Lock ...................................................................................................................388
4.3 Selection of Structural Type .............................................................................................................389
4.3.1 Gate ........................................................................................................................................389
4.3.2 Lock Chamber.........................................................................................................................389
4.4 External Forces and Loads Acting on Lock...................................................................................389
4.5 Pumping and Drainage System ......................................................................................................389
4.6 Auxiliary Facilities ..............................................................................................................................389
Chapter 5 Facilities to Prevent Shoaling and Siltation .......................................................................................390
5.1 General................................................................................................................................................390
5.2 Jetty .....................................................................................................................................................390
5.2.1 Layout of Jetty.........................................................................................................................390
5.2.2 Details of Jetty.........................................................................................................................391
5.3 Group of Groins .................................................................................................................................392
5.4 Training Jetties ...................................................................................................................................392
5.4.1 Layout of Training Jetties ........................................................................................................392
5.4.2 Water Depth at Tip of Training Jetty .......................................................................................393
5.4.3 Structure of Training Jetty .......................................................................................................393
5.5 Facilities to Trap Littoral Transport and Sediment Flowing out of Rivers .................................393
5.6 Countermeasures against Wind-Blown Sand ...............................................................................394
5.6.1 General ...................................................................................................................................394
5.6.2 Selection of Countermeasures................................................................................................394
Chapter 6 Revetments ..................................................................................................................................................396
6.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................396
6.2 Design Conditions .............................................................................................................................396
6.3 Structural Stability..............................................................................................................................398
6.4 Determination of Cross Section ......................................................................................................398
6.5 Details..................................................................................................................................................398

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Part VIII Mooring Facilities


Chapter 1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 401
1.1 General Consideration ..................................................................................................................... 401
1.2 Maintenance of Mooring Facilities .................................................................................................. 401
Chapter 2 Dimensions of Mooring Facilities.......................................................................................................... 402
2.1 Length and Water Depth of Berths ................................................................................................. 402
2.2 Crown Heights of Mooring Facilities............................................................................................... 405
2.3 Ship Clearance for Mooring Facilities ............................................................................................ 405
2.4 Design Water Depth ......................................................................................................................... 405
2.5 Protection against Scouring............................................................................................................. 406
2.6 Ancillary Facilities .............................................................................................................................. 406
Chapter 3 Structural Types of Mooring Facilities ................................................................................................ 407
Chapter 4 Gravity Type Quaywalls .......................................................................................................................... 408
4.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................ 408
4.2 External Forces and Loads Acting on Walls ................................................................................. 408
4.3 Stability Calculations......................................................................................................................... 410
4.3.1 Items to Be Considered in Stability Calculations .................................................................... 410
4.3.2 Examination against Sliding of Wall........................................................................................ 410
4.3.3 Examination Concerning Bearing Capacity of Foundation ..................................................... 411
4.3.4 Examination Concerning Overturning of Wall......................................................................... 411
4.3.5 Examination on Soft Foundation............................................................................................. 411
4.4 Stability Calculations of Cellular Concrete Blocks ....................................................................... 412
4.5 Effects of Backfill ............................................................................................................................... 413
4.6 Detailed Design ................................................................................................................................. 414
Chapter 5 Sheet Pile Quaywalls ............................................................................................................................... 415
5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 415
5.2 External Forces Acting on Sheet Pile Wall ................................................................................... 415
5.2.1 External Forces to Be Considered.......................................................................................... 415
5.3 Design of Sheet Pile Wall ................................................................................................................ 417
5.3.1 Setting Level of Tie Rod ......................................................................................................... 417
5.3.2 Embedded Length of Sheet Piles ........................................................................................... 417
5.3.3 Bending Moment of Sheet Piles and Reaction at Tie Rod Setting Point ................................ 418
5.3.4 Cross Section of Sheet Piles .................................................................................................. 419
5.3.5 Consideration of the Effect of Section Rigidity of Sheet Piles ................................................ 419
5.4 Design of Tie Rods ........................................................................................................................... 424
5.4.1 Tension of Tie Rod ................................................................................................................. 424
5.4.2 Cross Section of Tie Rod........................................................................................................ 424
5.5 Design of Wale .................................................................................................................................. 425
5.6 Examination for Circular Slip ........................................................................................................... 425
5.7 Design of Anchorage Work .............................................................................................................. 426
5.7.1 Selection of Structural Type of Anchorage Work.................................................................... 426
5.7.2 Location of Anchorage Work .................................................................................................. 426
5.7.3 Design of Anchorage Work..................................................................................................... 427
5.8 Detailed Design ................................................................................................................................. 428
5.8.1 Coping .................................................................................................................................... 428
5.8.2 Fitting of Tie Rods and Wale to Sheet Piles ........................................................................... 429
5.8.3 Tie Rod ................................................................................................................................... 429
5.8.4 Fitting of Tie Rods to Anchorage Work................................................................................... 429
5.9 Special Notes for Design of Sheet Pile Wall on Soft Ground..................................................... 429
Chapter 6 Sheet Pile Quaywalls with Relieving Platform ................................................................................. 431
6.1 Scope of Application ......................................................................................................................... 431
6.2 Principles of Design .......................................................................................................................... 431
6.3 Determination of Height and Width of Relieving Platform .......................................................... 431
6.4 Earth Pressure and Residual Water Pressure Acting on Sheet Piles ...................................... 432
6.5 Design of Sheet Pile Wall ................................................................................................................ 432
6.5.1 Embedded Length of Sheet Piles ........................................................................................... 432
6.5.2 Cross Section of Sheet Piles .................................................................................................. 433
6.6 Design of Relieving Platform and Relieving Platform Piles ........................................................ 433
6.6.1 External Forces Acting on Relieving Platform ........................................................................ 433
6.6.2 Design of Relieving Platform .................................................................................................. 433
6.6.3 Design of Piles ........................................................................................................................ 434

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CONTENTS

6.7 Examination of Stability as Gravity Type Wall ..............................................................................434


6.8 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip................................................................................435
Chapter 7 Steel Sheet Pile Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls ................................................................................436
7.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................436
7.2 External Forces Acting on Steel Sheet Pile Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywall ................................437
7.3 Examination of Wall Width against Shear Deformation ..............................................................438
7.3.1
General ...................................................................................................................................438
7.3.2
Equivalent Width of Wall .........................................................................................................439
7.3.3
Calculation of Deformation Moment........................................................................................439
7.3.4
Calculation of Resisting Moment.............................................................................................440
7.4 Examination of Stability of Wall Body as a Whole........................................................................443
7.4.1 General ...................................................................................................................................443
7.4.2 Modulus of Subgrade Reaction...............................................................................................443
7.4.3 Calculation of Subgrade Reaction and Wall Displacement.....................................................443
7.5 Examination of Bearing Capacity of the Ground ..........................................................................448
7.6 Examination against Sliding of Wall ...............................................................................................448
7.7 Examination of Displacement of Wall Top .....................................................................................448
7.8 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip................................................................................449
7.9 Layout of Cells and Arcs ..................................................................................................................449
7.10 Calculation of Hoop Tension............................................................................................................449
7.11 Design of T-Shaped Sheet Pile .......................................................................................................450
7.11.1 General ...................................................................................................................................450
7.11.2 Structure of T-Shaped Sheet Pile ...........................................................................................450
7.12 Detailed Design..................................................................................................................................451
7.12.1 Design of Pile to Support Coping ............................................................................................451
7.12.2 Design of Coping.....................................................................................................................451
Chapter 8 Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls ..........................................................................................452
8.1 Scope of Application .........................................................................................................................452
8.2 Placement-Type Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls ........................................................452
8.2.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................452
8.2.2 External Forces Acting on Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead .......................................................453
8.2.3 Examination of Wall Width against Shear Deformation ..........................................................453
8.2.4 Examination of Stability of Wall Body as a Whole...................................................................454
8.2.5 Examination of Bearing Capacity of the Ground .....................................................................455
8.2.6 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip..........................................................................455
8.2.7 Determination of Thickness of Steel Plate of Cell Shell ..........................................................455
8.2.8 Layout of Cells and Arcs .........................................................................................................456
8.2.9 Detailed Design.......................................................................................................................456
8.3 Embedded-Type Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls........................................................456
8.3.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................456
8.3.2 External Forces Acting on Embedded-Type Steel Plate Celluler-Bulkhead............................457
8.3.3 Examination of Wall Width against Shear Deformation ..........................................................457
8.3.4 Examination of Stability of Wall Body as a Whole...................................................................458
8.3.5 Examination of Bearing Capacity of the Ground .....................................................................458
8.3.6 Examination against Sliding of Wall ........................................................................................458
8.3.7 Examination of Displacement of Wall Top ..............................................................................458
8.3.8 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip..........................................................................458
8.3.9 Layout of Cells and Arcs .........................................................................................................458
8.3.10 Determination of Plate Thickness of Cell Shell and Arc Section.............................................458
8.3.11 Joints and Stiffeners................................................................................................................459
8.3.12 Detailed Design.......................................................................................................................459
Chapter 9 Open-Type Wharves on Vertical Piles ................................................................................................460
9.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................460
9.2 Layout and Dimensions ....................................................................................................................462
9.2.1 Size of Deck Block and Layout of Piles...................................................................................462
9.2.2 Dimensions of Superstructure.................................................................................................462
9.2.3 Arrangement of Fenders and Bollards ....................................................................................463
9.3 External Forces Acting on Open-Type Wharf ...............................................................................463
9.3.1 Design External Forces...........................................................................................................463
9.3.2 Calculation of Fender Reaction Force.....................................................................................464
9.4 Assumptions Concerning Sea Bottom Ground .............................................................................464
9.4.1 Determination of Slope Inclination ..........................................................................................464
9.4.2 Virtual Ground Surface............................................................................................................465
9.5 Design of Piles ...................................................................................................................................465
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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

9.5.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 465


9.5.2 Coefficient of Horizontal Subgrade Reaction.......................................................................... 465
9.5.3 Virtual Fixed Point................................................................................................................... 466
9.5.4 Member Forces Acting on Individual Piles.............................................................................. 466
9.5.5 Cross-Sectional Stresses of Piles........................................................................................... 468
9.5.6 Examination of Embedded Length for Bearing Capacity ........................................................ 468
9.5.7 Examination of Embedded Length for Lateral Resistance...................................................... 468
9.5.8 Examination of Pile Joints....................................................................................................... 468
9.5.9 Change of Plate Thickness or Material of Steel Pipe Pile ...................................................... 468
9.6 Examination of Earthquake-Resistant Performance ................................................................... 469
9.6.1 Assumption of Cross Section for Earthquake-Resistant Performance Examination .............. 470
9.6.2 Examination Method of Earthquake-Resistant Performance.................................................. 470
9.6.3 Determination of Seismic Motion for Examination of Earthquake-Resistant Performance..... 471
9.6.4 Examination of Load Carrying Capacity Using Simplified Method.......................................... 473
9.6.5 Examination of Load Carrying Capacity Using Elasto-Plastic Analysis .................................. 475
9.7 Design of Earth-Retaining Section ................................................................................................. 477
9.8 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip ............................................................................... 477
9.9 Detailed Design ................................................................................................................................. 478
9.9.1 Load Combinations for Superstructure Design....................................................................... 478
9.9.2 Calculation of Reinforcing Bar Arrangement of Superstructure .............................................. 478
9.9.3 Design of Pile Head ................................................................................................................ 478
Chapter 10 Open-Type Wharves on Coupled Raking Piles ............................................................................... 480
10.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................ 480
10.2 Layout and Dimensions .................................................................................................................... 481
10.2.1
Size of Deck Block and Layout of Piles .................................................................................. 481
10.2.2
Dimensions of Supersutructure .............................................................................................. 481
10.2.3
Arrangement of Fenders and Bollards.................................................................................... 481
10.3 External Forces Acting on Open-Type Wharf on Coupled Raking Piles .................................. 481
10.3.1 Design External Forces .......................................................................................................... 481
10.3.2 Calculation of Fender Reaction Force .................................................................................... 481
10.4 Assumptions Concerning Sea Bottom Ground............................................................................. 481
10.4.1 Determination of Slope Inclination .......................................................................................... 481
10.4.2 Virtual Ground Surface ........................................................................................................... 481
10.5 Determination of Forces Acting on Piles and Cross Sections of Piles ..................................... 481
10.5.1 Horizontal Force Transmitted to Heads of Coupled Raking Piles........................................... 481
10.5.2 Vertical Load Transmitted to Heads of Coupled Raking Piles ................................................ 483
10.5.3 Pushing-In and Pulling-Out Forces of Coupled Raking Piles ................................................. 483
10.5.4 Cross-Sectional Stresses of Piles........................................................................................... 483
10.6 Examination of Strength of Wharf in the Direction of Its Face Line .......................................... 484
10.7 Embedded Length of Raking Pile ................................................................................................... 484
10.8 Design of Earth-Retaining Section ................................................................................................. 484
10.9 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip ............................................................................... 484
10.10 Detailed Design ................................................................................................................................. 484
Chapter 11 Detached Pier ............................................................................................................................................. 485
11.1 Scope of Application ......................................................................................................................... 485
11.2 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................ 485
11.3 Design of Detached Pier .................................................................................................................. 485
11.3.1 Layout and Dimensions .......................................................................................................... 485
11.3.2 External Forces and Loads..................................................................................................... 485
11.3.3 Design of Piers ....................................................................................................................... 486
11.3.4 Design of Girder...................................................................................................................... 486
11.4 Ancillary Equipment .......................................................................................................................... 486
11.5 Detailed Design ................................................................................................................................. 486
11.5.1 Superstructure ........................................................................................................................ 486
11.5.2 Gangways .............................................................................................................................. 486
Chapter 12 Floating Piers .............................................................................................................................................. 487
12.1 Scope of Application ......................................................................................................................... 487
12.2 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................ 488
12.3 Design of Pontoon............................................................................................................................. 488
12.3.1 Dimensions of Pontoon........................................................................................................... 488
12.3.2 External Forces and Loads Acting on Pontoon ...................................................................... 488
12.3.3 Stability of Pontoon................................................................................................................. 488
12.3.4 Design of Individual Parts of Pontoon..................................................................................... 489
12.4 Design of Mooring System............................................................................................................... 490
-xiv-
CONTENTS

12.4.1 Mooring Method ......................................................................................................................490


12.4.2 Design of Mooring Chain.........................................................................................................490
[1] Design External Forces ....................................................................................................490
[2] Setting of Chain................................................................................................................490
[3] Diameter of Chain ............................................................................................................490
12.4.3 Design of Mooring Anchor.......................................................................................................492
[1] Design External Forces ....................................................................................................492
[2] Design of Mooring Anchor................................................................................................492
12.5 Design of Access Bridge and Gangway ........................................................................................492
12.5.1 Dimensions and Inclination .....................................................................................................492
12.5.2 Design of Access Bridge and Gangway..................................................................................493
12.5.3 Adjusting Tower ......................................................................................................................493
Chapter 13 Dolphins ........................................................................................................................................................494
13.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................494
13.2 Layout ..................................................................................................................................................494
13.3 External Forces Acting on Dolphins ...............................................................................................495
13.4 Pile Type Dolphins ............................................................................................................................495
13.5 Steel Cellular-Bulkhead Type Dolphins .........................................................................................495
13.6 Caisson Type Dolphins .....................................................................................................................496
Chapter 14 Slipways and Shallow Draft Quays ......................................................................................................497
14.1 Slipways ..............................................................................................................................................497
14.1.1
Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................497
14.1.2
Location of Slipway .................................................................................................................497
14.1.3
Dimensions of Individual Parts................................................................................................497
[1] Elevations of Individual Parts ...........................................................................................497
[2] Slipway Length and Background Space...........................................................................498
[3] Water Depth .....................................................................................................................498
[4] Gradient of Slipway ..........................................................................................................498
[5] Basin Area........................................................................................................................498
14.1.4 Front Wall and Pavement........................................................................................................499
[1] Front Wall .........................................................................................................................499
[2] Pavement .........................................................................................................................499
14.2 Shallow Draft Quay ...........................................................................................................................499
Chapter 15 Air-Cushion Vehicle Landing Facilities ...............................................................................................500
15.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................500
15.2 Location ...............................................................................................................................................501
15.3 Air-Cushion Vehicle Landing Facilities ...........................................................................................501
15.4 Dimensions of Individual Parts ........................................................................................................501
Chapter 16 Mooring Buoys and Mooring Posts ......................................................................................................502
16.1 Mooring Buoys ...................................................................................................................................502
16.1.1
Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................502
16.1.2
Tractive Force Acting on Mooring Buoy ..................................................................................503
16.1.3
Design of Individual Parts of Mooring Buoy ............................................................................504
[1] Mooring Anchor ................................................................................................................504
[2] Sinker and Sinker Chain...................................................................................................504
[3] Ground Chain ...................................................................................................................505
[4] Main Chain .......................................................................................................................506
[5] Floating Body ...................................................................................................................507
16.2 Mooring Posts ....................................................................................................................................507
Chapter 17 Other Types of Mooring Facilities.........................................................................................................508
17.1 Quaywall of Wave-Absorbing Type ................................................................................................508
17.1.1
Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................508
17.1.2
Determination of Structural Form ............................................................................................508
17.2 Cantilever Sheet Pile Quaywall .......................................................................................................509
17.2.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................509
17.2.2 External Forces Acting on Sheet Pile Wall..............................................................................510
17.2.3 Determination of Cross Section of Sheet Piles ....................................................................... 511
17.2.4 Determination of Embedded Length of Sheet Piles ................................................................ 511
17.2.5 Examination of Displacement of Sheet Pile Crown................................................................. 511
17.2.6 External Forces during Construction.......................................................................................512
17.2.7 Detailed Design.......................................................................................................................512
17.3 Sheet Pile Quaywall with Batter Anchor Piles ..............................................................................512
17.3.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................512

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

17.3.2 External Forces Acting on Sheet Pile Wall with Batter Anchor Piles ...................................... 513
17.3.3 Calculation of Horizontal and Vertical Forces Acting on Connecting Point ............................ 513
17.3.4 Determination of Cross Sections of Sheet Pile and Batter Anchor Pile.................................. 513
17.3.5 Determination of Embedded Lengths of Sheet Pile and Batter Anchor Pile........................... 513
17.3.6 Detailed Design ...................................................................................................................... 513
17.4 Sheet Pile Quaywall with Batter Piles in Front ............................................................................. 514
17.4.1 Principle of Design.................................................................................................................. 514
17.4.2 Layout and Dimensions .......................................................................................................... 515
17.4.3 Design of Sheet Pile Wall ....................................................................................................... 515
17.4.4 Design of Open-Type Superstructure ..................................................................................... 515
17.4.5 Embedded Length .................................................................................................................. 516
17.4.6 Detailed Design ...................................................................................................................... 516
17.5 Double Sheet Pile Quaywall ............................................................................................................ 516
17.5.1 Principle of Design.................................................................................................................. 516
17.5.2 External Forces Acting on Double Sheet Pile Quaywall ......................................................... 517
17.5.3 Design of Double Sheet Pile Quaywall ................................................................................... 517
Chapter 18 Transitional Parts of Quaywalls ............................................................................................................ 519
18.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................ 519
18.2 Transitional Part Where Frontal Water Depth Varies .................................................................. 519
18.3 Transitional Part Where Quaywalls of Different Type Are Connected ..................................... 519
18.4 Outward Projecting Corner .............................................................................................................. 519
Chapter 19 Ancillary Facilities ...................................................................................................................................... 520
19.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 520
19.2 Mooring Equipment ........................................................................................................................... 520
19.3 Mooring Posts, Bollards, and Mooring Rings ............................................................................... 520
19.3.1
General ................................................................................................................................... 520
19.3.2
Arrangement of Mooring Posts, Bollards and Mooring Rings................................................. 521
19.3.3
Tractive Force of Vessel ......................................................................................................... 521
19.3.4
Structure ................................................................................................................................. 522
19.4 Fender System .................................................................................................................................. 522
19.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 522
19.4.2 Arrangement of Fenders......................................................................................................... 523
19.4.3 Berthing Energy of Vessel ...................................................................................................... 523
19.4.4 Selection of Fender................................................................................................................. 523
19.5 Safety Facilities ................................................................................................................................. 525
19.5.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 525
19.5.2 Skirt Guard.............................................................................................................................. 525
19.5.3 Fence and Rope ..................................................................................................................... 525
19.5.4 Signs or Notices...................................................................................................................... 525
19.5.5 Curbing ................................................................................................................................... 525
19.5.6 Fire Fighting Equipment and Alarm Systems ......................................................................... 525
19.6 Service Facilities ............................................................................................................................... 525
19.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 525
19.6.2 Lighting Facilities .................................................................................................................... 525
19.6.3 Facilities for Passenger Embarkation and Disembarkation .................................................... 525
19.6.4 Vehicle Ramp ......................................................................................................................... 526
19.6.5 Water Supply Facilities ........................................................................................................... 526
19.6.6 Drainage Facilities .................................................................................................................. 526
19.6.7 Fueling and Electric Power Supply Facilities .......................................................................... 526
19.6.8 Signs or Notices...................................................................................................................... 527
19.7 Stairways and Ladders ..................................................................................................................... 527
19.8 Lifesaving Facilities ........................................................................................................................... 527
19.9 Curbing ............................................................................................................................................... 527
19.10 Vehicle Ramp..................................................................................................................................... 527
19.11 Signs, Notices and Protective Fences ........................................................................................... 527
19.11.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 527
19.11.2 Provision of Signs ................................................................................................................... 527
19.11.3 Types and Location of Signs .................................................................................................. 528
19.11.4 Position of Sign....................................................................................................................... 528
19.11.5 Structure of Sign ..................................................................................................................... 529
19.11.6 Materials ................................................................................................................................. 530
19.11.7 Maintenance and Management .............................................................................................. 530
19.11.8 Protective Fences ................................................................................................................... 530
19.11.9 Barricades............................................................................................................................... 531

-xvi-
CONTENTS

19.12 Lighting Facilities ...............................................................................................................................531


19.12.1 General ...................................................................................................................................531
19.12.2 Standard Intensity of Illumination ............................................................................................531
[1] Definition ..........................................................................................................................531
[2] Standard Intensity of Illumination for Outdoor Lighting ....................................................531
[3] Standard Intensity of Illumination for Indoor Lighting .......................................................532
19.12.3 Selection of Light Source ........................................................................................................532
19.12.4 Selection of Lighting Equipment..............................................................................................534
[1] Outdoor Lighting...............................................................................................................534
[2] Indoor Lighting..................................................................................................................534
19.12.5 Design of Lighting ...................................................................................................................535
19.12.6 Maintenance and Management...............................................................................................537
[1] Inspections .......................................................................................................................537
[2] Cleaning and Repair.........................................................................................................538
Chapter 20 Aprons ...........................................................................................................................................................540
20.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................540
20.2 Type of Apron .....................................................................................................................................540
20.2.1 Width ......................................................................................................................................540
20.2.2 Gradient ..................................................................................................................................540
20.2.3 Type of Pavement ...................................................................................................................540
20.3 Countermeasures against Settlement of Apron............................................................................540
20.4 Load Conditions .................................................................................................................................541
20.5 Design of Concrete Pavement ........................................................................................................541
20.5.1 Design Conditions ...................................................................................................................541
20.5.2 Composition of Pavement .......................................................................................................542
20.5.3 Joints.......................................................................................................................................545
20.5.4 Tie-Bar and Slip-Bar................................................................................................................547
20.5.5 End Protection.........................................................................................................................547
20.6 Design of Asphalt Pavement ...........................................................................................................547
20.6.1 Design Conditions ...................................................................................................................547
20.6.2 Composition of Pavement .......................................................................................................548
20.6.3 End Protection.........................................................................................................................551
20.7 Design of Concrete Block Pavement..............................................................................................551
20.7.1 Design Conditions ...................................................................................................................551
20.7.2 Composition of Pavement .......................................................................................................552
20.7.3 Joints.......................................................................................................................................553
Chapter 21 Foundation for Cargo Handling Equipment .......................................................................................554
21.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................554
21.2 External Forces Acting on Foundation ...........................................................................................554
21.3 Design of Foundation with Piles ......................................................................................................555
21.3.1
Concrete Beam .......................................................................................................................555
21.3.2
Bearing Capacity of Piles ........................................................................................................555
21.4 Design of Foundation without Piles ................................................................................................556
21.4.1 Examination of Effects on Wharf.............................................................................................556
21.4.2 Concrete Beam .......................................................................................................................556

Part IX Other Port Facilities


Chapter 1 Port Traffic Facilities .................................................................................................................................559
1.1 General................................................................................................................................................559
1.1.1 Scope of Application ...............................................................................................................559
1.1.2 Operation and Maintenance of Facilities for Land Traffic........................................................559
1.2 Roads ..................................................................................................................................................559
1.2.1 General ...................................................................................................................................559
1.2.2 Design Vehicles ......................................................................................................................559
1.2.3 Roadways and Lanes..............................................................................................................559
1.2.4 Clearance Limit .......................................................................................................................560
1.2.5 Widening of Roads at Bends...................................................................................................561
1.2.6 Longitudinal Slope...................................................................................................................561
1.2.7 Level Crossings.......................................................................................................................562
1.2.8 Pavement ................................................................................................................................562
1.2.9 Signs .......................................................................................................................................563
1.3 Car Parks ............................................................................................................................................564
1.3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................564

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

1.3.2 Size and Location ................................................................................................................... 564


1.4 Railways ............................................................................................................................................. 567
1.5 Heliports .............................................................................................................................................. 567
1.6 Tunnels ............................................................................................................................................... 567
1.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 567
1.6.2 Principle of Planning and Design............................................................................................ 567
1.6.3 Depth of Immersion ................................................................................................................ 568
1.6.4 Structure and Length of Immersed Tunnel Elements ............................................................. 568
1.6.5 Ventilation Towers .................................................................................................................. 568
1.6.6 Access Roads ......................................................................................................................... 569
1.6.7 Calculation of Stability of Immersed Tunnel Section .............................................................. 569
1.6.8 Design of Immersed Tunnel Elements.................................................................................... 569
1.6.9 Joints ...................................................................................................................................... 570
1.6.10 Control and Operation Facilities ............................................................................................. 570
1.7 Bridges ................................................................................................................................................ 570
1.7.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 570
1.7.2 Design Requirements ............................................................................................................. 570
1.7.3 Structural Durability ................................................................................................................ 571
1.7.4 Fender System ....................................................................................................................... 571
Chapter 2 Cargo Sorting Facilities ........................................................................................................................... 573
2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 573
2.2 Cargo Sorting Areas ......................................................................................................................... 573
2.3 Quay Sheds ....................................................................................................................................... 573
2.4 Cargo Handling Equipment ............................................................................................................. 573
2.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 573
2.4.2 Oil Handling Equipment .......................................................................................................... 574
2.4.3 Operation and Maintenance of Cargo Handling Equipment ................................................... 574
2.5 Timber Sorting Areas ........................................................................................................................ 574
2.6 Sorting Facilities for Marine Products ............................................................................................ 575
2.7 Sorting Facilities for Hazardous Cargo .......................................................................................... 575
Chapter 3 Storage Facilities ....................................................................................................................................... 576
3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 576
3.2 Yards for Dangerous Cargo and Oil Storage Facilities ............................................................... 576
3.3 Other Storage Facilities .................................................................................................................... 576
Chapter 4 Facilities for Ship Services ..................................................................................................................... 577
4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 577
4.2 Water Supply Facilities ..................................................................................................................... 577
Chapter 5 Facilities for Passenger ........................................................................................................................... 578
5.1 Facilities for Passenger Boarding ................................................................................................... 578
5.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 578
5.1.2 Structural Types...................................................................................................................... 578
5.1.3 Design of Facilities for Passenger Boarding........................................................................... 578
5.1.4 Ancillary Facilities ................................................................................................................... 578
5.2 Passenger Building ........................................................................................................................... 579
5.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 579
5.2.2 Design of Passenger Buildings............................................................................................... 579
5.2.3 Ancillary Facilities ................................................................................................................... 579

Part X Special Purpose Wharves


Chapter 1 Container Terminals ................................................................................................................................. 581
1.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................ 581
1.2 Design of Mooring Facilities ............................................................................................................ 582
1.2.1 Length and Water Depth of Berths ......................................................................................... 582
1.2.2 Mooring Equipment................................................................................................................. 582
1.2.3 Fender System ....................................................................................................................... 583
1.3 Design of Land Facilities .................................................................................................................. 583
1.3.1 Apron ...................................................................................................................................... 583
1.3.2 Container Cranes.................................................................................................................... 583
1.3.3 Container Yard........................................................................................................................ 583
1.3.4 Container Freight Station........................................................................................................ 583
1.3.5 Maintenance Shop.................................................................................................................. 583

-xviii-
CONTENTS

1.3.6 Administration Building............................................................................................................583


1.3.7 Gates.......................................................................................................................................583
1.3.8 Ancillary Facilities....................................................................................................................583
Chapter 2 Ferry Terminals ..........................................................................................................................................584
2.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................584
2.2 Design of Mooring Facilities .............................................................................................................585
2.2.1 Length and Water Depth of Berths..........................................................................................585
2.2.2 Mooring Equipment .................................................................................................................585
2.2.3 Fender System........................................................................................................................586
2.2.4 Protection Works against Scouring .........................................................................................586
2.3 Design of Vehicle Ramp ...................................................................................................................586
2.3.1 Width, Length, Gradient, and Radius of Curvature .................................................................586
2.3.2 Ancillary Facilities and Signs...................................................................................................586
2.3.3 Design of Moving Parts ...........................................................................................................586
2.4 Facilities for Passenger Boarding ...................................................................................................586
2.4.1 Width, Length, Gradient, and Ancillary Facilities.....................................................................587
2.4.2 Design of Moving Parts ...........................................................................................................587
2.5 Design of Other Facilities .................................................................................................................587
2.5.1 Roads......................................................................................................................................587
2.5.2 Passageways ..........................................................................................................................587
2.5.3 Car Parks ................................................................................................................................587
2.5.4 Passenger Terminals ..............................................................................................................588
2.5.5 Safety Equipment....................................................................................................................588

Part XI Marinas
Chapter 1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................589
Chapter 2 Main Dimensions of Target Boats ........................................................................................................590
Chapter 3 Navigation Channels and Basins..........................................................................................................591
3.1 General................................................................................................................................................591
3.2 Navigation Channels .........................................................................................................................591
3.3 Mooring Basins ..................................................................................................................................591
Chapter 4 Protective Facilities ...................................................................................................................................592
Chapter 5 Mooring Facilities .......................................................................................................................................593
5.1 General................................................................................................................................................593
5.2 Design Conditions for Mooring Facilities .......................................................................................593
5.3 Floating Piers .....................................................................................................................................595
5.3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................595
5.3.2 Structure..................................................................................................................................595
5.3.3 Examination of Safety .............................................................................................................595
5.3.4 Structural Design.....................................................................................................................596
5.3.5 Mooring Method ......................................................................................................................596
5.3.6 Access Bridges .......................................................................................................................596
5.4 Ancillary Facilities ..............................................................................................................................597
5.5 Lifting / Lowering Frame Facilities ..................................................................................................597
Chapter 6 Facilities for Ship Services......................................................................................................................598
6.1 General................................................................................................................................................598
6.2 Land Storage Facilities .....................................................................................................................598
Chapter 7 Land Traffic Facilities................................................................................................................................599

INDEX

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

-xx-
Part I General
PART I GENERAL

Part I General

Chapter 1 General Rules


1.1 Scope of Application
The Ministerial Ordinance stipulating the Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities
(Ministry of Transport Ordinance No. 30, 1974; hereafter referred to simply as the Ministerial Ordinance)
and the Notification stipulating the Details of Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities
(Ministry of Transport Notification No. 181, 1999; hereafter referred to simply as the Notification), both of
which have been issued in line with Article 56-2 of the “Port and Harbour Law”, shall be applied to the
construction, improvement, and maintenance of port and harbor facilities.

[Commentary]
(1) The Ministerial Ordinance and the Notification (hereafter collectively referred to as the Technical Standards)
apply not to the port and harbor facilities stipulated in Article 2 of the “Port and Harbour Law”, but rather to
the port and harbor facilities stipulated in Article 19 of the Port and Harbour Law Enforcement Order.
Accordingly the Technical Standards also apply to facilities like navigation channels, basins, protective
facilities and mooring facilities of the marinas and privately owned ports, which are found in outside of the
legally designated port areas.
(2) Since the Technical Standards covers a wide rage of facilities, there will be cases where the items shown in the
Technical Standards may be inadequate for dealing with planning, designing, constructing, maintaining or
repairing of a particular individual structure of a port or harbor. There is also possibility that new items may be
added in the future in line with technical developments or innovations. With regard to matters for which there
are no stipulations in the Technical Standards, appropriate methods other than those mentioned in the Technical
Standards may be adopted, after confirming the safety of a structure in consideration using appropriate methods
such as model tests or trustworthy numerical calculations (following the main items of the Technical Standards).
(3) Figure C- 1.1.1 shows the statutory structure of the Technical Standards.
Port and Harbour Law Port and Harbour Law Port and Harbour Law
[Article 56-2] Enforcement Order Enforcement Regulations
(technical standards for [Article 19] [Article 28]
port and harbour facilities) (stipulation of facilities covered) (stipulation of facilities excluded
from coverage)
Port and Harbour Law Enforcement Order Port and Harbour Law Enforcement
Regulations
The Technical Standards
The Ministerial Ordinance

The Notification

Fig. C- 1.1.1 Statutory Structure of the Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities

(4) This document is intended to help individuals concerned with correct interpretation of the Technical Standards
and to facilitate right application of the Ministerial Ordinance and the Notification. This document is made up of
the main items, along with reference sections marked Commentary and Technical Notes, which supplement
the main items. The texts in large letters are the main items that describe the parts of the Notification and the
basic items that must be obeyed, regarding the items related to the Notification. The sections marked
Commentary mainly give the background to and the basis for the Notification, etc. The sections marked
Technical Notes provide investigation methods and/or standards that will be of reference value, when executing
actual design works, specific examples of structures, and other related materials.
(5) Design methods can be broadly classified into the methods that use the safety factors and the methods that use
the indices based on probability theory, according to the way of judging the safety of structures.
A safety factor is not an index that represents the degree of safety quantitatively. Rather, it is determined
through experience to compensate for the uncertainty in a variety of factors. In this document, the safety factors
indicate values that are considered by experience to be sufficiently safe under standard conditions. Depending
on the conditions, it may be acceptable to lower the values of safety factors, but when doing so it is necessary to
make a decision using prudent judgement based on sound reasoning.
In the case that the probability distributions of loads and structure strengths can be adequately approximated,
it is possible to use a reliability design method. Unlike the more traditional design methods in which safety
factors are used, a reliability design method makes it possible to gain a quantitative understanding of the

-1-
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

likelihood of the failure of structure in question and then to keep the likelihood below a certain allowable value.
With a reliability design method, design is carried out by using the partial safety factors and reliability indices.
Formally speaking, the limit state design method can be classified as one form of reliability design method.

1.2 Definitions
The terms used in the Notification are based on the terminology used in the Ministerial Ordinance; in
addition, the meanings of the following terms as stipulated in the law or notification are cited.
(1) Dangerous articles: This term refers to those that are designated in the Notification stipulating the
“Types of Hazardous Goods” for the “Port Regulation Law Enforcement Regulations” (Ministry
of Transport Notification No. 547, 1979).
(2) Datum level for construction work: This is the standard water level used when constructing,
improving or maintaining port and harbor facilities, and is equal to the chart datum level (specifically
the chart datum for which the height is determined based on the provisions of Article 9 (8) of the
“Law for Hydrographic Activities” (Law No. 102, 1950)). However, in the case of port and harbor
facilities in lakes and rivers for which there is little tidal influence, in order to ensure the safe use of
the port or harbor in question, the datum level for construction work shall be determined while
considering the conditions of extremely low water level that may occur during a drought season.

[Commentary]
In addition to the terms defined above, the meanings of the following terms are listed below.
(1) Super-large vessel: A cargo ship with a deadweight tonnage of 100,000 t or more, except in the case of LPG
carriers and LNG carriers, in which case the gross tonnage is 25,000 t or more.
(2) Passenger ship: A vessel with a capacity of 13 or more passengers.
(3) Pleasure boat: A yacht, motorboat or other vessel used for sport or recreation.

1.3 Usage of SI Units


[Commentary]
In line with the provisions in the “Measurement Law” (Law No. 51, May 20, 1992), with the aim of executing a
smooth switchover to SI units, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Ministry of Transport and the
Ministry of Construction have concluded to use the International System of Units in their public work projects
starting from April 1999.

-2-
PART I GENERAL

Table C- 1.3.1 Conversion Factors from Conventional Units to SI Units

Number Quantity Non-SI units SI units Conversion factor


1 Length µ m 1µ = 1µm
2 Mass kgf•s2/m kg 1kgf•s2/m = 9.80665kg
3 Acceleration Gal m/s2 1Gal = 0.01m/s2
4 kgf N 1kgf = 9.80665N
Force
5 dyn N 1dyn = 10µN
6 Moment of a force kgf•m N•m 1kgf•m = 9.80665N•m
Pa 1kgf/cm2
= 9.80665 × 104Pa
7 kgf/cm2 = 9.80665 × 10-2MPa
Pressure N/mm2 1kgf/cm2
= 9.80665 × 10-2N/mm2
8 mHg Pa 1mHg = 133.322kPa
Pa 1kgf/cm2
= 9.80665 × 104Pa
9 Stress kgf/cm2 = 9.80665 × 10-2MPa
N/mm2 1kgf/cm2
= 9.80665 × 10-2N/mm2
10 kgf•m J 1kfg•m = 9.80665J
Work (energy)
11 erg J 1erg = 100nJ
PS 1PS = 735.499W
12 Power W
HP 1HP = 746.101W
J 1cal = 4.18605J
13 Quantity of heat cal
W•s 1cal = 4.18605W•s
Thermal 1cal/(h•m•ºC)
14 cal/(h•m•ºC) W/(m•ºC)
conductivity = 0.001163W/(m•ºC)
Heat conduction 1cal/(h•m2•ºC)
15 cal/(h•m2•ºC) W/(m2•ºC)
coefficient = 0.001163W/(m2•ºC)
Specific heat 1cal/(kg•ºC)
16 cal/(kg•ºC) J/(kg•ºC)
capacity = 4.18605J/(kg•ºC)
17 Sound pressure level - dB 1phon = 1dB

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Chapter 2 Datum Level for Construction Work

[Commentary]
The datum level for port and harbor construction work is the standard water level that shall form the basis
for the planning, design, and construction of facilities. The chart datum level shall be used as the datum
level for construction work.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Chart Datum Level
The chart datum level is set as the level below the mean sea level by the amount equal to or approximately
equivalent to the sum of the amplitueds of the four major tidal constituents (M2, S2, K1, and O1 tides), which are
obtained from the harmonic analysis of tidal observation data. Here M2 is the principal lunar semi-diurnal tide,
S2 is the principal solar semi-diurnal tide, K1 is the luni-solar diurnal tide, and O1 is the principal lunar diurnal
tide.
Note that the heights of rocks or land marks shown on the nautical charts are the elevation above the mean
sea level, which is the long-term average of the hourly sea surface height at the place in question. (In the case
that the observation period is short, however, corrections for seasonal fluctuations should be made when
determining the mean sea level.) The difference in height between the chart datum level and the mean sea level
is referred to as Z0.
(2) International Marine Chart Datum
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) has decided to adopt the Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT)
as the international marine chart datum, and issued a recommendation to this effect to the Hydrographic
Departments in various countries throughout the world in June 1997. The LAT is defined as the lowest sea level
that is assumed to occur under the combination of average weather conditions and generally conceivable
astronomical conditions. In actual practice, tide levels for at least 19 years are calculated using harmonic
constants obtained from at least one year’s worth of observations, and then the lowest water level is taken as the
LAT.
However, in the case of Japan, the chart datum level is obtained using the old method described in (1) above
(approximate lowest water level). There will be no switchover to the LAT in the near future in Japan, but it is
planned to meet the IHO recommendation by stating the difference between the LAT and the chart datum level
in tide tables published by the Hydrographic Department of Maritime Safety Agency, Ministry of Land,
Infrastructure, and Transport, Japan.

-4-
PART I GENERAL

Chapter 3 Maintenance

In order to maintain the functions of port and harbor facilities at a satisfactory service level and to prevent
deterioration in the safety of such facilities, comprehensive maintenance including inspections,
evaluations, repairs, etc. shall be carried out, in line with the specific characteristics of the port or harbor in
question.

[Commentary]
(1) “Maintenance” refers to a system consisting of a series of linked activities involving the efficient detection of
changes in the state of serviceability of the facilities and the execution of effective measures such as rational
evaluation, repair, and reinforcement.
(2) Port and harbor facilities must generally remain in service for long periods of time, during which the functions
demanded of the facilities must be maintained. It is thus essential not only to give due consideration when
initially designing the structures in question, but also to carry out proper maintenance after the facilities have
been put into service.
(3) A whole variety of data concerning maintenance (specifically, inspections, checks, evaluations, repair,
reinforcement work, etc.) must be recorded and stored in a standard format. Maintenance data kept in good
systematic order is the basic information necessary for carrying out appropriate evaluation of the level of
soundness of the facilities in question, and executing their maintenance and repairs. At the same time the
maintenace data is useful when taking measures against the deterioration of the facilities as a whole and when
investigating the possibility in the life cycle cost reduction of the facilities.
(4) When designing a structure, it is necessary to give due consideration to the system of future maintenance and to
select the types of structures and the materials used so that future maintenance will be easily executed, while
reflecting this aspect in the detailed design.•

[Technical Notes]
(1) The concepts of the terms relating to maintenance are as follows:

Inspection / checking: • • • •Activities to investigate the state of a structure, the situation


regarding damage and the remaining level of function, along with
related administrative work: mainly composed of periodic and
special inspections
Evaluation: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Evaluation of the level of soundness based on the results of
inspection / checking, and judgement of the necessity or otherwise
Maintenance of repairs etc.
Maintenance: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Activities carried out with the aim of holding back the physical
deterioration of a structure and keeping its function within
acceptable levels.
Repair / reinforcement: • • Activities in which a structure that has deteriorated physically and/
or functionally is partially reconstructed in order to restore the
required function and/or structure.

(2) With regard to the procedure for maintenance, it is a good idea to draw up a maintenance plan for each structure
while considering factors like the structural form, the tendency to deteriorate and the degree of importance, and
then to implement maintenance work based on this plan.
(3) For basic and common matters concerning maintenance, refer to the “Manual for Maintenance and Repair of
Port and Harbor Structures”.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

-6-
Part II Design Conditions
PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Part II Design Conditions

Chapter 1 General
In designing port and harbor facilities, the design conditions shall be chosen from the items listed below by
taking into consideration the natural, service and construction conditions, the characteristics of materials,
the environmental impacts, and the social requirements for the facilities.
(1) Ship dimensions
(2) External forces produced by ships
(3) Winds and wind pressure
(4) Waves and wave force
(5) Tide and extraordinary sea levels
(6) Currents and current force
(7) External forces acting on floating structures and their motions
(8) Estuarine hydraulics and littoral drift
(9) Subsoil
(10) Earthquakes and seismic force
(11) Liquefaction
(12) Earth pressure and water pressure
(13) Deadweight and surcharge
(14) Coefficient of friction
(15) Other necessary design conditions

[Commentary]
The design conditions should be determined carefully, because they exercise great influence upon the safety,
functions, and construction cost of the facilities. The design conditions listed above are just those that have a large
influence on port and harbor facilities. They are generally determined according to the results of surveys and tests.
Thus, the design conditions should be precisely determined upon full understanding of the methods and results of
such investigations and tests. In the case of temporary structures, the design conditions may be determined while
considering also the length of service life.

[Technical Notes]
(1) In designing port and harbor facilities, the following matters should be taken into consideration.
(a) Functions of the facilities
Since facilities often have multiple functions, care should be exercised so that all functions of the facilities will
be exploited fully.
(b) Importance of the facilities
The degree of importance of the facilities should be considered in order to design the facilities by taking
appropriate account of safety and broad economic implications. The design criteria influenced by importance
of facilities are those of environmental conditions, design seismic coefficient, lifetime, loads, safety factor,
etc. In determining the degree of importance of the facilities, the following criteria should be taken into
consideration.
• Influence upon human lives and property if the facilities are damaged.
• Impact on society and its economy if the facilities are damaged.
• Influence upon other facilities if the facilities are damaged.
• Replaceability of the facilities.
(c) Lifetime
The length of lifetime should be taken into account in determining the structure and materials of the facilities
and also in determining the necessity for and extent of the improvement of the existing facilities. Lifetime of
the facilities should be determined by examinig the following:
• Operational function of the facilities
The number of years until the facilities can no longer be usable due to the occurrence of problems in terms
of the function of the facilities, for example the water depth of a mooring basin becoming insufficient owing
to the increase in vessel size.
• Economic viewpoint of the facilities
The number of years until the facilities become economically uncompetitive with other newer facilities
(unless some kind of improvements are carried out).

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

• Social function of the facilities


The number of years until the functions of the facilities that constituted the original purpose become
unnecessary or until different functions are called for the facilities due to new port planning etc.
• Physical property of the facilities
The number of years until it is no longer possible to maintain the strength of materials composing the
structures at the specified level due to processes such as corrosion or weathering of these materials.
(d) Encounter probability
The encounter probability is intimately linked with the lifetime length. The encounter probability E1 is
obtained using equation (1.1.1) 1)
L1
E1 = 1 – ( 1 – 1 ¤ T 1 ) (1.1.1)
where
L1: lifetime length
T 1: return period
(e) Environmental conditions
Not only the wave, seismic, topographical and soil conditions, which have direct influences on the design of
the facilities, but also the water quality, bottom material, animal and plant life, atmospheric conditions and
rising sea level due to global warming should be taken into consideration.
(f) Materials
It is necessary to consider the physical external forces, deterioration, lifetime, structural type, construction
works, cost, and influence on the environment and landscape when selecting the materials. It is most important
to ensure the reguired quality. In recent years, in addition to more traditional materials, new materials such as
stainless steels, titanium and new rubbers, and recycled materials such as slag, coal ash and dredged sediment
have begun to be used.
(g) Construction method
In order to carry out design rationally, it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the construction
method.
(h) Work accuracy
It is necessary to carry out design considering the accuracy of construction works that can be maintained in
actual projects.
(i) Construction period
In the case that the construction period is stipulated, it is necessary to give consideration both to the design and
the construction method, in order that it will be possible to complete construction work within the stipulated
period. The construction period is generally determined by things like the availability of the materials, the
construction equipment, the degree of difficulty of construction, the opening date and the natural conditions.
(j) Construction costs etc.
Construction costs consist of the initial investment costs and maintenance costs. All of these costs must be
considered in design and construction. When doing this, it is necessary to consider the early use of the
facilities and to secure an early return on investment. There is also a design approach that the facilities are put
into service step by step as the construction progresses, while ensuring the safety of service / construction.
Note also that the initial investment costs mentioned here include compensation duties.
When carrying out design etc., due consideration must be given to things like the structural type and the
construction method, since the construction costs will depend on these things.

[Reference]
1) Borgman, L. E.: “Risk criteria”, Proc. ASCE, Vol. 89, No. WW3, 1963, pp.1-35.

-8-
PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Chapter 2 Vessels
2.1 Dimensions of Target Vessel (Notification Article 21)
The principal dimensions of the target vessel shall be set using the following method:
(1) In the case that the target vessel can be identified, use the principal dimensions of that vessel.
(2) In the case that the target vessel cannot be identified, use appropriate principal dimensions determined
by statistical methods.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Article 1, Clause 2 of the Ministerial Ordinance stipulates that the “target vessel” is the vessel that has the
largest gross tonnage out of those that are expected to use the port or harbor facilities in question. Accordingly,
in the case that the target vessel can be identified, the principal dimensions of this vessel should be used.
(2) In the case that the target vessel cannot be identified in advance, such as in the case of port and harbor facilities
for public use, the principal dimensions of the target vessel may be determined by referring to Table T- 2.1.1. In
this table, the tonnages (usually either gross or deadweight tonnage) are used as representative indicators.
(3) Table T- 2.1.1 lists the “principal dimensions of vessels for the case that the target vessel cannot be identified”
by tonnage level. These values have been obtained through methods such as statistical analysis 1),2), and they
mainly represent the 75% cover ratio values for each tonnage of vessels. Accordingly, for any given tonnage,
there will be some vessels that have principal dimensions that exceed the values in the table. There will also be
vessels that have a tonnage greater than that of the target vessel listed in the table, but still have principal
dimensions smaller than those of the target vessel.
(4) Table T- 2.1.1 has been obtained using the data from “Lloyd’s Maritime Information June ’95” and “Nihon
Senpaku Meisaisho” (“Detailed List of Japanese Vessels”; 1995 edition). The definitions of principal
dimensions in the table are shown in Fig. T- 2.1.1.
(5) Since the principal dimensions of long distance ferries that sail over 300km tend to have different characteristics
from those of short-to-medium distance ferries, the principal dimensions are listed separately for “long distance
ferries” and “short-to-medium distance ferries.”
(6) Since the principal dimensions of Japanese passenger ships tend to have different characteristics from those of
foreign passenger ships, the principal dimensions are listed separately for “Japanese passenger ships” and
“foreign passenger ships”.
(7) The mast height varies considerably even for vessels of the same type with the same tonnage, and so when
designing facilities like bridges that pass over navigation routes, it is necessary to carry out a survey on the mast
heights of the target vessels.
(8) In the case that the target vessel is known to be a small cargo ship but it is not possible to identify precisely the
demensions of the ship in advance, the principal dimensions of “small cargo ships” can be obtained by referring
to Table T- 2.1.2. The values in Table T- 2.1.2 have been obtained using the same kind of procedure as those in
Table T- 2.1.1, but in the case of such small vessels there are large variations in the principal dimensions and so
particular care should be exercised when using Table T- 2.1.2.
(9) Tonnage
The definitions of the various types of tonnage are as follows:
(a) Gross tonnage
The measurement tonnage of sealed compartments of a vessel, as stipulated in the “Law Concerning the
Measurement of the Tonnage of Ships”. The “gross tonnage” is used as an indicator that represents the size
of a vessel in Japan’s maritime systems. Note however that there is also the “international gross tonnage”,
which, in line with the provisions in treaties etc., is also used as an indicator that represents the size of a vessel,
but mainly for vessels that make international sailings. The values of the “gross tonnage” and the
“international gross tonnage” can differ from one another; the relationship between the two is stipulated in
Article 35 of the “Enforcement Regulations for the Law Concerning the Measurement of the Tonnage of
Ships” (Ministerial Ordinance No. 47, 1981).
(b) Deadweight tonnage
The maximum weight, expressed in tons, of cargo that can be loaded onto a vessel.
(c) Displacement tonnage
The amount of water, expressed in tons, displaced by a vessel when it is floating at rest.
(10) For the sake of consistency, equation (2.1.1) shows the relationship between the deadweight tonnage (DWT) and
the gross tonnage (GT) for the types of vessels that use the deadweight tonnage as the representative indicator 1).
For each type of vessels, the equation may be applied if the tonnage is within the range shown in Table T- 2.1.1.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Cargo ships: GT = 0.541DWT

64748
Container ships: GT = 0.880DWT
Oil tankers: GT = 0.553DWT (2.1.1)
Roll-on/roll-off vessels: GT = 0.808DWT
where
GT : gross tonnage
DWT : deadweight tonnage
(11) Tables T-2.1.3 to T-2.1.6 list the frequency distribution of the principal dimensions of general cargo ships, bulk
cargo carriers, container ships, and oil tankers, which were analyzed by the Systems Laboratory of Port and
Harbour Research Institute (PHRI) using the data from “Lloyd’s Maritime Informations Services (June ’98)”.

Length overall

Load water line


Length between perpendiculars
After perpendicular Fore perpendicular
Moulded breadth

Moulded depth
Full load draft

Fig. T- 2.1.1 Definitions of Principal Dimensions of Vessel

Table T- 2.1.1 Principal Dimensions of Vessels for the Case That the Target Vessel Cannot Be Identified
1. Cargo ships

Deadweight tonnage (DWT) Length overall (L) Molded breadth (B) Full load draft (d)
1,000 ton 67 m 10.9 m 3.9 m
2,000 83 13.1 4.9
3,000 94 14.6 5.6
5,000 109 16.8 6.5
10,000 137 19.9 8.2
12,000 144 21.0 8.6
18,000 161 23.6 9.6
30,000 185 27.5 11.0
40,000 200 29.9 11.8
55,000 218 32.3 12.9
70,000 233 32.3 13.7
90,000 249 38.1 14.7
100,000 256 39.3 15.1
150,000 286 44.3 16.9

2. Container ships

Deadweight tonnage (DWT) Length overall (L) Molded breadth (B) Full load draft (d)
30,000 ton 218 m 30.2 m 11.1 m
40,000 244 32.3 12.2
50,000 266 32.3 13.0
60,000 286 36.5 13.8

-10-
PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

3. Ferries
3-A Short-to-medium distance ferries (sailing distance less than 300km)

Gross tonnage (GT) Length overall (L) Molded breadth (B) Full load draft (d)
400 ton 50 m 11.8 m 3.0 m
700 63 13.5 3.4
1,000 72 14.7 3.7
2,500 104 18.3 4.6
5,000 136 21.6 5.3
10,000 148 23.0 5.7

3-B Long distance ferries (sailing distance 300km or more)

Gross tonnage (GT) Length overall (L) Molded breadth (B) Full load draft (d)
6,000 ton 142 m 22.3 m 6.0 m
10,000 167 25.2 6.4
13,000 185 27.3 6.8
16,000 192 28.2 6.8
20,000 192 28.2 6.8
23,000 200 28.2 7.2

4. Roll-on/roll-off vessels

Deadweight tonnage (DWT) Length overall (L) Molded breadth (B) Full load draft (d)
400 ton 75 m 13.6 m 11.1 m
1,500 97 16.4 4.7
2,500 115 18.5 5.5
4,000 134 20.7 6.3
6,000 154 22.9 7.0
10,000 182 25.9 7.4

5. Passenger ships
5-A Japanese passenger ships

Gross tonnage (GT) Length overall (L) Molded breadth (B) Full load draft (d)
2,000 ton 83 m 15.6 m 4.0 m
4,000 107 18.5 4.9
7,000 130 21.2 5.7
10,000 147 23.2 6.6
20,000 188 27.5 6.6
30,000 217 30.4 6.6

5-B Foreign passenger ships

Gross tonnage (GT) Length overall (L) Molded breadth (B) Full load draft (d)
20,000 ton 180 m 25.7 m 8.0 m
30,000 207 28.4 8.0
50,000 248 32.3 8.0
70,000 278 35.2 8.0

6. Pure car carriers

Gross tonnage (GT) Length overall (L) Molded breadth (B) Full load draft (d)
500 ton 70 m 11.8 m 3.8 m
1,500 94 15.7 5.0
3,000 114 18.8 5.8
5,000 130 21.5 6.6
12,000 165 27.0 8.0
18,000 184 30.0 8.8
25,000 200 32.3 9.5

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

7. Oil tankers

Deadweight tonnage (DWT) Length overall (L) Molded breadth (B) Full load draft (d)
1,000 ton 61 m 10.2 m 4.0 m
2,000 76 12.6 4.9
3,000 87 14.3 5.5
5,000 102 16.8 6.4
10,000 127 20.8 7.9
15,000 144 23.6 8.9
20,000 158 25.8 9.6
30,000 180 29.2 10.9
50,000 211 32.3 12.6
70,000 235 38.0 13.9
90,000 254 41.1 15.0

Table T- 2.1.2 Principal Dimensions of Small Cargo Ships

Deadweight tonnage (DWT) Length overall (L) Molded breadth (B) Full load draft (d)
500 ton 51 m 9.0 m 3.3 m
700 57 9.5 3.4

Table T-2.1.3 Frequency Distributions of Principal Dimensions of General Cargo Ships


(a) DWT - Length overall

(b) DWT - Breadth

(c) DWT - Full load draft

-12-
PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Table T-2.1.4 Frequency Distributions of Principal Dimensions of Bulk Cargo Carriers

(a) DWT - Length overall

(b) DWT - Breadth


B

(c) DWT - Full load draft


d

-13-
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Table T-2.1.5 Frequency Distributions of Principal Dimensions of Container Ships

(a) DWT - Length overall

(b) DWT - Breadth


B

(c) DWT - Full load draft


d unknown

unknown

(d) DWT - TEU

-14-
PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Table T-2.1.6 Frequency Distributions of Principal Dimensions of Oil Tankers

(a) DWT - Length overall

(b) DWT - Breadth

(c) DWT - Full load draft

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

2.2 External Forces Generated by Vessels


2.2.1 General
The external forces acting on the mooring facilities when a vessel is berthing or moored shall be
determined using an appropriate method, considering the dimensions of the target vessel, the berthing
method and the berthing velocity, the structure of the mooring facilities, the mooring method and the
properties of the mooring system, along with the influence of things like the winds, waves and tidal
currents.

[Commentary]
(1) The following loads acting on mooring facilities should be considered when a vessel is berthing or moored:
a) Loads caused by berthing of a vessel
b) Loads caused by motions of a moored vessel
When designing mooring facilities, the berthing force must be considered first. Then the impact forces and
tractive forces on the mooring facilities due to the motions of the moored vessel, which are caused by the wave
force, wind force and current force, should be considered. In particular, for the cases of the mooring facilities in
the ports and harbors that face out onto the open sea with long-period waves expected to come in, of those
installed in the open sea or harbor entrances such as offshore terminals, and of those in the harbors where vessels
seek refuge during storms, the influence of the wave force acting on a vessel is large and so due consideration
must be given to the wave force.
(2) As a general rule, the berthing forces acting on the mooring facilities should be calculated based on the berthing
energy of the vessel and using the load-deflection characteristics of the fenders.
(3) As a general rule, the tractive forces and impact forces generated by the motions of a moored vessel should be
obtained by carrying out a numerical simulation of vessel motions taking into account the wave force acting on
the vessel, the wind force, the current force, and the load-deflection characteristics of the mooring system.

2.2.2 Berthing

[1] Berthing Energy (Notification Article 22, Clause 1)


It shall be standard to calculate the external force generated by berthing of a vessel with the following
equation:
MsV2
E f = æ -------------ö C e C m C s C c (2.2.1)
è 2 ø
In this equation, E f , M s , V, C e , C m , C s , and C c represent the following:
E f: berthing energy of vessel (kJ = kN•m)
M s: mass of vessel (t)
V: berthing velocity of vessel (m/s)
C e: eccentricity factor
C m: virtual mass factor
C s: softness factor (standard value is 1.0)
C c: berth configuration factor (standard value is 1.0)

[Commentary]
In addition to the kinetic energy method mentioned above, there are also other methods of estimating the berthing
energy of a vessel: for example, statistical methods, methods using hydraulic model experiments, and methods using
fluid dynamics models 3). However, with these alternative methods, the data necessary for design are insufficient and
the values of the various constants used in the calculations may not be sufficiently well known. Thus, the kinetic
energy method is generally used.

[Technical Notes]
(1) If it is assumed that a berthing vessel moves only in the abeam direction, then the kinetic energy E s is equal to
( M s V 2) ¤ 2 . However, when a vessel is berthing at a dolphin, a quaywall, or a berthing beam equipped with
fenders, the energy absorbed by the fenders (i.e., the berthing energy E f of the vessel) will become E s ´ f
considering the various influencing factors, where f = C e ´ C m ´ C s ´ C c .
(2) The vessel mass M s is taken to be the displacement tonnage (DT) of the target vessel. In the case that the target
vessel cannot be identified, equation (2.2.2) 1) may be used to give the relationship between the deadweight
tonnage (DWT) or the gross tonnage (GT) and the displacement tonnage (DT).
-16-
PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Cargo ships (less than 10,000DWT): log (DT) = 0.550 + 0.899 log (DWT)

64444744448
Cargo ships (10,000DWT or more): log (DT) = 0.511 + 0.913 log (DWT)
Container ships: log (DT) = 0.365 + 0.953 log (DWT)
Ferries (long distance): log (DT) = 1.388 + 0.683 log (GT)
Ferries (short-to-medium distance): log (DT) = 0.506 + 0.904 log (GT)
(2.2.2)
Roll-on/roll-off vessels: log (DT) = 0.657 + 0.909 log (DWT)
Passenger ships (Japanese): log (DT) = 0.026 + 0.981 log (GT)
Passenger ships (foreign): log (DT) = 0.341 + 0.891 log (GT)
Car carriers: log (DT) = 1.915 + 0.588 log (GT)
Oil tankers: log (DT) = 0.332 + 0.956 log (DWT)
where
DT: displacement tonnage (amount of water, in tons, displaced by the vessel when fully loaded)
GT: gross tonnage
DWT: deadweight tonnage
(3) The softness factor C s represents the ratio of the remaining amount of the berthing energy after energy
absorption due to deformation of the shell plating of the vessel to the initial berthing energy. It is generally
assumed that no energy is absorbed in this way and so the value of C s is often given as 1.0.
(4) When a vessel berths, the mass of water between the vessel and the mooring facilities resists to move out and
acts just as if a cushion is placed in this space. The energy that must be absorbed by the fenders is thus reduced.
This effect is considered when determining the berth configuration factor C c . It is thought that the effect
depends on things like the berthing angle, the shape of the vessel’s shell plating, the under-keel clearance, and
the berthing velocity, but little research has been carried out to determine it.

[2] Berthing Velocity


The berthing velocity of a vessel shall be determined based on the measurement in situ or past data of
similar measurements, considering the type of the target vessel, the extent to which the vessel is loaded, the
position and structure of the mooring facilities, weather and oceanographic conditions, and the availability
or absence of tugboats and their sizes.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Observing the way in which large cargo ships and large oil tankers make berthing, one notices that such vessels
come to a temporary standstill, lined up parallel to the quaywall at a certain distance away from it. They are then
gently pushed by several tugboats until they come into contact with the quay. When there is a strong wind
blowing toward the quay, such vessels may berth while actually being pulled outwards by the tugboats. When
such a berthing method is adopted, it is common to set the berthing velocity to 10 ~ 15 cm/s based on past design
examples.
(2) Special vessels such as ferries, roll-on/roll-off vessels, and small cargo ships berth under their own power
without assistance of tugboats. If there is a ramp at the bow or stern of such a vessel, the vessel may line up
perpendicular to the quay. In these cases, a berthing method different from that for larger vessels described in (1)
may be used. It is thus necessary to determine berthing velocities carefully based on actualy measured values,
paying attention to the type of berthing method employed by the target vessel.
(3) Figure T- 2.2.1 shows the relationship between the vessel handling conditions and berthing velocity by vessel
size 4); it has been prepared based on the data collected through experience. This figure shows that the larger the
vessel, the lower the berthing velocity becomes; moreover, the berthing velocity must be set high if the mooring
facilities is not sheltered by breakwaters etc.
(4) According to the results of surveys on berthing velocity 5),6), the berthing velocity is usually less than 10 cm/s for
general cargo ships, but there are a few cases where it is over 10 cm/s (see Fig. T- 2.2.2). The berthing velocity
only occasionally exceeds 10 cm/s for large oil tankers that use offshore terminals (see Fig. T- 2.2.3). Even for
ferries which berth under their own power, the majority berth at the velocity of less than 10 cm/s. Nevertheless,
there are a few cases in which the berthing velocity is over 15 cm/s and so due care must be taken when
designing ferry quays (see Fig. T- 2.2.4). It was also clear from the above-mentioned survey results that the
degree to which a vessel is loaded up has a considerable influence on the berthing velocity. In other words, if a
vessel is fully loaded, meaning that the under-keel clearance is small, then the berthing velocity tends to be
lower, whereas if it is lightly loaded, meaning that the under-keel clearance is large, then the berthing velocity
tends to be higher.

-17-
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Difficult

exposed

Difficulty of handling vessel / mooring


Good berthing

exposed

facilities being shelterd or not


Easy berthing

exposed
Difficult berthing

sheltered
Good berthing

sheltered

Berthing velocity (cm/s)

Fig. T- 2.2.1 Relationship between Vessel Handling Conditions and Berthing Velocity by Vessel Size 4)

Open type quay

Wall type quay (sheet pile, gravity types)


Berthing velocity (cm/s)

Displacement tonnage DT (tons)

Fig. T- 2.2.2 Berthing Velocity and Displacement Tonnage for General Cargo Ships 5)
Berthing velocity (cm/s)

Displacement tonnage DT (10,000 tons)

Fig. T- 2.2.3 Berthing Velocity and Displacement Tonnage for Large Oil Tankers 6)

Stern berthing

Bow berthing
Berthing velocity (cm/s)

Displacement tonnage DT (tons)

Fig. T- 2.2.4 Berthing Velocity and Displacement Tonnage for Longitudinal Berthing of Ferries 5)

-18-
PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

According to the survey by Moriya et al., the average berthing velocities for cargo ships, container ships, and
pure car carriers are as listed in Table T- 2.2.1. The relationship between the deadweight tonnage and berthing
velocity is shown in Fig. T- 2.2.5. This survey also shows that the larger the vessel, the lower the berthing
velocity tends to be. The highest berthing velocities observed were about 15 cm/s for vessels under 10,000 DWT
and about 10 cm/s for vessels of 10,000 DWT or over.

Table T- 2.2.1 Deadweight Tonnage and Average Berthing Velocity

Deadweight tonnage Berthing velocity (cm/s)


(DWT) Cargo ships Container ships Pure car carriers All vessels
1,000 class 8.1 - - 8.1
5,000 class 6.7 7.8 - 7.2
10,000 class 5.0 7.2 4.6 5.3
15,000 class 4.5 4.9 4.7 4.6
30,000 class 3.9 4.1 4.4 4.1
50,000 class 3.5 3.4 - 3.4
All vessels 5.2 5.0 4.6 5.0

N=738
Poisson distribution m = 3
Poisson distribution m = 4
Weibull distribution N
Normal distribution

Cargo ships
Container ships
Pure car carriers
V (cm/s)

Dead weight tonnage (DWT) V (cm/s)

Fig. T- 2.2.5 Relationship between Deadweight Fig. T- 2.2.6 Frequency Distribution of


Tonnage and Berthing Velocity Berthing Velocity 10)

(5) Figure T- 2.2.6 shows a berthing velocity frequency distribution obtained from actual measurement records at
offshore terminals used by large oil tankers of around 200,000 DWT. It can be seen that the highest measured
berthing velocity was 13 cm/s. If the data are assumed to follow a Weibull distribution, then the probability of
the berthing velocity below the value 13 cm/s would be 99.6%. The mean µ is 4.41 cm/s and the standard
deviation s is 2.08 cm/s. Application of the Weibull distribution yields the probability density function f ( V ) as
expressed in equation (2.2.3):
V
f ( V ) = ------- exp ( – V 1.25 ) (2.2.3)
0.8
where
V: berthing velocity (cm/s)
From this equation, the probability of the berthing velocity exceeding 14.5 cm/s becomes 1/1000. The offshore
terminals where the berthing velocity measurements were taken had a design berthing velocity of either 15 cm/s
or 20 cm/s 7).
(6) Small vessels such as small cargo ships and fishing boats come to berths by controlling their positions under
their own power without assistance of tugboats. Consequently, the berthing velocity is generally higher than that
for larger vessels, and in some cases it can even exceed 30 cm/s. For small vessels in particular, it is necessary to
carefully determine the berthing velocity based on actually measured values etc.
(7) In cases where cautious berthing methods such as those described in (1) are not used, or in the case of berthing
of small or medium-sized vessels under influence of currents, it is necessary to determine the berthing velocity
based on actual measurement data etc., considering the ship drift velocity by currents.
(8) When designing mooring facilities that may be used by fishing boats, it is recommended to carry out design
works based on the design standards for fishing port facilities and actual states of usage.
-19-
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

[3] Eccentricity Factor (Notification Article 22, Clause 2)


The eccentricity factor shall be calculated by the following:
1
C e = -------------------2-
l (2.2.4)
1 + æ --ö
è rø

where l and r represent the following:


l: distance from the point where the vessel touches the mooring facilities to the center of gravity of
the vessel as measured along the face line of the mooring facilities (m)
r: radius of gyration around the vertical axis passing through the center of gravity of the vessel (m)

[Technical Notes]
(1) When a vessel is in the middle of berthing operation, it is not aligned perfectly along the face line of the berth.
This means that after it comes into contact with the mooring facilities (fenders), it starts yawing and rolling. This
results in some of the vessel’s kinetic energy being used up. The amount of energy used up by rolling is small
compared with that by yawing and can be ignored. Equation (2.2.4) thus only considers the amount of energy
used up by yawing.
(2) The radious of gyration r relative to Lpp is a function of the block coefficient C b of the vessel and can be
obtained from Fig. T- 2.2.7 8). Alternatively, one may use the linear approximation shown in equation (2.2.5) .
r = ( 0.19C b + 0.11 )L pp (2.2.5)
where
r: radius of gyration; this is related to the moment of inertia I z around the vertical axis of the vessel by
the relationship Iz = M s r 2
L pp: length between perpendiculars (m)
C b: block coefficient; C b = Ñ /( L pp Bd) ( Ñ : Volume of water displaced by the vessel (m3), B: moulded
breadth (m), d: draft (m))
(3) As sketched in Fig. T- 2.2.8, when a vessel comes into contact with the fenders F1 and F2 with the point of the
vessel closest to the quaywall being the point P, the distance l from the point of contact to the center of gravity of
the vessel as measured parallel to the mooring facilities is given by equation (2.2.6) or (2.2.7); l is taken to be
L 1 when k < 0.5 and L 2 when k > 0.5. When k = 0.5, l is taken as whichever of L 1 or L 2 that gives the higher
value of C e in equation (2.2.4).

keLpp cos θ
F1

eLpp cos θ
P A

A
F2
Radius of gyration in the longitudinal direction (r)
Length between perpendiculars (Lpp)

B
Lpp
αLpp

B G

Block coefficient Cb
Fig. T- 2.2.7 Relationship between the Radius of Gyration Fig. T- 2.2.8 Vessel Berthing
around the Vertical Axis and the Block
Coefficient (Myers, 1969) 7)

L 2 = 0.5 a + e ( 1 – k ) L pp cos q (2.2.6)


L 1 = ( 0.5a – ek )L pp cos q (2.2.7)

-20-
PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

where
L 1: distance from the point of contact to the center of gravity of the vessel as measured parallel to the
mooring facilities when the vessel makes contact with fender F1
L 2: distance from the point of contact to the center of gravity of the vessel as measured parallel to the
mooring facilities when the vessel makes contact with fender F2
q: berthing angle (the value of q is set as a design condition; it is usually set somewhere in the range
0 ~ 10º)
e: ratio of the distance between the fenders, as measured in the longitudinal direction of the vessel, to the
length between perpendiculars
a: ratio of the length of the parallel side of the vessel at the height of the point of contact with the fender to
the length between perpendiculars; this varies according to factors like the type of vessel, and the block
coefficient etc., but is generally in the range 1/3 ~ 1/2.
k: parameter that represents the relative location of the point where the vessel comes closest to the mooring
facilities between the fenders F1 and F2 ; k varies between 0 and 1, but it is generally taken at k = 0.5.

[4] Virtual Mass Factor (Notification Article 22, Clause 3)


It shall be standard to calculate the virtual mass factor using the following equations:
p
64748

d
C m = 1 + --------- ´ ---
2C b B
(2.2.8)
Ñ
C b = ---------------
L pp Bd
where Cb,Ñ, Lpp, B, and d represent the following:
C b: block coefficient
Ñ: volume of water displaced by the vessel (m3)
L pp: length between perpendiculars (m)
B: moulded breadth (m)
d: full load draft (m)

[Technical Notes]
(1) When a vessel berths, the vessel (which has mass M s ) and the water mass surrounding the vessel (which has
mass M w ) both decelerate. Accordingly, the inertial force corresponding to the water mass is added to that of the
vessel itself. The virtual coefficient is thus defined as in equation (2.2.9).
Ms + M w
C m = --------------------- (2.2.9)
Ms
where
C m: virtual mass factor
M s: mass of vessel (t)
M w: mass of the water surrounding the vessel (added mass) (t)
Ueda 8) proposed equation (2.2.8) based on the results of model experiments and field observations. The second
term in equation (2.2.8) corresponds to M w ¤ M s in equation (2.2.9).
(2) As a general rule, the actual values of the target vessel are used for the length between perpendiculars ( L pp ), the
moulded breadth (B), and the full load draft (d). But when one of the standard ship sizes is used, one may use the
principal dimensions given in 2.1 Dimensions of the Target Vessel. Regression equations have been proposed
for the relationships between the deadweight tonnage, the moulded breadth and the full load draft 1). It is also
possible to use equations (2.2.10), which give the relationship between the deadweight tonnage (DWT) or the
gross tonnage (GT) and the length between perpendiculars for different types of vessel 1).
64444744448

Cargo ships (less than 10,000 DWT): log (Lpp) = 0.867 + 0.310 log (DWT)
Cargo ships (10,000 DWT or more): log (Lpp) = 0.964 + 0.285 log (DWT)
Container ships: log (Lpp) = 0.516 + 0.401 log (DWT)
Ferries (long distance, 13,000 GT or less): log (Lpp) = log (94.6 + 0.00596GT)
Ferries (short-to-medium distance, 6,000 t or less): log (Lpp) = 0.613 + 0.401 log (GT)
(2.2.10)
Roll-on/roll-off vessels: log (Lpp) = 0.840 + 0.349 log (DWT)
Passenger ships (Japanese): log (Lpp) = 0.679 + 0.359 log (GT)
Passenger ships (foreign): log (Lpp) = 0.787 + 0.330 log (GT)
Car carriers: log (Lpp) = 1.046 + 0.280 log (GT)
Oil tankers: log (Lpp) = 0.793 + 0.322 log (DWT)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(3) The volume of water displaced by the vessel Ñ is determined by dividing the displacement tonnage DT by the
density of seawater (1.03 t/m3)

2.2.3 Moored Vessels

[1] Motions of Moored Vessel (Notification Article 23)


As a general rule, the external forces generated by the motions of a moored vessel shall be calculated by
carrying out a numerical simulation of vessel motions, with the wave force acting on the vessel, the wind
force, the current force due to water currents, etc. being set appropriately.

[Commentary]
(1) Vessels moored at mooring facilities situated in the open sea or near to harbor entrances, or at mooring facilities
inside harbors for which long-period waves are expected to come in, along with vessels moored during stormy
weather, are liable to be moved under the influence of loads due to waves, winds, currents, etc. In some cases,
the kinetic energy due to such motions can exceed the berthing energy. In such cases, it is thus advisable to give
full consideration to the tractive forces and impact forces caused by the motions of vessels when designing
bollards and fenders 10).
(2) As a general rule, the external forces generated by the motions of a vessel should be obtained by carrying out a
numerical simulation of vessel motions, based on the factors such as the wave force acting on the vessel, the
wind force, the current force due to currents, and the load-deflection characteristics of the mooring system.

[Technical Notes]
(1) As a general rule, the motions of a moored vessel should be analyzed through numerical simulation, with
consideration given to the random variations of the loads and the nonlinearity of the load-deflection
characteristics of the mooring system. However, when such a numerical simulation of vessel motions is not
possible, or when the vessel is moored at a system that is considered to be more-or-less symmetrical, one may
obtain the displacement of and loads on the mooring system either by using frequency response analysis for
regular waves or by referring to results of an motion analysis on a floating body moored at a system that has
load-deflection characteristics of bilinear nature 11).
(2) The total wave force acting on the hull of a vessel is analyzed by dividing it into the wave exciting force due to
incident waves and the radiation force that is generated as the vessel moves. The wave exciting force due to
incident waves is the wave force calculated for the case that motions of the vessel are restrained. The radiation
force is the wave force exerted on the hull when the vessel undergoes a motion of unit amplitude for each mode
of motions. The radiation force can be expressed as the summation of a term that is proportional to the
acceleration of the vessel and a term that is proportional to the velocity. Specifically, the former can be expressed
as an added mass divided by acceleration, while the latter can be expressed as a damping coefficient divided by
velocity 12). In addition, a nonlinear fluid dynamic force that is proportional to the square of the wave height acts
on the vessel (see 8.2 External Forces Acting on Floating Body).
(3) For vessels that have a block coefficient of 0.7 ~ 0.8 such as large oil tankers, the ship hull can be represented
with an elliptical cylinder, allowing an approximate evaluation of the wave force 13).
(4) For box-shaped vessels such as working craft, the wave force can be obtained by taking the vessel to be either a
floating body with a rectangular cross section or a floating body of a rectangular prism.

[2] Waves Acting on Vessel


The wave force acting on a moored vessel shall be calculated using an appropriate method, considering the
type of vessel and the wave parameters.

[Commentary]
The wave force acting on a moored vessel is calculated using an appropriate method, for example the strip method,
the source distribution technique, the boundary element method, or the finite element method; the most common
method used for vessels is the strip method.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Wave Force by the Strip Method 11), 12)
(a) Wave force of regular waves acting on the hull
The wave force acting on the hull is taken to be the summation of the Froude-Kriloff force and the force by the
waves that are reflected by the hull (diffraction force).

-22-
PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(b) Froude-Kriloff force


The Froude-Kriloff force is the force derived by integrating the pressure of progressive waves around the
circumference of the hull. In the case of a moored vessel in front of a quaywall, it is taken to be the summation
of the force of the incident waves and the force of the reflected waves from the quaywall.
(c) Diffraction force
The diffraction force acting on a vessel is the force that is generated by the change in the pressure field when
incident waves are scattered by the vessel’s hull. As an estimate, this change in the pressure field can be
replaced by the radiation force (the wave making resistance when the vessel moves at a certain velocity
through a calm fluid) for the case that the hull is moved relative to fluid. It is assumed that the velocity of the
vessel in this case is equal to the velocity of the cross section of the hull relative to the water particles in the
incident waves. This velocity is referred to as the “equivalent relative velocity”.
(d) Total force acting on the hull as a whole
The total wave force acting on the hull as a whole can be obtained by integrating the Froude-Kriloff force and
the diffraction force acting on a cross section of the hull in the longitudinal direction from x = – L pp ¤ 2 to
x = L pp ¤ 2 .
(2) Waves Forces by Diffraction Theory 13)
In the case that the vessel in question is very fat (i.e., it has a block coefficient C b of 0.7 ~ 0.8), there are no
reflecting structures such as quaywalls behind the vessel, and the motions of the vessel are considered to be very
small, the vessel may be represented with an elliptical cylinder and the wave force may be calculated using an
equation based on a diffraction theory 13).

[3] Wind Load Acting on Vessel


The wind load acting on a moored vessel shall be determined using an appropriate calculation formula.

[Commentary]
It is desirable to determine the wind load acting on a moored vessel while considering the temporal fluctuation of the
wind velocity and the characteristics of the drag coefficients, which depend on the cross-sectional form of the vessel.

[Technical Notes]
(1) The wind load acting on a vessel should be determined from equations (2.2.11) ~ (2.2.13), using the drag
coefficients C X and C Y in the X and Y directions and the pressure moment coefficient C M about the midship.
1
R X = --- r a U 2 A T C X (2.2.11)
2
1
R Y = --- r a U 2 A L C Y (2.2.12)
2
1
R M = --- r a U 2 A L L pp C M (2.2.13)
2
where
C X: drag coefficient in the X direction (from the front of the vessel)
C Y: drag coefficient in the Y direction (from the side of the vessel)
C M: pressure moment coefficient about the midship
R X: X component of the wind force (kN)
R Y: Y component of the wind force (kN)
R M: moment of the wind load about the midship (kN•m)
r a: density of air; r a = 1.23 ´ 10 –3 (t/m3)
U: wind velocity (m/s)
A T: front projected area above the water surface (m2)
A L: side projected area above the water surface (m2)
L pp: length between perpendiculars (m)
(2) It is desirable to determine the wind force coefficients C X , C Y , and C M through wind tunnel tests or water tank
tests on a target vessel. Since such experiments require time and cost, it is acceptable to use the calculation
equations for wind force coefficients 14),15) that are based on wind tunnel tests or water tank tests that have been
carried out in the past.
(3) The maximum wind velocity (10-minute average wind velocity) should be used as the wind velocity U.
(4) For the front projected area above the water surface and the side projected area above the water surface, it is
desirable to use the values for the target vessel. For standard vessel sizes, one may refer to regression
equations 1).
(5) Since the wind velocity varies both in time and in space, the wind velocity should be treated as fluctuating in the

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

analysis of the motions of a moored vessel. Davenport 16) and Hino have proposed the frequency spectra for the
time fluctuations of the wind velocity. The frequency spectra proposed by Davenport and Hino are given by
equations (2.2.14) and (2.2.15), respectively.

64748
2 X2
f S u ( f ) = 4K r U10 ---------------------------
-
(1 + X2 )4 ¤ 3 (2.2.14)
X = 1200f / U 10

2 –5 ¤ 6

64748
K r U10 ì f 2ü
S u ( f ) = 2.856 --------------- í 1 + æ ---ö ý
b î è bø
þ (2.2.15)
æ U 10 aö z 2m a – 1
b = 1.169 ´ 10 –3 ç -------------÷ æ ------ö
è K r ø è 10ø
where
S u ( f ): frequency spectrum of wind velocity (m2•s)
U 10: average wind velocity at the standard height 10 m (m/s)
K r: friction coefficient for the surface defined with the wind velocity at the standard height; over the
ocean, it is considered that K r = 0.003 is appropriate.
a: exponent when the vertical profile of the wind velocity is expressed by a power law [ U µ ( z ¤ 10 ) a ]
z: height above the surface of the ground or ocean (m)
m: correction factor relating to the stability of the atmosphere; m is taken to be 2 in the case of a storm.

[4] Current Forces Acting on Vessel


The flow pressure force due to tidal currents acting on a vessel shall be determined using an appropriate
calculation formula.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Current Pressure Force Due to Currents Coming onto the Bow of Vessel
The current pressure force on the vessel due to currents coming onto the bow of a vessel may be calculated using
equation (2.2.16).
R f = 0.0014SV 2 (2.2.16)
where
R f: current pressure force (kN)
S: wetted surface area (m2)
V: flow velocity (m/s)
(2) Current Pressure Force Due to Currents Coming onto the Side of Vessel
The current pressure force due to a current coming onto the side of a vessel may be calculated using equation
(2.2.17).
R = 0.5r 0 CV 2 B (2.2.17)
where
R: current pressure force (kN)
r 0: density of seawater (t/m3) (standard value: r 0 = 1.03 t/m3)
C: current pressure coefficient
V: flow velocity (m/s)
B: side projected area of hull below the waterline (m2)
(3) The current pressure force due to tidal currents can in principle be divided into frictional resistance and pressure
resistance. It is thought that the resistance to currents coming onto the bow of a vessel is predominantly
frictional resistance, whereas the resistance to currents coming onto the side of a vessel is predominantly
pressure resistance. However, in practice it is difficult to rigorously separate the two resistances and investigate
them individually. Equation (2.2.16) is a simplification of the following Froude equation with r w = 1.03,
t = 15ºC and l = 0.14:

Rf = rw gl { 1 + 0.0043 ( 15 – t ) }SV 1.825 (2.2.18)


where
R f: current pressure force (N)
rw: specific gravity of seawater (standard value: rw = 1.03)
g: gravitational acceleration (m/s2)
t: temperature (ºC)
S: wetted surface area (m2)

-24-
PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

V: flow velocity (m/s)


l: coefficient (l = 0.14741 for a 30m-long vessel and l = 0.13783 for a 250m-long vessel)
(4) The current pressure coefficient C in equation (2.2.17) varies according to the relative current direction q; the
values obtained from Fig. T- 2.2.9 may be used for reference purposes.
(5) Regarding the wetted surface area S and the side projected area below the waterline B, one may use values
obtained from a regression equations 3) that have been derived by statistical analysis.
C Current pressure coefficient

Water depth h = 1.1


draft d

1.5

7.0

Relative current direction q( )

Fig. T- 2.2.9 Current Pressure Coefficient C

[5] Load-Deflection Characteristics of Mooring System


When performing a motion analysis of a moored vessel, the load-deflection characteristics of the mooring
system (mooring ropes, fenders, etc.) shall be modeled appropriately.

[Technical Notes]
The load-deflection characteristics of a mooring system (mooring ropes, fenders, etc.) is generally nonlinear.
Moreover, with regard to the load-deflection characteristics of a fender, they may show hysteresis, and so it is
desirable to model these characteristics appropriately before carrying out the motion analysis of a moored vessel.

2.2.4 Tractive Force Acting on Mooring Post and Bollard (Notification Article 79)
(1) It shall be standard to take the values listed in Table 2.2.1 as the tractive forces of vessels acting on
mooring posts and bollards.
(2) In the case of a mooring post, it shall be standard to assume that the tractive force stipulated in (1) acts
horizontally and a tractive force equal to one half of this acts upwards simultaneously.
(3) In the case of a bollard, it shall be standard to assume that the tractive force stipulated in (1) acts in all
directions.
Table 2.2.1 Tractive Forces of Vessels (Notification Article 79, Appended Table 12)

Gross tonnage (GT) of Tractive force acting on a Tractive force acting on a


vessel (tons) mooring post (kN) bollard (kN)
200 < GT ≦ 500 150 150
500 < GT ≦ 1,000 250 250
1,000 < GT ≦ 2,000 350 250
2,000 < GT ≦ 3,000 350 350
3,000 < GT ≦ 5,000 500 350
5,000 < GT ≦ 10,000 700 500
10,000 < GT ≦ 20,000 1,000 700
20,000 < GT ≦ 50,000 1,500 1,000

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Gross tonnage (GT) of Tractive force acting on a Tractive force acting on a


vessel (tons) mooring post (kN) bollard (kN)
50,000 < GT ≦ 100,000 2,000 1,000

[Commentary]
(1) “Mooring posts” are installed away from the waterline, either on or near to the mooring facilities, close to the
both ends of a berth so that they may be used for mooring a vessel in a storm. “Bollards”, on the other hand, are
installed close to the waterline of the mooring facilities so that they may be used for mooring, berthing, or
unberthing a vessel in normal conditions.
(2) Regarding the layout and names of mooring ropes to moor a vessel, see Part Ⅷ , 2.1 Length and Water Depth
of Berths.
(3) Regarding the layout and structure of mooring posts and bollards, see Part Ⅷ , 19.3 Mooring Posts, Bollards,
and Mooring Rings.

[Technical Notes]
(1) It is desirable to calculate the tractive force acting on a mooring post and a bollard based on the breaking
strength of the mooring ropes possessed by a vessel arriving at the berth, the meteorological and oceanographic
conditions at the place where the mooring facilities are installed, and the dimensions of vessels, and if necessary
also considering the force due to a berthing vessel, the wind pressure on a moored vessel, and the force due to
motions of a vessel 9), 11). Alternatively, it is also possible to determine the tractive force acting on a mooring
post and a bollard in accordance with (2) ~ (6) below.
(2) In the case that the gross tonnage of a vessel exceeds 5,000 tons and there is no risk of more than one mooring
rope being attached to a bollard that is used for spring lines at the middle of mooring facilities for which the
vessel’s berth is fixed, the tractive force acting on a bollard may be taken as one half of the value listed in Table
2.2.1.
(3) The tractive force due to a vessel whose gross tonnage is no more than 200 tons or greater than 100,000 tons
(i.e., a vessel that is not covered in Table 2.2.1) should be calculated by considering the meteorological and
oceanographic conditions, the structure of the mooring facilities, past measurement data on tractive force, etc.
The tractive force on mooring facilities at which vessels are moored even in rough weather or mooring facilities
that are installed in waters with severe meteorological / oceanographic conditions should also be calculated by
considering these conditions.
(4) The tractive force acting on a mooring post has been determined based on the wind pressure acting on a vessel in
such a way that a lightly loaded vessel should be able to moor safely even when the wind velocity is 25 ~ 30
m/s, with the assumption that the mooring posts are installed at the place away from the wharf waterline by the
amount of vessel’s width and that the breast lines are pulled in a direction 45º to the vessel’s longitudinal
axis 17),18). The tractive force so obtained corresponds to the breaking strength of one to two mooring ropes,
where the breaking strength of a mooring rope is evaluated according to the “Steel Ship Regulations” by the
Nippon Kaiji Kyokai. For a small vessel of gross tonnage up to 1,000 tons, the mooring posts can withstand the
tractive force under the wind velocity of up to 35 m/s.
The tractive force acting on a bollard has been determined based on the wind pressure acting on a vessel in
such a way that even a lightly loaded vessel should be able to moor using only bollards in a wind of velocity up to
15 m/s, with the assumption that the ropes at the bow and stern are pulled in a direction at least 25º to the vessel’s
axis. The tractive force so obtained corresponds to the breaking strength of one mooring rope for a vessel of
gross tonnage up to 5,000 tons and two mooring ropes for a vessel of gross tonnage over 5,000 tons, where the
breaking strength of a mooring rope is evaluated according to the “Steel Ship Regulations” by the Nippon Kaiji
Kyokai.
The tractive force for a bollard that is used for spring lines and is installed at the middle of a berth, for which
the vessel’s berthing position is fixed, corresponds to the breaking strength of one mooring rope, where the
breaking strength of a mooring rope is evaluated according to the “Steel Ship Regulations” by the Nippon Kaiji
Kyokai. Note however that, although there are stipulations concerning synthetic fiber ropes in the “Steel Ship
Regulations” by the Nippon Kaiji Kyokai with regard to nylon ropes and type B vinylon ropes (both of which
are types of synthetic fiber rope), the required safety factor has been set large owing to the factors such that there
is little data on the past usage of such ropes and their abrasion resistance is low, and so both the required rope
diameter and the breaking strength are large. Accordingly, in the case of berths for which the mooring vessels
use only nylon ropes or type B vinylon ropes, it is not possible to apply the stipulations in (2) above.
In the above-mentioned tractive force calculations, in addition to the wind pressure, it has been assumed that
there are tidal currents of 2 kt in the longitudinal direction and 0.6 kt in the transverse direction.
(5) When determining the tractive force from a small vessel of gross tonnage no more than 200 tons, it is desirable
to consider the type of vessel, the berthing situation, the structure of the mooring facilities, etc. During actual

-26-
PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

design of mooring posts and bollards for vessels of gross tonnage no more than 200 tons, it is standard to take
the tractive force acting on a mooring posts to be 150 kN and the tractive force acting on a bollard to be 50 kN.
(6) When calculating the tractive force in the case of vessels such as ferries, container ships, or passenger ships,
caution should be exercised in using Table 2.2.1, because the wind pressure-receiving areas of such vessels are
large.

[References]
1) Yasuhiro AKAKURA, Hironao TAKAHASHI, Takashi NAKAMOTO: “Statistical analysis of ship dimensions for the size of
design ship”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 910, 1998 (in Japanese).
2) Yasuhiro AKAKURA and Hironao TAKAHASHI: “Ship dimensions of design ship under given confidence limits”, Technical
Note of P.H.R.I., September 1998.
3) PIANC: “Report of the International Commission for Improving the Design of Fender Systems”, Supplement to Bulletine No.
45, 1984.
4) Baker, A. L. L.: “The impact of ships when berthing”, Proc. Int’l Navig. Congr. (PIANC), Rome, Sect II, Quest. 2, 1953, pp.
111-142.
5) Masahito MIZOGUCHI, Tanekiyo NAKAYAMA: “Studies on the berthing velocity, energy of the ships”, Tech. Note of
PHRI, No. 170, 1973 (in Japanese).
6) Hirokane OTANI, Shigeru UEDA, Tatsuru ICHIKAWA, Kensei SUGIHARA: “A study on the berthing impact of the big
tanker”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 176, 1974 (in Japanese).
7) Shigeru UEDA: “Study on berthing impact force of very large crude oil carriers”, Rept. of PHRI, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1981, pp.
169-209 (in Japanese).
8) Myers, J.: “Handbook of Ocean and Underwater Engineering”, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969.
9) Shigeru UEDA, Eijiro OOI: “On the design of fending systems for mooring facilities in a port”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 596,
1987 (in Japanese).
10) Shigeru UEDA, Satoru SHIRAISHI: “On the design of fenders based on the ship oscillations moored to quaywalls”, Tech.
Note of PHRI, No. 729, 1992 (in Japanese).
11) Shigeru UEDA: “Analytical method of motions moored to quaywalls and the applications”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 504,
1984 (in Japanese).
12) Shigeru UEDA, Satoru SHIRAISI: “Method and its evaluation for computation of moored ship’s motions”, Rept. of PHRI,
Vol. 22, No. 4, 1983 pp. 181-218 (in Japanese).
13) Yoshimi GODA, Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Tadashi SASADA: “Theoretical and experimental investigation of wave forces
on a fixed vessel approximated with an elliptic cylinder”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1994, pp. 23-74 (in Japanese).
14) R. M. Isherwood: “Wind resistance of merchant ships”, Bulliten of the Royal Inst. Naval Architects, 1972, pp. 327-338.
15) Shigeru UEDA, Satoru SHIRAISHI, Kouhei ASANO, Hiroyuki OSHIMA: “Proposal of equation of wind force coefficient
and evaluation of the effect to motions of moored ships”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 760, 1993 (in Japanese).
16) Davenport, A. G.: “Gust loading factors”, Proc. of ASCE, ST3, 1967, pp. 11-34.
17) Hirofumi INAGAKI, Koichi YAMAGUCHI, Takeo KATAYAMA: “Standardization of mooring posts and bollards for
wharf”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 102, 1970 (in Japanese).
18) Iaso FUKUDA, Tadahiko YAGYU: “Tractive force on mooring posts and bollards”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 427, 1982 (in
Japanese).

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Chapter 3 Wind and Wind Pressure


3.1 General
When designing port and harbor facilities, meteorological factors such as winds, air pressure, fog, rainfall,
snow depth, and air temperature should be considered.

[Commentary]
The effects that meteorological factors exert on the design of port and harbor facilities are as follows:
(1) Air pressure and its distribution are the factors that govern the generations of winds and storm surge.
(2) Wind is a factor that governs the generations of waves and storm surge, it exerts external forces on port and
harbor facilities and moored vessels in the form of wind pressure, and it can disrupt port and harbor works such
as cargo handling.
(3) Rainfall is a factor that determines the required capacity of drainage facilities in ports and harbors, and rain can
also disrupt port and harbor works such as cargo handling.
(4) Fog is a factor that is an impediment to the navigation of vessels when they are entering or leaving a harbor, and
also decreases the productivity of port and harbor facilities.
(5) In some cases, snow load is considered as a static load acting on port and harbor facilities.
(6) Air temperature affects the stress distribution within structures of port and harbor facilities and may lead to the
occurrence of thermal stress in these structures.

[Technical Notes]
(1) In calculations concerning the generation of storm surge or waves due to a typhoon, it is common to assume that
the air pressure distribution follows either Fujita’s equation (3.1.1) or Myers’ equation (3.1.2); the constants in
the chosen equation are determined based on actual air pressure measurements in the region of typhoons.
Dp
p = p ¥ – -------------------------------- (Fujita’ formula) (3.1.1)
1 + (r ¤ r0 )2
r0
p = p c + Dp exp æ – ----ö (Myers’ formula) (3.1.2)
è rø
where
p: air pressure at a distance r from the center of typhoon (hPa)
r: distance from the center of typhoon (km)
p c: air pressure at the center of typhoon (hPa)
r 0: estimated distance from the center of typhoon to the point where the wind velocity is maximum (km)
Dp: air pressure drop at the center of typhoon (hPa); Dp = p ¥ – p c
p ¥: air pressure at r = ¥ (hPa); p ¥ = p c + Dp
The size of a typhoon varies with time, and so r 0 and Dp must be determined as the functions of time.
(2) With regard to wind, see 3.2 Wind.
(3) Rain is generally divided into the rain of thunderstorms that have heavy rainfall in a short period of time and the
rain that continues for a prolonged period of time (rain by a typhoon is a representative example of the latter).
When designing drainage facilities, it is necessary to determine the intensity of rainfall both for the case where
the amount of runoff increases very rapidly and for the case where the runoff continues for a prolonged period.
In the case of sewage planning whereby the intensity of rainfall during a thunderstorm is a problem, Sherman’s
formula or Talbot’s formula is used.
a
R = ---n- (Sherman’s formula) (3.1.3)
t
a
R = ----------- (Talbot’s formula) (3.1.4)
t+b
where
R: intensity of rainfall (mm/h)
t: duration of rainfall (min)
a, b, n: constants
(4) With regard to snow load acting upon port and harbor facilities, see 15.3.4 Snow Load.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

3.2 Wind (Notification Article 3, Clause 1)


It shall be standard to set the wind characteristics for wave estimations and the wind characteristics as the
cause of an external force on port and harbor facilities as stipulated in the following:
(1) When calculating the wind velocity and wind direction used in estimations of waves and storm surges,
either the actual wind measurements or the calculated values for gradient winds are to be used, with
all necessary corrections having been made for the heights of measurements, etc.
(2) The velocity of the wind acting on port and harbor facilities shall be set based on statistical data for an
appropriate period in line with the characteristics of the facilities and structures.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Gradient Winds
(a) The velocity of the gradient wind can be expressed as a function of pressure gradient, radius of curvature of
isobars, latitude, and air density as in equation (3.2.1).

æ ¶ p ¤ ¶r ö
Vg = rw sin f ç – 1 + 1 + ----------------------------
-÷ (3.2.1)
è r a rw 2 sin 2 fø
where
Vg : velocity of gradient wind (cm/s); in the case of an anticyclone, equation (3.2.1) gives a negative value
¶p and so the absolute value should be taken.
-----: pressure gradient (taken to be positive for a cyclone, negative for an anticyclone) (g/cm2/s2)
¶r
r: radius of curvature of isobars (cm)
w: angular velocity of Earth's rotation ( s –1 ); w = 7.29 ´ 10 –5 ¤ s
f: latitude (º)
ra: density of air (g/cm3)
Before performing the calculation, measurement units should first be converted into the CGS units listed
above. Note that 1º of latitude corresponds to a distance of approximately 1.11 × 10 7 cm, and an air pressure
of 1.0 hPa is 10 3 g/cm/s2.
(b) A gradient wind for which the isobars are straight lines (i.e., their radius of curvature in equation (3.2.1) is
infinite) is called the geostrophic wind. In this case, the wind velocity is V = ( ¶ p ¤ ¶r ) ¤ ( 2r a rw sin f ) .
(2) The actual sea surface wind velocity is generally lower than the value obtained from the gradient wind equation.
Moreover, although the direction of a gradient wind is parallel to the isobars in theory, the sea surface wind
blows at a certain angle a to the isobars as sketched in Fig. T- 3.2.2. In the northern hemisphere, the wind
around a cyclone blows in a counterclockwise direction and inwards, whereas the wind around an anticyclone
blows in a clockwise direction and outwards. It is known that the relationship between the velocity of gradient
winds and that of the actual sea surface wind varies with the latitude. The relationship under the average
conditions is summarized in Table T- 3.2.1. However, this is no more than a guideline; when estimating sea
surface winds, it is necessary to make appropriate corrections by comparing estimations with actual
measurements taken along the coast and values that have been reported by vessels out at sea (the latter are
written on weather charts).

Table T- 3.2.1 Relationship between Sea Surface Wind


Speed and Gradient Wind Speed

Latitude 10º 20º 30º 40º 50º


Low High Angle a 24º 20º 18º 17º 15º
Velocity ratio V s ¤ V g 0.51 0.60 0.64 0.67 0.70

Fig. T- 3.2.2 Wind Direction for a


Cyclone (Low) and an
Anticyclone (High)

(3) When selecting the design wind velocity for the wind that acts directly on port and harbor facilities and moored
vessels, one should estimate the extreme distribution of the wind velocity based on actual measurement data
taken over a long period (at least 30 years as a general rule) and then use the wind velocity corresponding to the
required return period.
It is standard to take the wind parameters to be the direction and velocity, with the wind direction being
represented using the sixteen-points bearing system and the wind velocity by the mean wind velocity over 10
minutes.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

In the Meteorological Agency’s Technical Observation Notes No. 34, the expected wind velocities with the
return periods of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 years for 141 government meteorological offices have been
estimated from the ten-minute mean wind velocity data of about 35 years, under the assumption that wind
velocity follows a double exponential distribution. For locations with topographical conditions different from
that of the nearest among the above-mentioned meteorological offices, one should conduct observations for at
least one year and then conduct a comparative investigation on topographical effects in order to make it possible
to use the aforementioned estimation results.
(4) Regarding the wind velocity used in estimating storm surges and waves, it is standard to use the value at a height
of 10 m above sea level. The wind velocities obtained at government meteorological offices are the values for a
height of approximately 10 m above the ground level. Accordingly, when attempting to use such observed
values to estimate sea surface winds, in the case that the elevations of the structural members are considerably
different from 10 m, it is necessary to correct the wind velocity with respect to the height. The vertical profile of
the wind velocity is generally represented with a power law, and so in current design calculations for all kinds of
structures, a power law is simply used: i.e.,
h n
U h = U 0 æè -----öø (3.2.2)
h0
where
U h: wind velocity at height h (m/s)
U 0: wind velocity at height h 0 (m/s)
The value of the exponent varies with the situation with regard to the roughness near to the surface of the ground
and the stability of the atmosphere. In structural calculations on land, a value of n = 1/10 ~ 1/4 is used, and it is
common to use a value of n ≧ 1/7 out to sea.
Statistical data on wind velocity usually consider the ten-minute mean wind velocity. However, for some
structures the mean wind velocity over a shorter time period or the maximum instantaneous wind velocity may
be used, in which case it is necessary to gain an understanding of the relationship between the mean wind
velocity over a certain time period and the maximum wind velocity, and also the characteristics of the gust
factor.

3.3 Wind Pressure (Notification Article 3, Clause 2)


The wind pressure shall be set appropriately, giving due consideration to the situation with regard to the
structural types of the facilities and their locations.

[Technical Notes]
(1) When calculating the wind pressure acting on a moored vessel, one should refer to 2.2.3 [3] Wind Load Acting
on a Vessel.
(2) In the case that there are no statutory stipulations concerning the wind pressure acting on a structure, the wind
pressure may be calculated using equation (3.3.1).
p = cq (3.3.1)
where
p: wind pressure (N/m2)
q: velocity pressure (N/m2)
c: wind pressure coefficient
Equation (3.3.1) expresses the wind pressure, i.e., the force due to the wind per unit area subjected to the wind
force. The total force due to the wind acting on a member or structure is thus the wind pressure as given by
equation (3.3.1) multiplied by the area of that member or structure affected by the wind in a plane perpendicular
to the direction in which the wind acts.
The velocity pressure q is defined as in equation (3.3.2).
1
q = --- r a U 2 (3.3.2)
2
where
q: velocity pressure (N/m2)
r a: density of air (kg/m3) r a = 1.23 kg/m3
U: design wind velocity (m/s)
The design wind velocity should be taken at 1.2 to 1.5 times the standard wind velocity (ten-minute mean wind
velocity at a height of 10 m). This is because the maximum instantaneous wind velocity is about 1.2 to 1.5 times
the ten-minute mean wind velocity.
The wind pressure coefficient varies depending on the conditions such as the shape of the member or
structure, the wind direction, and the Reynolds number. With the exception of cases where it is determined by
means of the wind tunnel experiments, it may be set by referring to the Article 87 of the “Enforcement Order
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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

of the Building Standard Law” (Government Ordinance No. 338, 1950) or the “Crane Structure Standards”
(Ministry of Labor Notification). With regard to wind direction, it is generally required to consider the wind
direction that is most unfavorable to the structure, with the exception of cases where it has been verified that
there exists an overwhelmingly prevailing direction of winds.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Chapter 4 Waves
4.1 General
4.1.1 Procedure for Determining the Waves Used in Design (Notification Article 4, Clause 1)
The waves used in the investigation of the stability of protective harbor facilities and other port and harbor
facilities, as well as the examination of the degree of calmness of navigation channels and basins shall be
set using wave data obtained from either actual wave measurements or wave hindcasting. Wave
characteristics shall be obtained by carrying out necessary statistical processing and by analyzing wave
transformations owing to sea bottom topography and others. It shall be standard to carry out the wave
hindcasting using a method that is based on an appropriate equation for representing the relationship
between the wind velocity and the wave spectrum or the significant wave parameters.

[Commentary]
The size and structural form of facilities are determined
by the factors such as the height and period of the waves
Wave data
1) Actual measurement data
that act on them. The setting of the wave conditions to be 2) Hindcasting values
used in design should thus be carried out carefully. The
setting of wave conditions should be carried out
separately for “ordinary waves” (i.e., waves that occur in Statistical analysis
ordinary conditions: these are required when estimating
the harbor calmness or the net working rate of cargo
1) Ordinary waves
2) Storm waves
handling) and “storm waves” (i.e., waves that occur in
storm conditions: these are required when estimating the Wave occurrence rate of
wave force acting on structures). deepwater waves Design deepwater waves
The waves that are obtained by statistically process-
ing data based on either actual measurements or hindcast-
ing are generally deepwater waves that are unaffected by Wave transformation Wave transformation
the sea bottom topography. Deepwater waves propagate
towards the coast, and once the waves reach to the water
Wave occurrence rate Parameters of design waves
depth about one half the wavelength, they start to experi- at the place of interest 1) Significant wave
ence the effects of topography and transform with the 2) Highest wave
result of wave height change. “Wave transformation”
includes refraction, diffraction, reflection, shoaling, and
breaking. In order to determine the wave conditions at the
1) Harbor calmness 1) Wave force acting
2) Net working rate, on structures
place where wave data is needed (for instance the place number of working days 2) Amount of waves
where a structure of interest is located), it is necessary to 3) Transport energy of overtopping at seawall
give appropriate consideration to such wave transforma- incoming waves and revetments
tions by means of numerical calculations or model exper- 4) Others 3) Others
iments.
In the above-mentioned procedure for setting the Fig. T- 4.1.1 Procedure for Setting
wave conditions to be used in design, it is necessary to the Waves to Be
give sufficient consideration to the irregularity of the Used in Design
waves and to treat the waves as being of random nature
as much as possible.

[Technical Notes]
A sample procedure for setting the wave conditions to be used in design is shown in Fig. T- 4.1.1.

4.1.2 Waves to Be Used in Design


Significant waves, highest waves, deepwater waves, equivalent deepwater waves and others shall be used
in the design of port and harbor facilities.

[Commentary]
The waves used in the design of structures are generally “significant waves”. The significant wave is a hypothetical
wave that is a statistical indicator of an irregular wave group. Significant waves have the dimensions that are
approximately equal to the values from visual wave observations, and so they are used in wave hindcasting. It is also
known that the period of a significant wave is approximately equal to the period at the peak of the wave spectrum.
Because of such advantages, significant waves have been commonly used to represent wave groups. Nevertheless,
depending on the purpose, it may be necessary to convert significant waves into other waves such as highest waves
and highest one-tenth waves.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

[Technical Notes]
(1) Definitions of Wave Parameters
(a) Significant wave (significant wave height H1/3 and significant wave period T1/3)
The waves in a wave group are rearranged in the order of their heights and the highest one-third are selected;
the significant wave is then the hypothetical wave whose height and period are the mean height and period of
the selected waves.
(b) Highest wave (highest wave height Hmax and highest wave period Tmax)
The highest wave in a wave group.
(c) Highest one-tenth wave (H1/10, T1/10)
The wave whose height and period are equal to the mean height and period of the highest one-tenth of the
waves in a wave group.
(d) Mean wave (mean wave height H , mean period T )
The wave whose height and period are equal to the mean height and period of all of the waves in a wave
group.
(e) Deepwater waves (deepwater wave height H0 and deepwater wave period T0)
The waves at a place where the water depth is at least one half of the wavelength; the wave parameters are
expressed with those of the significant wave at this place.
(f) Equivalent deepwater wave height (H0¢)
A hypothetical wave height that has been corrected for the effects of planar topographic changes such as
refraction and diffraction; it is expressed with the significant wave height.
(2) Maximum Wave
The largest significant wave within a series of significant wave data that was observed during a certain period
(for example, one day, one month, or one year) is called the “maximum wave”. In order to clearly specify the
length of the observation period, it is advisable to refer to the maximum wave such as the “maximum significant
wave over a period of one day (or one month, one year, etc.)”. Moreover, when one wishes to clearly state that
one is referring to the significant wave for the largest wave that occurred during a stormy weather, the term
“peak wave” is used (see 4.4 Statistical Processing of Wave Observation and Hindcasted Data). The
“maximum wave height” is the maximum value of the significant wave height during a certain period; this is
different from the definition of the “highest wave height”.
(3) Significance of Equivalent Deepwater Waves
The wave height at a certain place in the field is determined as the result of transformations by shoaling and
breaking, which depend on the water depth at that place, and those by diffraction and refraction, which depend
on the planar topographical conditions at that place. However, in hydraulic model experiments on the
transformation or overtopping of waves in a two-dimensional channel or in two-dimensional analysis by wave
transformation theory, planar topographical changes are not taken into consideration. When applying the results
of a two-dimensional model experiment or a theoretical calculation to the field, it is thus necessary to
incorporate in advance the special conditions of the place in question, namely the effects of planar topographical
changes (specifically the effects of diffraction and refraction), into the deepwater waves for the place in
question, thus adjusting the deepwater waves into a form whereby they correspond to the deepwater incident
wave height used for the experiment or theoretical calculation. The deepwater wave height obtained by
correcting the effects of diffraction and refraction with their coefficients is called the “equivalent deepwater
wave height”.
The equivalent deepwater wave height at the place for which design is being carried out is given as follows:
H0 ¢ = Kd Kr H0 (4.1.1)

where
Kr: refraction coefficient for the place in question (see 4.5.2 Wave Refraction)
Kd: diffraction coefficient for the place in question (see 4.5.3 Wave Diffraction)

4.1.3 Properties of Waves

[1] Fundamental Properties of Waves


Fundamental properties of waves such as the wavelength and velocity may be estimated by means of the
small amplitude wave theory. However, the height of breaking waves and the runup height shall be
estimated while considering the finite amplitude effects.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

[Technical Notes]
(1) Small Amplitude Wave Theory
The fundamental properties of waves are expressed as the functions of the wave height, period, and water depth.
Various characteristics of shallow water waves as obtained as a first approximation by small amplitude wave
theory are listed below. Note that, with regard to the coordinates, the positive x direction is taken in the direction
of wave travel and the positive z direction vertically upwards with z = 0 corresponding to the still water level.
The water depth h is assumed to be constant and wave characteristics are assumed to be uniform in the
transverse direction (y direction).
(a) Surface elevation (displacement from still water level) (m)

H 2p 2p
h ( x ,t ) = ---- sin æ ------x – ------tö (4.1.2)
2 èL T ø
where
h: surface elevation (m)
H: wave height (m)
L: wavelength (m)
T: period (s)
(b) Wavelength (m)
gT 2 2ph
L = --------- tanh ---------- (4.1.3)
2p L
where
h: water depth (m)
g: gravitational acceleration (m/s2)
(c) Wave velocity (m/s)

gT 2ph gL
C = ------ tanh ---------- = ------ tanh 2ph
---------- (4.1.4)
2p L 2p L
(d) Water particle velocity (m/s)

cosh 2p (z + h)
644474448

-----------------------
pH L 2p 2p
u = ------- ----------------------------------- sin æ ------x – ------tö
T 2ph èL T ø
sinh ----------
L
(4.1.5)
2p ( z + h )
cosh -----------------------
pH L 2p 2p
w = ------- ----------------------------------- cos æ ------x – ------tö
T 2ph è L T ø
sinh ----------
L
where
u: component of water particle velocity in the x direction (m/s)
w: component of water particle velocity in the z direction (m/s)
(e) Water particle acceleration (m/s)
2p ( z + h )
644474448

cos h -----------------------
du 2p 2 H L 2p 2p
------ = – ------------- ----------------------------------- cos æ ------x – ------tö
dt T 2 2ph è L T ø
sinh ----------
L (4.1.6)
2p ( z + h )
cos h -----------------------
dw 2p 2 H L 2p 2p
------- = – ------------- ----------------------------------- sin æ ------x – ------tö
dt T 2 2ph è L T ø
sinh ----------
L
where
du
------: component of water particle acceleration in the x direction (m/s2)
dt
dw
-------: component of water particle acceleration in the z direction (m/s2)
dt

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(f) Pressure in water when wave acts (N/m2)


2p ( z + h )
cosh -----------------------
1 L 2p 2p
p = --- r 0 gH ----------------------------------- sin æ ------x – ------tö – r 0 gz (4.1.7)
2 2ph èL T ø
cosh ----------
L
where
r0: density of water (1.01~1.05 × 103 kg/m3 for seawater)
(g) Mean energy of wave per unit area of water surface (J)
1
E = E k + E p = --- r 0 gH 2 (4.1.8)
8
where Ek and Ep are the kinetic and potential energy densities respectively, with Ek = Ep.
(h) Mean rate of energy transported in the direction of wave travel per unit time per unit width of wave (N • m/m/s)
W = CG E = nCE (4.1.9)
CG = nC (4.1.10)
where
CG: group velocity of waves (m/s)
æ 4ph ö
---------- ÷
1ç L
n = --- ç 1 + ---------------------÷ (4.1.11)
2ç 4ph
sinh ----------÷
è L ø

(2) Characteristics of Deepwater Waves and Wavelength


(a) Deepwater waves
Waves in water with the depth greater than one-half the wavelength (h/L > 1/2) are called the deepwater
waves. Various characteristics of deepwater waves may be obtained from the equations of small amplitude
wave theory by letting h/L ® ∞ . The wavelength L0, wave velocity C0, and group velocity CG for deepwater
waves thus become as below. Note that the units of period T are seconds (s).
L0 = 1.56T 2(m), C0 = 1.56T (m/s)
CG= 0.78T (m/s) (4.1.12)
= 1.52T (kt)
= 2.81T (km/h)
As expressed in equation (4.1.12), the wavelength, wave velocity, and group velocity for deepwater waves
depend only on the period and are independent of the water depth.
(b) Wavelength of long waves
Waves for which the wavelength is extremely long compared with the water depth (h/L < 1/25) are called the
long waves. Various characteristics of long waves may be obtained from the equations of small amplitude
wave theory by taking h/L to be extremely small. The wavelength, wave velocity, and group velocity for long
waves thus become as follows:

L = T gh (m) (4.1.13)
C = CG = gh (m/s)

(3) Consideration of Finite Amplitude Effects


The equations shown in (1) are not always accurate for general shallow water waves having a large height, and
so it is sometimes necessary to use equations for finite amplitude waves. When carrying out calculations using
finite amplitude wave equations, one should refer to “Handbook of Hydraulic Formulas” published by the Japan
Society of Civil Engineers. The amount of the errors in calculations that arise from the use of the small
amplitude wave theory varies according to the wave steepness H/L and the ratio of water depth to wavelength
h ¤ L . Nevertheless, the error in wave parameters is usually no more than 20 ~ 30% with the exception of the
horizontal water particle velocity u.
One of the finite amplitude effects of waves appears on the crest elevation hc relative to the wave height; the
ratio increases as the wave height increases. The definition of the crest elevation hc is shown at the top of Fig. T-
4.1.2. This figure was drawn up based on wave profile records from the field. It shows the ratio of the highest
crest elevation obtained from each observation record to the highest wave height Hmax in that record as the
function of relative wave height H1/3/h.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(4) Types of Finite Amplitude Wave Theory


The finite amplitude wave theories include the Stokes
wave theory, cnoidal wave theory, and others. In the
former, the wave steepness is assumed to be relatively
low, and the wave profile is represented as a series of (ηc)max
Hmax
trigonometric functions. A number of researchers have
proposed several approximate series solutions. In this
theory, however, convergence of the series becomes
extremely poor as the water depth to wavelength ratio
decreases. This means that the theory cannot be applied if
the water depth to wavelength ratio is too small. On the
other hand, the cnoidel wave theory is obtained by a per- Standard
deviation
turbation expansion method with the water depth to Number of
data points
wavelength ratio assumed to be extremely small, mean- Mean
ing that it is valid when the water depth to wavelength
ratio is small. Errors become large, however, when the
water depth to wavelength ratio increases. In addition to
these two theories, there are also the hyperbolic wave
theory, in which a cnoidal wave is approximated as an H1/3 / h
expansion of hyperbolic functions, and the solitary wave
Fig. T- 4.1.2 Relationship between Maximum
theory, which is the asymptotic case of the cnoidal wave
Crest Elevation (hc)max/Hmax and
theory when the wavelength approaches to infinity. With
Relative Wave Height H1/3/h
the exception of solitary wave theory, the equations in all
of these finite amplitude wave theories are complicated,
meaning that calculations are not easy. In particular, with the cnoidal wave theory, the equations contain elliptic
integrals, making them very inconvenient to handle. If Dean’s stream function method 1), 2) is adopted, then the
wave profile and water particle velocity can be obtained with good accuracy right up to the point where the wave
breaks.
(5) Application of Finite Amplitude Wave Theories to Structural Designs
Nonlinear theories, which include finite amplitude wave theories, are applied to a wide variety of coastal
engineering fields. However, there are still a large number of unknowns, and so, in the case of design at present,
they are only applied to a limited number of fields such as those discussed below.
(a) Maximum horizontal water particle velocity umax at each elevation below the wave crest
This information is vital in the estimation of the wave force on a vertical structural member. The equations
from the Stokes wave theory are used when the water depth to wavelength ratio is large, and the equations
from solitary wave theory are used when the water depth to wavelength ratio is small. An approximate
calculation may be carried out using the following empirical equation 3):

pH H 1 ¤ 2 z + h 3 i cos h [ ( 2p ( z + h ) ) ¤ L ]
u max ( z ) = ------- 1 + a æ ----ö æ -----------ö ------------------------------------------------------ (4.1.14)
T è hø è h ø sinh [ ( 2ph ) ¤ L ]
where the coefficient a is given as listed in Table T- 4.1.2.
Table T- 4.1.2 Coefficient a for Calculation of Maximum Horizontal Water Particle Velocity

h/L a h/L a
0.03 1.50 0.2 0.68
0.05 1.50 0.3 0.49
0.07 1.43 0.5 0.25
0.10 1.25 0.7 0.27
0.14 0.97

(b) Wave shoaling


Wave shoaling, which occurs as the water depth decreases, may be calculated using a long wave theory that
includes nonlinear terms. Alternatively, the cnoidal wave theory or hyperbolic wave theory may be applied to
this phenomenon (see 4.5.5 Wave Shoaling).
(c) Rise and drop of the mean water level
The mean water level gradually drops as waves approach the breaking point and then rises within the breaker
zone toward the shoreline, as can be calculated from the theory of nonlinear interference between waves and
currents. This mean water level change is taken into account for the calculation of the wave height change due
to random wave breaking (see 4.5.6 Wave Breaking).

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(d) Air gap of offshore structures


When determining the amount of air gap of offshore structures above the still water level, it is advisable to
consider the relative increase in the wave crest elevation due to the finite amplitude effect such as exhibited in
Fig. T-4.1.12.

[2] Statistical Properties of Waves


In the design of port and harbor facilities, it shall be standard to consider the statistical properties of the
waves with regard to wave heights and periods and to use the Rayleigh distribution for the wave heights of
an irregular deepwater wave group.

[Commentary]
The assumption behind the theory of Rayleigh distribution is a precondition that the wave energy is concentrated in
an extremely narrow band around a certain frequency. Problems thus remain with regard to its applicability to ocean
waves for which the frequency band is broad. Nevertheless, it has been pointed out that, so long as the waves are
defined by the zero-upcrossing method, the Rayleigh distribution can be applied to ocean waves as an acceptable
approximation.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Expression of Rayleigh Distribution
The Rayleigh distribution is given by the following equation:
pH ì p H 2ü
p ( H ¤ H ) = --- ----- exp í – --- æ -----ö ý (4.1.15)
2H è ø
î 4 H þ
where
p(H/H): probability density function of wave heights
H : mean wave height (m)
According to the Rayleigh distribution, the highest one-tenth wave height H1/10, the significant wave height
H 1 ¤ 3 , and the mean wave height H are related to one another by the following equations:
678

H 1 ¤ 10 = 1.27H 1 ¤ 3 (4.1.16)
H 1 ¤ 3 = 1.60H

On average, these relationships agree well with the results of wave observations in situ.
The highest wave height Hmax is difficult to determine precisely as will be discussed in (2) below, but in
general it may be fixed as in the following relationship:
H max = ( 1.6 ~ 2.0 )H 1 ¤ 3 (4.1.17)

The periods are related as follows:


T max ≒ T 1 ¤ 3 = ( 1.1 ~ 1.3 )T (4.1.18)

It should be noted however that as waves approach the coast, waves with the heights greater than the breaking
limit begin to break and that their heights are reduced. Thus it is not possible to use the Rayleigh distribution for
the wave heights within the breaker zone.
(2) Occurrence Probability of the Highest Wave Height
The highest wave height Hmax is a statistical quantity that cannot be determined precisely; it is only possible to
give its occurrence probability. If the wave height is assumed to follow a Rayleigh distribution, then the
expected value Hmax of Hmax , when a large number of samples each composed of N waves are ensembled, is
given as follows:
0.5772
H max = 0.706 æ l n N + ----------------ö H 1 ¤ 3 (4.1.20)
è 2 l n Nø
It should be noted, however, that when Hmax is obtained for each of a large number of samples each containing
N waves, there will be a considerable number of cases in which Hmax exceeds Hmax. Thus a simple use of Hmax
as the design wave might place structures on a risky side. One can thus envisage the method in which a wave
height (Hmax)m with m = 0.05 or 0.1 is used, where (Hmax)m is set such that the probability of the value of Hmax
exceeding (Hmax)m is m (i.e., the significance level is m). The value of (Hmax)m for a given significance level m is
given by the following equation:

N
( H max ) m = 0.706H 1 ¤ 3 l n æ ----------------------------------ö (4.1.21)
è l n [ 1 ¤ ( 1 – m ) ]ø

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Table T- 4.1.4 lists the values obtained from this equation. Because Hmax is not a definite value but rather a
probabilistic variable, the value of Hmax / H1/3 varies greatly with N and m. However, considering the facts that the
wave height only approximately follows a Rayleigh distribution and that the wave pressure formula has been derived
while containing a certain scatter of experimental data, it is appropriate to use Hmax = (1.6 ~ 2.0) H1/3 by neglecting
the very small or large values in the table.
Table T- 4.1.4 Relationship between Highest Wave Height Hmax and Significant Wave Height H1/3

50% significance 10% significance 5% significance


Number of waves Mode Mean
level level level
N (Hmax) mode (Hmax)
(Hmax) 0.5 (Hmax) 0.1 (Hmax) 0.05
50 1.40H1/3 1.46H1/3 1.50H1/3 1.76H1/3 1.86H1/3
100 1.52H1/3 1.58H1/3 1.61H1/3 1.85H1/3 1.95H1/3
200 1.63H1/3 1.68H1/3 1.72H1/3 1.94H1/3 2.03H1/3
500 1.76H1/3 1.81H1/3 1.84H1/3 2.06H1/3 2.14H1/3
1,000 1.86H1/3 1.91H1/3 1.94H1/3 2.14H1/3 2.22H1/3
2,000 1.95H1/3 2.00H1/3 2.02H1/3 2.22H1/3 2.30H1/3
5,000 2.05H1/3 2.10H1/3 2.12H1/3 2.31H1/3 3.39H1/3
10,000 2.12H1/3 2.19H1/3 2.19H1/3 2.39H1/3 2.47H1/3

[3] Wave Spectrum


In the design of port and harbor facilities, due consideration shall be given to the functional form of the
wave spectrum and an appropriate expression shall be used.

[Technical Notes]
(1) General Form of Wave Spectrum
The general form of the wave spectrum is usually represented as in the following equation:
S ( f, q ) = S ( f )G ( f, q ) (4.1.22)
where
f: frequency
q: azimuth from the principal direction of the wave
S(f,q): directional spectrum
In the above, S(f) is a function that represents the distribution of the wave energy with respect to frequency; it is
called the “frequency spectrum”. G(f,q) is a function that represents the distribution of the wave energy with
respect to direction; it is called the “directional spreading function”.
The functions expressed in the following equations may be used for S(f) and G(f,q). The frequency spectrum
of equation (4.1.23) is called the Bretschneider-Mitsuyasu spectrum, while equation (4.1.24) is called the
Mitsuyasu type spreading function.
2 –4 – 5 –4
S ( f ) = 0.257H 1 ¤ 3 T1 ¤ 3 f exp [ – 1.03 ( T1 ¤ 3 f ) ] (4.1.23)
q
G ( f, q ) = G 0 cos 2S --- (4.1.24)
2
i

where G0 is a constant of proportionality that satisfies the following normalization condition:


qmax
òq G ( f, q ) dq = 1 (4.1.25)
min

where qmax and qmin are respectively the maximum and minimum angles of deviation from the principal
direction.
The term S in equation (4.1.24) is a parameter that represents the degree of directional spreading of wave
energy. It is given by the following formulas:
f –2.5
64748

S = S max æ -----ö : f > fm


è f mø
(4.1.26)
f 5
S = S max æ -----ö : f ≦ fm
è f mø

where fm is the frequency at which the spectrum peak appears. It may be represented in terms of the significant
wave period T1/3 as in the following equation:
f m = 1 ¤ ( 1.05T 1 ¤ 3 ) (4.1.27)

If the units of H1/3 and T1/3 are meters and seconds respectively, then the units of S(f,q) are m2•s.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(2) Value of Directional Spreading Parameter


It is standard to take a value of 10 for the maximum value Smax of the directional spreading parameter in the case
of wind waves in deep water. In the case of swell considering the process of wave decay and others, it is
appropriate to take a value of 20 or more. Figure T- 4.1.4 shows a graph of approximately estimated values of
Smax against wave steepness. Judging by the value of wave steepness, it can be seen that Smax< 20 for wind
waves. This graph may be used in order to set an approximate value for Smax. Goda and Suzuki 4) have proposed
using as the standard values Smax = 10 for wind waves, Smax = 25 for swell during initial decay, and Smax = 75 for
swell that has a long decay distance.

S max

(αp)0

h/L0

Fig. T- 4.1.5 Graph Showing the Change


in Smax Due to Refraction

Fig. T- 4.1.4 Graph Showing Estimated Values


of Smax against Wave Steepness

(3) Change in Smax Due to Refraction


The form of the directional spreading function changes as waves undergo the refraction process. When a
diffraction calculation on irregular waves is carried out using waves that have been refracted, it is thus very
important to consider such changes in the directional spreading function. Figure T- 4.1.5 shows the values of
Smax after waves have been refracted at a coastline with straight and parallel depth contour lines. In the figure,
(ap)0 is the incident angle of the principal wave direction at the deepwater boundary, i.e., the angle between the
principal wave direction and the line normal to the depth contours.
(4) Improved Model for Frequency Spectrum
If waves are generated in a laboratory flume using the Bretschneider-Mitsuyasu spectrum expressed by equation
(4.1.23), the significant wave period of the generated waves often deviates from the target significant wave
period. The reason for such a deviation is that the original equation (4.1.23) is given in terms of the peak
frequency fm, but this is replaced with the significant wave period T1/3 by using equation (4.1.27). Goda 54) has
thus proposed the following standard spectral form for which the significant wave period of the generated waves
does not deviate from the target significant wave period.
2 –4 – 5 –4
S ( f ) = 0.205H 1 ¤ 3 T1 ¤ 3 f exp [ – 0.75 (T1 ¤ 3 f ) ] (4.1.28)

The peak frequency for equation (4.1.28) is about 8% lower than that for equation (4.1.23), the spectral density
at the peak is about 18% higher, and overall the spectrum is shifted towards the low frequency side. At the very
least, it is advisable to use the spectral form expressed by equation (4.1.28) for the target spectrum in hydraulic
model experiments.
(5) Relationship between Wave Spectrum and Typical Values of Wave Characteristics
(a) Wave spectrum and typical value of wave height
If the probability density function for the occurrence of a wave height H is assumed to follow the Rayleigh
distribution, then the relationship between the mean wave height H and the zeroth moment of the wave

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

spectrum m0 is given by equation (4.1.30), where the n-th moment of the wave spectrum is defined as in
equation (4.1.29).
¥
mn = ò0 f n S ( f ) df (4.1.29)

H = 2pm 0 ≒ 2.5 m 0 (4.1.30)

Using the relationship H1/3 = 1.60 H , one arrives at the following relationship between the significant wave
height and the spectrum.

H 1 ¤ 3 ≒ 4.0 m 0 (4.1.31)

According to the results of actual observations, it is often the case that the best relationship is
H 1 ¤ 3 = 3.8 m 0 . In the case of wave data from the shallow waters where the wave height is large, the waves
are highly nonlinear and so the relationship H 1 ¤ 3 = 4.0 m 0 is satisfied. In either case, there is a very strong
correlation between H 1 ¤ 3 and m0. It is thus acceptable to use equation (4.1.31) and calculate the significant
wave height from the spectrum.
(b) Wave spectrum and typical value of period
When waves are defined using the zero-upcrossing Mean ; 0.832
method, the mean period Tz is given by the following N = 171 data Standard deviation ; 0.072

equation according to Rice’s theory.

Tz = m0 ¤ m2 (4.1.32)

Calculating the mean period using the Bretschneider-


Mitsuyasu type spectrum gives the following
relationship:
T z = 0.74T 1 ¤ 3 (4.1.33)

Figure T- 4.1.6 shows a comparison between the mean


periods T obtained from actually observed wave profiles
and the mean periods Tz estimated from spectrum
calculations. The values of Tz / T are distributed in the
range 0.6 ~ 1.0, with the mean being 0.83. In other words,
the mean values obtained from wave profiles tend to be
Fig. T- 4.1.6 Frequency Distribution of the
about 20% greater than those calculated from the
Ratio of Mean Period Tz by
moments of spectra. The deviation from Rice’s theory is
Spectral Calculation to Actually
thought to have been caused by the presence of second
Measured Mean Period T
order nonliner components in the high frequency range of
wave spectra.
(6) Spectrum for Long-Period Waves
The above explanation concerns the spectra for wind waves and swell components that have a relatively short
period. For long-period wave components that have a period of tens of seconds or more, see 4.8 Long-period
Waves and Seiche.

4.2 Method of Determining Wave Conditions to Be Used in Design


4.2.1 Principles for Determining the Deepwater Waves Used in Design (Notification Article 4, Clause 2)
The duration of statistical wave data used in setting the deepwater wave conditions for investigating the
stability of the structures of port and harbor facilities etc. shall be determined appropriately, in due
consideration to the functions of the port and harbor facilities and the characteristics of the structures.

[Commentary]
(1) As for actual measurement data, a relatively long period of measurements (10 years or more) is desirable.
However, when there is a lack of such actual measurement data, hindcasted values that have been obtained using
at least about 30 years’ worth of meteorological data should be used, with these being corrected by means of the
available data of actual wave measurement.
(2) When hindcasted values obtained from meteorological data are corrected using actual measurement data, it is
necessary that the measurement data should cover the period of 3 years at the minimum and contain a
considerable number of cases of large storms. However, if waves were recorded during an extraordinary weather
that only occurs once every a few tens of years and the values for these waves exceed all the hindcasted values,
the observed values may be used to obtain the design deepwater waves.
-40-
PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(3) If there is absolutely no actual measurement data at the site of interest, or if the only measurement data available
is for extremely limited conditions, measurement data for a neighboring place with similar natural conditions
may be used. In this case, NOWPHAS (Nationwide Ocean Wave Information Network for Ports and Harbors)
data may be used.
(4) If it is known that an extraordinary storm event occurred in the area before the period for which wave
hindcasting using meteorological data is carried out (for example, in a previous decade), the record of such an
event should be taken into consideration.
(5) When hindcasted values for a hypothetical typhoon are used, it is advisable to sufficiently investigate the
magnitudes of past typhoons and the courses that they followed, and to even include an investigation on the
occurrence probability of such a typhoon.
(6) When estimating deepwater waves using actual measurement data, it is neccessary to take into account the fact
that the measured wave height has been affected by refraction and shoaling. Thus the wave height of the
deepwater waves should be corrected by dividing the measured height by the refraction coefficient and the
shoaling coefficient. In this case, it is also necessary to consider changes in the wave direction.
(7) If the significant wave height obtained from actual measurement data is more than one half of the water depth at
the measurement location, it is considered that this wave record has been affected by wave breaking. With such
wave data, the parameters of the deepwater waves should be estimated by means of wave hindcasting. Note
however that, with regard to the hindcasted deepwater waves, significant waves for the measurement location
should be estimated as described in 4.5 Transformations of Waves, and a comparison with the actual
measurement data should be carried out.
(8) It is advisable to determine the deepwater waves that will be used in design with consideration of the encounter
probability based on the return period and the lifetime of the structure in question. However, the way in which
the encounter probability is interpreted will depend on the functions, importance and return on investment of the
structure, and other factors, and so it is not possible to determine it for the general case. It must therefore be
determined independently for each individual case by the judgement of the engineer in charge. Here, the
“encounter probability” means the probability that waves with a height larger than the return wave height for a
given return period occurs at least once during the lifetime of the structure in question.
(9) When determing the deepwater waves that will be used in design, it is necessary to examine the external forces
on and past damage of existing structures adjacent to the structure under design.
(10) It is standard to set deepwater wave parameters separately for each direction of the sixteen-point bearings,
although the directions for which the wave height is small and their effects on the structure are readily judged as
negligible may be excluded. The wave direction hereby refers to the direction of the irregular wave component
that has the highest energy density, in other words, the principal direction. Since the wave force acting on the
structure in question will not change greatly when the wave direction changes by only a few degrees, it is
acceptable in design to represent the wave direction using the sixteen-point bearing system.

4.2.2 Procedure for Obtaining the Parameters of Design Waves


First, deepwater waves shall be determined by following 4.2.1 Principles for Determining the
Deepwater Waves Used in Design. Then, transformations due to refraction, diffraction, shoaling, and
breaking shall be evaluated. Finally, the waves that have the most unfavorable effects on the structure in
question or facilities in the hinterland shall be used as the design waves.

[Technical Notes]
The parameters of the design waves are determined according to the following procedures:
(1) The effects of wave transformation such as refraction, diffraction, shoaling, and breaking are applied to the
deepwater waves determined by following 4.2.1 Principles for Determining the Deepwater Waves Used in
Design, in order to determine the parameters of the design waves at the design location.
(2) If the location in question is subject to special conditions (for example, disturbances from externally reflected
waves or an increase in wave height due to concave corners), these should also be taken into account.
(3) The wave force and other wave actions on the structure in question such as overtopping are determined for the
waves obtained above.
(4) According to the various conditions related to wave actions, there can be cases where the wave force becomes
largest when the water level is low, and so investigations should be carried out for all conceivable water levels.
(5) The above calculations are carried out for each possible direction in which the deepwater waves may come in.
The deepwater waves for which the wave action is largest or for which the effects on the structure in question or
facilities in the hinterland are most unfavorable are chosen as the design waves.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

4.3 Wave Hindcasting


4.3.1 General
Wave hindcasting shall be carried out by using an appropriate hindcasting method.

[Commentary]
(1) Wave hindcasting should be made in the following two steps:
(a) Setting of the wind field
(b) Calculation of wave development and attenuation.
(2) The field where waves are generated and developed is called the fetch (or wind field), and it is characterized by
four parameters: wind velocity, wind direction, fetch length, and wind duration. Where the wind field is set, the
wave development and attenuation should be calculated by using the most appropriate hindcasting method for
the wind field conditions.

[Technical Notes]
The wind field is to be set according to the following procedures:
(a) Collection of surface weather charts and meteorological data.
(b) Determination of the duration of hindcasting for each case.
(c) Calculation of gradient winds from the surface weather charts.
(d) Estimation of the sea surface winds by empirical formulas and data of measurement.
(e) Preparation of the wind field chart.

4.3.2 Wave Hindcasting in Generating Area


For the hindcasting of waves in the generating area, the spectrum methods and the significant wave
methods are recommended as standard methods.

[Commentary]
The reliability of the results of the wave hindcast should be examined through the comparison with the wave
measurement data.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Spectral Methods
(a) General
Spectral methods can be classified into the spectral component methods that have been developed by
assuming that the components of the spectrum for each frequency and direction develop independently until
some equilibrium state is reached 6),7), and the parameteric methods that are based on the idea that the
development and decay of a wave spectrum can be described by a certain small number of parameters 8),9),10).
With the former, the development of waves is described in terms of the influx of energy from the wind into the
component waves that make up the spectrum and the weak nonlinear interaction between component waves.
With the latter, development of waves are treated as the overall result of strong nonlinear effects and a kind of
similarity mechanism is assumed with introduction of a few parameters. Calculations are carried out by
formulating and solving the equations that govern the development and transformation processes of waves
using the parameters.
The accuracy of wave hindcasting by spectral methods has not been sufficiently investigated yet. However,
since the accuracy of wave hindcasting depends greatly on the accuracy of estimating ocean winds, at present
it is reasonable to believe that the accuracy of spectral methods is comparable to that of significant wave
methods. Nevertheless, it should be noted that even for the same wave hindcasting model, results can vary by
10 ~ 20% due to differences in the matters like the calculation mesh, the boundary conditions or empirical
constants. Accordingly, it is necessary to investigate the validity and accuracy of hindcasted results by
comparing them with observation values (examples of such comparisons are given in references 6)~11)). In
particular, an equilibrium spectral form is assigned as the limit of wave development in the current spectral
methods. It is thought that the accuracy of the supposed equilibrium spectrum itself affects the results greatly,
and so it is a good idea to investigate the accuracy with regard to the functional forms of frequency spectrum
or the directional spectrum. This is because the significant wave height is proportional to the square root of the
integral of the directional spectrum, meaning that the calculation is such that the significant wave height does
not change very much even if the spectral form itself changes somewhat, and so it is considered that the most
rigorous way of carrying out evaluation is to examine the spectral form.
The spectral methods have the following advantages over the significant wave methods.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

① The effects of the variations of wind speed and direction on wave development are physically well
described.
② Appropriate estimation results on wave heights and periods are obtained even when the wind field moves
together with wave propagation.
③ Wind waves and swell mixed sea conditions can be reproduced in one calculation.
Accordingly, if the results of hindcasting using a significant wave method seem dubious, it is a good idea to
make hindcasting again using a spectral method. Incidentally, spectral methods have been researched and
developed while primarily focusing on deepwater waves. There are only a few studies concerning shallow
water waves, namely Collins 12), Cavaleri 13), Golding 14) and Yamaguchi et al.
(b) Details 6),7)
Wave forecasting methods by mean of wave spectrum have been developed by many researchers since the
1960s. Those developed by Japanese reserchers include Inoue’s model 6), Isozaki and Uji’s MRI model 7), and
Yamaguchi and Tsuchiya’s model. The basis of these models is the following energy balance equation:

----E ( f, q, t, x ) = – C G ( f ) ÑE ( f, q, t, x ) + a ( f, U ) + b ( f, U )E ( F, q, t, x ) + F 3 + F 4 + F 5 (4.3.1)
¶t
where
E ( F, q, t, x ): energy density of a two-dimensional wave spectrum
a ( f, U ): linear amplifying factor in Phillips’ resonance theory 15)
b ( f, U ): exponential amplifying factor in Miles’ theory 16)
F 3: energy dissipated due to wave breaking
F 4: energy loss due to internal friction during wave propagations etc.
F 5: energy exchange due to the nonlinear interaction between component waves
f, q: component wave frequency and angle
t: time
x: position vector
C G ( f ): group velocity vector
U: wind velocity
Ñ: differential operator
(2) Significant Wave Methods
(a) S-M-B method
① General 19),20)
The S-M-B method is used when the wind field is stationary. The height and period of deepwater
significant waves are estimated from the wind velocity and wind duration in the fetch and the fetch length
using Fig. T- 4.3.1. Of the wave height obtained from the wind velocity and that from the wind duration,
the lower one is adopted as the hindcasted value; likewise for the period. Figure T- 4.3.1 has been drawn
based on the relationships by equations (4.3.2), (4.3.3) and (4.3.4), which were rewritten by Wilson 21) in
1965.

gH 1 ¤ 3 1
--------------
2
- = 0.30 1 – ---------------------------------------------------2- (4.3.2)
U ì æ gFö
1 ¤ 2ü
í 1 + 0.004 è -----2-ø ý
î U þ

gT 1 ¤ 3 1
-------------- = 1.37 1 – ---------------------------------------------------5- (4.3.3)
2pU ì æ gFö ü
1¤3
í 1 + 0.008 è -----2-ø ý
î U þ
F dF F dF
t = ò 0 C------G-
i = ò 0 gT
------------------------
i

1 ¤ 3 ¤ 4p
(4.3.4)

where
H 1 ¤ 3: significant wave height (m)
T 1 ¤ 3: significant wave period (s)
U: wind velocity at 10 m above sea surface (m/s).
F: fetch length (m)
g: acceleration of gravity (m/s2) (= 9.81 m/s2)
t: minimum duration (hr)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Wind Speed

Fetch
H 1 3 (m) T 1 3 (s) t (h) ( H 1 3 T 1 3 ) 2 = const.
Fig. T - 4.3.1 Wave Forecasting Diagram by the S-M-B Method

② Handling of the effective fetch length


When the fetch width is small relative to the fetch length (for example, in a long bay), the fetch length is
determined by the distance to the opposite shore. If the distance to the opposite shore varies greatly when
the direction is changed only slightly, it is advisable to use the effective fetch length defined by in equation
(4.3.5) 22) when hindcasting is made.
2
SF i cos q i
F eff = ------------------------ (4.3.5)
S cos q i

where
F eff: effective fetch length (km)
F i: distance to opposite shore in the i-th direction (km)
q i: angle between the direction of Fi and the predominant wind direction (º)

(b) Wilson’s method 21), 23)


Wilson’s method is an extension of the S-M-B method. It includes improvements that it can be applied even to
a moving fetch, for example in the case of a typhoon. Using the H1/3-t-F-T1/3 graph shown in Fig. T- 4.3.2, the
propagation of waves is traced in the F-T plane, while the development of the significant wave height and
period are traced in the H1/3-t plane and T1/3-t plane, respectively. This figure has been obtained by calculation
based on equations (4.3.2), (4.3.3) and (4.3.4).
(c) Hindcasting for shallow water waves
Methods that consider the influence of the water depth on wave development (i.e., the energy loss due to
friction with the sea bottom) include the Sakamoto-Ijima method. It is known from experience that the
significant wave period and the significant wave height satisfy the following relationship. (Note however that
this applies only for wind waves within the fetch area.)

T 1 ¤ 3 = 3.86 H 1 ¤ 3 (4.3.6)

where
H 1 ¤ 3: significant wave height (m)
T 1 ¤ 3: significant wave period (s)

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Fig. T- 4.3.2 H1/3-t-F-T1/3 Graph (from Wilson's equations (1965))

In the Sakamoto-Ijima method, the ideas in Wilson’s method for deep water waves have been incorporated
into the case for shallow water waves, resulting in an H1/3-t-F-CG graph such as shown in Fig. T- 4.3.3. With
use of such a graph it possible to carry out the hindcasting of shallow water waves in a variable fetch.

(A) Note: The numbers on the graph


show wind velocity (m/s),
with water depth (m) in brackets

Fig. T- 4.3.3 H1/3-F-CG Graph for Shallow Water Waves (Sakamoto-Ijima Method)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

4.3.3 Swell Hindcasting


When swell hindcasting is necessary, it is standard to use the Bretschneider method.

[Commentary]
Swell hindcasting methods include the Bretschneider method 24), the P-N-J method 5), and spectral methods. With the
Bretschneider method, the wave height and period of swell are hindcasted from the parameters of the significant
wave. With the P-N-J method, the swell parameters are obtained by estimating the effects of the velocity dispersion
and directional spreading of spectral components. With spectral methods as mentioned above, numerical calculations
are used; generally, no distinction is made between waves and swell in the generating area, with calculations for the
component waves at all of the different frequencies being carried out simultaneously, and the results being the
significant wave parameters for the combination of wind waves and swell. If a significant wave method is used in the
hindcasting of waves in the generating area, it is necessary to hindcast swell, in which case it is standard to use the
Bretschneider method, which is relatively simple and easy to use. Note however that the amount of reliable
observation data that has been obtained for swell is insufficient, and so the hindcasting accuracy is lower than that for
waves in the generating area. Accordingly, it is necessary to treat swell hindcast values as representing no more than
approximate values, and it is advisable to use them only after carrying out a comparative investigation with actual
measurement data.

[Technical Notes]
In the Bretschneider method, swell hindcasting is carried out by using Fig. T- 4.3.4.

Fig. T- 4.3.4 Swell Hindcasting Diagram

The term Fmin in the diagram is the minimum fetch length, D is the decay distance of the swell, HF and TF are the
height and period of the significant wave at the end of the fetch respectively, and HD and TD are the height and period
of the significant wave at the swell hindcasting point respectively. If the significant wave height and period are
determined by the wind velocity and the fetch length in the S-M-B method, the minimum fetch length Fmin is equal to
the actual fetch length. If the wave development is governed by the wind duration, then Fmin is the fetch length
corresponding to that wind duration and wind velocity.
The time t required for waves to propagate over the decay distance D is calculated from the following equation:
D 4pD
t = ----------- = ----------- (4.3.7)
C GD gT D

where
C GD:group velocity corresponding to T D (m/s)

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

4.4 Statistical Processing of Wave Observation and Hindcasted Data


(1) Wave characteristics shall be expressed as joint distributions of wave height and period by wave
direction using the monthly, seasonal, and annual wave data.
(2) Storm wave data shall be sorted by the peaks-over-threshold method so as to yield the data set of
extreme wave heights for extreme statistical analysis, and the extreme wave heights shall be
expressed in terms of the return perid.

[Commentary]
(1) The wave distribution characteristics for ordinary conditions are expressed separately for each wave direction as
a joint distribution of wave height and period. Observation data are often available for the wave height and the
period, and so it is standard to use such data. If observation data are not available, then hindcast data is used.
Since waves in ordinary conditions are often affected by the local wind, it is necessary to gain a sufficient
understanding of the local wind characteristics. There is generally not much observation data available for the
wave direction, and so it is standard to use hindcasting. It is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the
effects of swell.
(2) It is standard to represent the height of waves used in the design of protective facilities as the “return wave
height” for the return period of the “peak waves” using data over a long time period (at least 30 years as a
general rule). Since there are only a few places at which observation data extending over such a prolonged time
duration are available, generally hindcast data must be used.
(3) The peak waves, basic data for estimating the return wave height, are the wave (generally the significant wave)
at the time for which the wave height becomes largest during the process of wave development and decay under
a certain meteorological condition. It is thought that sampled peak waves are mutually independent in statistical
sense. When estimating the return wave height, it is possible to use the time series of data for which the peak
waves exceed a certain threshold value during the period in question. Alternatively, it is possible to obtain the
maximum value of the “peak waves” for each year, and then use the data as the annual maximum wave. In either
case, the theoretical distribution function of the return wave height is not known, and so one should try to fit
several distribution functions such as the those of the Gumbel distribution and the Weibull distribution, find the
functional form that best fits the data, and then extrapolate it in order to estimate the return wave heights for a
number of different return periods (say 50 years, 100 years, etc.). The accuracy of the resulting estimated values
depends largely on the reliability of the data used rather than on the statistical processing method. When drawing
up the data set of peak waves using wave hindcasting, it is thus necessary to take due care in appropriately
selecting the hindcasting method and to closely inspect the hindcasted results.
(4) With regard to the wave period corresponding to the return wave height, the relationship between the wave
height and the wave period is plotted for the data of peak waves (which have been used in estimating the return
wave height), and then the wave period is determined appropriately based on the correlation between the two.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Estimation of Return Wave Height
During statistical processing, the wave heights are Table T- 4.4.1 Parameters Used in Calculating the
rearranged in the descending order, and the probability of Probability not Exceeding a Certain Wave Height
each value of wave height not being exceeded is
calculated. If there are N data and the m-th largest wave Distribution function a b
height is denoted with xm,N, then the probability P that the Gumbel distribution 0.44 0.12
wave height does not exceed xm,N is calculated using the Weibull distribution (k = 0.75) 0.54 0.64
following equation: “ (k = 0.85) 0.51 0.59
“ (k = 1.0) 0.48 0.53
m–a “ (k = 1.1) 0.46 0.50
P [ H ≦ x m, N ] = 1 – -------------- (4.4.1)
N+b “ (k = 1.25) 0.44 0.47
“ (k = 1.5) 0.42 0.42
The values used for a and b in this equation depend on the “ (k = 2.0) 0.39 0.37
distribution function. Specifically, values such as those in
Table T- 4.4.1 are used. The values used for the Gumbel
distribution were determined by Gringorten 25) in such a way as to minimize the effects of statistical scatter in
the data. The values used for the Weibull distribution were determined by Petruaskas and Aagaard 26) using the
same principle.
It is commented that the Thomas plot often used in hydrology corresponds to the case a = 0, b = 1, and the
Hazen plot corresponds to the case a = 0.5, b = 0.
The distribution functions used in hydrology include the Gumbel distribution (double exponential
distribution), the logarithmic extreme value distribution, and the normal distribution (in the last case, the data
must first be transformed appropriately). Since the data on peak wave heights have not been accumulated over a
prolonged period of time, it is not well known which distribution function is most suitable.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Following Petruaskas and Aagaard, we thus introduce the method whereby one tries fitting eight distribution
functions, namely the Gumbel distribution function (equation (4.4.2)) and the Weibull distribution function
(equation (4.4.3)) with k = 0.75, 0.85, 1.0, 1.1, 1.25, 1.5 and 2.0; the distribution function that best fits the data
on any particular data set is then selected as the extreme distribution for that data set.
ì x–B ü
P [ H ≦ x ] = exp – exp í – æ ------------ö ý (Gumbel distribution) (4.4.2)
è A ø
î þ

ì x – B kü
P [ H ≦x ] = 1 – exp í – æ ------------ö ý (Weibull distribution) (4.4.3)
è A ø
î þ
In order to fit the data to the distribution function, the “non-exceedance probability” (probability not exceeding a
certain wave height) P is transformed into the variable r v ( = ( x – B ) ¤ A ) using equation (4.4.4) or (4.4.5).

rv = –ln { –ln P [ H ≦ x ] } (Gumbel distribution) (4.4.4)


1¤k
rv = [ –ln { 1 – P [ H ≦ x ] } ] (Weibull distribution) (4.4.5)

If the data fit equation (4.4.2) or (4.4.3) perfectly, then there will be a linear relationship between x and r v .
Accordingly, the data are assumed to follow the linear relationship shown in equation (4.4.6). The parameters A
and B are determined using the method of least squares, thus giving an equation for estimating the return wave
height.

x = A^ r v + Bˆ^ (4.4.6)

where A^ and Bˆ^ are the estimated values of the parameters A and B in equation (4.4.2) or (4.4.3), respectively.
The return period Rp of the wave height H is related to the non-exceedance probability P (H ≦ x) as in the
following:

Rp = K 1
---- -------------------------------
·

N 1 – P ( H≦ £ x)
or (4.4.7)
K
P ( H ≦ x ) = 1 – ----------
NRp

where
K: number of years during the period for which analysis was carried out
N: number of data of peak waves
(2) Candidate Distribution Functions and Rejection Eriteria
Goda has proposed the following method 51) ~ 53), which is a revised version of the method introduced above.
(a) Addition of the Fisher-Tippett type II distribution to the candidate distributions
The Fisher-Tippett type II distribution is given by the following equation.
–k
P [ H ≦x ] = exp [ – { 1 + ( x – B ) ¤ ( kA ) } ] (4.4.8)
The following nine functions are employed as the candidate functions to be tried for fitting: the Gumbel
distribution function (equation (4.4.2)), the Weibull distribution function (equation (4.4.3)) with k = 0.75, 1.0,
1.4 and 2.0 (four preset values), and the Fisher-Tippett type II distribution function with k = 2.5, 3.33, 5.0 and
10.0 (four preset values).
In place of the values listed in Table T- 4.4.1, the following equations are used for a and b in equation
(4.4.1):
For the Gumbel distribution,
a = 0.44, b = 0.12 (4.4.9)
For the Weibull distribution,
a = 0.20 + 0.27 k (4.4.10)
b = 0.20 + 0.23 k
For the Fisher-Tippett type II distribution,
a = 0.44 + 0.52 ¤ k (4.4.11)
b = 0.12 – 0.11 ¤ k

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(b) Selection of the best function through introduction of rejection criteria


Inappropriate functions are rejected by means of two sets of criterion. The first is the REC criterion. For the
residual of the correlation coefficient for each distribution function, the 95% non-exceedance probability level
is determined in advance. If the residual of the correlation coefficient exceeds this threshold value for a
distribution function when the extreme value data is fitted to that distribution function, the function in question
is rejected as being inappropriate. The second is the DOL criterion. The maximum value in the data is made
dimensionless using the mean and standard deviation for the whole data. If this value is below the 5% or
above the 95% level of the cumulative distriburion of dimensionless deviation of the distribution function
being fitted, that function is rejected as being inappropriate. Next, the best function is selected not simply
according to the value of the correlation coefficient, but rather according to the MIR criterion, This criterion
takes into account the fact that the mean of the residual of the correlation coefficient relative to 1.0 will vary
according to the distribution function. The function for which the ratio of the residual of the correlation
coefficient of the sample to the mean residual for the fitted distribution is lowest is judged to be the best fitting
distribution function.

4.5 Transformations of Waves


4.5.1 General (Notification Article 4, Clause 3)
As a general rule, the waves to be considered to exert actions on port and harbor facilities shall be the
waves that are most unfavorable in terms of the structure stability or the usage of the port and harbor
facilities. In this consideration, appropriate attention shall be given to wave transformations during the
propagation of waves from deepwater toward the shore, which include refraction, diffraction, shoaling,
breaking, and others.

4.5.2 Wave Refraction


The phenomenon of wave refraction occurs in intermediate depth to shallow waters. This is due to the
change in local wave velocity caused by the change in water depth. The changes in wave height and wave
direction due to refraction shall be considered.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Refraction Calculations for Regular Waves
(a) Refraction phenomenon and refraction coefficient (see Fig. T- 4.5.1)
If waves are obliquely incident on a straight boundary where the water depth changes from h1 to h2, waves are
refracted at the boundary due to the change in wave velocity caused by the change in water depth. Suppose
that the distance between wave rays changes from b1 to b2 as a result. If the change in the wave ray width is
not so large, it can be assumed that no wave energy flux cuts across the wave ray and flows out. If other
sources of energy loss such as the friction along the sea bottom are ignored, then the continuity in the flux of
energy transport results in the change of the wave height H1 at water depth h1 to the wave height H2 at water
depth h2 as given by the following equation:

H2 C G1 b 1
------ = ---------- ----- (4.5.1)
H1 C G2 b 2

where
CG1 , CG2: group velocities at water depths h1 and h2, respectively (m/s)
b1 , b2: distances between wave rays at water depths h1 and h2, respectively (m)
In the equation, b 1 ¤ b 2 represents the change in wave height
due to refraction, while C G1 ¤ C G2 represents the change in
wave height due to the change in water depth. Using the shoaling
coefficient (see 4.5.5 Wave Shoaling), C G1 ¤ C G2 can be
water depth h1
represented as C G1 ¤ C G2 = K s2 ¤ K s1 , where Ks1 and Ks2 are
the shoaling coefficients at water depths h1 and h2, respectively. water depth h2

Suppose that the wave ray width, which is b0 for deepwater


waves, changes to b due to the refraction phenomenon. The ratio
of the wave height after the change to the original wave height in
this case is called the “refraction coefficient”. The refraction
coefficient Kr is given by the following equation:
Fig. T- 4.5.1 Schematic Diagram
Kr = b0 ¤ b (4.5.2) of Wave Refraction

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(b) Refraction calculation methods


Refraction calculation methods for regular waves include the wave ray methods in which calculations using a
computer are made possible, and the numerical wave propagation analysis methods 27) in which surface wave
equations are solved by computers using finite difference schemes. An appropriate calculation method is
chosen in accordance with the situation.
Note however that for a coastline for which the depth contours are straight and parallel to one another, the
change in the wave direction and the refraction coefficient can be calculated using the following equations:
2ph
sin a = sin a 0 tanh ---------- (4.5.3)
L
cos a 0
Kr = --------------- (4.5.4)
cos a
Here, L, a and a0 denote the wavelength at water depth h, the angle of incidence of the wave at water depth h,
and the angle of incidence of the wave in deep water, respectively. Figures T- 4.5.2 and T- 4.5.3 show the
refraction coefficient and the wave direction, as calculated using equations (4.5.4) and (4.5.3), respectively.

Fig. T- 4.5.2 Refraction Coefficient of Regular Waves at Coast


with Straight, Parallel Depth Contours

Fig. T- 4.5.3 Graph Showing the Change in the Wave Direction of Regular Waves
at Coast with Straight, Parallel Depth Contours

(2) Range of Application of Refraction Calculations Using Regular Waves


Based on the principles behind calculations for regular waves, such calculations are applicable for waves for
which there is little directional spreading and the frequency band is narrow; for example, swell-type waves and
tsunamis. For waves like wind waves for which there is much directional spreading and the frequency band is
broad, it is necessary to carry out refraction calculations for irregular waves. Nevertheless, comparing the graphs
showing changes in the refraction coefficient and wave direction for regular waves and irregular waves at a coast
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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

with straight, parallel depth contours, it can be seen that there is only a little difference between regular waves
and irregular waves in this case. This means that when the topography of a coastline is monotonous to the extent
that the depth contours are considered to be straight and parallel to the shoreline, the difference between the
results of refraction calculations for regular waves and irregular waves is usually only slight, and so the results
of refraction calculations using regular waves can be used as a good approximation.
(3) Refraction Calculations for Irregular Waves
(a) Calculation methods
Refraction calculation methods for irregular waves include the following: ① the component wave method,
whereby the directional wave spectrum is divided into an appropriate number of component waves, a
refraction calculation is performed for each component wave, and then the refraction coefficient for the
irregular wave is evaluated by making a weighted average of the component wave energies; ② methods in
which the wave energy balance equation 28) or the mild-slope wave equation is solved directly using a
computer with finite difference schemes. As with the component wave method, the energy balance equation is
derived by assuming that wave energy does not cut across wave rays and flow out. This means that the
technique is basically the same in both cases. However, with the energy balance equation method, refraction
within a small but finite region is calculated, meaning that the refraction coefficient does not become infinite
even at a point in which two regular wave rays may converge. On the other hand, the mild-slope wave
equation method is a strictly analytical method, but it is difficult to apply it to a large region. When
determining the refraction coefficient for irregular waves, it is acceptable to use the component wave method,
which involves the linear superposition of refraction coefficients for regular waves and is thus simple and
convenient. However, when intersections of wave rays occur during a refraction calculation for a component
wave, the energy balance equation method may be used for practical purposes with the exception of the case
that the degree of intersection is large.
(b) Effects of diffraction
When deepwater waves have been diffracted by an island or a headland, the wave spectrum becomes generally
different from a standard form that has been assumed initially. Thus it is necessary to use the spectral form
after diffraction when performing the refraction calculation.
(c) Diagrams of the refraction coefficient and angle for irregular waves at a coast with straight, parallel depth
contours
Figures T- 4.5.4 and T- 4.5.5 show the refraction coefficient Kr and the principal wave direction ap,
respectively, for irregular waves at a coast with straight, parallel depth contours, with the principal direction of
deepwater waves (ap)0 as the parameter. The direction (ap)0 is expressed as the angle between the wave
direction and the line normal to the boundary of deepwater. Smax is the maximum value of the parameter that
expresses the degree of directional spreading of wave energy (see 4.1.3 [3] Wave Spectrum).

Fig. T- 4.5.4 Refraction Coefficient of Irregular Waves at Coast


with Straight, Parallel Depth Contours

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Fig. T- 4.5.5 Change Due to Refraction in the Principal Direction ap of Irregular Waves
at Coast with Straight, Parallel Depth Contours

(4) At places where the water depth is no more than about one half of the deepwater wave height, waves exhibit the
characteristics of flow rather than those of undulations. This means that refraction calculations for wave
directions and refraction coefficients can only be applied to the water where the depth is at least one half of the
deepwater wave height.

4.5.3 Wave Diffraction

[1] Diffraction
The wave height in regions in which waves are anticipated to be greatly affected by the phenomenon of
diffraction caused by obstacles such as breakwaters or islands shall be calculated using an appropriate
method.

[Commentary]
Diffraction is a phenomenon whereby waves wheel into a region that is screened by something like a breakwater. It is
the most important phenomenon when determining the wave height in a harbor. The irregularity of waves should be
considered in a diffraction calculation. For a harbor within which the water depth is assumed uniform, the diffraction
diagrams for irregular waves with regard to a semi-infinite breakwater or a straight breakwater that has just one
opening have been prepared. The ratio of the wave height after diffraction to the incident wave height is called the
diffraction coefficient Kd. In other words, the diffraction coefficient Kd is given by the following equation:
Kd = Hd ¤ Hi (4.5.10)

where
Hi: incident wave height outside harbor
Hd: height of wave in harbor after diffraction
Diffraction diagrams and diffraction calculation methods assume that the water depth within the harbor is uniform. If
there are large variations in water depth within the harbor, the errors will become large, in which case it is advisable
to investigate the wave height in the harbor by means of either hydraulic scale model tests or else numerical
calculation methods that also take refraction into account.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Diffraction Diagrams for Irregular Waves
Figures T- 4.5.6 (a) ~ (c) show the diffraction diagrams by a semi-infinite breakwater for irregular waves with
the directional spreading parameter Smax = 10, 25, and 75. Figures T- 4.5.6 (a) ~ (l) show the diffraction
diagrams through an opening of B/L = 1, 2, 4, and 8 for irregular waves with Smax = 10, 25, and 75.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

---- Period ratio ─ Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.6(a) Diffraction Diagram by Semi-infinite Breakwaters (θ= 90º) for Smax = 10

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

---- Period ratio ─ Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.6(b) Diffraction Diagram by Semi-infinite Breakwaters (θ= 90º) for Smax = 25

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

---- Period ratio ─ Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.6(c) Diffraction Diagram by Semi-infinite Breakwaters (θ= 90º) for Smax = 75

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.7(a) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 1.0) for Smax = 10

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.7(b) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 1.0) for Smax = 25

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.7(c) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 1.0) for Smax = 75

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.7(d) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 2.0) for Smax = 10

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.7(e) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 2.0) for Smax = 25

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.7(f) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 2.0) for Smax = 75

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.7(g) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 4.0) for Smax = 10

-62-
PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.7(h) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 4.0) for Smax = 25

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.7(i) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 4.0) for Smax = 75

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.7(j) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 8.0) for Smax = 10

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

eriod ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.7(k) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 8.0) for Smax = 25

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction

Period ratio Diffraction coefficient

Wave direction
Fig. T - 4.5.7(ll) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 8.0) for Smax = 75

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(2) Treatment of Obliquely Incident Waves


When waves are obliquely incident to a breakwater that contains an opening, it is advisable to obtain the
diffraction diagram by means of a numerical calculation. When this is not possible, or when the diffraction
diagram is only required as a rough guideline, the following approximate method may be used instead.
(a) Determining the axis of the diffracted wave
When waves are obliquely incident to a breakwater that contains an opening, the direction q ¢ of the axis of the
diffracted waves (see Fig. T- 4.5.8) varies slightly from the direction of incidence q. Tables T- 4.5.1 (a) ~ (c)
list the direction of the axis of the diffracted waves as a function of the aperture ratio B/L and the direction of
incidence. These tables are used to obtain the direction q ¢ of the axis of the diffracted waves, and then the
virtual aperture ratio B¢/L corresponding to q ¢ is obtained from the following equation:
B¢ ¤ L = ( B ¤ L ) sin q¢ (4.5.11)

Table T- 4.5.1 Angle of Axis of Diffracted Waveθ¢


(a) Smax = 10
Angle between breakwater and incident wave direction q
B/L
15º 30º 45º 60º
1.0 53º (38º) 58º (28º) 65º (20º) 71º (11º)
2.0 46º (31º) 53º (23º) 62º (17º) 70º (10º)
4.0 41º (26º) 49º (19º) 60º (15º) 70º (10º)

(a) Smax = 25

Angle between breakwater and incident wave direction q


B/L
15º 30º 45º 60º
52º (22º)
1.0 49º (34º) 61º (16º) 70º (10º)
47º (17º)
2.0 41º (26º) 57º (12º) 67º (7º)
42º (12º)
4.0 36º (21º) 54º (9º) 65º (5º)

(a) Smax =75


Angle between breakwater and incident wave direction q
B/L
15º 30º 45º 60º
1.0 41º (26º) 45º (15º) 55º (10º) 66º (6º)
2.0 36º (21º) 41º (11º) 52º (7º) 64º (4º)
4.0 30º (15º) 36º (6º) 49º (4º) 62º (2º)

Note: Angle in the parentheses is the angle of deflection relative to the angle of incidence

Principal direction of diffracted wave

Principal direction of incident wave


Fig. T- 4.5.8 Virtual Aperture B¢ and Angle of Axis of Diffracted Wave θ¢

(b) Fitting of a diffraction diagram


Out of the diffraction diagrams of normal incidence in Figs. T-4.5.7 (a) ~ (l), the diffraction diagram that has
an aperture ratio nearly equal to the virtual aperture ratio is selected. This diffraction diagram is next rotated
until the direction of incidence matches the direction of the axis of the diffracted waves as determined from
Table T- 4.5.1. The diffraction diagram is then copied and taken to be the diffraction diagram for obliquely

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

incident waves. The errors in this approximate method are largest around the opening in the breakwater; in
terms of the diffraction coefficient, the maximum error may amount to around 0.1 in the absolute value.
(3) Method for Determining Diffraction Coefficient in a Harbor
The diffraction coefficient within a complex shape of harbor is generally estimated by numerical computation
with a computer. Diffraction calculation methods include Takayama’s method, which involves linear super
position of analytical solutions for detached breakwaters, and calculation methods that use the Green functions.
(4) Directional Spreading Method
When the length of an island or the width of the entrance of a bay is at least ten times the wavelength of the
incident waves, there will not be a large difference between the wave height estimate by the direct diffraction
calculation and the estimate using the amount of directional wave energy that arrives directly at the point of
interest behind the island or in the bay; the latter is called the directional spreading method. However, if the
point of interest is just behind an island or headland, the effects of diffracted waves will be large, and so the
directional spreading method cannot be applied.
(5) Studies Using Hydraulic Model Experiments
Thanks to improvements in multidirectional random wave generating devices, it is easy to reproduce waves that
have directional spreading in the laboratory nowadays, meaning that diffraction experiments can be carried out
relatively easily. When carrying out a model experiment, an opening in the harbor model is set up within the
effective wave making zone, and the wave height is simultaneously measured at a number of points within the
harbor. The diffraction coefficient is obtained by dividing the significant wave height in the harbor by the
significant wave height at the harbor entrance averaged over at least two observation points.

[2] Combination of Diffraction and Refraction


When carrying out diffraction calculations for waves in waters where the water depth varies greatly, wave
refraction must also be considered.

[Commentary]
(1) When the water depth within a harbor is made more-or-less uniform by say dredging (this is often the case with
large harbors), the refraction of waves after diffraction can be ignored. In order to determine the wave height in
the harbor in this case, it is acceptable to first carry out a calculation considering only refraction and breaking
from the deepwater wave hindcasting point to the harbor entrance. Next, a diffraction calculation for the area
within the harbor is carried out, taking the incident wave height to be equal to the calculated wave height at the
harbor entrance. In this case, the wave height at a point of interest within the harbor is expressed using the
following equation:
H = Kd Kr Ks H0 (4.5.12)
where
Kd: diffraction coefficient at the point of interest within a harbor
Kr: refraction coefficient at the harbor entrance
Ks: shoaling coefficient at the harbor entrance (see 4.5.5 Wave Shoaling)
H0: deepwater wave height
The energy balance equation method or the improved energy balance equation method in which a term
representing dissipation due to wave breaking is added is appropriate as the refraction calculation method for the
open sea. Takayama’s harbor calmness calculation method, whereby diffraction solutions for detached
breakwaters are superimposed in order to obtain the change in the wave height of irregular waves within the
harbor due to diffraction and reflection, can be used for the diffraction calculation for the area within the harbor,
provided there are no complex topographic variations within the harbor.
(2) When there are large variations in water depth even at places screened by a breakwater (this is often the case
with relatively small harbors and coastal areas), it is necessary to simultaneously consider both diffraction and
refraction within the harbor. If ignoring wave reflection and just investigating the approximate change in wave
height, it is possible to carry out refraction and diffraction calculations separately, and then estimate the change
in wave height by multiplying together the refraction and diffraction coefficients obtained.
Calculation methods that allow simultaneous consideration of refraction and diffraction of irregular waves
include a method that uses time-dependent mild-slope irregular wave equations, a method in which the
Boussinesq equation is solved using the finite difference method 29), and the multicomponent coupling method
of Nadaoka et al. There are also literatures in which other calculation methods are explained.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

4.5.4 Wave Reflection

[1] General
In the design of port and harbor facilities, investigations shall be carried out onto the effects of reflected
waves from neighboring structures on the facilities in question and also the effects of wave reflection from
the facilities in question on neighboring areas.

[Commentary]
It is necessary to take note of the fact that waves reflected from port and harbor facilities can exercise a large
influence on the navigation of vessels and cargo handling. For example, waves reflected from vertical breakwaters
can cause disturbances in navigation channels, and multiple-reflected waves from quaywalls can cause agitations
within harbors.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Composition of Reflected Waves and Incident Waves
The wave height Hs when incident waves and waves reflected from a number of reflective boundaries coexist (a
train of incident waves and those of reflected waves from reflective boundaries are termed the “wave groups”)
can be calculated using the following equation:
2 2 2
Hs = H 1 + H2 + ¼ + Hn (4.5.13)

where
Hs: significant wave height when all of the wave groups are taken together
H1, H2, ¼ Hn: significant wave heights of wave groups
Note however that, if the wave action varies with the wave direction, the differences in the wave directions of
various wave groups must be considered. The calculated wave height is valid for places that are at least about
0.7 wavelengths away from a reflecting boundary.
Regarding the diffraction and/or refraction of waves for which wave direction is an important factor, the
significant wave height is determined separately for each wave group by carrying out whatever calculation is
necessary for that wave group, when the wave directions of various wave groups differ. Then the composite
wave height is calculated by putting these significant wave heights into equation (4.5.13). An acceptable
alternative is to determine the spectrum for each wave group, add these spectra together in order to calculate the
spectral form when the wave groups coexist, and then perform direct diffraction and/or refraction calculations
using this spectrum.
(2) Composition of Periods
The significant wave height to be used in calculating the wave force when two wave groups of different periods
are superimposed may be determined by the energy composition method (i.e., equation (4.5.13)). The significant
wave period T1/3 may be determined using the following equation 30):
2 2
( H 1 ¤ 3 ) I + ( H 1 ¤ 3 )II
T 1 ¤ 3 = k ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2 2 2 2
- (4.5.14)
( H 1 ¤ 3 ) I ¤ ( T 1 ¤ 3 ) I + ( H 1 ¤ 3 )II ¤ ( T 1 ¤ 3 )II

where

k = 1.0 + a ( R H ¤ m ) –0.121Aln ( RH ¤ m) (4.5.15)


a = 0.08 ( ln R T ) 2 – 0.15 ln R T (4.5.16)
ì 0.632 + 0.144 ln RT : 0.1 ≦ RT < 0.8
m = í
î 0.6 : 0.8 ≦ RT < 1 (4.5.17)
ì 13.97 + 4.33 ln RT : 0.1 ≦ RT < 0.4
A = í
î 10.0 : 0.4 ≦ RT < 1 (4.5.18)
R H = ( H 1 ¤ 3 ) I ¤ ( H 1 ¤ 3 ) II (4.5.19)
R T = ( T 1 ¤ 3 ) I ¤ ( T 1 ¤ 3 ) II (4.5.20)
(H1/3)I, (H1/3)II : significant wave heights of wave groups I and II before superimposition, respectively (m)
(T1/3)I, (T1/3)II : significant wave periods of wave groups I and II before superimposition, respectively (s)
Note that, in the above equations, I is assigned to the wave group with the shorter period and Ⅱto that with the
longer period.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(3) Methods for Calculating the Effects of Reflected Waves


Calculation methods for investigating the extent of the effects of waves reflected from a structure include the
poligonal island reflection method and a simple method by means of diffraction diagrams.
(a) Poligonal island reflection method
In this calculation method, the theoretical solution that shows the wave transformation around a single convex
corner is separated into three terms, representing the incident, the reflected and the scattered waves,
respectively. The term for the scattered waves is progressively expanded to obtain an approximate equation, so
that the method can be applied to the case where there are a number of convex corners. When there are a
number of convex corners, it is assumed as a precondition that the lengths of the sides between convex corners
are at least five times the wavelength of the incident waves, so that the convex corners do not interfere with
each other. It is necessary to take heed of the fact that errors may become large if the sides are shorter than
this. Since another assumption is made such that the water depth is uniform, the refraction of reflected waves
cannot be calculated. In general, it is sufficient for practical purposes if the lengths of the sides between
convex corners are at least about three times the wavelength of the incident waves. This calculation method
can also be applied to the reflection of irregular waves by means of superposing component waves. Although
the wave diffraction problems can also be analyzed with this calculation method, there will be large errors if it
is applied to the diffraction of waves by thin structures such as breakwaters.
(b) Simple method by means of diffraction diagrams
Explanation is made for the example shown in Fig.
T- 4.5.9. The wave height at a point A on the front
face of an upright detached breakwater is estimated
when waves are incident on the detached break-
water at an angle a. Instead of the detached break-
water, it is supposed that there are two semi-infinite
virtual breakwaters with an opening, such as shown
with dashed lines in Fig. T- 4.5.9. Next, one consid-
ers the situation whereby waves are incident on the
virtual opening from both the wave direction of the
incident waves and the direction symmetrical to this
with respect to the detached breakwater (i.e., the
direction shown by the dashed arrow in Fig. T-
4.5.9), and draws the diffraction diagram for the
opening (dashed lines in Fig. T- 4.5.9). The range of Fig. T- 4.5.9 Sketch Showing the Effect
influence of the reflected waves is represented by of Reflected Waves
means of the diffraction diagram for the virtual
breakwaters with the opening. Accordingly, supposing that the diffraction coefficient at point A is read off as
being 0.68, then the wave height ratio with respect to the incident waves at point A is obtained by combining
this value of 0.68 with a value of 1.0 representing the incident waves; since it is the energies that are added, the
wave height ratio becomes 1 + 0.68 2 = 1.21 . It should be noted, however, that this value of 1.21 represents
the mean value of the wave height ratio around the point A. It is not advisable to use this method for points
within 0.7 wavelengths of the detached breakwater, because the errors due to a phase coupling effect will be
large.
For the case of wave reflection by a semi-infinite breakwater, the virtual breakwater also becomes a semi-
infinite breakwater in the opposite direction, and so the diffraction diagram for a semi-infinite breakwater is
used. When the reflection coefficient of the front face of the breakwater is less than 1.0 due to wave-absorbing
work for example, the diffraction coefficient should be multiplied by the reflection coefficient before being
used. For example, if the reflection coefficient of the detached breakwater is 0.4 in the previous example, the
wave height ratio at the point A becomes 1 + ( 0.4 ´ 0.68 ) 2 = 1.04 .

[2] Reflection Coefficient


Reflection coefficients shall be determined appropriately based on the results of field observations,
hydraulic model experiments, and past data.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Approximate Values for Reflection Coefficient
It is desirable to evaluate the value of reflection coefficient by means of field observations. However, when it is
difficult to carry out observation or when the structure in question has not yet been constructed, it is standard to
estimate reflection coefficient by referring to the results of hydraulic model experiments. In this case, it is
desirable to use irregular waves as the test waves. The method by Goda et al. 31) may be used for the analysis of
irregular wave test data.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

The following is a list of approximate values for the reflection coefficients of several types of structures.
Upright wall: 0.7 ~ 1.0
(0.7 is for the case of a low crown with much overtopping)
Submerged upright breakwater: 0.5 ~ 0.7
Rubble mound: 0.3 ~ 0.6
Precast wave-dissipating concrete blocks: 0.3 ~ 0.5
Upright wave-absorbing structure: 0.3 ~ 0.6
Natural beach: 0.05 ~ 0.2
With the exception of the upright wall, the lower limits in the above ranges of reflection coefficient correspond
to the case of steep waves and the upper limits to waves with low steepness. It should be noted, however, that
with the upright wave-absorbing structure, the reflection coefficient varies with the wavelength, and the shape
and dimensions of the structure.

[3] Transformation of Waves at Concave Corners, near the Heads of Breakwaters, and around
Detached Breakwaters
Around the concave corners of structures, near the heads of breakwaters, and around detached
breakwaters, the wave height becomes larger than the normal value of standing waves owing to the effects
of diffraction and reflection. This increase in wave height shall be investigated thoroughly. Moreover, the
irregularity of waves shall be considered in the analysis.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Influence of Wave Irregularity
When the wave height distribution near a concave corner or the head of a breakwater is calculated for regular
waves, a distributional form with large undulations is obtained. However, when wave irregularity is incorporated
into the calculation, the undulated form of the distribution becomes smoothed out, excluding the region within
one wavelength of a concave corner, and the peak value of the wave height becomes smaller. Calculation using
regular waves thus overestimates the increase in the wave height around concave corners and the heads of
breakwaters.
(2) Graphs for Calculating Wave Height Distribution around a Concave Corner
Wave height distributions for irregular waves near a concave corner are shown in Fig. T- 4.5.10. This figure
exhibits the form of the distribution of the maximum value of the wave height, as obtained from numerical
calculations for each principal wave direction. It has been assumed that waves are completely reflected by the
breakwater. In the diagram, Kd is the ratio of the wave height at the front face of the main breakwater to the wave
height of the incident waves. The irregular waves used in the calculation has a spectral form with Smax = 75,
which implies a narrow directional spreading. The long dash-dot line in each graph shows the distribution of the
maximum value of the wave height at each point as obtained using an approximate calculation. The length l1 is
that of the main breakwater, l2 is that of the wing breakwater, and b is the angle between the main breakwater
and the wing breakwater. This figure may be used to calculate the wave height distribution near a concave
corner. When it is not easy to use the calculation program, the approximate calculation method may be used.
(3) Wave-Height-Reducing Effects of Wave-Absorbing Work
When a wave-absorbing work is installed in order to suppress the increase in wave height around a concave
corner and if the wave-absorbing work is such that the reflection coefficient of the breakwater becomes no more
than 0.4, it is quite acceptable to ignore the increase in wave height due to the presence of concave corner.
However, this is only the case when the wave-absorbing work extends along the whole of the breakwater. If the
breakwater is long, one cannot expect the wave-absorbing work to be very effective unless it is installed along
the entire length of the breakwater, because the effect of waves reflected from the wing breakwater extend even
to places at a considerable distance away from the concave corner. The same can be said for the influence of the
main breakwater on the wing breakwater.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Computer method
Approximate solution method

Computer method
Approximate solution method
Fig. T- 4.5.10 Distribution of the Maximum Value of the Wave Height around Concave Corner 32)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(4) Increase in Wave Height at the Head of a Breakwater


Near the head of a semi-infinite breakwater or those of
breakwaters at a harbor entrance (specifically within a
distance of one wavelength from the head), waves

Wave force ratio


diffracted by breakwaters exercise an effect of local wave
height increase over the normal standing wave heights.
Because the wave height distribution has an undulating Irregular waves

form even at the back face of a breakwater, it is necessary Regular waves

to take heed of the fact that the difference in water level


between the inside and the outside of the breakwater
gives rise to a large wave force. Figure T- 4.5.11 shows
an example of the results of a calculation of the wave 0

force ratio (i.e., the ratio of the wave force to that of a


Fig. T- 4.5.11 Wave Force Distribution along
standing wave) near the head of a breakwater.
a Semi-Infinite Breakwater 33)
(5) Increase in Wave Height around Detached Breakwater
Along a detached breakwater, waves with the height greater than that of normal standing waves are produced,
and the wave height distribution takes an undulating form even at the back face of the breakwater. This is due to
the effect of wave diffraction at the two ends of the breakwater 34). The wave force also becomes large due to the
difference between the water levels in the offshore and onshore sides of the breakwater. In particular, it is
necessary to take heed of the fact that, with a detached breakwater, the place where the maximum wave force is
generated can shift greatly with the wave direction and the ratio of the breakwater length to the wavelength.
Figure T- 4.5.12 shows an example of the results of a calculation of the wave force distribution along a detached
breakwater for unidirectional irregular waves. In this calculation, the wave direction for which the largest wave
force occurrs is a = 30º (i.e., not when the waves are normally incident to the breakwater, but rather when
obliquely incident with a relatively shallow angle).
Wave force ratio

90°
75°
60°

45°

α=30°

α
x

x (m)

Fig. T- 4.5.12 Wave Force Distribution along a Detached Breakwater

4.5.5 Wave Shoaling


When waves propagate into shallow waters, shoaling shall be considered in addition to refraction and
diffraction. It shall be standard to consider the nonlinearity of waves when calculating the shoaling
coefficient.

[Commentary]
Shoaling is one of the important factors that lead to changing of the wave height in coastal waters. It exemplifies the
fact that the wave height in shallow waters is also governed by the water depth and the wave period. Figure T- 4.5.13
has been drawn up based on Shuto’s nonlinear long wave theory. It includes the linearized solution by the small
amplitude wave theory and enables the estimation of the shoaling coefficient from deep to shallow waters. In the
diagram, Ks is the shoaling coefficient, H0¢ is the equivalent deepwater wave height, H is the wave height at water
depth h, and L0 is the wavelength in deepwater.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

2%
dec
ay
line
0

0 0

0 0

Fig. T- 4.5.13 Graph for Evaluation of Shoaling Coefficient

4.5.6 Wave Breaking


At places where the water depth is no more than about three times the equivalent deepwater wave height,
changing of the wave height due to wave breaking shall be considered. It shall be standard to consider the
irregularity of waves when calculating the change in the wave height due to wave breaking.

[Commentary]
After the height of waves has increased owing to shoaling, waves break at a certain water depth and the wave height
decreases rapidly. This phenomenon is called the wave breaking. It is an important factor to be considered when
determining the wave conditions exercising on maritime structures. For regular waves, the place at which waves
break is always the same: this is referred to as the “wave breaking point”. For irregular waves, the location of wave
breaking depends on the height and period of individual waves, and wave breaking thus occurs over a certain
distance: this area is referred to as the “breaker zone”.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Change in Wave Height Due to Wave Breaking
The change in wave height due to wave breaking may be determined using Figs. T- 4.5.14 (a) ~ (e) or Figs. T-
4.5.15 (a) ~ (e). These figures show the change in wave height for irregular waves as calculated by Goda 35), 44)
using a theoretical model of wave breaking. For the region to the right of the dash-dot line on each graph, the
change in wave height is calculated using the shoaling coefficient (see 4.5.5 Wave Shoaling). For the region to
the left of this dash-dot line, the change in wave height due to wave breaking dominates, and so the wave height
must be determined using this graph. As for the bottom slope, it is appropriate to use the mean bottom slope over
the region where the water depth to equivalent deepwater wave height ratio h/H0¢ is in the range of 1.5 to 2.5.
(2) Scope of Application of Graphs of Wave Height Change
At places where the water depth is no more than about one half of the equivalent deepwater wave height, a major
portion of wave energy is converted to the energy of oscillating flows rather than to that of water level
undulation. Therefore, when calculating the wave force acting on a structure in a very shallow water, it is
desirable to use the wave height at the place where the water depth is one half of the equivalent deepwater wave
height, if the facilities in question are highly important.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Bottom slope Bottom slope


0 0

0 0

e
y lin
deca
0 0 0

2%

e
y lin
deca
0

2%
00
h / H ' 0

Fig. T- 4.5.14 (a) Diagram of Significant Wave Fig. T- 4.5.14 (b) Diagram of Significant Wave
Height in the Breaker Zone Height in the Breaker Zone
for Bottom Slope of 1/10 for Bottom Slope of 1/20

Bottom slope Bottom slope

0 0

0 0

0
ine

0
ay l

ne
dec

y li
a
2%

dec

0
2%

0 0

Fig. T- 4.5.14 (c) Diagram of Significant Wave Fig. T- 4.5.14 (d) Diagram of Significant Wave
Height in the Breaker Zone Height in the Breaker Zone
for Bottom Slope of 1/30 for Bottom Slope of 1/50

-76-
PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Bottom slope Bottom slope


0 0

ine
cay l
e
2% d
0 0

0
0

ine
ecay l
2 %d
0

0 0

Fig. T- 4.5.14 (e) Diagram of Significant Wave Fig. T- 4.5.15 (a) Diagram of Highest Wave
Height in the Breaker Zone Height in the Breaker Zone
for Bottom Slope of 1/100 for Bottom Slope of 1/10

Bottom slope Bottom slope


0 0 0 0
line

line
ecay

0 0 ecay
2% d

2% d

0 0

Fig. T- 4.5.15 (b) Diagram of Highes Wave Fig. T- 4.5.15 (c) Diagram of Highest Wave
Height in the Breaker Zone Height in the Breaker Zone
for Bottom Slope of 1/20 for Bottom Slope of 1/30

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Bottom slope Bottom slope


0 0
0 0

ine

e
cay l

y lin
0
0

e
2% d

deca
2%
0 0

Fig. T- 4.5.15 (d) Diagram of Highest Wave Fig. T- 4.5.15 (e) Diagram of Highest Wave
Height in the Breaker Zone Height in the Breaker Zone
for Bottom Slope of 1/50 for Bottom Slope of 1/100

(3) Approximate Calculation Formulas for Breaking Wave Height


Calculation of wave height changes based on a theoretical model for wave breaking generally requires use of a
computer. However, considering the variability of the phenomenon and the overall accuracy, it is acceptable to
calculate wave height changes using the following simple formula 35), 44):

H1 ¤ 3 =
{ Ks H0 ¢ : h ¤ L0 ≧
min { ( b0 H 0 ¢ + b 1 h ), b max H 0 ¢, K s H 0 ¢ } : h ¤ L 0 < 0.2
³ 0.2
(4.5.21)

where
64748

b 0 = 0.028 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) –0.38 exp [ 20 ( tan q ) 1.5 ]


b 1 = 0.52 exp [ 4.2 tan q ] (4.5.22)
b max = max { 0.92, 0.32 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) –0.29 exp [ 2.4 tan q ] }

The shoaling coefficient Ks is determined using Fig. T- 4.5.13, the operators min{ } and max{ } take the
minimum and maximum value of the mulitiple quantities within the braces, respectively, and tanq is the bottom
slope.
Similarly, an approximate calculation formula for the highest wave height Hmax is given as follows:

H max =

where
{ 1.8K s H 0 ¢
* * *
: h ¤ L0≧
³ 0.2
min { ( b 0 H 0 ¢ + b 1 h ), b max H 0 ¢, 1.8K s H 0 ¢ } : h ¤ L 0 < 0.2
(4.5.23)

b*0 = 0.052 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) –0.38 exp [ 20 ( tan q ) 1.5 ]


64748

b*1 = 0.63 exp [ 3.8 tan q ] (4.5.24)


b*
max = max { 1.65, 0.53 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) –0.29 exp [ 2.4 tan q ] }

(4) Graph for Calculating Breaking Wave Height 35)


If the maximum value (H1/3)peak of the significant wave height in the breaker zone is taken as representative of
the breaking wave height, then the breaker index curve becomes as shown in Fig. T- 4.5.16. If the water depth
(h1/3)peak at which the significant wave height is a maximum is taken as representative of the breaker depth, then
the graph for calculating the breaker depth becomes as shown in Fig. T- 4.5.17.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Note: ( H 1/3) peak is the water depth at


which H 1/3 is a maximum

B
in the breaker zone
H

ot
Note: ( 1/3) peak is the maximum value

to
H

m
of 1/3 in the breaker zone

sl
o
pe
0
B
o
tt
o
m
sl
o

0
p
e

0 0

Fig. T- 4.5.16 Diagram of Maximum Value


of the Significant
0 0

Fig. T- 4.5.17 Diagram of Water Depth at which


the Maximum Value of the Significant
Wave Height Occurs

(5) Breaking Wave Height Criterion for Regular Waves


Figure T- 4.5.18 shows the breaking wave height criterion for regular waves. This figure can be used to
calculate the breaking wave height criterion in hydraulic model experiments using regular waves. The curves in
the graph can be approximated with the following equation:

Hb ì ph ü
------ = 0.17 1 – exp í – 1.5 ------ ( 1 + 15 tan 4 ¤ 3 q ) ý (4.5.25)
L0 î L 0 þ

where tanq denotes the bottom slope.


Figure T- 4.5.18 shows the limiting wave height at the point of first wave breaking. At places where the
water is shallow, the water depth increases owing to the wave setup caused by wave breaking. When estimating
the limiting wave height in the breaker zone, it is thus necessary to consider this increase in water level.

Bottom
slope

Fig. T- 4.5.18 Breaking Wave Height Criterion for Regular Waves

(6) Change in Wave Height at Reef Coasts


At reef coasts where shallow water and a flat sea bottom continue over a prolonged distance, the change in wave
height cannot be calculated directly using Figs. T- 4.5.14 and T- 4.5.15. Instead, the following empirical
equation may be used 36):

Hx ì x ü h + h¥
-------- = B exp í – A æ --------ö ý + a ---------------- (4.5.26)
H0 ¢ è H 0 ¢ø H0 ¢
î þ

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

where
H0¢: equivalent deepwater wave height
Hx: significant wave height at a distance x from the tip of the reef
h: water depth over the reef
h ¥: increase in the mean water level at a place sufficiently distant from the tip of the reef
The coefficients A and a are 0.05 and 0.33, respectively, according to the results of hydraulic model
experiments. However, it is advisable to use the following values that have been obtained from the data of field
observations.
H0 ¢ ü
A = 0.089 ---------------- + 0.015 ï
h + h¥ ï
ï
ì ý (4.5.27)
ï 0.20 ( 4 m > H 0 ¢ ³ 2 m ) ï
a = í ï
ï 0.33 ( H 0 ¢ ³ 4 m ) ï
î þ
The coefficient B corresponds to the bottom slope at the front of the reef. Using Fig. T- 4.5.14, it is obtained
from the significant wave height Hx = 0 at water depth h as follows.

Hx = 0 h + h¥
B = -------------- – a ---------------- (4.5.28)
H0 ¢ H0 ¢

The term (h+ h ¥ )/H0¢ is given by

h + h¥ 3
---------------- = C 0 ¤ æ 1 + --- ba 2ö (4.5.29)
H0 ¢ è 8 ø

where b = 0.56. From the continuity of the mean water level at the tip of the reef (x = 0), C0 is given by

hx = 0 + h 2 3 Hx = 0 2
C 0 = æ -----------------------ö + --- b æ --------------ö (4.5.30)
è H0¢ ø 8 è H0 ¢ ø

The term h x = 0 represents the rise in the mean water level at water depth h, which is controlled by the bottom
slope in front of the reef and wave steepness (see 4.7.1 Wave Setup).
The calculation method in the above has been derived under the assumption that the water depth h over the
reef is small and waves break over the reef. It is thus not possible to apply the method when the water is deep
and wave breaking does not occur.
Considering the breaking wave height criterion of a solitary wave, the highest wave height Hmax, x at the
distance x from the tip of the reef may be obtained as follows.

H max, x = min { 0.78 ( h + h x ), 1.8H x } (4.5.31)

where min{a, b} is the smaller value of a or b, and h x is the rise in the mean water level at the distance x and is
given by the following equation:

hx + h 3 Hx 2
--------------- = C 0 – --- b æ --------ö (4.5.32)
H0¢ 8 è H 0 ¢ø

4.6 Wave Runup, Overtopping, and Transmission


4.6.1 Wave Runup
Wave runup shall be calculated appropriately by taking into account the configuration and location of the
seawall and the sea bottom topgraphy.

[Commentary]
The phenomenon of wave runup is dependent upon a whole variety of factors, such as the wave characteristics, the
configuration and location of the seawall, and the sea bottom topography; thus the runup height varies in a complex
way. There are calculation diagrams and equations based on the results of past researches that may be used, although
they are applicable only under certain limited conditions. When the seawall and sea bottom are complex in form, it is
advisable to determine wave runup heights by carrying out hydraulic model experiments. When designing seawalls of
gently sloping type and the like, it is advisable to set the crown elevation of the seawall to be higher than the runup
height for regular waves. However, for irregular waves, depending on the wave height, overflow can occur, and so

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

ultimately the crown elevation and the form of the seawall are determined so as to make the quantity of overtopping
(see 4.6.2 Wave Overtopping) no more than a certain permissible value.

[Technical Notes]
The following is the description of methods for calculating the runup height over smooth impermeable slopes:
(1) Simple Cross Section
“A simple cross section” refers to the case in which a seawall (including an upright wall) having a front slope of
an uniform gradient a is located at a certain place (of water depth h) on the sea bottom with an almost uniform
gradient q.
(a) Region of standing waves
Takada has proposed the following equation for determining the runup height when the water depth h at the
foot of the levee is in the range where standing waves exist (i.e., deeper than the depth at the breaker line). He
dealt with two cases separately; i.e., the case where wave breaking does not occur on the front slope and the
case where such wave breaking does occur.
Firstly, according to Miche’s equation, the minimum angle of inclination of the slope ac for which wave
breaking does not occur is found as that satisfying the following condition:

2a c sin 2 a c H0 ¢
--------- ---------------- = -------- (4.6.1)
p p L0

Accordingly, when the angle of inclination of the slope is greater than ac, wave breaking does not occur over
the slope, in which case the runup height is given by the following equation:

R p hs
-------- = æè ------- + ------ – 1 öø K s : a > a c (4.6.2)
H0 ¢ 2a H1

where H0¢ is the equivalent deepwater wave height, Ks is the shoaling coefficient, H1 is the wave height at the
water depth at the foot of the slope, hs is the crest elevation, and R is the runup height.
Takada used the following equation for hs /H1,which assumes that there is good agreement between the
value from Miche’s standing wave theory and experimental data.
H1 3 1
h s ¤ H 1 = 1 + p ------ coth kh × æ 1 + ---------------------
- – -----------------------ö (4.6.3)
L è 4 sinh 2 kh 4 cosh 2 khø
When the angle of inclination of the slope is smaller than ac, wave breaking does occur on the front slope. In
this case, it is assumed that the runup height is proportional to tan2/3a, leading to the following equation:

ì p hs ü cot a c 2 ¤ 3
R ¤ H 0 ¢ = í --------- + æ ------ – 1ö ý Ks æ --------------ö : a < ac (4.6.4)
è H1 ø è cot a ø
î 2a c þ
When the water depth is such that standing waves exist, the runup height can be calculated as above. The
maximum runup height occurs when a = ac, with the runup height decreasing both when the slope is more
steeply inclined than this and when it is more gently inclined.
(b) Region where the water is shallower than the breaker depth
Takada has given the runup height for regions where the water is sufficiently shallow for wave breaking to
occur as follows:
h
R ¤ H 0 ¢ = ( R max ¤ H 0 ¢ – R 0 ¤ H 0 ¢ ) ----- + R 0 ¤ H 0 ¢ (4.6.5)
hR

where R0 is the runup height on the levee body at the shoreline (h = 0).
Based on the experimental results of Toyoshima et al., R0/H0¢ is given as follows:
ì 0.18 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) –1 ¤ 2 : Bottom slope 1/10
ï
R ¤ H 0 ¢ = í 0.075 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) –1 ¤ 2 : Bottom slope 1/20 (4.6.6)
ï 0.046 ( H ¢ ¤ L ) –1 ¤ 2 : Bottom slope 1/30
î 0 0

The term hR in equation (4.6.5) is the water depth at the foot of the levee for which the runup height becomes
largest. It is estimated using Fig. T- 4.6.1, which shows the runup height for a vertical wall. The term LR in the
figure is the wavelength at water depth hR, while Rmax is the maximum runup height for the region where the
water depth is such that standing waves exist (i.e., the runup height when h = hR).

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(2) Complex Cross Section


A “complex cross section” refers to the case where
the sea bottom topography and the configuration and
location of the seawall (on the whole) are as shown in 0
Fig. T- 4.6.2. 0

(a) When the cross section can be considered to be


complex, the runup height of the seawall is
obtained as follows (refer to Fig. T- 4.6.2) 37).
① The wave breaking point B is determined from
the deepwater wave characteristics.
② Next, the runup height R is assumed and the
point A is set at the maximum runup point. Then, 0 0

the points A and B are joined by a straight line,


Shoaling coefficient
and the gradient of this line yields the virtual
gradient cota.
③ The runup height for this virtual gradient is 0

calculated using Fig. T- 4.6.3, and the calculated Fig. T- 4.6.1 Graph for Estimating hR for a Vertical Wall
height is compared with the initially assumed
runup height. If the two do not agree, then a new
runup height is assumed, and the estimation are repeated (i.e., the new runup height is used to give a new
virtual gradient and so on). This iterative process is repeated until convergence is achieved.
④ The value so obtained is taken to be the runup height for the complex cross section in question.
(b) When the results obtained from this method are compared with actual experimental results for a complex cross
section, it is generally found that there is good agreement between the two, with the error usually being no
more than 10%. However, if the bottom slope is too gentle, the agreement between the two becomes poor, and
so this method should only be used when the bottom slope is steeper than 1/30.
(c) Figure T- 4.6.4 shows experimental results obtained for a bottom slope of 1/70. This figure provides a useful
reference when estimating the runup height for a complex cross section with a gentle bottom slope.

Maximum runup point

Wave breaking point

Actual cross section

Virtual gradient

Fig. T- 4.6.2 Complex Cross Section and Virtual Gradient

Fig. T- 4.6.3 Runup Height on a Slope

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Fig. T- 4.6.4 Runup Height on a Seawall Located Closer to the Land than the Wave Breaking Point

(3) Oblique Wave Incidence


Figure T- 4.6.5 shows the relationship between the incident angle coefficient Kb and the angle b. Here, b is the
angle between the wave crest line of the incident waves and the centerline of the seawall, and the incident angle
coefficient Kb is the ratio of the runup height for angle b to the runup height when the waves are normally
incident (i.e., when b = 0). This figure can be used to estimate the effect of wave incident angle on the runup
height.
(4) Effects of Wave-Absorbing Work
The runup height can be significantly reduced when the front face of a seawall is completely covered with wave-
dissipating concrete blocks. Figure T- 4.6.6 shows an example. However, the effect of the concrete blocks
varies greatly according to the way in which they are laid, and so in general it is advisable to determine the runup
height by means of hydraulic model experiments.
(5) Estimation Errors
It is important to note that the curves for determining the runup height have been obtained by averaging
experimental data that show a large scatter. It should also be noted that actual wave runup will frequently
exceeds the design crown height because of wave irregularity when the crown height of a seawall is designed
against the significant waves, even if the scatter of the experimental data is not considered; in fact, in extreme
cases as many as about a half of the waves may exceed this height. Accordingly, the crown height of a seawall
should not be decided based purely on the runup height of regular waves; rather, it is necessary to give
consideration to the quantity of overtopping (see 4.6.2 Wave Overtopping).

Smooth surface
Holland

0 0

Surface covered with wave-dissipating


concrete blocks

(Former)
Russia

Fig. T- 4.6.5 Relationship between Wave Incident 0 0

Angle and Runup Height


(Full Lines: Experimental Values by Fig. T- 4.6.6 Reduction in Runup Height
Public Works Research Institute, Due to Wave-Absorbing Work
Ministry of Construction)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

4.6.2 Wave Overtopping


For structures for which the quantity of overtopping is an important design factor, the overtopping quantity
shall be calculated by carrying out hydraulic model experiments or by using data from hydraulic model
experiments carried out in the past. In this case, wave irregularity shall be considered.

[Commentary]
The “quantity of overtopping” is the total volume of overtopped water. The “rate of overtopping”, on the other hand,
is the average volume of water overtopping in a unit time; it is obtained by dividing the quantity of overtopping by
the time duration of measurement. The quantity of overtopping and the rate of overtopping are generally expressed
per unit width.
If the quantity of overtopping is large, then not only there will be damage to the seawall body itself, but also
damage by flooding to the roads, houses and/or port and harbor facilities behind the levee or seawall, despite that the
levee or seawall is intended to protect them. There is further a risk to users of water frontage amenity facilities that
they may be drowned or injured. During design, it is necessary to make the quantity of overtopping no more than a
certain permissible value that has been determined in line with the characteristics of structures and the situation with
regard to their usage. Furthermore, when estimating the quantity of overtopping by means of experiments, it is
desirable to consider changes in tidal water level, i.e., to carry out experiments for different water levels.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Diagrams for Calculating the Rate of Overtopping 38)
For an upright or wave-absorbing seawall that has a simple form (i.e., that does not have anything like a toe
protection mound or a crown parapet), the rate of overtopping may be estimated using Figs. T- 4.6.7 ~ 4.6.10.
These graphs have been drawn up based on experiments employing irregular waves. From the results of a
comparison between the experiments and field observations, it is thought that the accuracy of the curves giving
the rate of overtopping is within the range listed in Table T- 4.6.1. The rate of overtopping for the wave-
absorbing seawall has been obtained under the conditition that the lower armor layer at the crown consists of 2
rows of wave-dissipating concrete blocks.
Table T- 4.6.1 Estimated Range for the Actual Rate of Overtopping Relative to the Estimated Value

q ¤ ( 2 g ( H 0' ) 3 ) Upright seawall Wave-absorbing seawall

10-2 0.7 ~ 1.5 times 0.5 ~ 2 times


10-3 0.4 ~ 2 0.2 ~ 3
10-4 0.2 ~ 3 0.1 ~ 5
10-5 0.1 ~ 5 0.05 ~ 10

Note that when obtaining rough estimates for the rate of overtopping for irregular waves using Figs. T- 4.6.7 ~
4.6.10, the following should be considered:
(a) If the actual values of the bottom slope and the deepwater wave steepness do not match any of the values on
the graphs, the graph for which the values most closely match should be used, or alternatively interpolation
should be carried out.
(b) The wave-dissipating concrete blocks in the figures are made up of two layers of tetrapods. If a different kind
of wave-dissipating concrete block is used, or if the same kind of wave-dissipating concrete block is used but
there are differences in the crown width, in the way in which the tetrapods are laid, or in the form of the toe,
then there is a risk that the actual rate of overtopping may considerably differ from the value obtained by the
figures.
(c) If the number of rows of concrete blocks at the crown is increased, the quantity of overtopping tends to
decrease 39).
(d) When there are difficulties in applying the graphs for estimating the rate of overtopping, the approximate
equation of Takayama et al. 40) may be used.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Fig. T- 4.6.7 Graphs for Estimating the Rate of Overtopping for an Upright Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/30)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Fig. T- 4.6.8 Graphs for Estimating the Rate of Overtopping for an Upright Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/10)

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

0 0

0
0

0
0

Co
nc
ret
eb
loc
k

Co
nc 0 0
ret
eb
0

loc
k

0
0
0

0
Co 0 0
nc
ret
0

eb
loc
0

k
0

0
0

Fig. T- 4.6.9 Graphs for Estimating the Rate of Overtopping for a Wave-Absorbing Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/30)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

0 0

0
0

Co
nc
ret
eb
loc
0 0
k

0 0
0

0
0

Co
nc
ret
eb
loc
k

Co
nc
ret 0 0
eb
loc
k
0

0
0

Fig. T- 4.6.10 Graphs for Estimating the Rate of Overtopping for a Wave-Absorbing Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/10)

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(2) Permissible Rate of Overtopping


The permissible rate of overtopping depends on factors such as the structural type of the seawall, the situation
with regard to land usage behind the seawall, and the capacity of drainage facilities; it must be set appropriately
in line with the individual situation. Although it is thus impossible to give one standard value for the permissible
rate of overtopping, Goda 41) nevertheless gave the values for the damage limit rate of overtopping as listed in
Table T- 4.6.2 based on past cases of disasters. Furthermore, Nagai et al. have considered the degree of
importance of the facilities behind the seawall and have come up with the values for the permissible rate of
overtopping as listed in Table T- 4.6.3, using the results of experiments with regular waves.
Table T- 4.6.2 Damage Limit Rate of Overtopping

Type Covering Rate of overtopping (m3/m•s)


Apron paved 0.2
Revetment
Apron unpaved 0.05
Concrete on front slope, crown, and back slope 0.05
Concrete on front slope and crown, but no concrete on back 0.02
Levee
slope
Concrete on front slope only 0.005 or less

Table T- 4.6.3 Permissible Rate of Overtopping (m3/m•s) as a Function of the Degree of Importance of the Hinterland

Areas where there is a high concentration of houses, public facilities etc.


behind the seawall, and so it is anticipated that flooding due to overtopping or About 0.01
spray would cause particularly serious damage
Other important areas About 0.02
Other areas 0.02 ~ 0.06

(3) Equivalent Crown Height Coefficient


The equivalent crown height coefficient can be used as a guideline when setting the quantity of overtopping for
a seawall upon which wave-dissipating concrete blocks are laid or for a seawall of wave-absorbing type with
vertical slits. The equivalent crown height coefficient is the ratio of the height of the seawall in question to the
height of an imaginary upright seawall that results in the same quantity of overtopping, where the conditions in
terms of waves and the sea bottom topography are taken to be the same for the both cases. If the equivalent
crown height coefficient is less than 1.0, this means that the crown of the seawall under study can be lowered
below that of an upright seawall and still give the same quantity of overtopping; in other words, the seawall
under study has a form that is effective in reducing the quantity of overtopping. Below are the reference values
for the equivalent crown height coefficient b for typical types of seawall.
Wave-absorbing seawall with concrete block mound 40): b = 0.9 ~ 0.7
Vertical-slit type seawall 40) : b = 0.6
Parapet retreating type seawall 39) : b = 1.0 ~ 0.5
Stepped seawall 39) : b = 1.7 ~ 1.0
ì 1 – sin 2 q £ 30° ü
: q ≦
When the waves are obliquely incident 42) :b = í ý
î 1 – sin 2 i 30° : q > 30° þ
(q is the angle of incidence of the waves; it is 0º when
the waves are normally incident on the seawall)
(4) Effect of Winds on the Quantity of Overtopping
In general, winds have a relatively large effect on the quantity of overtopping when it is small, although there is
a lot of variation. However, the relative effect of winds decreases as the quantity of overtopping increases.
Figure T- 4.6.11 shows the results of an investigation on the wind effect on the quantity of overtopping based on
field observations. The abscissa shows the spatial gradient of the quantity of overtopping, while the ordinate
shows the quantity of overtopping per unit area. As can be seen from the figure, when the quantity of
overtopping is small, the larger the wind velocity, the smaller the spatial gradient of the quantity of overtopping
becomes. When the quantity of overtopping is large, the spatial gradient of the quantity of overtopping
increases. This shows that, when the quantity of overtopping is small, the distance over which a mass of water
splash strongly affected by the wind velocity, with a larger distance at a higher wind velocity; however, when the
quantity of overtopping is large, the difference in the splash distance becomes small.
(5) Overtopping of Multidirectional Random Waves
In waters where the multidirectionality of waves is well clarified, the rate of overtopping may be corrected in
line with Smax as in reference 42).

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Quantity of overtopping per unit area q

y
cit
lo
ve
d
in
W
Gradient

Fig. T- 4.6.11 Wind Effect on Spatial Gradient of Wave Overtopping Quantity

4.6.3 Wave Transmission


It shall be standard to calculate the height of waves transmitted behind a breakwater by overtopping and/or
permeation through the core or the fundation mound of breakwater by referring to either the results of
hydraulic model experiments or the past data.

[Commentary]
It is necessary to appropriately estimate the transmitted wave height after waves have overtopped and/or passed
through a breakwater, because the transmitted waves affect the wave height distribution behind the breakwater.
Transmitted waves include waves that have overtopped and/or overflowed, as well as waves that have permeated
through a rubble mound breakwater or a foundation mound of composite breakwater. Recently, several breakwaters
have been built with caissons (which are originally not permeable) having through-holes in order to enhance the
exchange of the seawater within a harbor. In this case, it is necessary to examine the value of wave transmission
coefficient, because the coefficient serves as an indicator of the efficiency of the exchange of seawater.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Transmission Coefficient for a Composite Breakwater
Figure T- 4.6.12 may be used to calculate the height of waves that are transmitted into a harbor when they
overtop a composite breakwater or permeate through a foundation mound. Even when the waves are irregular,
the transmission coefficient agrees pretty well with that shown in Fig. T- 4.6.12. It has also been shown that Fig.
T- 4.6.12 is valid not only for the significant wave height, but also for the highest one-tenth wave height and the
mean wave height.

Fig. T- 4.6.12 Graph for Calculating the Wave Height Transmission Coefficient

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(2) Period of Transmitted Waves for a Composite Breakwater


The period of the transmitted waves drops to about 50 ~ 80% of the corresponding incident wave period (this is
true both for the significant wave period and the mean period).
(3) Experimental Data on Other Types of Breakwater
For composite breakwaters covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks, rubble mound breakwaters armored
with wave-dissipating concrete blocks, and other such breakwaters, experiments on the transmitted wave height
have been carried out by the Civil Engineering Research Institute of Hokkaido Development Bureau.
(4) Transmission Coefficient for Structures Other than Composite Breakwaters
(a) For a porous, water-permeable structure such as a rubble mound breakwater or a wave-dissipating concrete
block type breakwater, Kondo’s theoretical analysis may be referred to. The following empirical equation may
be used to obtain the transmission coefficient of a typical structure.

Stone breakwater: K T = 1 ¤ ( 1 + k t H ¤ L ) (4.6.7)

where kt=1.26 (B/d)0.67, B is the crown width of the structure, d is the depth from the water surface to the
ground surface of the structure, H is the height of incident waves, and L is the wavelength of transmitted
waves.
(b) For a curtain wall breakwater, the empirial solutions of Morihira et al. 43) may be used (see Part VII, 3.3.1
Curtain Wall Breakwater).
(c) For the transmission coefficient of an upright breakwater of permeable type that has slits in both the front and
rear walls, the experimental results are available.
(d) Types of breakwater aiming to promote the exchange of seawater include multiple-wing type permeable
breakwaters, multiple-vertical cylinder breakwaters, horizontal-plate type permeable breakwaters, and pipe
type breakwaters. The transmission coefficients of these types of breakwater have been obtained by hydraulic
model tests.
(5) Transmission Coefficient for a Submerged Breakwater
A submerged breakwater is usually made by piling up natural stones or crushed rock to form a mound, and then
covering the surface with concrete blocks to protect underlayers. For a submerged breakwater of crushed rock, a
graph showing the relationship between the crown height of the breakwater and the transmission coefficient is
available.

4.7 Wave Setup and Surf Beat


4.7.1 Wave Setup
When designing structures that will be placed within the breaker zone, it is desirable to consider the
phenomenon of wave setup as necessary, which occurs in the breaker zone owing to wave breaking as they
approach the coast.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Diagrams for Estimating the Amount of Wave Setup
The changes in the mean water level by random wave breaking on the bottom slopes of 1/100 and 1/10 as
calculated by Goda 35), 44) are shown in Figs. T- 4.7.1 and T- 4.7.2. The smaller the wave steepness (H0¢/L0,
where H0¢ is the equivalent deepwater wave height and L0 is the wavelength in deepwater ), the larger the rise of
mean water level becomes. Moreover, the steeper the bottom slope, the larger the rise of mean water level.
Figure T- 4.7.3 shows the rise of mean water level at the shoreline. The effects of wave steepness and bottom
slope on the rise of mean water level are clearly shown. When H0¢/L0 is in the range 0.01 ~ 0.05, with the
exception of very steep bottom slope, the rise of mean water level near the shoreline is of the order (0.1 ~
0.15)H0¢.
(2) Consideration of the Rise in Mean Water Level in Design
A rise of mean water level causes the wave breaking point to shift shoreward and the breaking wave height to
increase. The rise of in mean water level is thus important for the accurate calculation of the design wave height
in shallow waters.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

0
0

0 0
η/H ′
0
0 0′
Change in mean water level η /H

Change in mean water level


h /H0 ′ h /H0
0 ′

Fig. T- 4.7.1 Change in Mean Water Level Fig. T- 4.7.2 Change in Mean Water Level
(Bottom Slope 1/10) (Bottom Slope 1/100)

z
rms
---------------------
(h ) 0

rms 0
0
Risc in mean water level

Near shoreline Offshore


Oarai

Niigata

Miyazaki

Wave steepness 0 0

Fig. T- 4.7.3 Rise in Mean Water Level H ¢


0

1¤2
0 h
--------- æ 1 + ---------ö
0 0

at the Shoreline L è H ¢ø
0 0

Fig. T- 4.7.4 Ratio of Surf Beat Amplitude to


Deepwater Wave Amplitude

4.7.2 Surf Beat


In shallow waters, surf beat with the period of one to several minutes shall be investigated as necessary.

[Technical Notes]
Goda’s Formula for Estimating Surf Beat Amplitude
Based on the results of field observations of surf beat, Goda has proposed the following relationship 35), 44):
0.04 ( h rms ) 0 0.01H 0 ¢
z rms = ------------------------------------- = ------------------------------------- (4.7.1)
H0¢ h H0 ¢ h
-------- æ 1 + --------ö -------- æ 1 + --------ö
L0 è H 0 ¢ø L0 è H 0 ¢ø

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

where zrms is the root mean square amplitude of the surf beat wave profile, (hrms)0 is the root mean square
amplitude of the deepwater wave profile, H0¢ is the equivalent deepwater wave height, L0 is the wavelength in
deepwater, and h is the water depth.
This equation shows that the amplitude of the surf beat is proportional to the deepwater wave height, that it
falls as the water depth increases, and that it increases as the deepwater wave steepness H0¢/L0 decreases. Figure
T- 4.7.5 shows a comparison between the estimation by equation (4.7.1) and actual observation values.

4.8 Long-Period Waves and Seiche


With regard to long-period waves and seiche in harbors, field observations shall be carried out as far as
possible, and appropriate measures to control them shall be taken based on the results of these
observations.

[Commentary]
Water level fluctuations with the period between one and several minutes sometimes appear at observation points in
harbors and off the shore. Such fluctuations are called long-period waves. If the period of such long-period waves is
close to the natural period of oscillation of the vibration system made up of a vessel and its mooring ropes, the
phenomenon of resonance can give rise to a large surge motion even if the wave height is small, resulting in large
effects on the cargo handling efficiency of the port. If it is clear from observations that long-period waves of
significant wave height 10 ~ 15 cm or more frequently arise in a harbor, it is advisable to investigate either hard or
soft countermeasures.
When conspicuous water level fluctuations with the period several minutes or longer occur at an observation point
in a harbor, it can be assumed that the phenomenon of “seiche” is taking place. This phenomenon occurs when small
disturbances in water level generated by changes in air pressure out at sea are amplified by the resonant oscillations
of the harbor or bay. If the amplitude of such seiche becomes significantly large, inundation at the head of the bay or
reverse outflow from municipal drainage channels may occur. Also high current velocities may occur locally in a
harbor, resulting in breaking of the mooring ropes of small vessels. When drawing up a harbor plan, it is thus
desirable to give consideration to making the shape of the harbor to minimize the seiche motion as much as possible.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Threshold Height of Long-period Waves for Cargo
Handling Works
It is necessary to give due consideration to the fact
that long-period waves in front of a quaywall can
induce ship surging with the amplitude of several
meters through resonance. The threshold height of Observed spectrum
long-period waves for smooth cargo handling works
depends on the factors such as the period of the long-
Approximate form of
period waves, the dimensions of the vessel in standard spectrum
question, the mooring situation, and the loading
conditions. Nevertheless, according to field
observations carried out in places like Tomakomai
Bay 46), it corresponds to a significant wave height of
about 10 ~ 15 cm.
(2) Calculating the Propagation of Long-period Waves
It is desirable to calculate the propagation of long-
period waves into a harbor by setting up incident
wave boundary out at sea and then using either the
Boussinesq equation 29) or a calculation method that
uses long linear wave equations 47).
Fig. T- 4.8.1 Comparison between Standard Spectrum
(3) Standard Spectrum for Long-period Waves with Long-period Components and
When there has been insufficient field observation Observed Spectrum
data of long-period waves out at sea and the long-
period wave conditions that determine the design external forces have not been established, the standard
spectrum shown in reference 48) or its approximate expression may be used. Figure T- 4.8.1 shows a comparison
between an observed spectrum and an approximate form of the standard spectrum. The term al in the figure is a
parameter that represents the energy level of the long-period waves.
(4) Calculation Method for Seiche
See 6.5 Seiche for a calculation method for seiche.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

4.9 Waves inside Harbors


4.9.1 Calmness and Disturbances
When evaluating the harbor calmness, the factors that give rise to disturbances in the harbor shall be set
appropriately.

[Commentary]
The problem of harbor calmness is extremely complex. It involves not only physical factors such as waves, winds,
vessel motions, and the wind- and wave-resistance of working machinery, but also the factors requiring human
judgement: the latter include the easiness of vessels entering and leaving a harbor, vessel refuge during stormy
weather, and the threshold conditions of works at sea. The harbor calmness is further related with the economic
factors, such as the efficiency of cargo handling works, the operating rate of vessels, and the cost of constructing the
various facilities required to improve the harbor calmness. The factors that lead to wave disturbances in harbors,
which form the basis of the criteria for determining the harbor calmness, include the following:
(a) Waves penetrating through the harbor entrance
(b) Transmission of waves into the harbor over breakwaters
(c) Reflected waves
(d) Long-period waves
(e) Seiche
In large harbors, wind waves generated within the harbor may require attention, and the ship-generated waves by
larger vessels may cause troubles for small vessels.

4.9.2 Evaluation of Harbor Calmness


The harbor calmness shall be evaluated by considering individual wave components estimated separately
for respective factors that cause disturbances in the harbor.

[Technical Notes]
The following method may be used for evaluating the harbor calmness:
(1) To estimate the waves in the harbor, first establish the joint distribution of the height and direction of deepwater
waves.
(2) Next, calculate the wave transformations by refraction and breaking that takes place between the deepwater
wave observation and/or hindcasting point and the harbor entrance, using say the energy balance equation
method, and thus obtain the wave conditions at the harbor entrance.
(3) Obtain the wave height in the harbor, focusing mainly on diffraction and reflection. If necessary, carry out an
investigation on wave transmission at this time.
(4) The wave height in the harbor can be estimated by taking the squares of each of the diffracted wave height, the
reflected wave height and the transmitted wave height, adding the results, and then taking the square root. For
harbors where the effects of transmitted waves are relatively slight, the wave period in the harbor may be taken
to be the same as the period of the diffracted waves. Note that the wave height in the harbor should be
investigated for each wave direction for various classes of wave heights with the occurrence probability outside
the harbor.
(5) It is standard to express the occurrence rate of waves in a harbor as the percentage of the waves exceeding 0.5 m
or 1.0 m in height or in terms of the number of days. However, depending on the usage purpose, it is also
acceptable to take into consideration the exceedance probability for other wave height classes. The harbor
calmness is obtained by subtracting from 100% the occurrence probability (in percentage) that the wave height
in the harbor exceeds the threshold level for cargo handling works at the berth in question. It is not possible to
determine a value for the threshold wave height for cargo handling works that is valid universally; rather, it
depends on the purpose for which the wharf facilities are used, the dimensions of vessels, and the period and
direction of waves, etc. Nevertheless, a value of 0.5 to 1.0 m (significant wave height) may be used as a
reference value. However, it should be noted that the critical wave height for cargo handling is lower for waves
of long-periodicity such as swell 49), and so care is required when evaluating the net working rate for ports and
harbors that face out onto the open sea.

4.10 Ship Waves


In canals and navigation channels, it is desirable to examine the influence of waves generated by moving
vessels.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

[Technical Notes]
(1) Pattern of Ship Waves as Viewed from Top
If ship waves are viewed from top, it appears as shown in Fig. T- 4.10.1. Specifically, it is composed of two
groups of waves. One group of waves spread out in a shape like 八 (the Chinese character for 8) from a point
slightly ahead of the bow of the vessel. The other group of waves are behind the vessel and are such that the
wave crest is perpendicular to the vessel’s sailing line. The former waves are termed the “divergent waves”,
while the latter are termed the “transverse waves”. The divergent waves form concave curves; the closer to the
sailing line, the smaller the gap between waves. On the other hand, the transverse waves are approximately arc-
shaped, with the gap between waves being constant (i.e., independent of the distance from the sailing line). In
deep water, the area over which the ship waves extend is limited within the area bounded by the two cusplines
with the angles ± 19º28' from the sailing line and starting from the origin (i.e., the point from which the cusp
lines diverge) lying somewhat in front of the bow of the vessel. The divergent waves cross the transverse waves
just inside the cusplines; this is where the wave height is largest. The wave steepness is smaller for the transverse
waves than for the divergent waves, implying that the transverse waves often cannot be discerned from an aerial
photograph.

Vessel's sailing line

Fig. T- 4.10.1 Plan View of Ship Waves

(2) Wavelength and Period of Ship Waves


The wavelength and period of ship waves differ for the divergent waves and the transverse waves, with the latter
having both a longer wavelength and a longer period. Amongst the divergent waves, the wavelength and period
are both longest for the first wave and then become progressively shorter.
(a) The wavelength of the transverse waves can be obtained by the numerical solution of the following equation,
which is derived from the condition that the celerity of the transverse waves must be the same as the velocity
at which the vessel is sailing forward.
gL t 2ph
------- tanh ---------
- = V 2 : (provided V < g h ) (4.10.1)
2p Lt

where
Lt: wavelength of transverse waves (m)
h: water depth (m)
V: sailing speed of vessel (m/s)
Note however that when the water is sufficiently deep, the wavelength of the transverse waves is given by the
following equation:
2p
L 0 = ------V 2 = 0.169V k2 (4.10.2)
g
where
L0: wavelength of transverse waves at places where the water is sufficiently deep (m)
Vk: sailing speed of vessel (kt); Vk = 1.946V (m/s)
(b) The period of the transverse waves is equal to the period of progresseive waves with the wavelength Lt (or L0)
in water of depth h. It is given by equation (4.10.3) or (4.10.4).

2p 2ph 2ph
Tt = ------L t coth æ ----------ö = T 0 coth æ ----------ö (4.10.3)
g è Lt ø è Lt ø
2p
T 0 = ------V = 0.330V k (4.10.4)
g

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

where
Tt: period of transverse waves in water of depth h (s)
T0: period of transverse waves at places where the water is sufficiently deep (s)
(c) The wavelength and period of the divergent waves are given by equations (4.10.5) and (4.10.6), which are
derived from the condition that the component of the vessel’s speed in the direction of travel of the divergent
waves must be equal to the velocity of the divergent waves.
L d = L t cos 2 q (4.10.5)
T d = T t cos q (4.10.6)

where
Ld: wavelength of divergent waves as measured in the direction of travel (m)
Td: period of divergent waves (s)
q: angle between the direction of travel of the divergent waves and the sailing line (º)
According to Kelvin’s theory of wave generation at places where the water is sufficiently deep, the angle of
travel q of the divergent waves can be obtained as shown in Fig. T- 4.10.2, as a function of the position of the
place under study relative to the vessel. Note however that for actual vessels the minimum value of q is
generally about 40º, and q is usually about 50º ~ 55º for the point on a particular divergent wave at which the
wave height is a maximum. Note also that, as shown in the illustration in the figure, the angle q directs the
location of the source point Q from where the divergent wave has been generated; a is the angle between the
cusp line and the sailing line.
Angle between the direction of travel of the divergent waves

Ratio of the period of the divergent waves


to that of the transverse waves Td / T0
and the sailing line q

Relative position of observation point x / s

Fig. T- 4.10.2 Wave Direction and Period of

at Places Where the Water is Sufficiently Deep

(3) Shoaling Effect on Ship Waves


As common with water waves in general, ship waves are affected by the water depth, and their properties vary
when the water depth decreases relative to the wavelength of ship waves. This shoaling effect on ship waves
may be ignored if the following condition is satisfied:

V ≦ 0.7 gh (4.10.7)
The critical water depth above which ship waves may be regarded as deepwater waves is calculated by equation
(4.10.7), as listed in Table T-4.10.1. As can be seen from this table, the waves generated by vessels in normal
conditions can generally be regarded as deepwater waves. Situations in which they must be regarded as shallow
water waves include the following cases: a high-speed ferry travels through relatively shallow waters, a
motorboat travels through shallow waters, and ship waves propagate into shallow waters. Note that ship waves
in shallow water have a longer wavelength and period than those generated by the vessel sailing in deep water at
the same speed.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Table T-4.10.1 Conditions under Which Ship Waves Can Be Regarded as Deepwater Waves

Speed of vessel Vk (kt) 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 25.0 30.0
Water depth h (m) ≧ 1.4 3.1 5.5 8.6 12.4 16.9 22.0 34.4 49.6
Period of transverse waves T0 (s) 1.7 2.5 3.3 4.1 5.0 5.8 6.6 8.3 9.9

(4) Height of Ship Waves


The Ship Wave Research Committee of the Japan Association for Preventing Maritime Accidents has proposed
the following equation for giving a rough estimate of the height of ship waves:

Ls 1 ¤ 3 E HPW
H 0 = æ ---------ö ------------------------ (4.10.8)
è 100ø 1620L s V K

where
H0: characteristic wave height of ship waves (m), or the maximum wave height observed at a distance of
100 m from the sailing line when a vessel is sailing at its full-load cruising speed
Ls: length of the vessel (m)
V K: full-load cruising speed (kt)
EHPW: wave-making power (W)
The wave-making power EHPW is calculated as follows.
E HPW = E HP – E HPF (4.10.9)
E HP = 0.6S HPm (4.10.10)
1
E HPF = --- rSV 03 C F (4.10.11)
2
S ≒ 2.5 ÑL s (4.10.12)
V0 Ls 2
C F = 0.075 ¤ æ log ----------- – 2ö (4.10.13)
è n ø

where
SHPm: continuous maximum shaft power (W)
r0: density of seawater (kg/m3); r0 = 1030 (kg/m3)
V0: full-load cruising speed (m/s); V0 = 0.514VK
CF: frictional resistance coefficient
n: coefficient of kinematic viscosity of water (m2/s); n ≒ 1.2 × 10-6 (m2/s)
Ñ: full-load displacement of vessel (m3)
Equation (4.10.8) has been obtained by assuming that the energy consumed through wave making resistance is
equal to the propagation energy of ship waves, while the values of the coefficients have been determined as
averages from the data from ship towing tank tests. The characteristic wave height H0 varies from vessel to
vessel, although for medium-sized and large vessels it is about 1.0 ~ 2.0 m. Tugboats sailing at full speed
produce relatively large waves.
It is considered that the wave height decays as s-1/3, where s is the distance of the observation point from the
sailing line. It is also considered that the wave height is proportional to the cube of the cruising speed of the
vessel. Accordingly:

100 1¤3 V 3
H max = H 0 æ ---------ö æ ------k ö (4.10.14)
è s ø è V Kø

where
Hmax:maximum height of ship waves at any chosen observation point (m)
s:distance from the observation point to the sailing line (m)
Vk:actual cruising speed of the vessel (kt)
Equation (4.10.14) cannot be applied if s is too small; specifically, the approximate minimum value of s for
which equation (4.10.14) can be applied is either the vessel length Ls or 100 m, whichever is the smaller.
The upper limit of the height of ship waves occurs when the breaking criterion is satisfied; this criterion is
expresed as the steepness Hmax/Lt of the highest divergent wave being equal to 0.14. If the angle between the
wave direction and the sailing line is assumed to be q = 50º at the point on a divergent wave where the wave
height becomes largest, the upper limit of the wave height at any given point is given by equation (4.10.15). This
also assumes, however, that the conditions for deepwater waves are satisfied.

H limit = 0.010V k2 (4.10.15)

where

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Hlimit:upper limit of the height of ship waves as determined by the wave breaking conditions (m)
(5) Propagation of Ship Waves
(a) Among two groups of ship waves, the transverse waves propagate in the direction of vessel’s sailing line, and
continue to propagate even if the vessel changes course or stops. In this case, the waves have a typical nature
of regular waves (with the period being given by equation (4.10.3), and they propagate at the group velocity,
undergoing transformation such as refraction and others. Takeuchi and Nanasawa gave an example of such
transformations. Note however that as the waves propagate, the length of wave crest spreads out (the wave
crest gets longer), and even when the water is of uniform depth, the wave height decays in a manner inversely
proportional to the square root of the distance traveled.
(b) The direction of propagation of a divergent wave varies from point to point on the wave crest. According to
Kelvin’s theory of wave generation, the angle between the direction of propagation and the sailing line is q =
35.3º at the outer edge of a divergent wave. As one moves inwards along the wave crest, the value of q
approaches 90º. The first
(c) arriving at a any particular point has the angle q = 35.3º, while q getting gradually larger for subsequent
waves. This spatial change in the direction of propagation of the divergent waves can be estimated using Fig.
T- 4.10.2.
(d) The propagation velocity of a divergent wave at any point on the wave crest is the group velocity
corresponding to the period Td at that point (see equation (4.10.6)). In the illustration in Fig. T- 4.10.2, the
time needed for a component wave to propagate at the group velocity from the point Q at wave source to the
point P is equal to the time taken for the vessel to travel at the speed V from the point Q to the point O. Since
each wave profile propagates at the wave velocity (phase velocity), the waves appear to pass beyond the
cuspline and vanish one after the other at the outer edge of the divergent waves.
(6) Generation of Solitary Waves.
When a vessel sails through shallow waters, solitary waves are generated in front of the vessel if the cruising
speed Vk (m/s) approaches gh . Around the mouths of rivers, there is a possibility of small vessels being
affected by such solitary waves generated by other large vessels 50).

[References]
1) Dean, G. R.: “Stream function wave theory and application”, Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 1, Gulf
Pub., 1991, pp. 63-94.
2) Dean G. R. and R. A. Dalrymple: “Water Wave Mechanics for Engineers and Scientists”, World Scientific, 1991, pp. 305-309
3) Goda, Y.: “Wave forces on a vertical circular cylinder: Experiments and proposed method of wave force computation”, Rept.
of PHRI, No. 8, 1964, 74 p.
4) Yoshimi GODA, Yasumasa SUZUKI: “Computation of refraction and diffraction of sea waves with Mitsuyasu’s directional
spectrum”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 230, 1975 (in Japanese).
5) Pierson, W. J. Jr., G. Neumann and R. W. James: “Practical methods for observing and forecasting ocean waves by means of
wave spectra and statistics”, U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office, Pub. No. 603, 1955.
6) Inoue, T.: “On the growth of the spectra of a wind gererated sea according to a modified Miles-Phillips mechanism and its
application to wave forecasting”, Geophysical Science Lab., TR-67-5, New York Univ., 1967, pp. 1-74.
7) Isozaki, I. and T. Uji: “Numerical prediction of ocean wind waves”, Papers of Meteorology and Geophysics, Vol. 24 No. 2,
1973, pp. 207-231.
8) Joseph, P. S., S. Kawai and Y. Toba: “Ocean wave prediction by a hybrid model combination of single-parameterized wind
waves with spectrally treated swells”, Sci. Rept. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, (Tohoku Geophys. Jour.), Vol. 28, No. 1, 1981.
9) Uji, T.: “A coupled discrete wave model MRI-II”, Jour. Oceanogr, Society of Japan, Vol. 40, 1985, pp. 303-313.
10) Günther, H. et al: “A hybrid parametrical wave prediction model”, Jour. Geophys. Res., Vol. 84, 1979, pp. 5727-5738.
11) Takeshi SOEJIMA, Tomoharu TAKAHASHI: “A comparison on wave hidcasting methods”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 210,
1975, pp. 1-24 (in Japanese).
12) Collins, J. I.: “Prediction of shallow water wares”, Jour. Geopyhs. Res., Vol. 77, No. 15, 1972, pp. 2693-2702.
13) Cavaleri, L. and P. H. Rizzoli: “Wind wave prediction in shallow water: theory and applications”, Jour. Geophys. Res., Vol. 86
No. C11, 1981, pp. 10961-10973.
14) Golding. B: “A wave perdiction system for realtime sea state forecasting”, Quat. Jour. Royal Meleorol. Soc., Vol. 109, 1983,
pp. 393-416.
15) Phillips, O. M.: “On the generation of waves by turbulent wind”, J. F. M., Vol. 2, 1957, pp. 417-445.
16) Miles, J. W.: “On the generation of surface waves by shear flows”, J. F. M., Vol. 6, 1959, pp. 568-582.
17) Hasselmann, K.: “Weak-interaction of ocean waves”, Basic Developments in Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 2, Academic Press Inc.,
New York., 1968.
18) Hasselmann, S and K. Hasselamann: “Computations and parameterizations of the nonlinear energy transfer in a gravity wave
spectrum, Part I: A new method for efficient computations of the exact nonlinear transfer integral”, J. Phys. Oceanogr., Vol.
15, 1985, pp. 1369-1377.
19) Sverdrup, H. U. and W. H. Munk: “Wind Sea and Swell, Theory of Relations for Forecasting”, U. S. Hydrographic Office,
Pub. No. 601, 1947.
20) Bretschneider, C. L.: “The generation and decay of waves in deep water”, Trans. A. G. U., Vol. 37, No. 3, 1952.
21) Wilson, B. W.: “Numerical prediction of ocean waves in the North Atlantic for December 1959”, Deut. Hydro. Zeit, Jahrg. 18,
Ht. 3. 1965.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

22) Saville. T.: “The effect of fetch width on wave generation”, Tech. Memo., B. E. B., No. 70.
23) Wilson, B. W.: “Graphical approach to the forecasting of waves in moving fetches”, Tech, Memo., B. E. B., No. 73, 1955.
24) Bretschneider. C. L.: “Decay of ocean waves: Fundamentals of ocean engineering - Part 8b”, Ocean Industry, 1968, pp. 45-
50.
25) Gringorten, I. I.: “A plotting rule for extreme probability paper”, J. Geophysical Res., Vol. 68 No. 3, 1963, pp. 813-814.
26) Petruaskas, C. and P. M. Aagaard: “Extrapolation of historical storm data for estimating design wave heights”, Preprints 2nd
OTC, No. 1190, 1970, pp. I-409-428.
27) Yoshiyuki ITO, Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Shoichi YAMAMOTO: “Wave height distribution in the region of ray crossing -
application of the numerical analysis method of wave propagation -”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1972, pp. 87-110 (in
Japanese).
28) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Naota IKEDA, Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “Practical computation method of directional random wave
transformation”, Rept. of PHRI, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1991, pp. 21-67 (in Japanese).
29) Tetsuya HIRAISHI, Isao UEHARA, Yasumasa SUZUKI: “Applicability of wave transformation model in boussinesq
equation”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 814, 1995, 22 p. (in Japanese).
30) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Katsutoshi KIMURA, Antonio Paulo dos Santos Pinto: “Random wave forces and design wave
periods of composite breakwaters under the action of double peaked spectral waves”, Rept. of PHRI, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1986, pp.
3-25 (in Japanese).
31) Yoshimi GODA, Yasumasa SUZUKI, Yasuharu KISHIRA, Osamu KIKUCHI: “Estimation of incident and reflected waves in
random wave experimen”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 248, 1976, 24 p. (in Japanese).
32) Koji KOBUNE, Mutsuo OSATO: “A study of wave height distribution along a breakwater with a corner”, Rept. of PHRI, Vol.
15, No. 2, 1976 (in Japanese).
33) Yoshiyuki ITO, Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “Meandering damages of composite type breakwaters”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No.
112, 1971 (in Japanese).
34) Yoshimi GODA, Tomotsuka YOSHIMURA: “Wave force computation for structures of large diameter, isolated in the
offshore”, Rept. of PHRI, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1971 (in Japanese).
35) Yoshimi GODA: “Deformation of irregular waves due to depth-controlled wave breaking” Rept. of PHRI, Vol. 14, No. 3,
1975 (in Japanese).
36) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Yutaka KAMIYAMA, Osamu KIKUCHI: “Wave transformation on a reef ”, Tech. Note of PHRI,
No. 278, 1977, 32 p. (in Japanese).
37) Saville, T. Jr.: “Wave run-up on composite slopes”, Proc. 6th Conf. on Coastal Eng., 1958, pp. 691-699.
38) Yoshimi GODA, Yasuharu KISHIRA, Yutaka KAMIYAMA: “Laboratory investigation on the overtopping rate of seawalls
by irregular waves”, Rept. of PHRI, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1975, pp. 3-44 (in Japanese).
39) Yoshimi GODA, Yasuharu KISHIRA: “Experiments on irregular wave overtopping characteristics of low crest types”, Tech.
Note of PHRI, No. 242, 1976, 28 p. (in Japanese).
40) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Toshihiko NAGAI, Kazuhiko NISHIDA: “Decrease of wave overtopping amount due to seawalls
of low crest types”, Rept. of PHRI, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1982, pp. 151-205 (in Japanese).
41) Yoshimi GODA: “Estimation of the rate of irregular wave overtopping of seawalls”, Rept. of PHRI, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1970, pp.
3-41 (in Japanese).
42) Tetsuya HIRAISHI, Norio MOCHIZUKI, Kazuo SATO, Haruhiro MARUYAMA, Tsuyoshi KANAZAWA, Tatsuya
MASUMOTO: “Effect of wave directionality on overtopping at seawall”, Rept. of PHRI, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1996, pp. 39-64 (in
Japanese).
43) Michio MORIHIRA, Shusaku KAKIZAKI, Yoshimi GODA: “Experimental investigation of a curtain-wall breakwater”,
Rept. of PHRI, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1964, pp. 1-27 (in Japanese).
44) Yoshimi Goda: “Irregular wave deformation in the surf zone”, Constal Engineering in Japan, JSCE, Vol. 18, 1975, pp. 13-26.
45) Kazumasa KATOH, Satoshi NAKAMURA, Naota IKEDA: “Estimation of infragravity waves in consideration of wave
groups - An examination on basis of field observation at HORF -”, Rep. of PHRI, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1991, pp. 137-163 (in
Japanese).
46) Tetsuya HIRAISHI, Atsuhiro TADOKORO, Hideyoshi FUJISAKU: “Characteristics of long period waves observed in port”,
Rept. of PHRI Vol. 35, No. 3, 1996, pp. 3-36 (in Japanese).
47) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “Amplification mechanism of harbor oscillation derived from field
observation and numerical simulation”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 636, 1988, 70 p. (in Japanese).
48) Tetsuya HIRAISHI, Tokuhiro TADOKORO, Shigenori TAMAKI, Junzo HASEGAWA: “Standard frequency spectrum of
long-period waves for design of port and harbor facilities,” porc. 44th Japanese Coastal Eng. Corof., 1997, pp. 246-250 (in
Japanese).
49) Shigeru UEDA, Satoru SHIRAISHI, Hiroyuki OSHIMA, Kohei ASANO: “Allowable wave height and wharf operation
efficiency based on the oscillations of ships moored to quay walls”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 779, 1994, 44 p. (in Japanese).
50) Ertekin, R. C., W. C. Webster and J. V. Wehausen: “Ship generated solitions”, Proc. 15th Symp. Nav. Hydrodyn., 1985, pp.
347-364.
51) Yoshimi GODA: “On the methodology of selecting design wave height”, Proc. 21st Int. Conf. Coastal Eng., ASCE, 1988, pp.
899-913.
52) Yoshimi GODA and Koji KOBUNE: “Distribution function fitting to storm waves”, Proc. 22nd Int. Conf. Coastal Eng.,
ASCE, 1990, pp. 18-31.
53) Yoshimi GODA: “Random Waves and Design of Maritime Structures (2nd Edition)”, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000,
Chapt. 11 (Statistical Analysis of Extreme Waves).
54) Yoshimi GODA: “Statistical variability of sea state parameters as a function of wave spectrum,” Coastal Engineering in
Japan, JSCE, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1988, pp. 39-52.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Chapter 5 Wave Force

5.1 General (Notification Article 5, Clause 1)


The wave force acting on a structure shall be determined using appropriate hydraulic model experiments or
design methods described in 5.2 Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall, with the design waves determined
by the procedures described in Chapter 4 Waves.

[Commentary]
(1) Structure Type and Wave Forces
Wave forces can be generally classified by the type of structure as follows:
(a) Wave force acting on a wall-type structure
(b) Wave force acting on armor stones or concrete blocks
(c) Wave force acting on submerged members
(d) Wave force acting on structures near the water surface
The wave force is different for each type of structure. It is thus necessary to use an appropriate calculation
method in accordance with the structural type. For some types of structures with a few experiences of
construction, their wave forces have not been sufficiently elucidated, and therefore it is desirable to carry out
studies including hydraulic model experiments for such structures.
(2) Wave Irregularity and Wave Force
Sea waves are irregular with the wave height and period varying from wave to wave. Depending on the water
depth and the topography of the sea bottom, there may appear waves that have not broken, waves that are just
breaking, or waves that have already broken. When calculating the wave force, it is important to include the
waves that cause the severest effect on the structure. It is necessary to give sufficient consideration to wave
irregularity and to the characteristics of the wave force being produced in accordance with the type of structure.
In general, it may be assumed that the larger the wave height, the greater the wave force becomes. It is thus
acceptable to focus on the wave force of the highest wave among a train of irregular waves attacking the
structure. However, with regard to the stabilities of floating structures and cylindrical structures with small
rigidity, and those of concrete blocks or armor stones on the slope, it is desirable to consider the effect of the
successive action of the irregular waves.
(3) Calculation of Wave Force Using Hydraulic Model Experiments
When studying wave force using hydraulic model experiments, it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to
the failure process of the structure and to use an appropriate measurement method. It is also necessary to give
sufficient consideration to the irregularity of waves. In particular, when carrying out experiments using regular
waves, an investigation against the highest wave should be included.

5.2 Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall


5.2.1 General Considerations
The wave force acting on an upright wall varies with the wave conditions, as well as the tidal level, the
water depth, the sea bottom topography, the cross-sectional form of the structure, and the configuration of
the alignment of the structure. The wave force acting on an upright wall shall thus be calculated
appropriately while considering these items.
An upright wall on a steep seabed or a high mound is often subjected to a strong impulsive wave
breaking force, so that sufficient attention shall be paid to the conditions under which such a force is
generated when calculating the wave force.

[Commentary]
(1) Parameters Affecting Wave Force on an Upright Wall 1)
The major parameters that affect the wave force acting on an upright wall are the wave period, the wave height,
the wave direction, the water level, the water depth, the bottom slope, the water depth on and the berm width of
the mound, the crown height of upright wall, and the water depth at the base of upright wall. In addition, it is
also necessary to consider the effect of the wall alignment. The wave force on an upright wall with a concaved
alignment may be larger than that on an upright, straight wall of infinite length. Furthermore, if the front face of
upright wall is covered with a mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks, the characteristics of these blocks and
the crown height and width of the mound will affect the wave force.
(2) Types of Wave Force
The wave force acting on an upright wall can be classified according to the type of waves as a standing wave
force, a breaking wave force, or a wave force due to a broken wave. It is considered that the wave force changes

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

its type continuously with the variation in the offshore wave height. A standing wave force is produced by waves
whose height is small compared with the water depth, and the change in the wave pressure over time is gradual.
As the wave height increases, the wave force also increases. In general, the largest wave force is generated by
the waves breaking just a little off the upright wall. Accordingly, with the exception of very shallow water
conditions, the force exerted by waves breaking just in front of an upright wall is larger than the wave force by
higher waves that have already broken well. It is necessary to note that when breaking waves act on an upright
wall on a steep seabed, or on an upright wall set on a high mound (even if built on a gentle seabed), a very strong
impulsive breaking wave force may be generated.

5.2.2 Wave Forces of Standing and Breaking Waves

[1] Wave Force under Wave Crest (Notification Article 5, Clause 1, Number 1)
(1) Wave Pressure on the Front Face of an Upright Wall
Assuming a linear distribution of wave pressure with a maximum value p1 at the still water level, 0
at the height h* above the still water level, and p2 at the sea bottom, the wave pressure from the
bottom to the crown of the upright wall shall be calculated by the following equations:
h* = 0.75 ( 1 + cos b )l 1 H D (5.2.1)
p 1 = 0.5 ( 1 + cos b ) ( a 1 l 1 + a 2 l 2 cos 2 b )r 0 g H D (5.2.2)
p1
p 2 = ---------------------------------- (5.2.3)
cosh ( 2 p h ¤ L )
p3 = a3 p1 (5.2.4)
where
h*: height above still water level at which intensity of wave pressure is 0 (m)
p1: intensity of wave pressure at still water level (kN/m2)
p2: intensity of wave pressure at sea bottom (kN/m2)
p3: intensity of wave pressure at toe of upright wall (kN/m2)
r0: density of water (t/m3)
g: gravitational acceleration (m/s2)
b: angle between the line normal to the upright wall and the direction of wave approach.
The angle shall be reduced by 15º, but the resultant angle shall be no less than 0º. This
correction provides a safety margin against uncertainty in the wave direction.
l1, l2: wave pressure modification factors (1.0 is the standard value)
h: water depth in front of upright wall (m)
L: wavelength at water depth h used in calculation as specified in the item (3) below (m)
HD: wave height used in calculation as specified in the item (3) below (m)
2
1 ì 4 ph ¤ L ü
a 1 = 0.6 + --- í --------------------------------- ý (5.2.5)
2 î sinh ( 4 p h ¤ L ) þ

ì h b – d H D 2 2d ü
x 2 = min í æ --------------ö æ -------ö , ------- ý (5.2.6)
è ø è d ø HD
î 3h b þ
h¢ ì 1 ü
a 3 = 1 – ---- í 1 – ---------------------------------- ý (5.2.7)
hî cosh ( 2 p h ¤ L ) þ
where
hb: water depth at an offshore distance of 5 times the significant wave height from the
upright wall (m)
d: water depth at the crest of either the foot protection works or the mound armoring
units of whichever is higher (m)
h¢: water depth at toe of upright wall (m)
min {a,b}: smaller value of a or b
(2) Uplift beneath Upright Wall
The uplift acting on the bottom of an upright wall is described by a triangular distribution, with the
pressure intensity at the front toe pu given by the following equation and 0 at the rear toe.
p u = 0.5 ( 1 + cos b )a 1 a 3 l 3 r0 g H D (5.2.8)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

where
pu: uplift pressure acting at front toe of upright wall (kN/m2)
l3: uplift pressure modification factor (1.0 is the standard value)
(3) Wave Height and Wavelength Used in the Wave Pressure Calculation
The wave height HD and the wavelength L are the height and wavelength of the highest wave. The
wavelength of the highest wave is that corresponding to the significant wave period, while the
height of the highest wave is as follows:
(a) When the upright wall is located off the breaking zone:

678
HD = Hmax
(5.2.9)
Hmax = 1.8H1/3
where
Hmax: highest wave height of incident waves at the water depth at the upright wall (m)
H1/3: significant wave height of incident waves at the water depth at the upright wall (m)
(b) When the upright wall is located within the breaking zone:
HD is the maximum wave height considering the breaking of irregular waves (m)

[Commentary]
It is standard to calculate the maximum horizontal wave force acting on an upright wall and the simultaneous uplift
pressure using the extended Goda equation.
The extended Goda pressure formula is that proposed by Goda and modified to include the effects of wave
direction and others. Its single-equation formula enables to calculate the wave force from the standing to breaking
wave conditions without making any abrupt transition. However, where the upright wall is located on a steep seabed,
or built on a high mound, and is subjected to a strong impulsive wave pressure due to breaking waves, the formula
may underestimate the wave force. It should therefore be carefully applied with consideration of the possibility of
occurrence of impulsive wave pressure due to breaking waves (see 5.2.3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking
Waves).
The wave pressure given by the Goda formula takes the hydrostatic pressure at the still water condition as the
reference value. Any hydrostatic pressure difference between the offshore and onshore sides of the wall, if presents,
should be considered separately. Further, the equation is designed to examine the stability of the whole body of
vertical wall. When breaking wave actions exist, the equation does not necessarily express the local maximum wave
pressure at the respective positions; thus such should be considered during examination of the stress of structural
members.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Wave Pressure on the Front Face According to the Extended Goda Formula
Figure T- 5.2.1 illustrates the distribution of wave pressure acting on an upright section of a breakwater. The
correction to the incident wave angle b is exemplified in Fig. T- 5.2.2.

p
1

η*

hc

d
h' Buoyancy
h

p
u

p
2
p
3

Fig. T- 5.2.1 Wave Pressure Distribution Used in Design Calculation

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Normal Line to the alignment

v e
wa
n of
tio
c
ire
ld
ipa
inc
β 15

Pr
°

°
90
Fig. T- 5.2.2 Way of Obtaining the Incident Wave Angle b

(2) Highest Wave


In breakwater designs in general, it is necessary to evaluate the largest wave force that can be given by the Goda
formula using the highest wave. The appearance of the highest wave in an irregular wave group is probabilistic,
and so it is not possible to determine the highest wave explicitly. Nevertheless, after examination of the results
of applying the current method to breakwaters in the field, it has been made standard to use 1.8 times the
significant wave height as the height of the highest wave when the upright wall is located off the breaking zone.
It has also been made standard to use the wavelength corresponding to the significant wave period as the
wavelength of the highest wave.
In order to determine whether or not the highest wave is subject to wave breaking, the graphs for determining
the highest wave height (Fig. T- 4.5.15 (a)~(e) in 4.5.6 Wave Breaking) should be used by referring to the
location of the peak wave height in the zone in the onshore side of the 2% decay line. It is acceptable to consider
that the highest wave is not subject to wave breaking when the water is deeper than that at the peak height, but
that it is subject to wave breaking when the water is shallower than this. If the highest wave height is to be
obtained using the approximate equation (4.5.23) in 4.5.6 Wave Breaking, hb should be substituted as h in the
first term in the braces { } on the right-hand side of the equation.
If using a value other than 1.8 as the coefficient on the right-hand side of equation (5.2.9), it is necessary to
conduct sufficient investigations into the occurrence of the highest wave and then choose an appropriate value
(see 4.1.3 [2] Statistical Properties of Waves).
(3) Correction Factors l1, l2, l3
Equations (5.2.1) ~ (5.2.8) are the extended version of the Goda formula. It contains three correction factors so
that it can be applied to walls of different shapes and conditions. For an upright wall, the correction factors are of
course 1.0. The wave pressure acting on other types of wall such as a caisson covered with a mound of wave-
dissipating concrete blocks or a perforated-wall caisson may be expressed using the extended Goda formula with
appropriate correction factors (see 5.2.4 Wave Force on Upright Wall Covered with Wave-Dissipating
Concrete Blocks).
(4) Application of Other Theoretical and Calculation Equations
When the ratio of the wave height to the water depth is small and a standing wave force is obviously exerted on
a upright wall, a high-accuracy, standing wave theory may be applied. In this case, however, it is necessary to
give sufficient consideration to the irregularity of waves in the field, and to evaluate the force due to the highest
wave. Moreover, when the applicability can be verified based on past results for existing breakwaters, the
Sainflou formula 3) and the Hiroi formula may also be used for a design wave force calculation.
(5) Features and Application Limits of the Goda Formula
The first feature of the Goda formula is that the wave force from standing waves to breaking waves can be
evaluated continuously, including the effect of period. The parameter a1 given by equation (5.2.5) expresses the
effect of the period (strictly speaking h/L); it takes the limiting values of 1.1 for shallow water waves and 0.6 for
deepwater waves. The effect of period also appear when evaluating the maximum wave height to be used in the
calculation; for a constant deepwater wave height, the longer the period, the larger the maximum wave height in
the surf zone. Since the Goda formula incorporates the effect of period on the wave pressure as well as on the
maximum wave height, it is necessary to take sufficient care when determining the period in the design
conditions.
Another feature of the Goda formula is that the change in the wave force with the mound height and the
bottom slope is considered by means of the parameter a2. As can be seen from equation (5.2.6), as the mound
height is gradually increased from zero (i.e., d = h), a2 gradually increases from zero to its maximum value.
After reaching its maximum value, a2 then decreases until it reaches zero again when d = 0. The maximum
value of a2 is 1.1; combining this with the maximum value of a1 of 1.1, the intensity of the wave pressure p1 at
the still water level is given by 2.2r0gHD.
With regard to the effect of the bottom slope, hb within the equation for a2 is taken as the water depth at the
distance of 5 times the design significant wave height from the upright wall. Because of this artifice, a steep
bottom slope results in the same effect as having a high mound. The effect of the bottom slope also appear when
evaluating the maximum wave height to be used in the calculation. In the wave breaking zone, the steeper the
bottom slope, the larger the wave height, because the wave height used in the calculation is the maximum wave

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

height at the a distance 5H1/3 offshore from the upright wall. The bottom slope thus has a strong influence on the
wave force, and so care must be taken when setting the bottom slope in the design conditions.
As explained above, the Goda formula considers the effects of the mound height and the bottom slope on the
wave pressure. Nevertheless, for an upright wall on a high mound or a steep sea bed, a large impulsive breaking
wave force may act, and under such conditions the Goda formula may underestimate the wave force. When
applying the Goda formula, it is thus necessary to pay attention to the risk of an impulsive breaking wave force
arising. In particular, with a high mound, it is necessary to consider not only a2 in equation (5.2.6) but also the
impulsive breaking wave force coefficient aI by Takahashi et al. (see 5.2.3 Impulsive Pressure Due to
Breaking Waves), and to use aI in place of a2 when aI is the larger of the two.
One more problem with the Goda formula concerns its applicability to extremely shallow waters, for
example near to the shoreline. The Goda formula cannot be applied accurately for broken waves. It is difficult,
however, to clearly define where the limit of applicability lies. For cases such as the wave force acting on an
upright wall near the shoreline, it is advisable to use other calculation equations together with the Goda formula.
(see 5.2.7 Wave Force on Upright Wall near Shoreline or on Shore).
(6) Modification of the Original Goda Formula for Wave Direction
Although results from a number of experiments on the effect of wave direction on the wave force are available,
there are still many points that are unclear. Traditionally, for standing waves, no correction has been made for
wave direction to the wave force. The effects of wave direction have been considered only for breaking waves,
by multiplying the wave force by cos2b, where b is the angle between the direction of wave approach and the
line normal to upright wall alignment. However, this has resulted in the irrational situation whereby the breaking
wave force is assumed to decrease as the wave angle b increases, reaching zero at the limiting value b = 90º, and
yet standing waves are assumed to maintain as the perfect standing wave condition. One explanation is such that
because actual breakwaters are finite in extension, when the incident angle is large (i.e., oblique wave
incidence), it takes a considerably large distance from the tip of breakwater until the wave height becomes two
times the incident height. As b approaches to the limiting value of b = 90º, the distance to the place where the
wave height becomes two fold tends to go to infinity. In other words, in this case, it is appropriate to consider
that the wave pressure of progressive waves acts on the upright wall. Considering these points and application to
breakwaters in the field, it has been decided to correct equation (5.2.2) for wave direction by multiplying a2
(which represents mound effects) with cos2b, and then multiplying the whole term by 0.5(1+cosb).
(7) Wave Force and Significant Wave Period for Waves Composed of Two Groups of Different Periods
Examples of two wave groups of different periods being superimposed are such a case that waves enter a bay
from the outer sea and another group of waves are generated within the bay by local winds. Another case is the
superposition of diffracted waves coming from the entrance of a harbor and waves transmitted by means of
overtopping. In such cases, the spectrum is bimodal (i.e., having two peaks), and there are actual cases of such
observations in the field. Tanimoto et al. 4) carried out experiments on the wave force acting on the upright
section of a composite breakwater by using waves with a bimodal spectrum, and verified that the Goda formula
can be applied even in such a case. They also proposed a method for calculating the significant wave period to
be used in the wave force calculation (see 4.5.4 Wave Reflection). If each frequency spectrum of the two wave
groups before superimposition can be considered to be a Bretschneider-Mitsuyasu type, the significant wave
period after superimposition may be obtained using the method by Tanimoto et al. Then this significant wave
period may be used in wave force calculation.
(8) Wave Force for Low Crested Upright Wall
According to results of model experiments, the stability of upright wall tends to increase as the crown height is
reduced. Nakata and Terauchi have proposed a method for calculating the wave force for a breakwater with a
low crown height. In the method, the horizontal wave pressure and the uplift pressure from the Goda formula are
multiplied by a modification factor lh, thus reducing the wave force.
(9) Wave Force for High Crested Upright Wall
When the crown of the upright wall is considerably higher than that for a normal breakwater, there will be no
overtopping, meaning that the wave force may be larger than that given by the Goda formula. Mizuno and
Sugimoto carried out experiments into the wave force acting on a breakwater with a high crown.
(10) Wave Force on Inclined Walls
When the wall is slightly inclined, the horizontal wave force is more-or-less the same as that for a perfectly
upright wall. However, it is necessary to consider the vertical component of the wave force acting on the
inclined surface, along with the reduction in uplift pressure and others. Tanimoto and Kimura 5) have carried out
experiments on the wave force for trapezoidal caisson walls, and have proposed a method for calculating the
wave force. For a caisson in which the upper part of the upright section is inclined (sloping-top caisson), the
horizontal wave force is reduced not only for the sloping part but also for the vertical part. It is also necessary to
consider the vertical component of the wave force for the sloping part for stability analysis of breakwaters.
Morihira et al. were the first to propose a method for calculating the wave force in such a case. Hosoyamada et
al. have come up with a method that is based on the approach by Morihira et al., but the method by Hosoyamada
is more general and can be applied for a wider variety of sloping-top caissons (see Part VII, 3.2.4 Sloping-Top
Caisson Breakwater).

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(11) Uplift on a Caisson with a Footing


When a caisson has a footing, a wave force acts downwards on
the upper surface of the footing on the seaside, and an uplift
pressure of p¢u acts at the front toe, while the uplift pressure at the
rear toe is zero. Nevertheless, in general the resultant force is not
significantly different to that without the footing. It is thus
acceptable to ignore the footing, and to assume that the uplift
pressure has a triangular distribution as shown in Fig. T- 5.2.3,
with the uplift pressure pu at the front toe being given by equation
(5.2.8), and the uplift pressure at the rear toe being zero. If the
footing is extremely long, however, it is necessary to calculate the
uplift pressure appropriately, considering the change in the uplift Fig. T- 5.2.3 Uplift Pressure When
pressure p¢u at the front toe of the footing. There Is a Footing

(12) Wide Mound Berm in Front of the Upright Wall


The wave force acting on the upright wall of a composite breakwater varies not only with the mound height but
also with the berm width and the front slope of mound (see 5.2.3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves).
As explained, of these three factors, the Goda formula incorporates only the effect of the mound height.
Consequently, if the width and/or slope of the mound are considerably different from normal, it is advisable to
carry out studies using hydraulic model experiments. Note however that if the berm is sufficiently wide, it may
be considered as a part of the topography of the sea bottom. Even with the standard formula, if the width is more
than one half of the wavelength, it is thus standard to use the water depth on the mound for evaluation of both the
wave height and the wavelength to be used in the wave force calculation.
(13) Wave Force Acting on an Upright Wall Comprised of a Row of Vertical Cylinders
Nagai et al. and Hayashi et al. have carried out studies on the wave force acting on an upright wall comprised of
a row of cylinders (a pile breakwater). Through their researches, it has been verified that the wave force is not
greatly different from that acting on an upright wall with a flat face. It is thus acceptable to treat an upright wall
comprised of a row of cylinders as having a flat face and calculate the wave force using the Goda formula.

[2] Wave Force under Wave Trough (Notification Article 5, Clause 1, Number 2)
The negative wave force at the time of wave trough acting at a wall shall be calculated using either
appropriate hydraulic model experiments or an appropriate calculation formula.

[Commentary]
When the trough of a wave is acting at a wall, a negative wave force acts corresponding to the trough depth of the
water surface from the still water level. A “negative wave force” is the force directed seaward. It is necessary to note
that the negative wave force may be comparable in magnitude to a positive wave force when the water is deep and the
wavelength is short.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Negative Wave Pressure Distribution
The negative wave pressure acting on an upright wall at the wave trough can be approximately estimated as
shown in Fig. T- 5.2.4. Specifically, it can be assumed that a wave pressure acts toward the sea, with the
magnitude of this wave pressure being zero at the still water level and having a constant value of pn from a depth
0.5HD below the still water level right down to the toe of the wall. Here, pn is given as follows:
p n = 0.5r 0 gH D (5.2.10)
where
pn: intensity of wave pressure in constant Seaward Shoreward

region (kN/m2)
r0: density of seawater (usually 1.03 t/m3) 0.5 HD
g: gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2)
HD: wave height used in design calculation
(m)
In addition, the negative uplift pressure acting on the
bottom of the upright wall can be assumed to act as
shown in Fig. T- 5.2.4. Specifically, it can be
assumed that an uplift pressure acts downwards with
its intensity being pn (as given by equation (5.2.10)) T- 5.2.4 Negative Wave Pressure Distribution
at the front toe, zero at the rear toe, and having a
triangular distribution in-between. Incidentally, it is necessary to use the highest wave height as the wave height
HD used in the design calculation.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(2) Negative Wave Force by Finite Amplitude Wave Theory


Goda and Kakizaki 6) have carried out a wave force calculation based on the fourth order approximate solutions
of a finite amplitude standing wave theory, and presented calculation diagrams for negative wave pressure. It has
been verified that their calculation results agree well with experimental results. When the water is deep and
standing waves are clearly formed, it is acceptable to use the results of this finite amplitude standing wave
theory of higher order approximation. It should be noted that, for a deepwater breakwater, the negative wave
force at the wave trough may become larger than the positive wave force at the wave crest, and that the upright
wall may slide toward offshore.

5.2.3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves


(1) When it is apprehended that an impulsive pressure due to breaking waves may be generated, a study
including hydraulic model experiments shall be carried out as a general rule.
(2) It is desirable to avoid the adoption of cross-sectional forms and structure type that may induce the
generation of large impulsive pressure due to breaking waves. If a large impulsive pressure due to
breaking waves cannot be avoided, it is desirable to redesign the structure such that the wave force
will be reduced, for example by providing appropriate wave-absorbing works.

[Commentary]
An impulsive pressure is generated when the wave front of a breaking wave strikes a wall surface. It has been shown
from model experiments that under certain conditions the maximum wave pressure may rise as much as several tens
of times the hydrostatic pressure corresponding to the wave height (1.0r0 gHD). However, such a wave pressure acts
only locally and for a very short time, and even slight changes in conditions lead to marked reduction in the wave
pressure. Because of the impulsive nature of the wave force, the effects on stability and the stress in structural
elements vary according to the dynamic properties of the structure. Accordingly, when there is a risk of a large
impulsive pressure due to breaking waves being generated, it is necessary to take appropriate countermeasures by
understanding the conditions of the impulsive pressure generation and the wave force characteristics by means of
hydraulic model experiments.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Conditions of Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves
A whole variety of factors contribute to generation of an impulsive pressure due to breaking waves, and so it is
difficult to describe the conditions in general. Nevertheless, based on the results of a variety of experiments, it
can be said that an impulsive pressure is liable to occur in the following cases when the wave angle b is less than
20º.
(a) Steep bottom slope
When the three conditions (the bottom slope is steeper than about 1/30; there are waves that break slightly off
the upright wall; and their equivalent deepwater wave steepness is less than 0.03) are satisfied simultaneously,
then an impulsive pressure is liable to be generated.
(b) High mound
Even if the bottom slope is gentle, the shape of the rubble mound may cause an impulsive pressure to be
generated. In this case, in addition to the wave conditions, the crown height, the berm width and the slope
gradient of the mound all play a part, and so it is hard to determine the conditions under which such an
impulsive pressure will be generated. In general, an impulsive pressure will be generated when the mound is
relatively high, the berm width is suitably wide or the slope gradient is gentle, and breaking waves form a
vertical wall of water at the slope or at the top of the mound 7). When the seabed slope is gentler than about
1 ¤ 50 and the ratio of the depth of water above the top of the mound (including any armor work) to the water
depth above the seabed is greater than 0.6, it may be assumed that a large impulsive pressure will not be
generated.
(2) Countermeasures
If a large impulsive pressure due to breaking waves acts on an upright wall, the wave force can be greatly
reduced by sufficiently covering the front face with a mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks. In particular,
with a high mound, a sufficient covering with wave-dissipating concrete blocks can stop the occurrence of the
impulsive pressure itself. In some cases the action of an impulsive pressure can also be avoided by using special
caissons such as perforated-wall caissons or sloping-top caissons 7). The wave direction also has a large effect on
the occurrence of an impulsive pressure, and therefore, one possible countermeasure is to ensure that the wave
direction is not perpendicular to the breakwater alignment.
(3) Investigating Wave Force Using Model Experiments
When investigating the wave force using hydraulic model experiments for the case that an impulsive pressure
due to breaking wave acts, it is necessary to give consideration to the response characteristics of the structure to

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

the impact force. It is better to study the stability of the upright wall as a whole by sliding tests, and to study the
strength of structural elements such as parapets by stress and strain measurements.
(4) Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves Acting on an Upright Wall on a Steep Seabed.
(a) Water depth that produce a maximum wave pressure and the mean intensity of wave pressure
Mitsuyasu 8), Hom-ma et al., Morihira et al. 9), Goda and Haranaka 10), Horikawa and Noguchi, and Fujisaki
and Sasada have all carried out studies on the impulsive pressure due to breaking waves acting on an upright
wall on a steeply sloping sea bottom. In particular, Mitsuyasu carried out a wide range of experiments using
regular waves whereby he studied the breaking wave force acting on an upright wall on uniform slopes of
gradient 1/50, 1/25, and 1/15 for a variety of water depths. He investigated the change in the total wave force
with the water depth at the location of the upright wall, and obtained an equation for calculating the water
depth hM at the upright wall for which the impulsive wave force is largest. When the Mitsuyasu equation is
rewritten in terms of the deepwater wavelength, it becomes as follows:
hM H 0 –1 / 4
------ = C M æ ------ö (5.2.11)
H0 è L0 ø
where
CM = 0.59 – 3.2 tan q (5.2.12)
H0: deepwater wave height (m)
L0: deepwater wavelength (m)
tanq: gradient of uniform slope
Hom-ma, Horikawa and Hase have proposed a slightly different value for CM based on the results of
experiments with a gradient of 1/15 and other data. In any case, the impulsive wave pressure is largest when
the structure is located slightly shoreward of the wave breaking point for progressive waves.
Figure T- 5.2.5 shows the total wave force when the impulsive wave force is largest for a number of slope
gradients, as based on the results of Mitsuyasu’s experiments. In this figure, the mean intensity of the wave
pressure p has been obtained and then divided by r0gHD to make it dimensionless; it has then been plotted
against the deepwater wave steepness. It is possible to gain an understanding of the overall trend from this
figure. Specifically, it can be seen that the smaller the wave steepness, the larger the impulsive pressure is
generated. Also, as the slope gradient becomes smaller, the intensity of the maximum impulsive pressure
decreases.
(b) Conditions for generation of impulsive breaking wave pressure
The conditions for the occurrence of an
impulsive pressure on a steep seabed, as
described in (1) (a), have been set by prima-
rily employing Fig. T- 5.2.5 as a gross
guideline. For irregular waves in the sea,
the wave steepness can be evaluated as the
ratio of the equivalent deepwater wave
height corresponding to the highest wave
height Hmax to the deepwater wavelength
corresponding to the significant wave
period: the wave height Hmax is to be evalu-
ated at the distance 5H1/3 from the upright
wall. One may refer to Fig. T- 5.2.5 in
order to obtain an approximate estimate of
the mean intensity of the wave pressure for Fig. T- 5.2.5 Mean Intensity of Wave Pressure
this equivalent deepwater wave steepness. for the Severest Wave Breaking
In this case, Hb should be taken to be the (Upright Wall on a Steep Slope)
aforementioned Hmax.
One can also envisage an installation of a breakwater at a place where the risk of impulsive pressure
generation is not large for the design waves. However, when placing an upright wall closer to the shore where
waves already broken act upon, it becomes important to carry out investigations for waves with a height lesser
than that of the design waves.
(c) Impulsive wave force acting on an upright wall on a horizontal floor adjoining a steep slope
Takahashi et al. 11) have carried out studies on the impulsive wave pressure acting on an upright wall on a
horizontal floor that is joined to a steep slope. They employed a horizontal berm connected to a slope of
gradient 1/10 or 3/100 in a wave channel, and then measured the wave pressure that acts on an upright wall at
a variety of positions with regular waves. They have proposed an equation (valid for certain wave conditions)
for calculating the upright wall position at which the wave force is largest and the maximum wave force in that
condition.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(5) Impulsive Wave Pressure Acting on a Composite Breakwater


(a) Effect of the mound shape (impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient)
Takahashi et al. have proposed, based on the results of sliding experiments 7), the impulsive breaking wave
pressure coefficient aI. This is a coefficient that represents the extent of the impulsive pressure due to
breaking waves when the mound is high. It is expressed as the function of the ratio of the wave height to the
depth of water above the mound in front of the caisson H/d, the ratio of the depth of water above the mound to
the original water depth at the upright wall d/h, and the ratio of the berm width of the mound to the wavelength
at this place BM/L. Note that the wave height H is the design wave height (highest wave height).
The impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient aI is expressed as the product of aI0 and aI1 as in the
following equations:
a I = a I0 a I1 (5.2.13)

ìH ¤ d : H ¤ d ≦
£2
a I0 = í (5.2.14)
î2 : H¤d>2

Figure T- 5.2.6 shows the distribution of aI1. 1.0

It attains the maximum value of 1 when d/h


is 0.4 and BM /L is 0.12. The impulsive break-
ing wave pressure coefficient aI takes values α I1

between 0 and 2; the larger the value of aI, 0.8


0.1

the larger the impulsive breaking wave force 0.2

is. When calculating the wave force using 0.4


Goda’s formula, one should use aI in place of 0.6

a2 (equation (5.2.6)) if aI is larger than a2. 0.8


0.9
Note that equation (5.2.13) for aI has been 0.6

derived for the case of H/h being equal to h–d


0.60 or greater, based on the results of sliding h
experiments. This coefficient aI may be used
when examining the sliding of an upright 0.4

wall against the waves of relatively large 0.0

height.
BH
(b) Effect of the crown height of the upright wall 0.2 α = α α
The higher the crown height, the greater the I I0 I1

H:H
risk of an impulsive breaking wave force α = d d
< 2
= d
being generated. This is because the steep
I0
H
2 :
d > 2

front of a breaking wave often takes a nearly


vertical cliff of water above the still water 0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

level, and if there is an upright wall at this


BM
place, the impact of the wave front results in L
the generation of an impulsive force. For
example, Mizuno et al. have pointed out the Fig. T- 5.2.6 Impulsive Breaking Wave
tendency that, when the crown is high, an Pressure Coefficient aI1
impulsive breaking wave force is generated
even when the mound is relatively low.
(c) Effect of the wave direction
According to the results of the sliding experiments of Tanimoto et al. 7), even if conditions are such that a large
impulsive pressure is generated when the wave angle b is 0º, there is a rapid drop in the magnitude of the wave
force as b increases to 30º or 45º. By considering the fluctuation in the wave direction, it is reasonable to
assume that the condition for the generation of an impulsive wave force is that b is less than 20º.
(d) Dynamic response of the upright section to an impulsive force and the sliding of upright section
When an impulsive pressure due to breaking waves acts on an upright section, the instantaneous local pressure
can rise up to several tens of times the hydrostatic pressure corresponding to the wave height, although the
duration time of the impulsive pressure is very short. The impulsive peak pressures fluctuate significantly, but
the fluctuations in the impulse are not large. It is necessary to evaluate the contribution of the impulsive
breaking wave force to sliding in terms of the dynamic response, considering deformation of the mound and
the subsoil. Goda 12) as well as Takahashi and Shimosako, have carried out calculations of the shear force at
the bottom of an upright section using dynamic models. Judging by the results of these calculations and the
results of various sliding experiments, it would seem reasonable to take the mean intensity of the wave
pressure equivalent to the sliding shear force to be (2.5 ~ 3.0) r0gH. The impulsive breaking wave pressure
coefficient aI has been introduced, based on the results of sliding experiments with consideration of such
dynamic response effects.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

5.2.4 Wave Force on Upright Wall Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks
The wave force acting on an upright wall covered with a mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks shall
be evaluated based on hydraulic model experiments or an appropriate calculation equation, considering the
crown height and width of the wave-absorbing work as well as the characteristics of the wave-dissipating
concrete blocks.

[Commentary]
If the front face of an upright wall is covered with a mound of wave-dissipating precast concrete blocks, the features
of wave force acting on the wall are changed. The extent of this change depends on the characteristics of incident
waves, along with the crown height and width of the wave-absorbing work, the type of wave-dissipating concrete
blocks used, and the composition of the wave-absorbing work. In general, when nonbreaking waves act on an upright
wall, the change in wave force upon the upright wall covered with wave-dissipating blocks is not large. However,
when a large impulsive breaking wave force acts, the wave force can be reduced significantly by covering the upright
wall with a mound of wave-dissipating blocks. Nevertheless, such a reduction in the wave force is only achieved
when the wave-absorbing work has a sufficient width and crown height; in particular, it should be noted that if the top
of the wave-absorbing work is below the design water level, the wave-absorbing work often invites an increase in the
wave force.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Wave Force Calculation Formula for Upright Wall Sufficiently Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks
The wave force acting on an upright wall covered with a mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks varies
depending on the composition of the wave-absorbing work, and therefore it should be evaluated using the results
of model experiments corresponding to the design conditions. However, if the crown elevation of the wave-
absorbing work is as high as the top of the upright wall and the wave-dissipating concrete blocks are sufficiently
stable against the wave actions, the wave force acting on the upright wall may be calculated using the extended
Goda formula. In this method with the standard formula given in 5.2.2 Wave Forces of Standing and Breaking
Waves, the values of h*, p1, and pu given by equations (5.2.1), (5.2.2), and (5.2.8) are used respectively, but it is
necessary to assign appropriate values to the wave pressure modification factors l1, l2, and l3 in accordance
with the design conditions.
(2) Modification Factors for the Extended Goda Formula
The method using the extended Goda formula can be applied by assigning appropriate values to the modification
factors l1, l2, and l3. Studies have been carried out by Tanimoto et al. 13), Takahashi et al. 14), Sekino and
Kakuno, and Tanaka and Abe amongst others and have revealed the following:
(a) Wave-dissipating concrete blocks cause a considerable reduction in the breaking wave pressure, and so it is
generally acceptable to set the breaking wave pressure modification factor l2 to zero.
(b) The larger the wave height, the smaller the modification factor l1 for standing wave type pressure and the
modification factor l3 for uplift pressure become.
(c) The larger the ratio of the block mound width to the wavelength, the smaller the modification factors l1 and l3
become.
(d) If even a small portion of the upper part of the upright section is left uncovered, there is a risk of the wave
force here becoming an impulsive breaking force.
Based on such experimental results, Takahashi et al. 14) have summarized that in general, when the upright wall
is sufficiently covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks, the wave pressure reduction factor l2 may be
taken to be zero, while the values of l1 and l3 depend primarily on the wave height H (the highest wave height).
They have thus proposed the following equations:
678

1.0 : H/h ≦ 0.3


l1 = 1.2 - (2/3)(H/h) : 0.3 < H/h ≦ 0.6 (5.2.15)
0.8 : H/h > 0.6

l3 = l1 (5.2.16)
l2 = 0 (5.2.17)
In the breaker zone, where breakwaters covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks are generally used, the
above equations give l1 = l3 = 0.8.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

5.2.5 Effect of Alignment of Breakwater on Wave Force


In the case when the distribution of wave heights along the face line of a breakwater is not uniform, the
wave force shall be calculated by giving appropriate consideration to this aspect of wave height
distribution.

[Commentary]
When the extension of breakwater is not infinitely long, the distribution of the wave height along the face line of
breakwater becomes non-uniform due to the effects of wave reflection and diffraction. Ito and Tanimoto 16) have
pointed out that most damaged breakwaters having been struck by storm waves equivalent to design waves show a
pattern of meandering distribution of sliding distance (they have termed this “meandering damage”), and that one of
the causes of this type of damage is the differences in the local wave forces induced by the non-uniform wave height
distribution. The variation of wave heights along the breakwater is particularly prominent when the breakwater
alignment contains a corner that is concave with respect to the direction of wave incidence (see 4.5.4 [3]
Transformation of Waves at Concave Corners, near the Heads of Breakwaters, and around Detached Break-
waters).
Variations in wave heights along the breakwater alignment may also occur near the head of the breakwater. In
particular, for a detached breakwater that extends over a short length only, diffracted waves from the two ends may
cause large variations in wave heights 17).

[Technical Notes]
Wave force calculation methods that consider the effects of the shape of the breakwater alignment have not reached to
the level of reasonable reliability yet. It is thus desirable to carry out an investigation using hydraulic model
experiments. Nevertheless, there is a good correlation between the increase in the wave height owing to the shape of
the breakwater alignment and the increase in the wave force. It is thus acceptable to increase the wave height for the
design calculations in accordance with the extent of the effect of the shape of the breakwater alignment as in equation
(5.2.18), and then calculate the wave force based on the standard calculation formula.
HD¢ = min {KcHD, KcbHb} (5.2.18)
where
HD¢: wave height to be used in the wave force calculation in consideration of the effect of the shape of breakwater
alignment (m)
Kc: coefficient for the increase in wave height due to the effect of the shape of breakwater alignment; Kc ≧ 1.0
Kcb: limit value of the height increase coefficient for breaking limit waves; Kcb ≒ 1.4
HD: wave height used in the wave force calculation when the effects of the shape of breakwater alignment are
not considered (m)
Hb: breaking wave height at the offshore location with the distance of 5 times the significant height of
progressive waves from the upright wall (m)
The height increase coefficient Kc in equation (5.2.18) is generally expressed as in equation (5.2.19). It should be
appropriately determined based on the distribution of the standing wave height (see 4.5.4 [3] Transformation of
Waves at Concave Corners, near the Heads of Breakwaters, and around Detached Breakwaters) along the face
line of breakwater as determined under the condition that the waves do not break.
Kc = HS / {HI (1 + KR)} (5.2.19)
where
HS: standing wave height along the front wall of breakwater (m)
HI: incident wave height (m)
KR: reflection coefficient for the breakwater in question
If the waves are treated as being of regular trains, then the coefficient for wave height increase varies considerably
along the breakwater. Moreover, the height increase coefficient is very sensitive to the period of the incident waves
and the direction of incidence. It is thus reasonable to consider the irregularity of the period and the direction of
incident wave. It should be noted that the value of Kc obtained in this way varies along the breakwater and that there
may be regions where Kc < 1.0. However, the wave height to be used in design must not be less than the original
incident wave height.
The limit value Kcb of the height increase coefficient for breaking waves has not been clarified in details.
Nevertheless, it may be considered to be about 1.4 based on experimental results up to the present time.

5.2.6 Effect of Abrupt Change in Water Depth on Wave Force


For an upright wall located in a place where the water depth changes abruptly owing to the presence of
reefs and others, it is desirable to calculate the wave force acting on the upright wall based on hydraulic
model experiments, by taking the rapid transformation of waves into consideration.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

[Technical Notes]
Ito et al. 18) have carried out experiments on the wave force acting on an upright wall located on or behind a reef
where the water depth is more-or-less uniform, with the offshore slope of the shoal having a gradient of about 1/10.

5.2.7 Wave Force on Upright Wall near Shoreline or on Shore

[1] Wave Force at the Seaward Side of Shoreline


It is desirable to calculate the wave force acting on an upright wall in shallow water near the shoreline
based on hydraulic model experiments, considering the effects of water level changes due to surf beat etc.
and the complex processes of random wave breaking.

[Technical Notes]
A number of different wave force formulas have been proposed for upright walls near the shoreline and on shore. It is
necessary to carry out an appropriate wave force calculation in line with the design conditions. Very roughly
speaking, the standard formula in 5.2.2 Wave Forces of Standing and Breaking Waves are applicable in the regions
where the seabed slope is gentle and the water is relatively deep. The formula of Tominaga and Kutsumi is applicable
in the regions near the shoreline. The formula of Hom-ma, Horikawa and Hase is applicable in the regions where the
seabed slope is steep and the water is of intermediate depth.
When applying the standard wave pressure formula to the places where the water depth is less than one half the
equivalent deepwater wave height, it may be appropriate to use the values for the wavelength and wave height at the
water depth equal to one half the equivalent deepwater wave height in the calculation.

[2] Wave Force at the Landward Side of Shoreline


It is desirable to calculate the wave force on an upright wall situated on the landward side of the shoreline
based on hydraulic model experiments, considering increases in the water level due to surf beat and wave
setup as well as wave runup.

[Technical Notes]
For an upright wall situated on the landward side of the shoreline, the formulas by the US Army Coastal Engineering
Research Center (CERC) 19) are available. Moreover, one may refer to the research that has been carried out by
Tominaga and Kutsumi on the wave force acting on an upright wall situated on the landward side of the shoreline.

5.2.8 Wave Force on Upright Wave-Absorbing Caisson


The wave force acting on an upright wave-absorbing caisson shall be calculated based on hydraulic model
experiments or appropriate calculation formulas, considering changes in the wave force due to the
structure of the wave-absorbing compartment.

[Commentary]
The wave force acting on an upright wave-absorbing caisson (perforated-wall caisson etc.) varies in a complex way.
Specifically, it varies with the wave characteristics, the water level, the water depth, the topography of sea bottom and
the shape of the mound as with the case of a normal upright wall, but it also varies with the structure of the wave-
absorbing compartment. It is thus difficult to designate a general calculation method that can be used in all cases.
Consequently, if the calculation method that is sufficiently reliable for the structure in question has not been
proposed, it is necessary to carry out studies using hydraulic model experiments matched to the individual conditions.
It is necessary to sufficiently investigate not only the wave force to be used in the stability investigation but also the
wave force acting on structural members. Moreover, it should be noted that the wave force varies significantly
according to whether or not the top of wave chamber is covered with a ceiling slab.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Wave Force without a Ceiling Slab in the Wave Chamber
The wave force acting on an upright wave-absorbing caisson varies depending on the structural conditions of the
wave-absorbing compartment, and so it is not possible to calculate this wave force for all general cases involved.
Nevertheless, for the normal case where there is no ceiling slab in the wave chamber, one can use the extended
Goda formula to calculate the wave force, provided necessary modifications are made. Takahashi et al. 20) have
carried out experiments on a vertical-slit wall caisson, and have presented a method for calculating the wave
pressure acting on the slit and rear walls for four representative phases, whereby the wave pressure given by the
extended Goda formula is multiplied by a modification factor l for the vertical-slit wall caisson; they give
specific values for the modification factor for the slit and rear walls for each phase. This method can be used to

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

give not only the wave force that is severest in terms of the sliding or overturning of the caisson, but also the
wave force that is severest in terms of the design of the elements for each wall.
(2) Wave Force with a Ceiling Slab in the Wave Chamber
When the top of the wave chamber is closed off with provision of a ceiling slab, an impulsive pressure is
generated at the instant when the air layer in the upper part of the wave chamber is trapped in by the rise of water
surface. It is thus necessary to give consideration to this impulsive pressure in particular with regard to the wave
pressure used in design of structural elements. This impulsive pressure can be reduced by providing suitable air
holes. However, it should be noted that if these air holes are too large, the rising water surface will directly hit
the ceiling slab without air cushion, meaning that the wave force may actually increase 22), 23).

5.3 Mass of Armor Stones and Concrete Blocks


5.3.1 Armor Units on Slope (Notification Article 48, Clause 5)
It shall be standard to calculate the mass of rubble stones or concrete blocks necessary to cover the front
slope of a sloping structure that is subject to wave forces, by means of appropriate hydraulic model
experiments or the following equation:
rr H 3
M = ---------------------------
3
- (5.3.1)
NS ( S r – 1 ) 3
where
M: minimum mass of rubble stones or concrete blocks (t)
rr: density of rubble stones or concrete blocks (t/m3)
H: wave height used in the stability calculation (m)
NS: stability number
Sr: specific gravity of rubble stones or concrete blocks relative to sea water

[Commentary]
The armor layer for the slope of a rubble mound breakwater protects the rubble stones in the inside, and so it is
necessary to ensure that an armor unit has a mass sufficient to be stable against wave actions so that it does not scatter
itself. The mass required to produce such stability can be calculated using a suitable calculation formula. For
example, for the armor units on the slope of a rubble mound breakwater, the required mass was calculated in the past
by Hudson’s formula with an appropriate coefficient (KD value), but recently it has become common to use Hudson’s
formula with a stability number. The latter is more general in that it can also be applied to other cases, such as the
armor units on the mound of a composite breakwater.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Hudson’s Formula
The required mass of armor units on a slope can be expressed using the Hudson formula with a stability number
(this is also referred to as the generalized Hudson formula) 24) (see equation (5.3.1)).
(2) Stability Number and Nominal Diameter
The stability number directly corresponds to the necessary size (nominal diameter) of the armor stones or
concrete blocks for a given wave height. In other words, by introducing the nominal diameter Dn = (M/rr)1/3 and
the term D = Sr - 1 and substituting them into equation (5.3.1), the following relatively simple equation is
obtained:
H/(DDn) = NS (5.3.2)
It can be seen that the nominal diameter is proportional to the wave height with the constant of proportionality
being 1/DNS.
(3) Design Wave Height
The Hudson formula was proposed based on the results of experiments that used regular waves. When applying
it to the action of actual waves (which are irregular), there is thus a problem of which defcinition of wave heights
should be used. However, with structures that are made of rubble stones or concrete blocks, there is a tendency
for damage to occur not when one single wave having the maximum height H among an irregular wave train
attacks the armor layer, but rather for damage to progress gradually under the continuous action of waves of
various heights. Considering this fact and past experiences, it has been decided to make it standard to use the
significant wave height of incident waves at the place where the slope is located as the wave height H in
equation (5.3.1), because the significant wave height is representative of the overall scale of an irregular wave
train. Consequently, it is also standard to use the significant wave height when using the generalized Hudson
formula. Note however that for places where the water depth is less than one half the equivalent deepwater wave
height, the significant wave height at the water depth equal to one half the equivalent deepwater wave height
should be used.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(4) Parameters Affecting the Stability Number


As shown in equation (5.3.1), the required mass of armor stones or concrete blocks varies with the wave height
and the density of the armor units, and also the stability number NS. The NS value is a coefficient that represents
the effects of the characteristics of structure, those of armor units, wave characteristics and other factors on the
stability. The main factors that influence the NS value are as follows.
(a) Characteristics of the structure
① Type of structure (rubble mound breakwater, breakwater covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks,
composite breakwater, etc.)
② Gradient of the armored slope
③ Position of armor units (breakwater head, breakwater trunk, position relative to still water level, front face
and top of slope, back face, berm, etc.)
④ Crown height and width, and shape of superstructure
⑤ Inner layer (its coefficient of permeability, thickness, and degree of surface roughness)
(b) Characteristics of the armor units
① Shape of armor units (shape of armor stones or concrete blocks; for armor stones, their diameter
distribution)
② Placement of armor units (number of layers, regular laying or random placement, etc.)
③ Strength of armor material
(c) Wave characteristics
① Number of waves acting on armor layers
② Wave steepness
③ Form of sea bottom (bottom slope, existence of reef, etc.)
④ Ratio of wave height to water depth (as indices of nonbreaking or breaking wave condition, breaker type,
etc.)
⑤ Wave direction, wave spectrum, wave grouping characteristics
(d) Extent of damage (damage rate, damage level, relative damage)
Consequently, the NS value used in design must be determined appropriately based on hydraulic model
experiments in line with the respective design conditions. By comparing the results of regular wave experiments
with those of irregular wave experiments, it was found that the ratio of the height of regular waves to the
significant height of irregular waves that gave the same damage ratio (within the error of 10%) varied in the
range of 1.0 to 2.0 (depending on the conditions). In other words, there was a tendency for the irregular wave
action to be more destructive than the action of regular waves. It is thus better to employ irregular waves in
experiments.
(5) Stability number NS and KD value
In 1959, Hudson published the so-called Hudson formula 24), replacing the previous Iribarren-Hudson formula.
Hudson developed equation (5.3.1) by himself using K D cot a instead of NS, i.e.
N S3 = K D cot a (5.3.3)
where
a: angle of the slope from the horizontal line (º)
KD: constant determined primarily by the shape of the armor units and the damage ratio
The Hudson formula was based on the results of a wide range of model experiments and has proved itself well in
usage in the prototype design. In the past, this formula (i.e., the one using the KD value) has thus been used in the
calculation of the required mass of armor units on a slope.
However, the generalized Hudson formula that uses the stability number (equation (5.3.1)) has been used for
quite a while for calculating the required mass of armor units on the mound of a composite breakwater (to be
discussed later), and is also used for the armor units of other structures such as submerged breakwaters. It is thus
now more commonly used than the old formula with the KD value, and so the generalized Hudson formula with
the stability number can be considered as being the standard equation for calculating the required mass of armor
units on a slope.
The stability number NS can be derived from the KD value and the angle a of the slope from the horizontal
line by using equation (5.3.3.) There is no problem with this process if the KD value is an established one and the
slope angle is within a range of normal design. However, most of the KD values obtained up to the present time
have not sufficiently incorporated various factors like the characteristics of the structure and the waves. Thus,
this method of determining the stability number NS from the KD value cannot be guaranteed to yield economical
design always. In order to calculate more reasonable values for the required mass, it is thus desirable to use the
results of experiments matched to the conditions in question, or else to use calculation formulas (calculation
diagrams) that include the various relevant factors as described below.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(6) Van der Meer’s Formula for Armor Stones


In 1987, van der Meer carried out systematic experiments concerning the armor stones on the slope of a rubble
mound breakwater with a high crown. He proposed the following calculation formula for the stability number,
which considers not only the slope gradient, but also the wave steepness, the number of waves, and the damage
level 25). Note however that the following formula has been slightly altered in comparison with van der Meer’s
original one in order to make calculations easier. For example, the wave height H2% for which the probability of
exceedance is 2% has been replaced by H1/20.
NS = max {Nspl, Nssr} (5.3.4)
Nspl = 6.2CHP 0.18 (S 0.2 / N 0.1) Ir- 0.5 (5.3.5)
Nssr = CHP-0.13 (S 0.2 / N 0.1) (cota)0.5IrP (5.3.6)
where
Nspl: stability number for plunging breakers
Nssr: stability number for surging breaker
Ir: Iribarren number (tan a/Som0.5) (also called the surf similarity parameter)
Som: wave steepness (H1/3/L0)
L0: deepwater wavelength (L0 = gT1/32/2p, g = 9.81m/s2)
T1/3: significant wave period
CH: modification factor due to wave breaking [=1.4 / (H1/20/H1/3) ]
(=1.0 in the region where wave breaking does not occur)
H1/3: significant wave height
H1/20: highest one-twentieth wave height (see Fig. T- 5.3.1)
a: angle of slope from the horizontal line (º)
Dn50: nominal diameter of armor stone (=(M50/rr)1/3)
M50: 50% value of the mass distribution curve of an armor stone (required mass of an armor stone)
P: permeability coefficient of the inner layer (see Fig. T- 5.3.2)
S: deformation level (S = A / Dn502) (see Table T- 5.3.1)
A: erosion area of cross section (see Fig. T- 5.3.3)
N: number of waves (in storm duration)
The wave height H1/20 in Fig. T- 5.3.1 is for a point at a distance 5H1/3 from the breakwater, and H0’ is the
equivalent deepwater wave height.
The deformation level S is an index that represents the amount of deformation of the armor stones, and it is a
kind of damage ratio. It is defined as the result of the area A eroded by waves (see Fig. T- 5.3.3) being divided
by the square of the nominal diameter Dn50 of the armor stones. As shown in Table T- 5.3.1, three stages are
defined with regard to the deformation level of the armor stones: initial damage, intermediate damage, and
failure. With the standard design, it is common to use the deformation level for initial damage for N = 1000
waves. However, with design where a certain amount of deformation is permitted, usage of the value for
intermediate damage can also be envisaged.
Table T- 5.3.1 Deformation Level S for Each Failure Stage for a Two-layered Armor

Slope Initial damage Intermediate damage Failure


1 : 1.5 2 3~5 8
1:2 2 4~6 8
1:3 2 6~9 12
1:4 3 8 ~12 17
1:6 3 8 ~12 17

(7) Stability Number for Armor Concrete Units of Rubble Mound Breakwater
Van der Meer has carried out model experiments on several kinds of precast concrete blocks, and proposed the
formulas for calculating the stability number NS 26). In addition, other people are also proceeding with research
into establishing calculation formulas for precast concrete blocks. For example, Burcharth and Liu 27) have
proposed a calculation formula. However, it should be noted that these are based on the results of experiments
for a rubble mound breakwater with a high crown.
(8) Stability Number for Concrete Units of the Wave-Dissipating Block Mound in Front of Upright Walls (horizontally-
composite breakwater)
The wave-dissipating concrete block mound of a horizontally-composite breakwater may have various cross-
sectional forms. In particular, when all the front face of an upright wall is covered by wave-dissipating concrete
blocks, the stability is higher than for the normal case of armor concrete units covering a rubble mound
breakwater because the permeability is high. In Japan, much research has been carried out on the stability of
breakwaters covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks. For example, Tanimoto et al. 28), Kajima et al., and
Hanzawa et al. have carried out systematic research on the stability of wave-absorbing concrete blocks. In
addition, Takahashi et al. 29) have proposed the following equation for wave-dissipating concrete blocks that are
randomly placed in the mound covering the whole of upright wall.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Sea Bottom slope 1/100

Sea Bottom slope 1/50

Sea Bottom slope 1/30

H0′/L0

H0′ : Equivalent deepwater

wave height

h/H0¢
Fig. T- 5.3.1 Ratio of H1/20 to H1/3 (H1/20 Values are at
a Distance 5H1/3 from the Breakwater)

layer
er able yer
Armor lay Imperme or la
Arm ter layer
Fil
Filter layer

Area of eroded part

r Fig. T- 5.3.3 Erosion Area A


r laye r laye
r
Armo Core Armo No filter, no core
Nominal diameter of armor stones
Nominal diameter of filter material
Nominal diameter of core material

Fig. T- 5.3.2 Permeability Coefficient P

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

N S = C H { a ( N 0 ¤ N 0.5 ) 0.2 + b } (5.3.7)


where
N0: relative damage (a kind of damage ratio that represents the extent of damage: it is defined as the
number of concrete blocks that have moved within a width Dn in the direction of the breakwater
alignment, where Dn is the nominal diameter of the concrete blocks: Dn = (M/rr)1/3, where M is the
mass of a concrete block)
CH: modification factor due to wave breaking; CH = 1.4 / (H1/20 / H1/3) (in the region where wave breaking
does not occur, H1/20 / H1/3 = 1.4, and so CH = 1.0)
a, b: coefficients that depend on the shape of the concrete blocks and the slope angle (for concrete blocks
with the KD value of 8.3, a = 2.32 and b = 1.33, if cot a = 4/3; a = 2.32 and b = 1.42, if cot a = 1.5)
Takahashi et al. 29) have further presented a method for calculating the cumulative relative damage (the expected
relative damage) over the lifetime of a breakwater. In the future, reliability design methods that consider the
expected relative damage will become important in the advanced design methodology.
In the region where wave breaking does not occur, if the number of waves is 1000 and the relative damage
N0 is 0.3, the design mass as calculated using the method of Takahashi et al. is more-or-less the same as that
calculated using the KD value in the past. The value of N0 = 0.3 corresponds to the conventionally-used damage
ratio of 1%.
(9) Breakwater Head
Waves attack the head of a breakwater from a whole angle of directions, and there is a greater risk of the armor
units on the top of the slope falling not so much forward but rather toward the rear side. Stones or concrete
blocks to be used at the head of a breakwater must thus have a mass greater than the value given by equation
(5.3.1). Hudson suggested to raise the mass by 10% in the case of stones and 30% in the case of concrete blocks.
However, it is thought to be insufficient. It would be desirable to use the mass at least 1.5 times the value given
by equation (5.3.1) for both stones and concrete blocks.
(10) Submerged Armor Units
Since the action of waves on a rubble mound breakwater is weaker midwater than around the waterline, stones
or concrete blocks of reduced mass may be used at depths more than 1.5H1/3 below the still water level.
(11) Effect of Wave Direction
The extent to which the incident wave angle affects the stability of the armor stones has not been investigated
sufficiently. Nevertheless, according to the results of experiments carried out by van de Kreeke 30) in which the
wave angle was changed between 0º (i.e., direction of incidence is perpendicular to the breakwater alignment),
30º, 45º, 60º and 90º, the damage ratio for a wave direction of 45º or smaller is more-or-less the same as that
when the wave direction is 0º; when the wave direction is more than 60º, the damage ratio drops. Based on these
results, it is considered that when the wave angle b (see Fig. T- 5.2.2 in 5.2.2 [1] Wave Force under Wave
Crest) is 45º or less, the minimum mass should not be corrected for wave direction. Moreover, Christensen et
al. 31) have shown that the stability increases when the directional spreading of random waves is large.
(12) Integrity of Concrete Blocks
With a precast concrete block, it is necessary not only to ensure that the block has a mass sufficient to be stable
against the design waves, but also to confirm that the block itself has sufficient structural strength.
(13) Armor Units in Reef Area
In general, a reef rises up at a steep slope from the relatively deep sea, and forms a relatively flat and shallow sea
bottom. Consequently, when a large wave arrives at such a reef, it breaks around the tip of the reef, and then the
regenerated waves propagate over the reef in the form of surge. The characteristics of waves over a reef are
strongly dependent on not only the incident wave conditions but also the water depth over the reef and the
distance from the tip of the reef. The stability of wave-dissipating concrete blocks situated on a reef also varies
greatly for the same reasons, making the situation more complicated than that in general cases. The stability of
wave-dissipating concrete blocks situated on a reef must thus be investigated based either on model experiments
matching the conditions in question or on field experiences for sites having similar conditions.
(14) Armor Units of Low Crest Breakwater
For a rubble mound breakwater with a low crown, it is necessary to note that the concrete blocks around its
crown (in particular on the shoreward side) are easily damaged. For example, for detached breakwater composed
of wave-dissipating concrete blocks, unlike a caisson breakwater covered with wave-dissipating concrete
blocks, there is no supporting wall at the back and the crown is not high. This means that the concrete blocks
near the crown (in particular at the rear) are easily damaged, and indeed such cases of block damage have been
reported.
(15) Effect of Steep Slope Bed
When the bottom slope is steep and waves break in plunging form, a large wave force may act on concrete
blocks, subject to their shapes. It is thus necessary to carry out appropriate investigations while considering the
possibility of large wave force (see Takeda et al.).

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(16) High-density Blocks


The minimum mass of blocks that are made of high-density aggregate may also be determined using the Hudson
formula with the stability number (equation (5.3.1)). As shown by the equation, high-density blocks have a high
stability, so a stable armor layer can be made using relatively small blocks of high density.
(17) Effect of Placement
The stability of wave-dissipating concrete blocks also varies with the method of placement (random placement
or regular placement etc.). According to the results of experiments carried out to compare the random placement
over the whole cross section and that of regular two-layer placement upon a stone core, the stability of the
regular placement with well-interlocking was markedly improved for most of the cases tested. Moreover, the
stability is also affected by the crown height and width of the mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks.
According to the results of a number of experiments, for example, there is a tendency of greater stability when
the crown is high and wide.
(18) Standard Method of Hydraulic Model Experiments
The stability of concrete blocks is influenced by a very large number of factors, and so it has still not been
sufficiently elucidated. This means that it is necessary to carry out studies using model experiments for the
design of prototype breakwaters, and it is needed to progressively accumulate the results of such experiments.
The following points should be noted when carrying out studies using model experiments.
(a) It is standard to carry out experiments using irregular waves.
(b) For each particular set of conditions, the experiment should be repeated at least three times (i.e., with three
different wave trains). However, when experiments are carried out by systematically varying the mass and
other factors and a large amount of data can be acquired, one run for each test condition will suffice.
(c) It is standard to study the action of 1000 waves in total of three runs for each wave height level. Even for the
systematic experiments, it is desirable to apply more than 500 waves or so.
(d) For the description of the extent of damage, in addition to the damage ratio which has been commonly used in
the past, the deformation level or the degree of damage may also be used. The deformation level is suitable
when it is difficult to count the number of armor stones or concrete blocks that have moved, while the degree
of damage is suitable when one wishes to represent the damage to wave-dissipating concrete blocks. The
damage ratio is the ratio of the number of damaged armor units in an inspection area to the total number of
armor units in the same inspection area. The inspection area is taken from the elevation of wave runup to the
depth of 1.5H below the still water level or to the bottom elevation of the armor layer (take a shallower depth),
where the wave height H is inversely derived from the Hudson formula with the mass of armor units as the
input. However, for the deformation level and the degree of damage, there is no need to define the inspection
area. For evaluating the damage ratio, an armor unit is judged to be damaged if it has moved over a distance of
more than about 1/2 to 1.0 times its height.

5.3.2 Armor Units on Foundation Mound of Composite Breakwater (Notification Article 48, Clause 5)
It shall be standard to calculate the mass of armor stones or concrete blocks for the foundation mound of a
composite breakwater, by means of appropriate hydraulic model experiments or the following equation:
rr H3
M = ---------------------------
3
- (5.3.1)
NS ( S r – 1 ) 3
where
M: minimum mass of rubble stones or concrete blocks (t)
rr: density of rubble stones or concrete blocks (t/m3)
H: wave height used in the stability calculation (m)
NS : stability number
Sr: specific gravity of rubble stones or concrete blocks relative to sea water

[Commentary]
The mass required for an armor unit covering the foundation mound of a composite breakwater varies according to
the wave characteristics, the water depth, the shape of the mound (thickness, berm width, slope angle, etc.), and the
type of armor unit, its placement method, and its position (breakwater head, breakwater trunk, etc.). In particular, the
effects of the wave characteristics and the mound shape are more pronounced than those in the case of the armor units
covering the surface of sloped breakwater in 5.3.1 Armor Units on Slope. It is thus necessary to appropriately
determine the mass, considering the results of past studies, research, and actual experience in the field, and carrying
out model experiments if necessary. Moreover, it is necessary to take sufficient heed of the effects of wave
irregularity.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Note however that the stability of the armor units covering the foundation mound of a composite breakwater is not
necessarily determined purely by their sizes. Depending on the structure and the layout of armor units, it may be
possible to achieve stability even when the armor units are relatively small.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Generalized Hudson’s Formula for Calculating the Required Mass
Similarly with the stable mass of armor units on a slope, the required mass of armor units covering the
foundation mound of a composite breakwater can be calculated using the generalized Hudson formula (the
Hudson formula with the stability number), i.e., equation (5.3.1). Ever since Brebner and Donnelly 32) used it as
the basic equation for calculating the required mass of the armor stones of the rubble mound for an upright wall,
the generalized Hudson formula has been used widely, and in Japan it is also known as the Brebner-Donnelly
formula. Because it has a certain degree of validity even from a theoretical standpoint, the generalized Hudson
formula may also be used as the basic formula for calculating the minimum mass of armor units for the
breakwater mound 33). Note however that the stability number NS varies not only with the water depth, the wave
characteristics, the shape of the mound, and the characteristics of the armor units, but also with their position of
the placement (breakwater trunk, breakwater head, etc.). It is thus necessary to assign the stability number NS
appropriately through model experiments corresponding to the design conditions. Moreover, the wave height
used in the design calculation is generally the significant wave height, and the waves used in the model
experiments should be irregular.
(2) Stability Number for Armor Stones
The stability number NS can be determined using the method of Inagaki and Katayama 34), which is based upon
the work of Brebner and Donnelly and past experience of damage. However, the following formulas by
Tanimoto et al. 33) are based on the flow velocity near the mound and allow the incorporation of a variety of
conditions, and they have been extended by Takahashi, Kimura, and Tanimoto 35) to include the effects of wave
direction. The extended Tanimoto formulas have thus been made the standard formulas.
(a) Extended Tanimoto formulas

ì 1 – k h¢ ( 1 – k ) 2 h¢ ü
N S = max í 1.8, 1.3 -----------
/
- ------------ + 1.8 exp – 1.5 ------------------
- ------------ ý : B M ¤ L¢ < 0.25 (5.3.8)
î k 1 3 H 1¤3 k 1 / 3 H1 ¤ 3 þ
k = k 1 ( k 2 )B (5.3.9)
4ph¢ ¤ L¢
k 1 = ------------------------------------ (5.3.10)
sinh ( 4ph¢ ¤ L¢ )
( k 2 )B = max { a s sin 2 b cos 2 ( 2p l cos b ¤ L¢ ), cos 2 b sin 2 ( 2p l cos b ¤ L¢ ) }
s a (5.3.11)
where
h¢: water depth on top of rubble mound foundation (excluding the armor layer) (m) (see Fig. T- 5.3.4)
l: in the case of normal wave incidence, the berm width BM (m)
In the case of oblique wave incidence, either BM or BM¢, whichever gives the larger value of (k2)B
(see Fig. T- 5.3.4)
L: wavelength corresponding to the design significant wave period at the water depth h¢ (m)
as: correction factor for when the armor layer is horizontal (= 0.45)
b: incident wave angle (see Fig. T- 5.3.5)
H1/3: design significant wave height (m)
The validity of the above formulas have been verified for the breakwater trunk for oblique wave incidence
with an angle of incidence of up to 60º.
Seaward Shoreward
h
C
Upright section

BM

d '
BM

h'
Foot protection blocks Foot protection blocks
h

Armor material Rubble mound Armor material

Fig. T- 5.3.4 Standard Cross Section of a Composite Breakwater and Notations

(b) Stability Number When a Certain Amount of Damage is Permitted


Sudo et al. have carried out stability experiments for the special case such that the mound is low and no wave
breaking occurs. They investigated the relationship between the number of waves N and the damage ratio, and
proposed the following equation that gives the stability number NS* for any given number of waves N and any
given damage ratio DN (%).

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

N S * = N S [ D N ¤ exp { 0.3 ( 1 – 500 ¤ N ) } ] 0.25 (5.3.12)


where NS is the stability number given by the Tanimoto formula when N = 500 and the damage ratio is 1%. In
design it is necessary to take N = 1000 considering the progress of damage, while the damage ratio 3% to 5%
can be allowed for a 2-layer armoring. If N = 1000 and DN = 5%, then NS* = 1.44NS. This means that the
required mass decreases to about 1/3 of that required for N = 500 and DN = 1%.
(3) Stability Number for Concrete Units
The stability number NS for concrete blocks varies according to the
shape of the block and the method of placement. It is thus desirable
to evaluate the stability number by means of hydraulic model Breakwater head
experiments. When carrying out such experiments, it is best to
employ irregular waves.
(4) Conditions for Applying the Stability Number for Armor Stones on

nk
tru
Foundation Mound

r
ate
When the water above the armor units covering a mound is shallow,

w
eak
wave breaking often causes the armor stones to become unstable. It

Br
is thus appropriate to use the stability number for armor stones on a
mound only when h¢/H1/3 ≧ 1: when h¢/H1/3<1, it is better to use the
stability number for armor stones on a slope of mound breakwater.
The validity of the stability number for armor stones in the
Tanimoto formulas has not been verified experimentally for when
h’/H1/3 is small: when h’/H1/3 is about 1 or less, it is thus desirable
to examine the validity using hydraulic model experiments.
(5) Armor Layer Thickness Fig. T- 5.3.5 Shape of the Breakwater
It is standard to use two layers of armor stones. However, it is Alignment and Effects of
acceptable to use only one layer, provided that consideration is Wave Direction
given to past experiences of breakwaters. In this case, one could
think of compensating the use of one layer only by setting the damage ratio in the aforementioned equation
(5.3.12) to a low value of DN = 1% for N =1000 acting waves. For concrete armor blocks, it is rather standard to
use one layer, although two layers may be laid if the shape of the blocks is favorable for two layer placement and
the design wave conditions are severe.
(6) Armor Units for Breakwater Head
At the head of a breakwater, strong currents occur locally near the corners at the edge of the upright section,
meaning that the armor units become liable to move. It is thus necessary to verify the extent to which the mass of
armor units should be increased at the breakwater head by carrying out hydraulic model experiments. If
hydraulic model experiments are not carried out, it is standard to increase the mass to at least 1.5 times that at the
breakwater trunk.
The mass of the armor stones at the breakwater head can also be calculated using the extended Tanimoto
formula. Specifically, for the breakwater head, the flow velocity parameter k in equation (5.3.9) should be
rewritten as follows:
k = k 1 (k 2)T (5.3.13)
(k2)T = 0.22 (5.3.14)
Note however that if the calculated mass turns out to be less than 1.5 times that for the breakwater trunk, it is
advisable to set it to 1.5 times that for the breakwater trunk.

5.4 Wave Forces Acting on Cylindrical Members and Large Isolated Structures
5.4.1 Wave Force on Cylindrical Members
The wave force acting on an cylindrical member can be calculated as the sum of a drag force that is
proportional to the square of the water particle velocity under waves and an inertia force that is
proportional to the water particle acceleration.

[Commentary]
Structural members such as piles that have a small diameter relative to the wavelength hardly disturb the propagation
of waves. The wave force acting on such members can be obtained using the Morison equation, in which the wave
force is expressed as the sum of a drag force that is proportional to the square of the velocity of the water particles and
an inertia force that is proportional to the acceleration. Note however that with the Morison equation, it is necessary
to assign accurate values to the water particle velocity and acceleration of the waves, as well as to the wave surface
elevation. It is also necessary to appropriately evaluate the drag coefficient and the inertia coefficient by means of
model experiments or field measurement results. It should further be noted that the impact of the wave front may

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

generate an impulsive wave force if the member is located near to the still water level or if breaking waves hit the
member, and that a lift force may act upon it, depending on the shape and position of the member.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Morison’s Equation
The wave force acting on a structural member is calculated based on the following equation:
1
fun = --- C D r 0 u n u n DDS + C M r 0 aun ADS
2 (5.4.1)
where
uf: force that acts on a small length DS (m) in the axial direction of the member, where the direction of
n
this force lies in the plane containing the member axis and the direction of motion of the water
particles and is perpendicular to the member axis (kN)
u n: components of the water particle velocity (m/s) and acceleration (m/s2), respectively, in the direction
u n, a
perpendicular to the member axis that lies within the plane containing the member axis and the
direction of motion of the water particles (i.e., the same direction as ufn) (these components are for
incident waves that are not disturbed by the presence of member)
u n : absolute value of u n (m/s)
CD: drag coefficient
CM: inertia coefficient
D: width of the member in the direction perpendicular to the member axis as viewed from the direction
of ufn (m)
A: cross-sectional area of the member along a plane perpendicular to member axis (m2)
r0: density of seawater (normally 1.03 t/m3)
Equation (5.4.1) is a generalized form of the equation presented by Morison et al. 36), to give the wave force
acting on a section of a very small length DS of a member orientated in any given direction. The arrows on top of
symbols indicate that the force, velocity and acceleration are the components in the direction perpendicular to
the member. The first term on the right-hand side represents the drag force, while the second term represents the
inertia force. The water particle velocity and acceleration components in the equation both vary in time and
space. It is necessary to take sufficient heed of these variations, and to investigate the distribution of the wave
force that is severest to the member or structure in question.
(2) Water Particle Velocity and Acceleration Components
The components of water particle velocity and acceleration u n and a u n in equation (5.4.1) represent those of the
water particle motion at the center of the member. These components are in the direction perpendicular to the
member axis, and are evaluated under the assumption that waves are not disturbed by the presence of the
structure in question. When calculating the wave force, it is necessary to estimate these components as accurate
as possible, based on either experimental dater or theoretical prediction. In particular, the water particle velocity
component contributes to the wave force with its second power, meaning that when the wave height is large, an
approximation using small amplitude wave theory becomes insufficient to yield reliable estimate. Moreover,
when the member extends above the mean water level, it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the
range over which the wave force acts, i.e., the elevation of wave crest. When evaluating these terms using
theoretical values, it is desirable to use the finite amplitude wave theory that agrees with the characteristics of
the design waves, based on 4.1.3 Properties of Waves. Note also that it is necessary to take full account of wave
irregularity with regard to the wave height and period used in the wave force calculation, and to study the wave
characteristics that are severest to the safety of member or structure in question. In general, the highest wave
height and the significant wave period should be used in the analysis for rigid structures.
(3) Drag Coefficient
In general, the drag coefficient for steady flow can be used as the drag coefficient CD for wave force. Note
however that the drag coefficient varies with the shape of the member, the surface roughness, the Reynolds
number Re, and the separation distance between neighboring members. It also varies with the Keulegan-
Carpenter number (KC number) because the flow is of oscillating nature. It is necessary to consider these
conditions when setting the value of drag coefficient. For a circular cylindrical member, it is standard to set CD =
1.0 if the finite amplitude properties of the waves are fully evaluated. For an unmanned structure, a lower value
may be used if its value is based on the results of model experiments matched to the conditions. Even in this
case, however, CD should not be set below 0.7. Note also that when estimating the water particle velocity by
means of an approximate equation, it is necessary to use a value for the drag coefficient that has been adjusted
for the estimation error in the water particle velocity
(4) Inertia Coefficient
The calculated value by the small amplitude wave theory may be used for the inertia coefficient CM. Note,
however, that the inertia coefficient varies with the shape of the member and other factors such as the Reynolds
number, the KC number, the surface roughness, and the separation distance between neighboring members. It is
thus necessary to set the value of the inertia coefficient appropriately in line with the given conditions. For a

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

circular cylindrical member, CM = 2.0 may be used as a standard value, provided the diameter of the member is
no more than 1/10 of the wavelength.
(5) Lift Force
In addition to the drag and inertia forces of equation (5.4.1), the lift force acts on an underwater member in the
direction perpendicular to the plane containing the member axis and the direction of the water particle motion. In
general, it is acceptable to ignore this lift force, but it is necessary to take heed of the fact that the lift force may
become a problem for horizontal members that are placed near to the seabed. Moreover, for long and thin
members, it is necessary to take heed of the fact that the lift force may induce vibrations.
(6) Standard Value for Drag Coefficient
When the water particle velocity can be calculated accurately, the value of drag coefficient for steady flow such
as those listed in Table T- 7.2.1 in 7.2 Current Forces Acting on Submerged Members and Structures may
be used.
(7) Standard Value for Inertia Coefficient
When the diameter of the object in question is no more than 1/10 of the wavelength, it is standard to use the
value listed in Table T- 5.4.1 for the inertia coefficient CM. However, when estimating the water particle
acceleration by means of an approximate equation, it is necessary to adjust the value of CM for the error in the
estimate of water particle acceleration. The value of inertia coefficient shown here is mostly from the study by
Stelson and Mavis 40). According to the experiments of Hamada and et al., the inertia coefficient for a cube under
waves is in the range of 1.4 to 2.3.

Table T- 5.4.1 Inertia Coefficient

Shape Reference volume Inertia coefficient

Circular cylinder
πD2 2.0 D
4
D

Square-based
prism
D2 2.19 D
D
D

D
Cube D3 1.67
D D

πD 3 1.5
Sphere D
6

D/ =1 0.61
πD2
Flat plate
4 D/ =2 0.85

D D/ = 1.0

(8) Experimental Values for Drag Coefficient and Inertia Coefficient of Circular Cylinder
There are many experimental values for the drag coefficient and inertia coefficient of a vertical circular cylinder;
for example, those of Keulegan and Carpenter 41), Sarpkaya 42), 43), 44), Goda 45), Yamaguchi, Nakamura,
Chakrabarti 46), 47), and Koderayama and Tashiro. There are much variations between these values. However,
there is not sufficient data in the region of high Reynolds number, which is experienced in actual design. Oda
has produced a summary of these researches which may be referred to.

5.4.2 Wave Force on Large Isolated Structure


The wave force acting on a large isolated structure built in the sea shall be calculated using an appropriate
numerical calculation or hydraulic model experiments, considering the size of the structure and the cross-
sectional form.

[Commentary]
The wave force acting on a large isolated structure whose dimensions are comparable to the wavelength can be
calculated using the velocity potential, because it is generally possible to ignore the drag force. In particular, for
structures of a simple shape, analytical solutions obtained by means of diffraction theory are available. However, it is
necessary to calculate the breaking wave force by means of hydraulic model experiments if there is a possibility of
breaking wave force exerted on structure.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

[Technical Notes]
(1) Diffraction Theory
MacCamy and Fuchs 59) have determined the velocity potential of waves around an upright circular cylinder of
large diameter using diffraction theory, and calculated the wave force from the water pressure distribution at the
surface of cylinder. Goda and Yoshimura 60) have applied diffraction theory to an upright elliptic cylinder, and
presented their results in terms of the inertia coefficient CM. Yamaguchi has investigated the effect of the wave
nonlinearity on the wave force acting on an upright circular cylinder of large diameter by means of nonlinear
diffraction theory, and pointed out that it is necessary to consider these effects when the water is shallow.
(2) Isolated Structure of Arbitrary Shape
For a structure that is complex in shape, it is difficult to obtain the wave force analytically, and so it is necessary
to carry out a numerical calculation. Various methods are available, such as integral equation methods.

5.5 Wave Force Acting on Structure Located near the Still Water Level
5.5.1 Uplift Acting on Horizontal Plate near the Still Water Level
For a horizontal plate located near the still water level, an impact wave force may act on the bottom face of
the plate (this wave force is hereafter referred to as the uplift), depending on the wave conditions and the
structural form of the plate. When there exists such a risk, the impulsive uplift shall be evaluated by means
of an appropriate method including hydraulic model experiments etc.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Characteristics of Impulsive Uplift
If the bottom face of the plate is flat, the impulsive uplift acting on a horizontal plate near the still water level
varies with the impact (uprising) velocity of the wave surface and the angle between the wave surface and the
plate. As shown in Fig. T- 5.5.1 (a), when there is an angle between the wave surface and the plate, the wave
surface runs along the bottom face of the plate and the wave pressure distribution becomes as shown there. The
distinct feature of the wave pressure in this case is its rapid rise in time. On the other hand, when the angle
between the wave front and the plate is close to 0° as shown in Fig. T- 5.5.1 (b), a layer of air is trapped between
the wave surface and the plate, and compression of this layer of air results in the almost uniform wave pressure
distribution. The distinct feature of the wave pressure in this case is its oscillation in time with having a short
period and damping.

(a)

Wave impact
Pressure distribution

(b)

Pressure distribution

Wave impact

Fig. T- 5.5.1 Impact between Wave Front and Horizontal Plate

In case of a pier with a deck plate supported by horizontal beams, the wave surface is disturbed by the beams,
and the uplift becomes of complex nature. With beams, a layer of trapped air is often formed and this layer of air
is compressed by the uprising wave surface. It is thus necessary to give consideration to the change in the uplift
with respect to the shape of the bottom face of the horizontal plate.
The shape of the impacting wave surface varies greatly according to the condition whether the wave is
progressive or standing in nature. With standing waves, the shape of the impacting wave front varies with the

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

distance between the position of wave reflection and the horizontal plate. It is thus necessary to consider such
differences.
(2) Uplift Acting on Horizontal Plate with Flat Bottom Face (with standing waves)
Goda thought of the uplift acting on a horizontal plate as being the force arising from the sudden change in the
upward momentum of wave surface by its collision with the plate. Using von Karman’s theory, he obtained the
following formulas for calculating the uplift from standing waves acting on a horizontal plate.
r0 g 2ph H s¢
P = z --------HLB tanh ---------- æ ---- – ----ö (5.5.1)
4 L è s¢ Hø
H2 2ph
s¢ = s – p ------ coth ---------- (5.5.2)
L L
where
P: total uplift (kN)
z: correction factor
r0: density of seawater (1.03 t/m3)
g: gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2)
H: wave height of progressive waves (m) (generally the highest wave height Hmax)
L: wavelength of progressive waves (m)
B: extension width of plate perpendicular to wave incidence (m)
h: water depth (m)
s: clearance of the plate above the still water level (m)
s¢: clearance of the plate above the level corresponding to the middle of the wave crest and trough (m)
One should take note of the fact that the uplift in the above equations does not depend on the length of the
horizontal plate.
The impact force has the magnitude given by the above equations and takes the form of a pulse that lasts for
a time t from the moment of the impact, that is given as follows:
pT l 2 s¢
t = -----------
2
- ----------------------- (5.5.3)
L H 2 – s¢ 2
where T is the wave period and l is the length of the horizontal plate. Provided the length of the horizontal plate
is sufficiently small compared with the wavelength L and the bottom face of the horizontal plate is flat, equation
(5.5.1) well represents the features of the uplift well (despite the fact that the equation is simple). Comparing
calculated values with z = 1.0 to experimental values, agreement is relatively good provided H/s ¢ is no more
than 2.
Tanimoto et al. 61) have proposed another method for calculating the uplift acting on horizontal plate based
on Wagner’s theory. With this calculation method, the angle of contact b between the wave surface and the
horizontal plate as well as the impact velocity Vn are given by Stokes’ third order wave theory, making it
possible to obtain the spatial distribution of the impact pressure and its change over time. Note however that the
use of Stokes’ third order wave theory makes the calculation rather complex. This calculation method is
intended for use when the bottom face of the horizontal plate is flat. It cannot be applied directly to structures of
complicated shape such as an ordinary pier that have beams under the floor slab; the impact between the wave
surface and the floor slab is disturbed by the beams. In general, the presence of beams causes air to become
trapped in and the wave surface to be distorted, the result being that the impact force is less than for a horizontal
plate with a flat surface. Accordingly, the value obtained from this calculation method may be thought of as
being the upper limit of the uplift for an ordinary pier.
(3) Uplift Acting on Open-type Wharf (with standing waves)
Ito and Takeda 62) have conducted scale model tests of open piled marginal wharves (open-type wharves) to
obtain the uplift acting on an access bridge, and its minimum weight to prevent moving and falling. The
experimental conditions were the wave height up to 40 cm, a period of 1.0 s and 2.4 s, and a water depth of
56 cm and 60 cm. According to the measurement records of wave pressure gauges attached to the access bridge,
the peak value of the uplift varied considerably from wave to wave even under the same conditions.
Nevertheless, the mean of these peak values is given approximately by the following equation:
p = r 0 g ( 8 H – 4.5s ) (5.5.4)
where
p: mean peak value of the intensity of uplift (kN/m2)
r0: density of seawater (1.03 t/m3)
g: gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2)
H: incident wave height (m) (Hmax)
s: distance from the water level to the underside of access bridge (m)
Note however that the peak value of the intensity of the uplift given by equation (5.5.4) acts only for an
extremely short time, and that the phase of this uplift varies from place to place. This means that even if the
intensity of the uplift p exceeds the deadweight q (specifically the weight per unit area (kN/m2)) of the access

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

bridge, the bridge will not necessarily move or fall down. Based on this perspective, Ito and Takeda have
obtained the threshold weight at which the access bridge starts to move and that at which the deck slab falls
down. For waves of period 2.4 s, the relationship between the moving threshold weight per unit area q and the
wave height H was as follows:
q = r 0 g ( 1.6H – 0.9s ) (5.5.5)
The moving threshold weight given by equation (5.5.5) is one fifth of the intensity of the uplift as given by
equation (5.5.4). The falling threshold weight was found to be 1/2 to 1/3 of the moving threshold weight.
In these access bridge experiments, Ito and Takeda also tested the access bridge with holes or slits of various
sizes, and investigated how the threshold weights changed when the void ratio was changed. In general, the
change in the moving threshold weight by the void ration is only slight. The falling threshold weight, on the
other hand, drops noticeably when the void ratio exceeds 20%. Note that the bridge weight referred to here is the
weight per unit area of the substantial part (i.e., the weight per unit area excluding the voids).
Furthermore, Ito and Takeda 62) have attached a strain gauge to the deck slab of the model of open-type wharf
and measured the stress. Based on their results, they proposed the following equation for the equivalent static
load (kN/m2) assumed to act with uniform distribution on the deck slab.
p = 4r 0 gH (5.5.6)
Note however that the value given by this equation corresponds to the upper limit of the experimental values and
should thus be thought of as corresponding to the case that the distance s from the water level to the underside of
the is almost 0. The equivalent static load given by equation (5.5.6) is generally lower than the uplift acting on a
horizontal plate with a flat bottom face. It is thought that this is partly because the beams disturb the impacting
wave front and cause air to become trapped in. It is also thought that because the uplift acts very locally and for
an extremely short time, the equivalent static load becomes much smaller than the peak value of the uplift.
Experimental research into the uplift acting on a pier has also been carried out by Murota and Furudoi, Nagai
and Kubo, Horikawa and Nakao, and Sawaragi and Nochino.
(4) Uplift Acting on Horizontal Plate with Flat Bottom Face (with progressive waves)
An impulsive uplift also acts when progressive waves act on a horizontal plate that is fixed near to the still water
level. Tanimoto et al. 63) have proposed a method for calculating this impulsive uplift, based on the same theory
by Wagner that was used for impulsive uplift by standing waves.
(5) Uplift Acting on Superstructure of Detached Pier (with progressive waves)
Ito and Takeda 62) have also carried out studies on the uplift from progressed waves acting on a detached pier.
Specifically, they measured the stress occurring in the deck slabs of a detached pier model. Based on the upper
limits of their experimental results, they proposed the following equation for the uniformly distributed
equivalent static load.
p = 2r 0 gH (5.5.7)

[References]
1) Yoshiyuki ITO, Mutsumi Fujishima, Takao KITATANI: “On the stability of breakwaters”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 5, No. 14,
1966, 134p. (in Japanese).
2) Yoshimi GODA: “A new method of wave pressure calculation for the design of composite breakwaters”, Rept of PHRI, Vol.
12, No. 3, 1973, pp. 31-69 (in Japanese), also “New wave pressure formulae for composite breakwater” Proc. 14th Conf.
Coastal Eng., ASCE, 1974, pp.1702-1720.
3) Sainflou, G.: “Essai sur les diques maritimes verticales”, Annales des Ponts et Chaussées, Vol. 98, No. 1, 1928, pp. 5-48.
4) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Katsutoshi KIMURA, Antonio Paulo dos Santos Pinto: “Random wave forces and design wave
periods of composite breakwaters under the action of double peaked spectral weves”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1986, pp.
3-25 (in Japanese).
5) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Katsutoshi KIMURA: “A hydraulic experimental study on trapezoidal caisson breakwaters”, Tech.
Note of PHRI, No. 528, 1985 (in Japanese).
6) Yoshimi GODA, Shusaku KAKIZAKI: “Study on finite amplitude standing waves and their pressures upon a vertical wall”,
Rept of PHRI, Vol. 5, No. 10, 1966, pp. 1-57 (in Japanese).
7) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Shigeo TAKAHASHI, Takao KITATANI: “Experimental study of impact breaking wave forces on a
vertical-wall caisson of composite breakwater”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1981, pp. 3-39 (in Japanese).
8) Mitsuyasu, H.: “Experimental study on wave force against a wall”, Report of Trans. Tech. Res. Inst, No. 47, 1962, pp. 1-39.
9) Michio MORIHIRA, Shusaku KAKIZAKI, Toru KIKUYA: “Experimental study on wave force damping effects due to
deformed artificial blocks”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1967, pp. 3-31 (in Japanese).
10) Yoshimi GODA, Suketo HARANAKA: “An experiment on the shock pressure of breaking waves”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No.
32, 1967, pp. 1-18 (in Japanese).
11) Shigeo TAKAHASHI, Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Satoshi SUZUMURA: “Generation mechanism of impulsive pressure by
breaking wave on a vertical wall”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1983, pp. 3-31 (in Japanese).
12) Yoshimi GODA: “Motion of composite breakwater on elastic foundation under the action of impulsive breaking wave
pressure”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1973, pp. 3-29 (in Japanese).
13) Katsutosi TANIMOTO, Shigeo TAKAHASHI, Kazuyuki MYOSE: “Experimental study of random wave forces on upright
sections of breakwaters”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1984, pp. 47-100 (in Japanese).

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

14) Shigeo TAKAHASHI, Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Ken-ichirou SHIMOSAKO: “Wave and block forces on a caisson covered
with wave dissipating blocks”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1990, pp. 54-75 (in Japanese).
15) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Roshi OJIMA: “Experimental study of wave forces acting on a superstructure of sloping
breakwaters and on block type composite breakwaters”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 450, 1983 (in Japanese).
16) Yoshiyuki ITO, Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “Meandering damages of composite type breakwaters”, Tech. Note of PHRI,
No.112, 1971 (in Japanese).
17) Yoshimi GODA, Tomotsuka YOSHIMURA, Masahiko ITO: “Reflection and diffraction of water waves by an insular
breakwater”, Tech. Note of PHRI, 10, No. 2, 1971, pp. 3-52 (in Japanese).
18) Yoshiyuki ITO, Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Koji KOBUNE, Takao KITATANI, Masahiko TODOROKI: “An experimental
investigation of upright breakwaters at reefs”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 189, 1974 (in Japanese).
19) Coastal Engineering Research Center: “Shore Protection Manual” Vol. II, US Army Corps of Engineers, 1984.
20) Shigeo TAKAHASHI, Ken-ichirou SHIMOSAKO, Hitoshi SASAKI: “Experimental study on wave forces acting on
perforated wall caisson breakwaters”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1991, pp. 3-34 (in Japanese).
21) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Suketo HARANAKA, Eiji TOMIDA, Yoshikazu IZUMIDA, Satoshi SUZUMURA: “A hydraulic
experimental study on curved slit caisson breakwaters”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1980, pp. 3-53 (in Japanese).
22) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Shigeo TAKAHASHI, Tsutomu MURANAGA “Uplift forces on a ceiling slab of wave dissipating
caisson with a permeable front wall - analytical model for compression of an enclosed air layer -”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 19,
No. 1, 1980, pp. 3-31 (in Japanese).
23) Sigeo TAKAHASHI, Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “Uplift forces on a ceiling slab of wave dissipating caisson with a permeable
front wall (2nd Report) - field data analysis -”, Rept of PHRI, Vol.23, No.2, 1984, pp. 3-25 (in Japanese).
24) Hudson, R. Y.: “Laboratory investigation of rubble-mound breakwater”, Proc. ASCE. Vol. 85, No. WW3., 1959, pp. 93-121.
25) Van der Meer, J. W.: “Rock slopes and gravel beaches under wave attack”, Doctoral thesis, Delft Univ. of Tech., 1988, 152p.
or Van der Meer, J. W.: “Stability of breakwater armour layer - Design equations”, Coastal Engineering, 11, 1987, pp. 219-
239.
26) Van der Meer, J. W.: “Stability of cubes, Tetrapods and Accropode”, Proc. of Breakwater '88, Eastbourne, UK., 1988, pp. 71-
80.
27) Burcharth, H. F. and Z. Liu: “Design of Dolos armour units”, Proc. 23rd Int. Conf. Coastal Eng., Venice, 1992, pp. 1053-
1066.
28) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Suketo HARANAKA, Kazuo YAMAZAKI: “Experimental study on the stability of wave
dissipating concrete blocks against irregular waves”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1985, pp. 86-121 (in Japanese).
29) Shigeo TAKAHASHI, Minoru HANZAWA, Hirokazu SATO, Michio GOMYO, Ken-ichiro SHIMOSAKO, Kiyoshi
TERAUCHI, Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “Lifetime damage estimation with a new stability equation
for concrete blocks - study on wave-dissipating concrete blocks covering horizontally composite breakwaters, the first rept.
-”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 38, No. 1, 1998, pp. 3-28 (in Japanese).
30) Van de Kreeke, J.: “Damage function of rubble mound breakwaters”, Jour. Waterway and Harbors Div., Vol. 95, No.WW3,
ASCE., 1969, pp. 345-354.
31) Christensen, F. T., P. C. Broberg, S. E. Sand, and P. Tryde: “Behavior of rubble-mound breakwater in directional and uni-
directional waves”, Coastal Eng., Vol. 8, 1984, pp. 265-278.
32) Brebner, A. and D. Donnelly: “Laboratory study of rubble foundations for vertical breakwaters”, Proc. 8th Conf. Coastal
Eng., New Mexico City, 1962, pp. 408-429.
33) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Tadahiko YAGYU, Tsutomu MURANAGA, Kozo SHIBATA, Yoshimi GODA: “Stability of armor
units for foundation mounds of composite breakwater by irregular wave tests”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1982, pp. 3-42
(in Japanese).
34) Hirofumi INAGAKI, Takeo KATAYAMA: “Analysis of damage to armor stones of mounds in composite breakwaters”, Tech.
Note of PHRI, No. 127, 1971, pp. 1-22 (in Japanese).
35) Sigeo TAKAHASHI, Katsutoshi KIMURA, Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “yStability of armour units of composite breakwater
mound against oblique waves”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1990, pp. 3-36 (in Japanese).
36) Morison, J. R., M. P. O'Brien, J. W. Johonson, and S. A. Schaaf: “The force exerted by surface waves on piles”, Petroleum
Trans., 189, TP2846, 1950, pp. 149-154.
37) Yoshimi GODA, Suketo HARANAKA, Masaki KITAHARA: “Study of impulsive breaking wave forces on piles”, Rept of
PHRI, Vol. 5, No. 6, 1966, pp. 1-30 (in Japanese).
38) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Shigeo TAKAHASHI, Tadao KANEKO, Keisuke SHIOTA, Koichiro OGURA: “Experimental
study on impulsive forces by breaking waves on circular cylinder”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1986, pp. 33-87 (in
Japanese).
39) Yoshiyuki ITO, Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Koji KOBUNE: “Dynamic response of an offshore platform to random waves”,
Rept of PHRI, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1972, pp. 59-86 (in Japanese).
40) Stelson, T. E. and F. T. Mavis: “Virtual mass and acceleration in fluids”, Proc. ASCE., Vol. 81, Separate No. 670, 1955, pp.
670-1 ~ 670-9.
41) Keulegan, G. H. and L. H. Carpenter: “Forces on cylinders and plates in an oscillating fluid”, Jour. National Bureau of
Standards, Vol. 60 No. 5, 1958, pp. 423-440.
42) Sarpkaya, T.: “Forces on cylinders and spheres in a sinusoidally oscillating fluid”, Jour. Applied Mechanics, Trans. ASME,
Vol. 42, No. 1, 1975, pp. 32-37.
43) Sarpkaya, T.: “In-line and transverse forces on cylinders in oscillatory flow at high Reynolds number”, Prepr. 8th Offshore
Tech. Conf., Vol. II, 1976, pp. 95-108.
44) Sarpkaya, T., N. J. Collins, and S. R. Evans: “Wave forces on rough-walled cylinders at high Reynolds numbers”, Prepr. 9th
Offshore Tech. Conf., Vol. III, No.2901, 1977, pp. 167-184.
45) Goda, Y.: “Wave forces on a vertical circular cylinder: Experiments and proposed method of wave force computation”, Report
of P. H. T. R. I., No. 8, 1964, 74p.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

46) Chakrabarti, S. K., A. L. Wollbert, and A. T. William: “Wave forces on vertical circular cylinder”, Jour. Waterways, Harbors
and Coastal Eng. Div., Vol. 102, No. WW2, ASCE, 1976, pp. 203-221.
47) Chakrabarti, S. K.: “Inline forces on fixed vertical cylinder in waves”, Jour. Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Div., Vol.
106, WW2, ASCE, 1980, pp. 145-155.
48) Kim, Y. Y. and H. C. Hibbard: “Analysis of simultaneous wave force and water particle velocity measurements”, Prepr. 7th
OTC, Vol. 1, No. 2192, 1975, pp. 461-469.
49) Borgman, L. E.: “Spectral analysis of ocean wave forces on pilling”, Proc. ASCE, Vol. 93 No. WW2, 1967, pp. 129-156.
50) Borgman, L. E.: “Ocean wave simulation for engineering design”, Proc. ASCE, Vol. 95 No. WW4, 1969, pp. 557-583.
51) Hudspeth, R. T.: “Wave force prediction from non-linear random sea simulation”, Prepr. 7th OTC, No.2193, 1975, pp. 471-
486.
52) Sharma, J. and R. G. Dean: “Second-order directional seas and associated wave forces”, Prepr. 11th OTC, No.3645, 1979, pp.
2505-2514.
53) Tickell, R. G. and M. H. S. Elwany: “A probabilistic description of forces on a member in a short-crested random sea”,
‘Mechanics of Wave-Induced Forces on Cylinders’, Pitman Pub. Ltd., London, 1979, pp. 561-576.
54) Yoshimi GODA, Tatsuhiko IKEDA, Tadashi SASADA, Yasuharu KISHIRA: “Study on design wave forces on circular
cylinders erected upon reefs”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1972, pp. 45-81 (in Japanese).
55) Sarpkaya, T. and M. Isaacson: “Mechanics of Wave Forces on Offshore Structure”, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1981, 651p.
56) Yamamoto, T., and J. H. Nath: “Forccs on many cylinders near a plane boundary”, ASCE, National Water Resources and
Ocean Engineering Convention, Preprint No. 2633, 1976.
57) Sarpkaya, T.: “In-line and transverse forces on cylinders near a wall in oscillatory flow at high Reynolds numbers”, Prepr. 9th
OTC Paper No. 2898, 1977, pp. 161-166.
58) Sarpkaya, T. and F. Rajabi.: “Hydrodynamic drag on bottom-mounted smooth and rough cylinders in periodic flow”,
Prepr.12th OTC Paper No. 3761, 1980, pp. 219-226.
59) MacCamy, R. C. and R. A. Fuchs: “Wave forces on piles, a diffraction theory”, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Beach
Erosion Board, Tech. Memo. No. 69, 1954, 17p.
60) Yoshimi GODA, Tomotsuka YOSHIMURA: “Wave force computation for structures of large diameter, isolated in the
offshore”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1971, pp. 3-52 (in Japanese).
61) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Shigeo TAKAHASHI, Yoshikazu IZUMIDA: “A calculation method of uplift force on a horizontal
platform”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1978, pp. 3-47 (in Japanese).
62) Yoshiyuki ITO, Hideaki TAKEDA: “Uplift on pier deck due to wave motion”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1967, pp. 37-68
(in Japanese).
63) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Shigeo TAKAHASHI, Masahiko TODOROKI, Yoshikazu IZUMIDA: “Horizontal wave forces on a
rigid platform”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1977, pp. 39-68 (in Japanese).

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Chapter 6 Tides and Abnormal Water Levels


6.1 Design Water Level (Notification Article 6)
The water level that is to be used for the structural design and stability analysis of port and harbor facilities
shall be determined based on either the measured values or the hindcast values of astronomical tides and
meteorological tides, along with abnormal water levels caused by tsunamis and others. However, for port
and harbor facilities on lakes or rivers for which the effects of tides are not large, the water level shall be
determined appropriately based on the water level records or the like.

[Commentary]
(1) Design water level
As a general rule, the water level that is most dangerous to the safety of the structure in question is used as the
design water level.
(2) Simultaneous occurrence of storm surge, tsunamis, and seiche
Storm surge and tsunamis both occur only very rarely, and so it may be assumed that they will not occur at the
same time. Seiche in the narrower sence occurs independently of storm surge or tsunami, and is treated
separately.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Rising of Mean Sea Level
Apart from astronomical tides and storm surge, which are essential for the design water level, studies on the
long-term sea level rise are being carried out both in Japan and abroad. According to the Secondary Evaluation
Report of the IPCC 1), it is estimated that the mean sea level will rise 15 cm to 95 cm between 1990 and 2100.
Figure T- 6.1.2 shows the IPCC panel’s forecast for the mean sea level rise. Although it is known that the mean
sea level will rise in the future, it is hard to evaluate this rise quantitatively. The IPCC panel has thus produced
three estimates.
Since the quantitative extent of the mean sea level rise is uncertain, in general it is hard to take account of it
at the design stage. It is thus unavoidable that countermeasures in response to a rise in the mean sea level will
have to be carried out through maintenance work such as raising of the crests of structures. However, when
designing important structures for which it is anticipated that subsequent repairs would be extremely difficult
(for example, when designing the clearance of a bridge that will have to remain in service for a very long time or
when designing the drainage outlets of reclaimed land), appropriate consideration should be given to the amount
of mean sea level rise in the future.

IS 92 e/High/4.5
Mean sea level rise over the whole world (cm)

IS 92 a/Medium/2.5

IS 92 c/Low/1.5

Year

Note 1: The values 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 shown in the three graphs represent the climate sensitivities
for the three scenarios, respectively.
Note 2: The low, medium, and high represent the value of ice melting parameter for the three
scenarios. The ice melting parameter represents the extent to which the ice at the poles,
in Greenland, and in highland glaciers melts in response to a rise in air temperatures.
Fig. T- 6.1.2 IPCC Panel’s Forecasts for Mean Sea Level Rise 1) (BaU Scenarios)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

6.2 Astronomical Tide


Consideration shall be given to the following astronomical tide parameters: the chart datum level, the mean
water level, the mean monthly-highest water level, and the mean monthly-lowest water level. As a general
rule, these parameters shall be determined from the tide observation records over one year or a longer
period.

[Commentary]
(1) Definitions
The definitions for the various types of water level are as follows:
(a) Mean sea level (MSL)
The average height of the sea level over a certain period is referred to as the mean water level for that period.
For practical purposes, the mean water level is taken to be the average of the water level over one year.
(b) Chat datum level (CDL)
See PartⅠ
Ⅰ, Chapter 2 Datum Level for Construction Work.
(c) Mean monthly-highest water level (HWL)
The average of the monthly-highest water level, where the monthly-highest water level for a particular month
is defined as the highest water level occurring in the period from 2 days before the day of the lunar syzygy
(new moon and full moon) to 4 days after the day of the lunar syzygy.
(d) Mean monthly-lowest water level (LWL)
The average of the monthly-lowest water level, where the monthly-lowest water level for a particular month is
defined as the lowest water level occurring in the period from 2 days before the day of the lunar syzygy to 4
days after the day of the lunar syzygy.
(e) Mean high water level (MHWL)
The mean value of all of the high water levels, including the spring tide and the neap tide.
(f) Mean low water level (MLWL)
The mean value of all of the low water levels, including the spring tide and the neap tide.
(g) Near highest high water level (NHHWL)
The water level obtained by adding the sum of the amplitudes of the four principal tidal components (M2, S2,
K1 and O1) to the mean sea level.

[Technical Notes]
(1) In addition to the above definitions of water level, there are also the high water of ordinary spring tides
(HWOST) and the low water of ordinary spring tides (LWOST). These refer respectively to the water levels at
the height h above and below the mean water level, where h is the sum of the amplitudes of the tidal components
M2 and S2. The height of the HWOST as measured from the chart datum is known as the spring rise.
Figure T- 6.2.1 shows an example of the relationship between these water levels, for the Tokyo Tide
Observation Station, along with the chart datum level (CDL), the mean sea level for Tokyo Bay (Tokyo Peil -
TP), and other commonly used water levels.

6.3 Storm Surge


The storm surge parameters shall be determined by referring to the observed tide records collected over as
long a period as possible, inundation records for past disasters, and hindcast values for abnormal
meteorological conditions.

[Commentary]
(1) Definition of Storm Surge
Fluctuations in the sea level occur as the result of a combination of astronomical tide, meteorological tide, and
seiche, along with the effects of factors such as ocean currents, the seawater temperature, seasonal fluctuations
in the atmospheric pressure, the water levels of rivers, and coastal waves. Out of these factors, the sea level
fluctuation due to meteorological factors, such as air pressure fluctuations caused by passing of high or low
pressure area and winds, are referred to as meteorological tides or deviations. The term “storm surge” refers to a
type of meteorological tides, specifically an abnormal rise of the sea level that occurs when a typhoon passes by.
The causes of storm surge are the depression of atmospheric pressure and the resultant rise of sea surface, the
propagation of elevated sea surface as long waves, the resonance of water in embayments, and the wind setup.
The deviation of sea level from the astronomical tide during a storm surge is called the storm tide.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Bench mark
Highest water level ever recorded (Oct 1, 1917)
(observed before the statistical period to
obtain standard water levels)
Highest water level ever (Oct 19, 1979)
(during the statistical period to obtain standard water level)

Mean monthly-highest water level* HWL HWOST

Mean sea level for recent 5 year period* MSL


Mean sea level for Tokyo Bay (Tokyo Peil -TP)
Edogawa construction work datum level (YP)
Mean monthly-lowest water level* LWL LWOST
Chart datum level (CDL) = Work datum level (WDL)
Arakawa construction work datum level (Arakawa Peil - AP)

Lowest water level ever recorded (Feb 13, 1953)

Observation datum level (DL)


Mean value over 1991~1995
Fig. T- 6.2.1 Water Level Diagram for the Tokyo (Harumi) Tide Observation Station

(2) Observation Period


It is desirable to study the storm surge records covering as long a period as possible; the minimum necessary
observation period is considered to be 30 years. However, there are only a few tide observation stations that have
put together storm surge records covering several tens of years. In order to carry out a study of storm surge
covering the longest possible period, it is thus necessary to also carry out hindcasting from meteorological
conditions, to study records from storm surge damage reports, newspapers and old documents, and to collect
data on past disasters.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Meteorological Tide
(a) General
Meteorological tide parameters to which consideration should be given include the storm tide and its duration.
(b) Wind setup
When a strong wind continues to blow for a prolonged time in a shallow bay, seawater is dragged by the wind.
If the wind is onshore, seawater accumulates in the littoral zone, resulting in a rise in the sea level. If the angle
between the wind direction and the line perpendicular to the shoreline is a, the sea level rise h 0 (cm) at the
shoreline is given by the following equation:
F
h 0 = k --- ( U cos a ) 2 (6.3.1)
h
where
F: fetch length (km)
U: constant wind velocity (m/s)
h: mean water depth (m)
The term k is a coefficient that varies depending on the bay characteristics. Colding has obtained a value of k
= 4.8 × 10-2 from the observation data in the Baltic Sea.
(c) Static water level rise caused by depression in the atmospheric
If the atmospheric pressure drops slowly by DP (hPa), the water level in the sea area where the atmospheric
pressure has dropped rises relative to the surrounding areas where the atmospheric pressure has not dropped,
because of the pressure difference. The rise in water level z (cm) is given by the following equation:
z = 0.99DP (6.3.2)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

where
DP: pressure difference (hPa)
z: rise in water level (cm)
(d) Estimation formula for storm tide
For places where numerical computation of storm surge have not been carried out, equation (6.3.3) may be
used to estimate the maximum amount of storm tide. This equation incorporates the factors of suction caused
by a depression in the atmospheric pressure and wind setup.
h 0 = a ( 1010 – P ) + bU 2 cos q + c (6.3.3)
where
h 0: maximum amount of storm tide (cm)
P: lowest atmosperic pressure (hPa)
U: maximum wind velocity (m/s)
q: angle between the predominant wind direction that causes the highest storm tide and the wind
direction at the time of maximum wind speed U (º)
The coefficients a, b, and c are determined by the relationship between the storm tide, the atmospheric
pressure, and the wind data that have been observed at the place in question.
(2) Numerical Computation of Storm Surge
In order to analyze the phenomenon of storm surge in detail, numerical computations are carried out. With this
method, the rise of sea surface caused by a depression in the atmospheric pressure (see (1)(c) above), along with
the tangential stress at the sea surface due to the wind and the tangential stress at the sea bottom due to viscosity,
are given as external forces. The change in the water level and the flow velocity at each point is then
progressively calculated for a series of time steps, by solving the equations of motions and continuity. The
topography of the bay is approximated using a grid system (with adjacent mesh points separated by say a few
kilometers), with the average water depth at each mesh being inputted in advance. The atmospheric pressure and
wind velocity within a typhoon is often calculated using Myers’ formula or a similar theoretical model.
(3) Design Water Level for the Facilities for Protection against Storm Surge
The following four methods exist for determing the design water level for storm surge protection facilities.
(a) Use the highest water level observed in the past, or else this plus a little extra allowance.
(b) Use the elevation above the mean-monthly highest water level by the amount of either the highest storm tide
observed in the past or the storm tide predicted for a model typhoon.
(c) Obtain the occurrence probability curve for past storm surge levels, and then use the water level that is
expected to be exceeded only once within a certain return period (say 50 years or 100 years) (this water level
is obtained by extrapolating the probability curve).
(d) Determine the design water level based on economic factors, considering the occurrence probability of various
storm surge levels, and the damage to the hinterland for each water level, along with the cost of constructing
storm surge protection facilities.
(4) Rise in Mean Water Level Due to Waves (Wave Setup)
The rise in mean water level due to waves can be estimated using Fig. T- 4.7.1 and Fig. 4.7.2 in 4.7.1 Wave
Setup. Near to the shoreline, this rise is 10% or more of the deepwater significant wave height, and thus it
cannot be ignored when waves are high.

6.4 Tsunami
The following tsunami parameters shall be considered: the highest water level, the lowest water level, the
water level deviation (rise of water level by tsunami above the astronomical tide), the tsunami wave height,
and the tsunami period. These parameters shall be determined using an appropriate method, by referring to
the measured data (taken over as long a period as possible) and the heights of tsunami runup traces during
past disasters.

[Commentary]
(1) Tsunamis are waves with an extremely long period that mainly occur when the sea floor is raised and/or dropped
by an earthquake in the sea. As a tsunami approaches the coast, the wave height rises rapidly owing to the
shoaling and the concentration effect of the sea bottom topography, meaning that tsunami often causes
tremendous damage to coastal areas. It is important to investigate not only the possibility of flooding damage as
a result of overflowing a tsunami barrier, but also the possibilities of losing small vessels that have been moored
in a harbor but are carried away by strong currents of tsunami, scouring of seabed at the openings of
breakwaters, and sliding or overturning of breakwaters.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(2) The wave height of a tsunami in the outer sea is generally extremely small, but it can nevertheless be detected by
means of continuous observations recorded by a wave gauge out at sea. When a tsunami enters a bay, the wave
height increases greatly. Since the increase in wave height depends on the topography and natural periods of the
bay, the tsunami parameters used in design are determined from the past tsunami records for the place in
question or the values obtained from numerical computations for the place in question.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Definitions of Tsunami-Related Terms
The definitions of various terms related to tsunamis are shown in Fig. T- 6.4.1.
(a) Estimated tide level
This is the tide level obtained by smoothing the tide level on a tide observation record by removing the
components that are thought to be of the tsunami and any oscillation component of shorter period by seiche.
The estimated tide level is expressed as the elevation above the CDL (chart datum level). This estimated tide
level may thus differ somewhat to the hindcasted tide level obtained from the tidal harmonic constants.
(b) Runup height and tsunami trace height
The elevation of the highest point to which a tsunami has runup the land or a structure is called the runup
height above the CDL (chart datum level). Note that the runup height of a tsunami is often determined based
on an investigation of tsunami traces left at the site in question. The elevation of a trace of a tsunami that has
run up over the land or a structure above the CDL is called the tsunami trace height.
(c) Deviation
The difference between the actual tide level and the estimated tide level described in (a). The maximum value
of the deviation when the actual tide level is higher than the estimated tide level is sometimes referred to as the
maximum deviation or the tsunami height.
(d) Highest water level
The maximum value of the actual tide level above the CDL (chart datum level).
(e) Tsunami wave height
As with wind waves, the tsunami wave height may be analyzed using the zero-upcrossing method. In this case,
the section between a point where the tsunami wave profile crosses over the estimated tide level from the
negative side to the positive side and the next such point is taken as one wave, and the difference between the
maximum and minimum water levels within that section is taken as the tsunami wave height for that wave.
The maximum tsunami wave height in a continuous tsunami wave record is defined as the highest tsunami
wave height.

Tsunami wave height


Deviation

Highest water level

First arrival time Estimated tide level

Time
Fig. T- 6.4.1 Definitions of Tsunami-related Terms

(f) Initial motion


This term refers to the instance at which a tsunami reaches the observation point and the water level first starts
to deviate from the estimated tide level. If the first observed deviation of water level caused by the tsunami is
a rise relative to the estimated tide level, the initial motion is referred to as the pushing initial motion. If it is a
fall relative to the estimated tide level, the initial motion is referred to as the drawing initial motion.
(2) Tsunami Period
The period of tsunamis observed in a bay varies depending on the scale of the earthquake, the distance from the
epicenter, and the resonance characteristics of the bay, and others. The wave height of a tsunami in a harbor is
greatly affected by the period of the tsunami. During a design process, it is thus desirable to carry out
investigations on not only tsunamis having the periods that have actually been measured in the past, but also
tsunamis having the period same as the natural period of the bay or harbor in question.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(3) Transformation of Tsunami in a Bay


The most important types of transformations that a tsunami undergoes in a bay are the increase in wave height
and flow velocity caused by the decrease in the cross-sectional area toward the end of bay, and the increase in
wave height induced by seiche in the bay.
Under the assumption of small amplitude waves, the influence of the change in cross-sectional area may be
calculated approximately using Green’s equation (equation (6.4.1)).
H B0 1 ¤ 2 h0 1 ¤ 4
------ = æ ------ö æ -----ö (6.4.1)
H0 è Bø è hø
where
H: height of long waves for a cross section with the width B and the water depth h (m)
H0: height of long waves for a cross section with the width B0 and the water depth h0 (m)
Note however that equation (6.4.1) is applicable under the conditions that the variations in both the width and
the water depth are very gentle and that no reflected waves moving offshore are generated. Moreover it does not
consider the energy loss due to friction. Accordingly, the equation cannot be applied to the area of shallow water
nor the case when there are reflection effects at the end of the bay.
(4) Tsunami on Tide Observation Records
Tide observation records provide an extremely useful source of tsunami data. However, when handling such
data, it is necessary to take note of the fact 3) that if the tide observation station is within a harbor, there is a high
possibility of tsunami record being different from a tsunami just outside harbor because of the interferences of
structures such as breakwaters etc. within the harbor.
(5) Bore Type Tsunami 3)
Notable features of the tsunami that accompanied the Nihonkai-Chubu Earthquake of 1983, along the northern
coast of Akita Prefecture where a coastline with a shallow bottom slope of about 1/200 continues for as much as
30 km, were that the wave profile transformed markedly as the tsunami propagated, forming the shape of
multiple bores, and there were rapid undulations of surface elevation with the period around 5 to 10 s. However,
when this tsunami arrived at coastlines with a relatively steep bottom slope (around 1/50) such as the west coast
of the Oga Peninsula, it did not produce multiple bores, but rather took the shape of standing waves. Even
though the height of the incident tsunami was the same in both cases, there was a tendency for the bore type
tsunami to have a higher runup than the standing wave type tsunami. A method for calculating the tsunami wave
force when a bore type tsunami acts on an upright wall has been presented based on experimental results 3).
(6) Tsunami Simulation
Numerical simulations of tsunamis correspond to the case where the meteorological disturbance term (which
represents a forcing external force) is removed from the numerical computation scheme for storm surge. The
incident wave profile is assigned in advance, or it is assumed that the initial variation in the water level is equal
to the displacement of the sea floor in the earthquake fault model. The simulation makes it possible to
investigate the effectiveness of breakwaters designed to protect harbors and coastal zones against tsunamis and
the effect of topographic changes (land reclamation etc.) on a tsunami 3), 4).
In tsunami simulations that use hydraulic model experiments, a tsunami wave profile that has previously
been reproduced by a numerical simulation is generated at the model boundary to investigate the effectiveness of
breakwaters and the effects of the topography of reclaimed land 5).
The method of Iwasaki and Mano may be used to obtain the runup height over the land in a numerical
computation of tsunami. When the water level exceeds the crown elevation of a breakwater or levee in the
calculation region, the quantity of overtopping per unit width may be calculated using Hom-ma’s formula.
When estimating the effectiveness of tsunami mitigation facilities, the loss in tsunami momentum is an
important factor. With regard to the momentum loss that is proportional to the mean flow velocity, consideration
is given to friction along the sea bottom, which may be evaluated using say Manning’s roughness formula, and
the aperture loss 6), which takes place when there is a sudden constriction or widening of the cross section at the
opening between breakwaters.
(7) Tsunami Wave Force
The wave force of tsunami is given as the wave force of a long wave, and may be assumed to be as sketched in
Fig. T- 6.4.2. When h/L < 0.04 and there is no wave breaking, the wave force is assumed to be zero at a height h
= 1.5H above the still water level and p (=1.1r0gH) at the still water level, and to have a linear distribution in
between; it is assumed to have a constant intensity of p below the water surface.
Correction for wave direction is not made, and the wave height H is that of progressive tsunami. Note,
however, that if there is a breakwater, according to the results of numerical simulations, the tsunami wave height
in front of the breakwater becomes twice that for the case when there is no breakwater, owing to reflection. In
this case the distance between the maximum water level in front of the breakwater and the still water level may
be used as the incident wave height. It is also acceptable to use one half of the standing wave height as the
incident wave height.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Fig. T- 6.4.2 Distribution of Wave Pressure by Tsunami

6.5 Seiche
For harbors where the seiche motion is anticipated, the presence of seiche shall be considered as necessary
when fixing the design water level or investigating the tranquility in mooring basins.

[Commentary]
Seiche is a phenomenon involving abnormal oscillations of the water level with a period of approximately a few
minutes to a few tens of minutes. It occurs when small fluctuations of the water level are generated by a microscale
variations of the atmospheric pressure by an air front or a low in the outer sea, and the components of these
oscillations whose period is the same as a natural period of the harbor are amplified through resonance. Depending on
the topography, the amplitude of these fluctuations may be anything from a few tens of centimeters up to around 2m.
When seiche occurs in a harbor, even if the wave height is only a few tens of centimeters, the long wavelength results
in a great deal of water movement in the horizontal direction, which can cause severe problems to moored vessels and
cargo handling work. Seiche is particularly liable to occur in an artificially excavated harbor, which is long and
narrow in shape and surrounded by quaywalls. It is thus desirable to investigate the effects of seiche when drawing up
a harbor plan. This can be done using say a numerical calculation 9), whereby incident waves with the period from a
few minutes up to around one hour are inputted, and then the amplification factor for these waves in the harbor is
calculated. Small long waves in the outer sea may have an amplitude of the order of a few centimeters. It is desirable
to avoid such the shape of a harbor that the amplitude of long waves may be amplified by ten times or more within the
harbor.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Natural Periods
The natural periods of a bay that has a long, narrow rectangular shape as shown in Fig. T- 6.5.1 (a) are given
approximately as in the following equation:
4l
T = -------------------------------- (6.5.1)
( 2m + 1 ) gh
l
where l
T: natural period (s)
l: length of bay (m)
m: number of nodes in the bay (0, 1, 2,…) b
h: mean water depth in the bay (m)
(a) (b)
g: gravitational acceleration (m/s2) (= 9.81m/s2) Fig. T- 6.5.1 Bay Shape Models
In an actual bay, not only does the seawater within the bay oscillate in a periodic fashion, but the water of the
open sea around the bay entrance also oscillates somewhat. It is thus necessary to make a correction to the
natural period with equation (6.5.2) of the following:
4l
T = a ---------- (6.5.2)
gh
where
h: mean water depth in the bay (m)
a: bay entrance correction factor, as obtained from the following equation 10).
1¤2
ì 2b pb ü
a = í 1 + ------ æ 0.9228 – ln ------ö ý (6.5.3)
p lè 4lø þ
î

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

where
l: length of bay (m)
b: width of bay (m)
Table T- 6.5.1 lists the values of the bay entrance correction factor a calculated for different values of b/l.
Table T- 6.5.1 Bay Entrance Correction Factor

b/l 1 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/10 1/25


a 1.320 1.261 1.217 1.187 1.163 1.106 1.064

The natural periods of a rectangular harbor that has a narrow entrance as shown in Fig. T- 6.5.1 (b) may be
calculated approximately with the following equation:
2
T = ------------------------------------------------- (6.5.4)
2 2
ì mö n ü
m
gh í æ --- - + æ ----ö ý
è lø è bø
î þ
where
b: width of harbor (m)
m: number of nodes in the harbor in the length direction (0, 1, 2, …)
n: number of nodes in the harbor in the width direction (0, 1, 2, …)
Note however that because of the effect of the harbor entrance, the natural periods of an actual harbor are
slightly lower than those calculated using this equation.
(2) Amplitude
The magnitude of amplification factor for the resonant oscillations in a harbor by seiche is limited by the energy
carried out by the disturbance waves that are radiated from the harbor entrance, and the energy lost through the
vortices at the harbor entrance and the bottom friction within the harbor. Accordingly, even if the period of long-
period waves arriving at the harbor coincide with one of the natural periods of the harbor, it is not the case that
the amplitude of the oscillations in the harbor will rise to infinity. Note however that when there is very little
energy loss by vortices and friction, it is necessary to take heed of the harbor paradox, which refers to a
phenomenon whereby the narrowing of a harbor entrance results in the greater amplification within the harbor.
The amplitude amplification factor R for the concave corners at the head of a rectangular-shaped harbor
when the entrance loss is ignored may be obtained as a function of the ratio of the harbor length to the
wavelength using either Fig. T- 6.5.2 or Fig. T- 6.5.3. According to Fig. T- 6.5.2, in a harbor with a long,
narrow rectangular shape, resonance occurs when the period is slightly longer than that corresponding to a
wavelength that satisfies the conventionally-cited resonance condition, namely the harbor length being odd
quarters of the wavelength (1/4, 3/4, 5/4, etc.). According to Fig. T- 6.5.3, the resonance points for a harbor with
a wide rectangular shape are more-or-less the same as those for a completely closed rectangular lake; in other
words, they are given approximately by the following equation:
l n2
--- = m 2 + -------------2- : m, n = 0, 1, 2 ,… (6.5.5)
L
æ 2b
------ö
è lø
Amplitude amplification factor R

Amplitude amplification factor R

Relative length of the port Relative length of the port

Fig. T- 6.5.2 Resonance Spectrum for a Harbor with Fig. T- 6.5.3 Resonance Spectrum for a Harbor with
Long, Narrow Rectangular Shape 11) Wide Rectangular Shape 11)

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(3) Countermeasures against Seiche


Seiche is the phenomenon whereby long-period waves penetrates into a harbor from the entrance, repeates
perfect reflection within the harbor, and increases its amplitude. In order to hold down the amplitude of seiche, it
is thus necessary to make the reflection imperfect around the inner perimeter of the harbor, or increase the
energy loss within the harbor. For this reason, it is not advisable to build solid quaywalls around the whole
perimeter of a harbor. If a permeable rubble-mound breakwater with a gentle slope is used, wave reflection can
be reduced to some extent, and in addition one can expect a certain energy loss within the core of breakwater.
Furthermore, by installing an inner breakwater close to the position of a node of the seiche in a harbor, the
amplitude of the seiche can be somewhat reduced. Regarding the shape of the harbor, it is thought that an
irregular shape is better than a geometrically regular shape.

6.6 Groundwater Level and Permeation


The groundwater level in coastal aquifers of sandy beaches shall be examined when there is a risk of
arousing a problem by the change of the groundwater level.
The flow velocity and rate of permeation through water-permeable ground or structures shall be
examined when there is a risk of arousing a problem by their changes.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Groundwater Level in Coastal Aquifer
The elevation of brackish groundwater intruding in a
coastal aquifer may be estimated using the following
equation (see Fig. T- 6.6.1) 12):
2 2 2 2 x
h = h 0 + ( h l – h 0 ) --- (6.6.1)
L Fresh water level

where
r1 r1 Fresh water
h 0 = --------------- z 0 , h l = --------------- z l Sea
r2 –r1 r2 –r1
h: depth below the sea surface of the interface Salt water Salt w
between fresh water and saltwater at the distance ater le
vel
x (m)
h0: depth below the sea surface of the interface
between fresh water and saltwater at x = 0 (m) Fig. T- 6.6.1 Schematic Drawing of Groundwater
hl: depth below the sea surface of the interface at Coast
between fresh water and saltwater at x = L (m)
r 1: density of the fresh water (g/cm3)
r 2: density of saltwater (g/cm3)
z 0: elevation of fresh water above the sea surface at the coast (x = 0) (m)
z l: elevation of fresh water above the sea surface at x = L (m)
L: distance from the coast (x = 0) to the reference point (m)
x: landward distance from the coastline (m)
Equation (6.6.1) cannot be applied if an impermeable layer exists close to the ground surface or in the aquifer:
For the relationship between the rise of groundwater level due to wave runup and beach profile change, see in
10.1 General [Technical Notes] (8).
(2) Permeation into Foundation and Structures
(a) Permeation through a sheet pile wall
The flow rate of permeation through a sheet pile wall is not determined purely by the permeability of the wall;
rather, the permeability of the soil behind the wall has a dominating influence. Shoji et al. 13) examined this
problem, and carried out comprehensive permeation experiments in which they not only varied the tension of
the joints, but also added the cases with and without sand filling in the joint section. They concluded to
propose the following experimental formula:
n
q = Kh (6.6.4)
where
q: flow rate of permeation through a sheet pile joint per unit length in the vertical direction (cm3/s/cm)
K: permeation coefficient for the joints (cm2-n/s)
h: pressure head difference between the front and back of a joint (cm)
n: coefficient depending on the state of the joints
(n ≒ 0.5 when the joints are not filled with sand, and n ≒ 1.0 when the joints are filled with sand)
When there was sand on both sides of the sheet pile and the joints were under tension, Shoji et al. obtained a
value of 7.0 × 10-4 cm/s for K in their experiments. However, they also pointed out that if the permeation flow
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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

is estimated with this value, then the flow rate turns out to be as much as 30 times that observed in the field.
For actual design, it is thus necessary to pay close attention to any difference between the state of the sheet pile
wall used in the experiments and those used in the field.
(b) Permeation through rubble mound
The flow rate of permeation through a rubble mound foundation of a gravity type structure may be estimated
using the following equation:
q = UH

678
2 g d DH
U = --------- × -------- (6.6.5)
z DS
where
q: flow rate of permeation per unit width (m3/s/m)
U: mean permeation velocity for the whole cross section of rubble mound (m/s)
H: height of the permeable layer (m)
d: rubble stone size (m)
g: gravitational acceleration (= 9.81 m/s2)
DH/DS: hydraulic gradient
z: resistance coefficient
Equation (6.5.5) has been proposed based on the experimental results using eight different types of stones of
uniform size, with the diameter ranging from 5 mm to 100 mm. The virtual flow length DS may be taken to be
as the total of the 70% to 80% of the permeable layer height and the width of the caisson base. The coefficient
of resistance is shown in Fig. T- 6.6.3. When R e ( = Ud / n ) > 10 4 , it is acceptable to take z ≒ 20.

Ud
R e = -------
n
Fig. T- 6.6.3 Relationship between Resistance Coefficient and Reynolds Number

[References]
1) IPCC: “Climate Change 1995”, IPCC Second Assessment Report, The Science of Climate Change, 1995, 572p.
2) Toshihiko NAGAI, Kazuteru SUGAHARA, Hiroshi WATANABE, Koji KAWAGUCHI: “Long team observation of the mean
tide level and lond waves at the Kurihama-Bay”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1996. (in Japanese).
3) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Kazuo MURAKAMI, Shigeru MURATA, Hiroiti TSURUYA, Shigeo
TAKAHASHI, Masayuki MORIKAWA, Yasutoshi YOSHIMOTO, Susumu NAKANO, Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “Field and
laboratory investigations of the tsunami caused by 1983 Nihonkai Chubu Earthquake”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 470, 1983,
299p. (in Japanese).
4) Chiaki GOTO, Kazuo SATO: “Development of tsunami numerical simulation system for Sanriku Coast in Japan”, Rept of
PHRI, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1995. (in Japanese).
5) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “Hydraulic model tests on tsunamis at Suzaki Port”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No.
549, 1986, 131p. (in Japanese).
6) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Norihiro NAGAI, Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “The numerical calculation of tsunami in Tokyo Bay”,
Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 454, 1986, 131p.(in Japanese).
7) Toshihoko NAGAI, Noriaki HASHIMOTO, Tetsuya HIRAISHI, Katsuyoshi SHIMIZU: “Characteristics of the Hokkaido-
East-off-Earthquake Tsunami”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 802, 1995, 97p. (in Japanese).
8) Koji KOBUNE, Toshihiko NAGAI, Noriaki HASHIMOTO, Tetsuya HIRAISHI, Katsuyoshi SHIMIZU “Characteristics of
the Irianjaya Earthquake Tsunami in 1996”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 842, 1996, 96p. (in Japanese).

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

9) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “Amplification mechanism of harbor oscillation derived from field
observation and numerical simulation”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 636, 1988, 70p. (in Japanese).
10) Honda, K., T. Terada, and D. Ishitani: “Secondary undulation of oceanic tides”, Philosophical Magazine, Vol.15,1908, pp.88-
126.
11) Ippen, A.T. and Y. Goda: “Wave-induced oscillations in harbors: the solution for a rectangular harbor connected to the open
sea,” M.I.T. Hydrodynamics Lab. Report No.59, 1963, 90p.
12) Todd, D. K.: “Groundwater Hydrology”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1963.
13) Yoshihiro SHOJI, Masaharu KUMEDA, Yukiharu TOMITA: “Experiments on seepage through interlocking joints of sheet
pile”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1982, pp. 41-82 (in Japanese).

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Chapter 7 Currents and Current Force


7.1 General
(1) The current parameters that shall be used in the design of port and harbor facilities are the velocity
and the direction. The severest conditions shall be set, based on either the field measurements at the
installation location of the facilities in question or the numerical estimation.
(2) For the current force, consideration shall be given to the drag and lift, depending on the type of the
facilities in question and the structural form.

[Commentary]
For structures that are located in a place where there is strong currents such as a tidal currents or river flow, it is
necessary to carry out investigations on the forces produced by the currents with the largest velocity from the most
unfavorable direction. Depending on the type of structures or members, it may also be necessary to consider the
vertical distribution of the current velocity. When waves coexist with currents, it is necessary to use the current
velocity and direction in the state of coexistence. Types of currents in the sea area include ocean currents, tidal
currents, and wind drift currents, which are described in the [Technical Notes] below, along with density currents
caused by the density differences due to salinity or water temperature. In addition, in the coastal area, there are
longshore currents and rip currents caused by waves.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Ocean Currents
Ocean currents are the phenomenon involving the circulation of seawater around the ocean as a whole. They are
the result of a combination of the following currents: a) density currents that are based on local differences in the
density of seawater, b) wind-driven drift currents that are caused by the wind, and c) gradient currents that
accompany spatial inequalities in the atmospheric pressure, along with d) compensation currents (upwelling
currents and or sinking currents) that supplement the aforementioned currents. Ocean currents maintain the
almost steady direction and strength over prolonged periods of time.
(2) Tidal Currents
(a) The nature and strength of tidal currents vary with the geographical conditions of the sea area in question and
the celestial movements. In order to analyze the harmonic components of tidal currents, it is necessary to carry
out continuous observation for at least 25 hours or advisably for full 15 days. In particular, if the topography of
a place is going to be changed considerably, for example when carrying out large-scale land reclamation in
shallow coastal waters, it is desirable to examine the resultant changes in tidal currents at the planning stage.
(b) The tidal currents are the flow of seawater in the horizontal direction that accompanies a tidal variation of sea
level. This variation consists of the tidal components (diurnal tide, semi-diurnal tide, etc.) of the water level
and is thus periodic.
(3) Wind-Driven Currents
When a wind blows over the sea surface, the friction on the boundary between the air and the sea surface
produces a shear stress that causes to induce a flow on the sea surface. As this flow develops, the turbulent eddy
viscosity of the seawater causes the lower layers to start to be pulled along by the upper layers. If the wind
velocity and direction remain constant for a prolonged period of time, a steady state of currents is eventually
reached. Such the currents are referred to as the wind-driven currents.
(4) Nearshore Currents
In the surf zone, there exist special currents called the nearshore currents induced by waves. Because the
nearshore currents are induced within the surf zone, they transport suspended sediments and cause topographical
change of beaches. Consequently, an understanding of the pattern of nearshore currents leads to a deeper
perception of topographical change.

7.2 Current Forces Acting on Submerged Members and Structures (Notification Article 7)
It shall be standard to calculate the drag and lift forces caused by currents acting on a member or a
structure that is submerged or near the water surface using the following equations:
(1) Drag Force
1
F D = --- C D r 0 AU 2 (7.2.1)
2

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

where
F D: drag force acting on the object in the direction of the current (kN)
CD: drag coefficient
r0: density of water (t/m3)
A: projected area of the object in the direction of the current (m2)
U: flow velocity (m/s)
(2) Lift Force
1
F L = --- C L r 0 A L U 2 (7.2.2)
2
where
FL: lift force acting on the object in the direction perpendicular to the current (kN)
CL: lift coefficient
AL: projected area of the object in the direction perpendicular to the current (m2)

[Commentary]
The fluid force due to the currents acting on members of a pile-supported structure such as a pier, a pipeline, or the
armor units of a mound is proportional to the square of the flow velocity. It may be divided into the drag force acting
in the direction of the current and the lift force acting in the direction perpendicular to this. Note also that a thin, tube-
like object in the water may be subject to vibrations excited by current-induced vortices.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Drag Coefficient
The drag to a submerged object due to currents is expressed as the sum of the surface resistance due to friction
and the form drag due to pressure difference around the object. The drag coefficient varies according to the
shape of the object, the roughness, the direction of the current, and the Reynolds number, and thus the value
appropriate to the conditions in question must be used.
When the Reynolds number is greater than about 103, the values listed in Table T- 7.2.1 may be used as
standard values for the drag coefficient. Note that for a circular cylinder or sphere with a smooth surface, there is
a phenomenon whereby the value of the drag coefficient drops suddenly when the Reynolds number is around
105. However, for a circular cylinder with a rough surface, this drop in drag coefficient is not particularly large,
and the drag coefficient settles down to a constant value that depends on the relative roughness.
For the values of the drag coefficient when a prism or L-shaped member is oriented diagonally relative to the
current, search for references. The data for the cube have been obtained from wave force experiments carried out
by Hamada, Mitsuyasu and Hase.

Table T- 7.2.1 Drag Coefficients

Shape Projected area Drag coefficient

Circular cylinder D 1.0 D


(rough surface) D

Rectangular 
prism B
B 2.0 B

Circular disc D πD2 1.2


4
a /b = 1 1.12
a /b = 2 1.15
Flat plate b
ab a /b = 4 1.19
a/b= 10 1.29
a/b= 18 1.40
a /b = 2.01
a

Sphere D
πD2
4
0.5 0.2

Cube
D
D2 1.3 1.6
D D

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(2) Lift Coefficient


As with the drag coefficient, the lift coefficient varies with the shape of the object, the direction of the current,
and the Reynolds number. However, the lift coefficient is not well understood (see 5.4.1 Wave Force on
Submerged Members).
(3) Current Force Acting on Submerged Breakwater
As for the force acting on the coping of the submerged section at the opening of tsunami protection breakwater,
Iwasaki et al. have measured the pressure on the coping due to the currents. They obtained the values of 0.94 for
the drag coefficient and 0.48 for the lift force coefficient. Tanimoto et al. have carried out similar measurements,
obtaining the values 1.0 to 1.5 for the drag coefficient and 0.5 to 0.8 for the lift coefficient. They have also
pointed out, however, that when the flow velocity in the breakwater opening is large, the presence of the water
surface gradient causes the coefficient values to increase.

7.3 Mass of Armor Stones and Concrete Blocks against Currents (Notification Article 48,
Clause 6)
It shall be standard to calculate the required mass for the armor units (rubble etc.) on a rubble mound to be
stable against currents by means of either appropriate hydraulic model experiments or else the following
equation:
prr U 6
M = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- (7.3.1)
( 48 )g 3 y 6 ( S r – 1 ) 3 ( cos q – sin q ) 3
where
M: minimum mass of armor stones and blocks (t)
rr: density of armor stones and blocks (t/m3)
U: current velocity above armor stones and blocks (m/s)
g: gravitational acceleration (= 9.81 m/s2)
y: Isbash’s constant (1.20 for embedded stones; 0.86 for exposed stones)
Sr: specific gravity of armor stones and blocks relative to water
q: slope angle in the axial direction of the channel bed (º)

[Technical Notes]
(1) Isbash’s Equation
With regard to the mass of rubble stone that is stable against currents, the US Army Coastal Engineering
Research Center (CERC) has presented equation (7.3.1) for the mass that a rubble stone must have in order to
prevent scouring by tidal currents 8).
(2) Isbash’s Constant
Equation (7.3.1) has been derived by considering the balance between the drag caused by a flow acting on a
spherical object on a sloped surface and the frictional resistance of the object. The coefficient y is termed
Isbash’s constant. It would appear that the values of 1.20 and 0.86 for embedded stones and exposed stones,
respectively, were determined by Isbash, but the details were not documented. Since equation (7.3.1) has been
obtained by considering the balance of forces for steady flow, for places where it is anticipated that strong
vortices will be generated, it is necessary to use rubble stones of larger mass.
(3) Armor Units for the Mound at the Opening of Tsunami Protection Breakwaters
Iwasaki et al. have carried out two-dimensional steady flow experiments in which they used precast concrete
blocks as the armor for the mound in the opening of breakwaters designed to protect harbors and coastal area
against tsunamis. They obtained a value of 1.08 for Isbash’s constant in equation (7.3.1). Tanimoto et al. have
carried out three-dimensional experiments on the opening of a tsunami breakwater. They clarified the structure
of the three-dimensional flow near the opening, and revealed the relationship between the damage ratio and
Isbash's constant when stones or precast concrete blocks were used as the covering material.

[References]
1) Kazuo MURAKAMI, Masayuki MORIKAWA, Tatsuya SAKAGUCHI: “Wind effect and water discharge effect on constant
flow - discussion using observation data at off-Sennan (1978-1981) -”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1982, pp. 3-39 (in
Japanese).
2) Masch, F. D.: “Mixing and dispersion of wastes by wind and wave action”, ‘Advances in Water Pollution Research,’ Proc. Int.
Conf., Vol. 3, 1962, pp. 145-168.
3) Longuet-Higgins, M.S. and R.W. Stewart: “Radiation stress and mass transport in gravity waves, with application to ‘surf
beat’”, J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 13, 1962, pp. 481-504.
4) Bowen, A. J., D. L. Inman, and V. P. Simons: “Wave ‘set-down’ and ‘set-up’”, J. Geophs. Res. Vol. 73, 1968, pp. 2569-2577.
5) Kazumasa KATOH, Shin-ichi YANAGISHIMA, Tomoyoshi ISOGAMI, Hiroyuki MURAKAMI: “Wave set-up near the
shoreline - field observation at HORF -”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1989, pp. 3-41 (in Japanese).

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

6) Yoshimi GODA: “Deformation of irregular waves due to depth-controlled wave breaking”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 14, No. 3,
1975, pp. 59-106 (in Japanese), also “Irregular wave deformation in the surf zone”, Coastal Engineering in Japan, JSCE,
Vol.18, 1975, pp.13-26.
7) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Katsutoshi KIMURA, Keiji MIYAZAKI: “Study on stability of submerged disk at the opening
section of tsunami protection breakwaters”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1988, pp. 93-121 (in Japanese).
8) Coastal Engineering Research Center: “Shore Protection Manual”, Vol. II, U.S. Army Corps of Engineering, 1977

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Chapter 8 External Forces Acting on Floating Body and Its Motions


8.1 General
The motions of a floating body produced by external forces such as those due to winds, currents and
waves, along with the mooring force, shall be given due consideration in design of the floating body and
related facilities.

[Commentary]
(1) Floating Body
In general, a floating body refers to a structure that is buoyant in water and its motions within a certain range is
permitted during use. When designing a floating body, it is necessary to investigate both its functions that are
going to be demanded and its safety. In general, the design conditions for the investigation of its function differ
from those for the examination of its safety.
(2) Mooring Equipment
Mooring equipment comes in a whole variety of types and is generally composed of a combination of mooring
lines, mooring anchors, sinkers, intermediate weights, intermediate buoys, mooring rods, connection joints, and
fenders. The mooring equipment has a large influence on the motions of a floating body, and so it is important to
design this equipment safely and appropriately.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Classification of Floating Bodies
The floating bodies used as port and harbor facilities can be divided into floating terminals, offshore petroleum
stockpiling bases, floating breakwaters, mooring buoys, and floating bridges. Moreover, researches for
development of extra large floating structures (mega-float) are being carried out.
(2) Classification of Mooring Methods and Characteristic Features of Each Method
Floating bodies can also be classified by the type of mooring methods. As described below, mooring methods
include catenary mooring (slack mooring), taut mooring, and dolphin mooring.
(a) Catenary mooring (Fig. T- 8.1.1(a))
This is the most common mooring method. With this method, the chains or whatever used in the mooring are
given sufficient lengths to make them slack. This means that the force restraining the motions of the floating
body is small, but nevertheless the mooring system fulfills the function of keeping the floating body in more-
or-less the same position. There are various types of catenary mooring, depending on factors like the material
of the mooring lines, the number of mooring lines, and the presence or absence of intermediate buoys and
sinkers.
(b) Taut mooring (Fig. T- 8.1.1(b))
This is a mooring method that reduces the motions of the floating body greatly; a tension leg platform (TLP) is
an example. With this method, the mooring lines are given a large initial tension so that they do not become
slack even when the floating body moves. The advantages of this mooring method are that the floating body
does not move much, and only a small area is needed for installing the mooring lines. However, it is necessary
to take note of the fact that because a large tensile force is generated in the mooring lines, the design of the
lines becomes the critical factor on the safety of the floating body.
(c) Dolphin mooring (Fig. T- 8.1.1(c))
With this method, mooring is maintained using either a pile-type dolphin or a gravity-type dolphin. In general,
this method is suitable for restraining the motions of a floating body in the horizontal direction, but a large
mooring force acts on the dolphin. This method has been used for mooring floating units of offshore
petroleum stockpiling bases.
(d) Mooring method using a universal joint (Fig. T- 8.1.1(d))
The mooring system shown in the figure is an example of a mooring method that can be used to moor a large
offshore floating body. Examples of mooring systems that use a universal joint on the sea bottom include a
SALM (Single Anchor Leg Mooring) type mooring buoy and a MAFCO (MAritime Facility of Cylindrical
cOnstruction) tower.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Fender

Chain
Mooring anchor Dolphin

(a) Catenary mooring (c) Dolphin mooring

Damper

Universal joint

(b) Taut mooring (d) Mooring by universal joint

Fig. T- 8.1.1 Examples of Mooring Methods for Floating Body

8.2 External Forces Acting on Floating Body (Notification Article 26, Clause 1)
When a port or harbor facility is made of a floating structure, it shall be standard to take the following
forces in design calculation: wind drag force, current drag force, wave-exciting force, wave-drift force,
wave-making resistance, restoring force, and mooring force. These forces shall be calculated by means of
an appropriate analytical method or hydraulic model experiments, in accordance with the mooring method
for the floating body and the size of facility.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Wind Drag Force
With a structure for which a part of the floating body is above the sea surface, winds exert a force on the
structure. This force is called the wind drag force (or wind pressure), and is composed of a pressure drag and a
friction drag. If the floating body is relatively small in size, the pressure drag is dominant. The pressure drag is
proportional to the square of the wind velocity and is expressed as in the following equation:
1
F w = --- r a C DW A W UW2 (8.2.1)
2
where
Fw: wind drag force (N)
ra: density of air (1.23 kg/m3)
AW: projected area of the part of the floating body above the sea surface as viewed from the direction in
which the wind is blowing (m2)
UW: wind velocity (m/s)
CDW: wind drag coefficient
The wind drag coefficient is a proportionality constant and is also known as the wind pressure coefficient. It may
be determined by means of wind tunnel experiments or the like. However, it is also acceptable to use a value that
has been obtained in the past experiments for a structure with a shape similar to the structure under current study.
Values such as those listed in Table T- 8.2.1 have been proposed as the wind drag coefficients of objects in
the uniform flow. As can be seen from this table, the wind drag coefficient varies with the shape of the floating
body, but it is also affected by the wind direction and the Reynolds number. Note that it is considered that the
wind pressure acts in the direction of the wind flow, with the point of application being the centroid of the
projection of the part of the floating body that is above the water surface. However, it is necessary to take heed
of the fact that this may not necessarily be the case if the floating body is large. Moreover, the velocity of the
actual wind is not uniform in the vertical direction, and so the value of the wind velocity UW used in the wind
pressure calculation is set as that at the elevation of 10 m above the sea surface.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Table T- 8.2.1 Wind Pressure Coefficient

Square cross-section 2.0

1.6
1
Rectangular cross-section
2 (ratio 2.3
of side lengths = 1:2)
2
1 1.5

(when one face is in  1.2


contact with the ground)
Circular cross-section 1.2

(smooth surface)

(2) Current Drag Force


When there is currents such as tidal currents, these currents will exert a force on the submerged part of the
floating body. This force is referred to as the flow pressure or the current drag force. Like the wind drag force, it
is proportional to the square of the flow velocity. Note however that since the velocity of the current is generally
small, the current drag force is actually expressed as being proportional to the square of the velocity of the
current relative to the velocity of motion of the floating body as in the following equation:
1
F C = --- r 0 C DC A C | U C – U | ( U C – U ) (8.2.2)
2
where
FC: current drag force (N)
r0: density of fluid (for seawater, 1030 kg/m3)
AC: projected area of the submerged part of the floating body as viewed from the direction of the currents
(m2)
UC: velocity of the currents (m/s)
U: velocity of motion of the floating body (m/s)
CDC: drag coefficient with respect to the currents
The drag coefficient CDC is a function of the Reynolds number. When the Reynolds number is large, however,
the values for steady flow in Table T- 7.2.1 in 7.2 Current Forces Acting on Submerged Members and
Structures may be used. The drag coefficient for the currents varies with the shape of the floating body and the
direction of the currents. As with the wind pressure, the direction of the force exerted by the currents and the
direction of the currents itself are not necessarily the same. In general, the deeper the draft of the floating body
relative to the water depth, the larger the drag coefficient for the currents becomes. This is referred to as the
shoaling effect, and the drag coefficient increases because the smaller the gap between the sea bottom and the
base of the floating body, the harder it is for water to flow through this gap.
(3) Wave-Exciting Force
The wave-exciting force is the force exerted by incident waves on the floating body when the floating body is
considered to be fixed in the water. It is composed of a linear force that is proportional to the amplitude of the
incident waves and a nonlinear force that is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the incident waves.
The linear force is the force that the floating body receives from the incident waves as reaction when the floating
body deforms the incident waves. The velocity potential for the deformed wave motion is obtained using wave
diffraction theory. The nonlinear force, on the other hand, is composed of a force that accompanies the finite
amplitude nature of waves and a force that is proportional to the square of the flow velocity. The former force
due to finite amplitude effect can be analyzed theoretically, but in practice it is often ignored. The latter force
that is proportional to the square of the flow velocity becomes large, in particular when the diameter of the
floating body is small relative to the wavelength; it is necessary to determine this force experimentally.
(4) Wave-Drift Force
When waves act on a floating body, the center of the floating body’s motion gradually shifts in the direction of
wave propagation. The force that causes this shift is called the wave-drift force. If it is assumed that the floating
body is two-dimensional and the wave energy is not dissipated, then the wave-drift force is given by the
following equations:
1
F d = --- r 0 gHi2R (8.2.3)
8

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

ì 4ph ¤ L ü
R = K R2 í 1 + -------------------------------- ý (8.2.4)
î sinh ( 4ph ¤ L ) þ
where
r0: density of seawater (kg/m3)
Fd: wave drift force per unit width (N/m)
Hi: incident wave height (m)
KR: reflection coefficient
R: drift force coefficient
If the dimensions of the floating body are extremely small relative to the wavelength, the wave drift force may
be ignored as being much smaller than the wave-exciting force. However, as the floating body becomes larger,
the wave drift force becomes dominant. When irregular waves act on a floating body moored at a system having
only a small restraining force, such as a single point mooring buoy designed for use of supertankers, the wave-
drift force becomes a dominant factor as it may give rise to slow drift motions.
(5) Wave-Making Resistance
When a floating body moves in still water, the floating body exerts a force on the surrounding water, and the
floating body receives a corresponding reaction force from the water; this reaction force is called the wave-
making resistance. This force may be determined by forcing the floating body to move through the still water
and measuring the force acting on the floating body. In general, however, an analytical method is used whereby
each mode of the floating body motions is assumed to be realized separately, and the velocity potential, which
represents the motion of the fluid around the floating body, is obtained. Only the forces that are proportional to
the motion of the floating body may be determined analytically; the nonlinear forces that are proportional to the
square of the motion cannot be determined analytically. Out of the linear forces (i.e., that proportional to the
motion of the floating body), the term that is proportional to the acceleration of the floating body is called the
added mass term, while the term that is proportional to the velocity is called the wave damping term.
(6) Restoring Force
The static restoring force is the force that makes a floating body to return to its original position when the
floating body moves in still water. It is generated by buoyancy and gravity, when the floating body heaves, rolls
or pitches. This force is generally treated as being proportional to the amplitude of the motion of the floating
body, although this proportionality is lost if the amplitude becomes too large.
(7) Mooring Force
The mooring force (restraining force) is the force that is generated in order to restrain the motion of the floating
body. The magintude of this force depends greatly on the displacement-restoration characteristics of the mooring
system.
(8) Solution Method for Wave-Exciting Force and Wave-Making Resistance Using Velocity Potential
The method adopted for calculating the wave-exciting force and the wave-making resistance involves
deriviation of the velocity potential, which represents the motion of the fluid, and then calculating the wave-
exciting force and the wave-making resistance from the potential. The analytical method with the velocity
potential is the same for both the wave-exciting force and the wave-making resistance, the only difference being
the boundary conditions. The velocity potential may be obtained using any of a number of methods, such as a
region segmentation method, an integral equation method, a strip method, or a finite element method.
(9) Wave Force Acting on Fixed Floating Body with Rectangular Cross Section
When a floating body is fixed in position, the velocity potential that satisfies the boundary conditions at the sea
bottom and around the floating body can yield the wave force. The wave force acting on a floating body with a
long rectangular cross section such as a floating breakwater can be determined using the approximation theory
of Ito and Chiba 2).
(10) Materials for Mooring
For the materials used in mooring and their characteristic features, search for appropriate references.
(11) Forces Acting on an Extra Large Floating Structure
For an extra large floating structure (mega-float), the external forces described in (1) ~ (10) above are different
from those for a smaller floating body, because of its large size and elastic response characteristics of the
floating body structure. It is thus necessary to carry out sufficient investigations on the motions and elastic
response characteristics of the floaty body structure.

8.3 Motions of Floating Body and Mooring Force (Notification Article 26, Clause 2)
The motions of a floating body and the mooring force shall be calculated by means of an appropriate
analytical method or hydraulic model experiments, in accordance with the shape of the floating body and
the characteristics of the external forces and the mooring system.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

[Commentary]
The motions of a floating body can be determined by
solving the dynamic equilibrium equation, with the Heaving Yawing Rolling
external forces taken to be the forces due to winds and Surging
waves, the restoring force of the floating body itself,
and the reaction forces of the mooring lines and
fenders. If the floating body is assumed to be a rigid
body, then its motions are comprised of the six
components shown in Fig. T-8.3.1, namely surging,
Pitching
swaying, heaving, pitching, rolling and yawing. Out of Swaying
these, the modes that represent motions within the
horizontal plane, namely surging, swaying and yawing,
may show long-period oscillations with the period of a
few minutes or more. Such long-period oscillations Fig. T- 8.3.1 Components of Vessel’s Motion
have a large influence on the occupancy area of a vessel
at a mooring buoy and the design of the mooring system. One may thus give separate consideration to the long-period
oscillations, taking only the wave-drift force and the long-period oscillation components of the winds and waves as
the external forces when doing analysis.
If the floating body is very long, elastic deformation may accompany the motions of floaty body and this should
be investigated as necessary.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Methods of Solving the Equations of Motions
(a) Steady state solution method for nonlinear equations of motion
The equations of motions for a floating body are nonlinear, meaning that it is not easy to obtain solutions.
Nevertheless, if it is assumed that the motion amplitudes are small and the equations of motion are linearized
by using linear approximations for the nonlinear terms, the solutions can be obtained relatively easily. For
example, for a three-dimensional floating body, one ends up with a system of six simultaneous linear
equations involving the amplitudes and phases of the six modes of motions. Note that if the floating body is
assumed to be a rigid body and its motions are linear, then the motions are proportional to the external forces.
In particular, if there are no currents or wind, then the motions are proportional to the wave height.
(b) Numerical simulation of nonlinear motions
The wind drag force and the current drag force are in general nonlinear, and moreover the restraining forces of
mooring equipment are also often nonlinear. In this case, an effective solution method is to use a numerical
simulation whereby the equations of motion are progressively solved for a series of time steps. Such numerical
simulation is commonplace nowadays. First, the time series data (which will be used as the external forces)
are obtained for the wave-exciting force and the flow velocity due to the waves from the input of incident
wave spectrum, as well as the fluctuating wind speed from the wind spectrum. The external forces obtained
from these time series data are then put into the equations of motions for the floating body, and the time series
data for the motions of the floating body and the mooring force are calculated.
Numerical simulations are used for analyzing the motions of all kinds of floating bodies. For example,
Ueda and Shiraishi 3) have carried out numerical simulations on the motions of a moored vessel, and Suzuki
and Moroishi 4) have analyzed the swinging motion of a vessel moored at a buoy.
Note that the following is usually assumed as preconditions in a numerical simulation: ① the fluid is an
ideal fluid; ② the amplitudes of motions of the floating body are small; ③ the incident waves are linear and
their superposition is allowed. If these assumptions cannot be held, it is necessary to carry out hydraulic model
experiments.
(2) Hydraulic Model Experiments
Hydraulic model experiments provide a powerful technique for determining the motions of a floating body and
the mooring force. Up to the present time, hydraulic model experiments have been carried out for all kinds of
floating body. For examples, see references 5) and 6).
(3) Law of Similarity for Mooring Systems
The characteristics of the motions of a floating body vary greatly with the mooring method. When carrying out
hydraulic model experiments on a floating body, it is thus particularly important to give appropriate
consideration to the laws of similarity for the displacement and reaction force characteristics of the mooring
equipment. For example, with a mooring rope, if the material used in the hydraulic model experiments is kept
the same as that used in the field and the size is simply scaled down while maintaining the same shape, then the
law of similarity will not hold; rather it is necessary to scale down the elastic modulus of the material used in the
models relative to that used in the prototype. In practice, however, it will probably be unable to find such a
material, in which case various other contrivances must be used.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

[References]
1) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Tetsuya HIRAISHI, Masami FURUKAWA, Kunihisa SAO, Shin-ichiro TACHINO: “Feild
observation of motions of a SALM buoy and tensions of mooring hawsers”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 542, 1985, 38 p. (in
Japanese).
2) Yoshiyuki ITO, Shigeru CHIBA: “An approximate theory of floating breakwaters”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1972, pp.
15-28 (in Japanese).
3) Shigeru UEDA, Satoru SHIRAISHI: “Method and its evaluation for computation of moored ship’s motions”, Rept of PHRI,
Vol. 22, No. 4, 1983, pp. 181-218 (in Japanese).
4) Yasumasa SUZUKI, Kazuyuki MOROISHI: “On the motions of ships moored to single-point mooring systems”, Rept of
PHRI, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1982, pp. 107-150 (in Japanese).
5) Yasumasa SUZUKI: “Study on the design of single point buoy mooring”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 829, 1996, 48 p. (in
Japanese).
6) Sigeru UEDA: “Analytical method of ship motions moored to quay walls and the aplications”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 504,
1984, 372 p. (in Japanese).

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Chapter 9 Estuarine Hydraulics


9.1 General (Notification Article 8)
In planning and designing port and harbor facilities in an estuary where a river flows into the sea, estuarine
hydraulic phenomena such as the flow situation at the times of high water and low water in the river, the
bedload, tidal changes and density currents, and the coexistence of waves and river flow shall be estimated
appropriately.

[Commentary]
In addition to the effect of outflow of fresh water during floods and droughts and the sediment transport from rivers,
estuaries are also affected by the tide level changes, waves, tidal currents, longshore currents, and littoral drift. As a
result, several hydraulic phenomena occur such as the periodic changes in water level and current speed, the
formation of density currents, and the settling and deposition of sediment. These phenomena have a large influence
on the flow regime in the estuary and the transport of sediment and others. It is thus necessary to give consideration to
both conditions of rivers and the sea when handling estuarine hydraulics.

[Technical Notes]
(1) Tides in River
The surface water level in a river channel can be calculated using either equation (9.1.1) or equation (9.1.2).
(a) When tides are negligible (see Fig. T- 9.1.1)
2 2
aQ æ 1 1 ö Q æ 1 1 ö
Dh = h 1 – h 2 = z 2 – z 1 – ---------- -------- – -------- – - ç --------
----- + -------- Dx (9.1.1)
2gs çè A 2 A 2 ÷ø 2 è K2 K2 ø
2 ÷
1 2 1

(b) When tides are considered

64748
2 2
1 ¶Q 2QB ¶H Q B æ ¶Hö Q ¶B ¶H Q Q
------ ------- – ----------2- ------- – ----------
3 è
i + ------- – --------3- ( H – z ) ------ + ------- + ----------- =0
gA ¶t gA ¶t gA ¶x ø gA ¶x ¶x K
2
(9.1.2)
¶A ¶Q
------ + ------- = 0
¶t ¶x
where
Dh: difference in water depth between two cross sections (m)
h1: water depth at cross section 1 (m)
h2: water depth at cross section 2 (m)
z1: height of river bed above an arbitrary datum level at cross section 1 (m)
z2: height of river bed above the arbitrary datum level at cross section 2 (m)
z: height of river bed above the arbitrary datum level (m)
a: velocity coefficient a ≒ 1.0
Q: flow rate (m3/s)
A: cross-sectional area (m2)
K: flow carrying capacity of cross
section (m3/s), K 2 = A 2 R 1 / 3 / n 2
R: hydraulic radius (m)
n: Manning’s roughness coefficient (s/
m1/3)
Dx: distance between two cross sections
(m)
t: time (s)
B: river width (m)
H: water level from an arbitrary datum
level (m), H = h + z
Cross Section 2 Cross Section 1
i: channel bottom slope
g: gravitational acceleration (g = 9.81 Fig. T- 9.1.1 Diagram Showing Water Level Curves
m/s2)
Equation (9.1.1) is a modified form of the basic equation for non-uniform flow in a channel of arbitrary cross
section. Consequently, it cannot be applied to an estuary where there are strong tidal effects and a reverse,
upstream flow occurs during a flood tide. However, it can be applied to an estuary where the tidal range is
small (less than 20 cm) and the tidal compartmut is not long (say up to about 3 to 4 km upstream). Even so, it
should only be used for the order estimate of hydraulic quantities during planning, because the calculation is
only an approximation while ignoring tides.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Equations (9.1.2) represents the equations of motions and continuity having been modified from the basic
equations for unsteady flow in a river, where the flow rate and water level are the variables. In order to
estimate the surface water level and flow rate due to the tidal action and propagation of tsunami into an
estuary, simultaneous solutions can be obtained by equations (9.1.2) with appropriate boundary conditions.
However, for a channel with a variable cross section, it is not so easy to solve equations (9.1.2) numerically.
(2) Waves Entering an Estuary
Upon entering a river mouth, waves are deformed by the currents. In addition to refraction due to the water
depth, refraction due to the difference in the directions between waves and currents causes the attenuation of
wave height. When the direction of waves is exactly opposite to that of river flow, however, wave height may
increase through energy exchange through the river flow’s stopping action or radiation stress. When waves with
an increased height run up the river channel, the wave height gradually decreases due to the effects of internal
and external frictions, and turbulence of currents. These opposing effects are related to the properties of river
flow and waves, and the mechanism of wave height change is very complex.
(a) Deformation of waves by currents (deepwater waves)
As shown in Fig. T- 9.1.2, when waves propagates at an Wave direction
angle a across the straight boundary of discontinuity Wa
ve
cre
st Zone 1: Still water
between the zone I where the water is still and the zone II u=0

L1
α1

C1
where the water is flowing with a uniform velocity, α2
refraction occurs at the boundary, changing the wave

Wa
ve
Zone 2: Flowing water
celerity and wavelength. If waves can be regarded as C2 u

c
res
t
deepwater waves (i.e., the water is sufficiently deep L2 Uniform flow

relative to the wavelength in both the zones I and II), the


wave celerity equation C = g L 2 leads to equations
Fig. T- 9.1.2 Refraction of Waves Due to
(9.1.3) and (9.1.4).
River Flow
6447448

sina 2 = sin a 1 /[1 - ( u /C1) sin a 1 ]2


–2
L 2 / L 1 = [1 - ( u /C1) sin a 1 ] (9.1.3)
–1
C 2 / C 1 = [1 - ( u /C1) sin a 1 ]
H2 / H 1 = sin 2a 2 / sin 2a 1 (9.1.4)

The deformation of deepwater waves propagating on exactly opposite currents is given by equation (9.1.5).
644474448

C 2 / C 1 = ( 1 + m ) /2

L 2 / L 1 = ( 1 + m )2/4 (9.1.5)
H 2 / H 1 = 1/ 1 + 4u / C 1
m = 1 + 4u / C 1
where
a: angle between the boundary line and the wave crest (º)
u: uniform flow velocity in zone II (m/s) (positive when the flow is following the direction of
propagation of the waves, negative when it is against)
L: wavelength (m)
C: wave celerity (m/s)
H: wave height (m)
Note that the subscript 1 denotes zone I (still water), while the subscript 2 denotes zone II (flowing water).
Equations (9.1.3) was proposed by Johnson 1), while equation (9.1.4) was presented by Longuet-Higgins and
Stewart 2). Equations (9.1.5) is a relationship that was obtained by Yu 3). According to equation (9.1.5), the
wave height should increase in the exactly opposite current, and waves breaking theoretically occur when u =
-C1/4. However, according to Yu’s experiments, wave partially breaks around u = -C1/7, and the wave height
decreases. Incidentally, it should be noted that equation (9.1.5) cannot be applied to waves after breaking.
(b) Deformation of waves by currents (finite water depth)
Near a river mouth, where the water depth is relatively shallow compared with the wavelength of the incoming
waves, the deformation of waves depends on the properties of both waves and river flow, along with the
nonlinear interaction between them. It is thus not easy to estimate the wave height.
Arthur 4) has carried out calculations whereby he specified the sea bottom bathymetry and the flow
velocity distribution. He assumed the linear long waves, where the phase velocity of waves relative to the river
flow is given as g h and it is not affected by the river flow. However, the velocity of waves is generally
affected by currents and is different from the case of no river flow.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

For wave deformation near a river mouth, Iwagaki et al. have proposed a method for calculating the wave
refraction in a current field on uneaven bottom. However, since the phase velocity and the group velocity of
waves relative to the currents cannot be given in advance, any quantitative discussion was not made.
Sakai et al. 5) have proposed a numerical calculation method for obtaining the directional spectrum of
irregular waves near a coast where the water depth changes and currents are present. They show several cases
of calculations. For example, there is a tendency that the change in the principal wave directions are affected
mainly by the water depth and that wave components with frequency higher than the peak freakency are
affected by currents. However, there is much room for further study on the way in which the wave breaking
conditions are given.
With regard to the nature of waves immediately after they have entered an estuary and come up against the
river flow, Hamada has determined the changes that steady shallow water waves undergo while running up an
estuary for both the cases that the vertical velocity distributions are uniform and parabolic. According to
Hamada’s calculations, when h = 15 cm, T = 1.2 s and u = 20 cm/s, for both the distributions the wave height
increases by about 5% in comparison with the case of no river flow. However, the rates of the wave height
increase and the wavelength decrease with the river flow were slightly larger for the parabolic velocity
distribution than for the uniform distribution.
(3) Siltation and Channel Maintenance
(a) Siltation
When constructing a harbor, it is often necessary to carry out dredging, i.e., to excavate the sea bottom to
deepen it in order to create navigation channels, mooring basins, and small craft basins. Even with an existing
harbor, if the coming vessels are going to increase in size, it is necessary to carry out dredging in order to
increase the water depth of the navigation channels and mooring basins. The sediment on the sea bottom is
usually subject to external forces such as currents and waves. This means that even after construction of a
harbor has been completed, it is necessary to continue dredging in order to maintain the functionality of the
harbor because siltation occurs.
The sediment in the estuarine part of a bay is often composed of fine particles such as clay and silt
(hereafter referred to as mud). The phenomenon whereby such fine sediment is picked up, transported, and
accumulates at the sea bottom is referred to as “siltation”. In Japan, Kumamoto Port and Miike Port in the
Ariake Sea, and several harbors in the Suo Nada Sea area are faced with the problem of siltation. There are
also many harbors in Europe, Southeast Asia, China, and South America that have similar problems.
The siltation phenomenon can be divided into three stages: picking-up and transport of bottom mud by
currents; mutual interference between waves and the bottom mud layer; and settling, accumulation and
consolidation. In estuaries, both waves and currents exist simultaneously, and flocculation is promoted in the
zone where saltwater and fresh water mix.
The major difference between siltation and littoral drift (mainly sand) comes from different grain sizes.
The mud that leads to siltation has a tendency to flocculate due to the mixing of the river water and the
seawater in an estuary. Flocculation causes large changes in the settling characteristics of fine sediment. Fine
particles of mud that have settled onto the sea bottom experience a process of dewatering and form the bottom
sediment, and then its strength gradually increases over a long period of time through consolidation.
Consequently, the resistence characteristic of mud against erosion by external forces such as waves and
currents vary, strictly speaking, depending on the characteristic features of the mud (duration over time after
settling (the level of consolidation), the texture, water content, organic matter content, etc.). This is the major
difference between siltation and littoral drift, whereby the sand is generally treated as individual grain.
Near to the sea bottom, the density of the mud generally varies with depth. In harbors that suffer from
heavy siltation, much efforts are being made for the measurement, maintenance, and control of water depth,
including that of navigation channels. For places where siltation is particularly pronounced, the water depth of
navigation channels is quite changeable, and so it is necessary to monitor the bottom level constantly. If the
required water depth is not sufficient for the safe navigation of vessels, bottom sediment need to be removed
immediately.
In most of the harbors in the world that suffer from heavy siltation, the sea bottom in approach channels is
covered with fluid mud with a density of 1.05~1.3 g/cm3. In such a case, it is important to define the water
depth which ensure safe navigation, because this definition directly affects the timing and quantity of
dredging. Bathymetry measurement using a sounding lead or echo-sounders has been carried out for a long
time for the purpose of managing and maintaining navigation channels. In the echo-sounding, a fluid mud
layer can be detected by using different frequencies. The two frequencies commonly used are say 210 kHz
(sound waves of this frequency are reflected from the surface of the fluid mud) and 33 kHz (sound waves of
this frequency passes through the fluid mud but is reflected from sand or higher-density mud). In some of the
large European ports such as Rotterdam, Zeebrugge, Dunkirk, Bordeaux and Nantes, as well as in estuaries in
Brazil, Venezuela and Indonesia, it is said that the difference between the surface detected by 210 kHz sound
waves and that detected by 33 kHz sound waves can be as much as a few meters 6). Note, however, that it is
not really sufficient to fix the water depth for which navigation is possible simply by using such equipment. In
Europe, where many navigation channels have the problem of heavy siltation (in particular in the Rotterdam
Europort area), the safe nautical depth is specified as being the depth at which the density of bottom material
is no more than 1.2 g/cm3 7).

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

In addition to this density requirement, the following two criteria must be satisfied.
① Even if the draft of a vessel approaches the nautical depth, there should be no damage to the hull.
② The viscous drag induced by the underside of a moving vessel (i.e., the rheology characteristic) and the
internal waves generated at the mud/water boundary do not cause any change in the water depth.
The criteria mentioned above can be considered that the water depth has been defined from a physical
standpoint. Although it is ultimately desirable to carry out direct evaluation by means of a viscosity meter, it
can be considered that at the present technical stage, the water depth has been specfied using the density value
that is most reliable in terms of measurement technology. New measuring equipment for the sediment density
in navigation channels using the g rays has been developed in Europe 6). In Japan, Ishizuka and Nemoto 8)
have developed a density measuring device that uses the g rays.
(b) Formation of fluid mud
The fluid mud layer is often found in estuaries or on the continental shelf close to the coast. The layer contains
a very high concentration of mud in fluid condition and easy to move. The mud concentration in the fluid mud
layer is of the order of 10,000~300,000 mg/l 9). In fact, Krone1 9) defines a fluid mud layer to have a mud
concentration of at least 10,000 mg/l. Kirby and Parker1 10) have obtained the vertical distribution of the
density within a fluid mud layer using a density measuring device that makes use of the scattering properties
of the g rays. By comparing with the results of echo sounding measurements, they have concluded that the
density of fluid mud lies in the range 1.05~1.3 g/cm3.
(c) Effect of submerged dykes
In Kumamoto Port, which is currently being constructed on very gentle mud flats of the Ariake Sea, it is
expected that navigation channels and mooring basins will be subject to siltation. Large-scale field
observations are thus being carried out to investigate siltation process in this area, and proposals of
countermeasure are being investigated. Before construction was commenced, i.e., when there was nothing at
all in this sea area, three test trenches for siltation experiments were constructed. One (Trench No. 1) was
located where the water depth is 4m, and two (Trenches No. 2 and No. 3; separated from each other by 100m)
were located where the water depth is 2m. The three trenches were all of the same size, but Trench No. 3 was
made different from the other two in that it was surrounded by 1 m-high submerged dykes. The locations of
the trenches are shown in Fig. T- 9.1.3.

Fig. T- 9.1.3 Locations of Trenches Used in Siltation Experiments

Figure T- 9.1.4 shows the time series of the amount of siltation in each trench, as measured at the center of
each of the three trenches. During two large storms in 1987, Trenches No.1 and No.2 silted up rapidly, with
over 60 cm of siltation occurring in just one day. However, in Trench No. 3, which was surrounded by
submerged dykes, hardly any siltation occurred at all; there was also no trace of any significant mud
accumulation along the outsides of the submerged dykes.

-151-
0

-100
0
100
-100
0
100
-100
0
100
-100
0
100

Area 9
Area 8
Area 7
Deposition height

Area 10
9209 9209 9209

Dredging
9210 9210 9210

92.9
0
50
100
150
cm
9211 9211 9211

Area 10
9212 9212 9212
9301 9301 9301
12/1
1986

9302 9302 9302

N
9303 9303 9303

93.3
9305 9305 9305
1/1
1987

9308 9308 9308

9310 9310 9310


2/1

9312 9312 9312

Area 9
9402 9402 9402

93.10 94.2
Waterway
3/1

9405 9405 9405

9409 9409 9409

94.9
1000(m)
4/1

9412 9412 9412

9503 9503 9503

Area 8
5/1

9506 9506 9506

95.6
6/1

Units : cm
7/1

-152-
Area 7
8/1

-100
0
100
-100
0
100
-100
0
100
-100
0
100
-100
0
100
-100
0
100
-100
0
100
-100
0
100
9/1

Area 6
Area 5
Area 4
Area 3
Area 2
Area 2
Area 1