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Bangalore University, Dept.

of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 1


Engineering

BANGALORE UNIVERSITY
UNIVERSITY VISVESVARAYA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

SCHEME OF STUDY AND EXAMINATION FOR


M.E. DEGREE COURSE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

MAJOR: GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING


(NEW SCHEME)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


UVCE, JNANABHARATHI
BANGALORE 560 056
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 2
Engineering

ME Regulation 2008-09
BANGALORE UNIVERSITY
UNIVERSITY VISVESVARAYA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
BANGALORE
REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE POST GRADUATE COURSES IN
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE (M.E. and M.Arch.)
1. Title and Duration of the M.E and M.Arch. courses.
1.1 The courses governed by AICTE shall be called the Degree course in Master
of Engineering, in-short, M.E. and the course governed by the Council of
Architecture (COA) shall be called the Degree course in Master of
Architecture, in-short M.Arch.
1.2 The Masters Degree courses consist of four semester of total duration 24
months. Each semester shall have a minimum of 90 working days.
2. Department-wise M.E and M.Arch. courses offered in different specialization at
University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering, Bangalore University Bangalore.
2.1 Department of Civil Engineering.
1. Construction Technology
2. Environmental Engineering
3. Geo-Technical Engineering
4. High Way Engineering
5. Pre-Stressed Concrete Engineering
6. Structural Engineering
7. Water Resource Engineering
8. Earthquake Engineering
2.2 Department of Mechanical Engineering.
1. Machine Design
2. Manufacturing Science and Engineering
3. Thermal Science and Engineering
4. Advanced Material Technology
2.3 Department of Electrical Engineering.
1. Power and Energy Systems
2. Power Electronics
3. Control Engineering
2.4 Department of Electronics Engineering.
1. Electronics and Communication
2. Digital Electronics
3. VLSI and Embedded Systems
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 3
Engineering

2.5 Department of Computer Science and Engineering.


1. Computer Science and Engineering
2. Information Technology
3. Computer Networking
4. Bioinformatics
5. Web Technology
6. Software Engineering
2.6 Department of Architecture.
1. Construction and Project Management
2. Landscape Architecture

3. Eligibility Criteria for Admission to M.E and M.Arch. Degree courses.


3.1 AICTE Approved courses:
(a) Candidates who have passed the B.E degree examination by securing an
aggregate minimum of 50% of marks of all the semesters / years of the
qualifying examination [(Total sum of the secured marks of all the semesters
or years including class marks ÷ Total sum of the marks) ≥ 50, with no
rounding off the fraction to 50%] in the appropriate branch of Engineering of
Bangalore University or any other equivalent Examination recognized by the
Bangalore University / State Government with a valid GATE score or
entrance test score are eligible for admission to the appropriate course as
decided by the Bangalore University / State Government from time to time.
(b) In case of SC/ST candidates satisfying the condition 3(a), the aggregate is
relaxed to 45% with no rounding off the fraction to 45%.
(c) Not withstanding 3(a), members of the Teaching and Technical staff of the
University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering, Teaching staff of
Government Engineering Colleges / Aided Engineering Colleges /
Government Polytechnics / Aided Polytechnics, Engineers, in the order of
preference, working in State Government Departments / Central Government
Departments/ Quasi State and Central Departments / Public Sector units,
Teaching staff of other Engineering Colleges and polytechnic and Engineers
working in a registered firm / Company / Industry etc, all located in
Karnataka, with a minimum of 3 years of experience on full time basis after
the graduation are eligible to the course as sponsored full time students.
3.2 COA approved courses:
(a) Candidates who have passed the B.Arch. Degree examination by securing an
aggregate minimum of 50% of marks of all the semesters / years of the
qualifying examination [(Total sum of the secured marks of all the semesters
or years including class marks ÷ Total sum of the marks) ≥ 50, with no
rounding off the fraction to 50%] in the branch of Architecture of Bangalore
University or any equivalent Examination recognized by the Bangalore
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 4
Engineering

University / State Government with a valid GATE score or entrance test


score are eligible for admission to the M.Arch. course as decided by the
Bangalore University / State Government from time to time.
(b) In case of SC/ST candidates satisfying the condition 3(a), the aggregate is
relaxed to 45% with no rounding off the fraction to 45%.
(c) Not withstanding 3(a), members of the Teaching and Technical staff of the
University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering, Teaching staff of
Government Engineering Colleges / Aided Engineering Colleges /
Government polytechnics/ Aided polytechnics, Engineers, in the order of
preference, working in State Government Departments / Central Government
Departments/ Quasi State and Central Departments / Public Sector units,
Teaching staff of other Engineering Colleges and polytechnic and Architects
working in a registered firm / Company / Industry etc, all located in
Karnataka, with a minimum of 3 years of experience on full time basis after
the graduation are eligible to the course as sponsored full time students.
4. Selection of Candidates for admission to Post Graduate Courses:
The selection of candidates for admission shall be based on the GATE score or on
the entrance test score.
(a) General category seats are filled by GATE qualified candidates on all India
basis.
(b) The general category seats not filled by the GATE qualified candidates shall
be filled by candidates by merit based on the Entrance test conducted by the
Bangalore University or by any other body authorized by the State
Government.
5. Academic requirements:
(a) Attendance: The student shall be eligible to appear for the Examination only
if the candidate has attended 75% of the number of working periods in each
of the semester in each of the subjects i.e., Theory, Practical, Seminars and
Dissertation etc., or as prescribed by the University from time to time.
(b) Sessional: The students shall secure 50% of class marks in each subject to
appear to the University examination at the end of each semester. Students
failing to obtain the minimum class marks (i.e., 50% of the maximum in each
of the subjects) even in one subject of any semester, he/she shall not be
permitted to appear for that semester examination. Such students shall repeat
the semester during the next academic year and then appear for that semester
examination.
(c) Course completion: A candidate admitted for the M.E /M.Arch degree
course must completely pass in all the subjects prescribed in the Scheme of
study within 48 months from the date of joining the course failing which the
admission stands cancelled.
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 5
Engineering

6. Dissertation and Viva - Voce:


(a) Dissertation: The candidate in consultation with the concerned guide during
third semester itself shall choose the dissertation subject and title. The
subjects shall be directly related to the candidate's major field of
specialization. The title may be modified, if required, during the fourth
semester, before the final submission. The work should be carried out during
both 3rd and 4th Semesters. The candidate shall submit the dissertation at the
end of the fourth semester on satisfactory completion of the Sessional
requirements.
(b) Viva - Voce:
(i) The Viva - Voce examination shall be held only after the student
successfully completes all the requirements of all the four semesters.
(ii) The Viva - Voce shall cover the work carried out by the candidate for
the dissertation and the related topics.
(iii) The Viva - Voce is conducted by a committee consisting of the
Chairman, Departmental Council, Chairman BOE of the concerned
specialization, the internal guide and the external appointed examiners
for evaluation of the dissertation.
(iv) The average of the marks assessed by the internal guide and external
examiners separately of the dissertation is taken as the marks awarded
to the candidates.
(v) The candidate whose dissertation is rejected, even by one of the
examiners, may be permitted to revise the dissertation and re-submit the
same for the next University examination.
(vi) In case the internal guide or the external examiners are not available for
evaluation of Dissertation / conducting of Viva-Voce examination, the
Chairman, BOE of the concerned specialization shall make alternate
arrangement in consultation with Registrar (Evaluation), Bangalore
University.
7. Minimum for Pass:
The candidate shall be declared to be successful in any of the semester
examination only on securing a minimum of 50% marks in each subject of the
examination as well as 50% of the Class marks in each subject as per Clause 5(b).
8. Benefit of Exemption:
A candidate failing to obtain the prescribed minimum for a Pass in any of the
subject/s of the examination shall be permitted to appear for the subject/s of that
examination in which the candidate has secured less than 50% of the maximum
marks.
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 6
Engineering

9. Eligibility:
(a) A candidate is permitted to carry only two subjects of I semester for
admission to II semester and two subjects of I/II semesters, considered
together, to III semester.
(b) The candidates will be admitted to IV semester only after he/she passes all
the subjects of the previous semesters.
(c) Those candidates who had lost the eligibility to go to IV semester shall
carryout the dissertation work after getting eligibility and shall submit the
dissertation for Viva- Voce examination along with the regular students of IV
semester.
10. Declaration of Results:
The results of the successful candidates will be declared as follows :
(a) “Second class” to the candidate who obtains above 50% but below 60% of
the aggregate marks in all the four semester examinations.
(b) “First class” for the candidate who obtains 60% and above of the aggregate
marks in all the four semester examinations.
(c). “First class with Distinction” for the candidate who obtains 75% and above
of the aggregate marks of all the four semester examinations and must have
passed all the examinations in the first attempt.
11. Calendar of Events and Scheme of examination:
(a) The Calendar of Events shall be fixed by the University from time to time.
(b) The Scheme of study, syllabus and scheme of examination for the various
courses shall be provided separately.
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 7
Engineering

SCHEME OF STUDY AND EXAMINATION FOR


M.E DEGREE COURSE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
MAJOR: GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
(2008-2009 onwards)
FIRST SEMESTER
No. of Hrs.
Code Practicals/ Class Exam
Title of Subject Total
No. Theory Computer Marks Marks
Lab.
2K8GT101 Finite Elements in
4 0 25 100 125
Geotechnical Engineering
2K8GT102 Site investigation and
4 0 25 100 125
Improvement techniques
2K8GT103 Geotechnology and
4 3 25 100 125
Advanced soil testing
2K8GT104 Advanced soil mechanics 4 0 25 100 125
2K8GT105 Design of Shallow
4 0 25 100 125
foundations
2K8GT106 Elective I 4 0 25 100 125
2K8GT107 Seminar 0 2 50 - 50
Total 200 600 800
2K8GT106 Elective - I
a) Case histories in Geo technical Engineering
b) 2K8HW 102 Pavement Design

SECOND SEMESTER
No. of Hrs.
Practicals/ Class Exam
Code No. Title of Subject Total
Theory Computer Marks Marks
Lab.
2K8GT201 Soil dynamics 4 0 25 100 125
2K8GT202 Rock Mechanics 4 0 25 100 125
2K8GT203 Design of Deep foundations 4 0 25 100 125
2K8GT204 Earth and Rock fill Dams 4 0 25 100 125
2K8GT205 Reinforced soil structures 4 0 25 100 125
2K8GT206 Elective - II 4 0 25 100 125
2K8GT207 Seminar – II 2 50 - 50
Total 200 600 800
2K8GT 206 Elective – II
a) Environmental Geotechniques
b) Special problems in Highway Engineering
c) Airport Planning & Design
d) Planning & Design of Flyovers and Bridge Structures
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 8
Engineering

SCHEME OF STUDY AND EXAMINATION FOR


M.E DEGREE COURSE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
MAJOR: GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
(2008-2009 onwards)
THIRD SEESTER
Code No. of Hours Sessional Exam
Title of Subject Total
No. Theory Practical Marks Marks
2K8GT301 Foundation Engineering
4 0 25 100 125
in difficult ground
2K8GT302 Behavior and Testing of
4 0 25 100 125
unsaturated soils
2K8GT303 Elective - III 4 0 25 100 125
2K8GT304 Dissertation - 6 75 - 75
2K8GT305 Seminar – III - 2 50 - 50
Total 200 300 500
2K8GT303 Elective – III
a) Expansive soil Engineering
b) 2K8HW 301Rural Roads

FOURTH SEMESTER
No. of Hours Internal
Exam
Code No. Subject Assessment Total
Theory Practical Marks
Marks
2K8GT401 Dissertation - 6 50 200 250
2K8GT402 Seminar – IV - 2 50 - 50
Total 300
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 9
Engineering

I SEMESTER
2K8GT101 FINITE ELEMENTS IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

1. Introduction: General, General description methods, brief description of FEA for


stress analysis problem, finite element method vs classical method. FEM vs FDM
a brief history of FEM, need for studying FEM.
2. Basic Equations in Elasticity: Introduction, Stress in typical element, equations of
equilibrium, strains, strain displacement equations, linear constitutive law.
3. Finite element Basics: Introduction, elements, shape functions, co-ordinate
transformation, strain displacement relations, stiffness equations, body forces,
surface tractions, geotechnical considerations: effective stress methods loadings,
initial stresses, excavation, fills.
4. Variable - Elastic stress - Strain laws: Introduction, Bi-linear elastic model, K-G
model, Hyperbolic model, Comparison of Models, critical state model:
Introduction, the geometric model, hardening law, yield function, flow rule, stress-
strain invariant relation, stress-strain component relation, parameter values,
examples.
5. Seepage analysis and analysis of jointed rock masses:
Seepage Analysis: Introduction, some equations, finite element discretization of
seepage equation, Computation of velocities and flows, treatment of free surface
boundary.
Analysis of Jointed Rock Masses: Introduction, some characteristics of rocks,
discontinuities in rock masses, some models of behaviour jointed rocks,
generalized plane strain analysis in rock mechanics, effective stress analysis if
undrained rock masses.
References
1. FEM Analysis by S.S. Bhavikatti- New Age International Publishers.
2. Finite Elements in Geotechnical Engineering by D.J. Naylor and G.N. Pande
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 10
Engineering

2K8GT102 SITE INVESTIGATION AND IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES

1. Site investigation: Planning and experimental programme, investigations,


exploration for preliminary design, exploration for detailed design, geo-physical
exploration, soundings, probings, boring, boring methods, excavation methods for
exploration, ground water investigations, representative, disturbed and undisturbed
samples, samplers, rock boring, miscellaneous exploratory techniques,
preservation, shipment and storage of samples, bore logs, supervising exploration
programs, sub-surface exploration reports.

2. Site improvement:
A. Soils of India, their distribution, problematic types of soils.
B. General methods of stabilization - shallow and deep. Factors to be considered
in the selection of suitable method.
C. Compaction: standard methods, equipment, control techniques.
D. Drainage: Soil and filter permeability, filter criteria, drainage layout pumping
system.
E. Pre-compression and consolidation: pre-compression principles, sand drains,
pore pressure distribution, electro-osmotic consolidation, chemical osmotic
consolidation.
F. Grouting: Injection and principles, grouting pressure criteria, grouting
equipments, injection chemicals.
G. Mechanical stabilization, lime, cement, bitumen, chemical etc.
H. Thermal methods of stabilization: Heating and cooling effects on soils,
equipments.
I. Other methods like moisture barriers, and preventing techniques.

References:
1. Engineering principles of ground modifications by Hausmann, McGraw Hill (1990).
2. Foundation analysis and design by J E Bowles
3. Foundation engineering by S P Brahma
4. Subsurface exploration and sampling of soils for Civil Engg. Purposes by Hvorslev,
M.J.
5. Soil mechanics for road engineers by HMSO.
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 11
Engineering

2K8GT103 GEOTECHNOLOGY AND ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

PART A

1. Introduction: Geological considerations, stratigraphy, geological structure,


weathering and its assessment, description of rock and rock mass for engineering
purposes.
2. Study of rocks: Formation, basic types of rocks, igneous, sedimentary,
metamorphic rocks and their classification, Metamorphosis.
3. Geological structures: Folds, faults and joints, their classification, criterion for the
identification of faults and other discontinuities.
4. Clay mineralogy: Origin and occurrence of clay minerals, structure and
composition of clay minerals, ion exchange, clay mineral analysis - DTA, electron
microscopy, x-ray diffraction.

PART B

1. Tests for index properties of soils - specific gravity, grain size analysis (both sieve
and hydrometer analysis) Atterberg limits, Relative merits and demerits of
different methods.
2. Tests for engineering properties of soils - consolidation characteristics, various
shear tests including pore pressure measurements (UU, CU, CD tests to be
covered).
3. Field tests for soils like plate load test, SPT, SCPT and their uses.

References
1. Manual of soil laboratory testing, K.H. Head, ELE International Ltd., Pentech Press.
2. Engineering properties of soils and their measurements, J E Bowles, McGraw Hill,
International Edition.
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 12
Engineering

2K8GT104 ADVANCED SOIL MECHANICS

1. Factors influencing nature and formation of soils. Soil as a multiphase material.


Complexity of soil nature, typical soil deposits with special reference to Indian
soils. Basic engineering properties of different soils and their uses.
2. Soil structure - Types of bonds, important clay minerals, atomic structure and
symbolic representation. Base Exchange capacity. Guoy - Chapman diffuse double
layer theory, clay structure measurement – X-ray diffraction, SEM studies, Pore
size analysis.
3. Lambe’s compaction theory, structural and engineering, Properties of Compacted
soils, Laboratory compaction tests, Field compaction and its control related
problems
4. Elastic theories of stress distribution in soils - Boussinesq, Westergaard, Burmister
theories. Different conditions of loading, Isobars, New marks chart, related
problems
5. Shear strength parameters of cohesionless and saturated cohesive soils, principle of
effective stress, effect of rate of strain on shear parameters, stress - strain
relationship, pore pressure coefficients, concept of stress path, effect of over
consolidation on shear parameters. Laboratory and field testing their limitations.
6. Immediate settlement - methods of determination. Estimation of pre-consolidation
pressure. Three dimensional consolidation, pre-compression of clay deposits with
and without sand drains, secondary consolidation - factors affecting.
7. Stability analysis of slope - Effective vs total stress analysis, different methods of
stability analysis for finite slopes, method of slices, Taylor stability number,
Bishop’s rigours analysis.

References
1. Fundamentals of soil behaviour by J K Mitchell
2. Soil Mechanics by Lambe and Whitman
3. Foundation Engineering design by J E Bowles
4. Soil Mechanics by Terzaghi and Peck
5. Foundation Engineering by Kasmalkar
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 13
Engineering

2K8GT105 DESIGN OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS


1. Bearing Capacity of Foundations : Introduction, Types of shallow foundations,
Modes of shear failure, Bearing Capacity, Bearing Capacity Equations, Additional
Considerations when Using the Bearing Capacity Equations, Bearing Capacity
Examples, Footings with Eccentric or Inclined Loadings, Effect of Water Table on
Bearing Capacity, Bearing Capacity for Footings on Layered Soils, Bearing Capacity
of Footings on Slopes, Bearing Capacity from SPT, Bearing Capacity Using the
Cone Penetration Test (CPT), Bearing Capacity from Field Load Tests, Bearing
Capacity of Foundations with Uplift or Tension Forces, Bearing Capacity Based on
Building Codes (Presumptive Pressure), Safety Factors in Foundation Design,
Bearing Capacity of Rock, Problems.
2. Foundation Settlements : The Settlement Problem, Stresses in Soil Mass Due to
Footing Pressure, The Boussinesq Method for qv, Special Loading Cases for
Boussinesq Solutions, Westergaard’s Method for Computing Soil Pressures,
Immediate Settlement Computations, Rotation of Bases, Immediate Settlements:
Other Considerations, Size Effects on Settlements and Bearing Capacity, Alternative
Methods of Computing Elastic Settlements, Stresses and Displacements in Layered
and Anisotropic Soils, Consolidation Settlements, Reliability of Settlement
Computations, Structures on Fills, Structural Tolerance to Settlement and
Differential Settlements, General Comments on Settlements, Problems.
3. Factors to Consider in Foundation Design : Footing Depth and Spacing,
Displaced Soil Effects, Net versus Gross Soil Pressure: Design Soil Pressures,
Erosion Problems for Structures Adjacent to Flowing Water, Corrosion Protection,
Water Table Fluctuation, Foundations in Sand and Silt Deposits, Foundations on
Loess and Other Collapsible Soils, Foundations on Unsaturated Soils Subject to
Volume Change with Change in Water Content, Foundations on Clays and Clayey
Silts, Foundations on Residual Soils, Foundations on Sanitary Landfill Sites, Frost
Depth and Foundations on Permafrost, Environmental Considerations, Problems.
4. Mat Foundations : Introduction, Types of Mat Foundations, Bearing Capacity of
Mat Foundations, Mat Settlements, Modulus of Subgrade Reactions Ks for Mats and
Plates, Design of Mat Foundations, Finite-Difference Method for Mats, Finite-
Element Method for Mat Foundations, The Finite-Grid Method (FGM), Mat
Foundation Examples Using the FGM, Mat-Superstructure Interaction, Circular
Mats or Plates, Boundary Conditions, Problems.
References
1. Joseph E. Bowles “Foundation analysis and Design” McGraw Hill, International edition.
2. S.P.Brahma “Foundation Engineering” Tata McGrawHill publishing Co. Ltd, NewDelhi
3. Narayana M. Nayak “Foundation design Manual” Dhanpat Rai Publications (P) Ltd.
4. Purushotham Raj “Geotechnical Engineering” Tata McGraw Hill publishing company
Ltd, New Delhi.
5. Gopal Ranjan and A.S.R. Rao “Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics” New age
International Publications.
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 14
Engineering

2K8GT106(a). CASE HISTORIES IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING


(Elective-I)

1. Geotechnical problems in civil engineering. Foundations - soil as construction


material in slopes and excavations. Underground and earth retaining structures.
2. Soil as different types of material in behaviour, design and construction.
3. Past and future of applied soil mechanics.
4. Role of calculated risk and safety factors in applied soil mechanics and foundation
engineering.
5. New concepts in consolidation, settlements and bearing capacity.
6. Case histories: Typical cases of performance / failure of representative soil
engineering projects namely shallow foundations and piles, slope stability, earth
dams, retaining structures, machine foundations etc.

References

1. Fundamentals of soil behaviour by J K Mitchell


2. Soil mechanics by Lambe and Whitman
3. Foundation engineering design by J E Bowels
4. Soil mechanics by Terzaghi and Peck
5. Current literature for case histories in geotechnical engineering

2K8GT106 (b)/2K8HW 102 PAVEMENT DESIGN (Elective-I)


(Core Subject Offered by Highway Engineering stream)

2K8GT107 SEMINAR – I

Student has to select any one topic of his / her choice under the guidance of the faculty
in the discipline. He/she should prepare and submit the report (3 copies) after it is
presented in the presence of faculty members of the discipline.
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 15
Engineering

II SEMESTER

2K8GT201 SOIL DYNAMICS

1. Theory of vibration – Single degree, Two degree and Multi degree of freedom
system, Free and forced vibration, Transient response, Resonance and its effects,
wave propagation – theory and application to dynamic problems.

2. Dynamic soil properties – General, laboratory and field methods, factors affecting
different properties, vibration inducing and measuring instruments

3. Shear strength and Liquefaction of soils - Stress - Strain and Strength


characteristics of soils under dynamic loads, factors affecting, Resonance column
test, Triaxial tests under dynamic loads, Liquefaction of soils and factors
influencing liquefaction, Dynamic earth pressure, retaining wall problems under
dynamic loads.

4. General principles of Machine foundation design – Introduction, Design criterion,


types and requirements of Machine foundation.
i) Foundation for Reciprocating Machines
ii) Foundations for forge hammers
iii) Foundations for Turbo generators

5. Vibration Isolation – Introduction, Mechanical Isolators, isolation by artificial


barriers, active and passive isolation, Case histories of foundation isolation.

References
1. D D Barkan, Vibration of soils and foundations.
2. F E Richart Jr., J R Hall Jr. and R D Woods, Vibrations of soils and foundations,
Prentice Hall Inc. NJ.
3. A A Major, Vibration analysis and design of foundation for machines and turbines,
London Collects Holding Ltd. 1962.
4. IS Codes of Practice.
5. Swami Saran “Soil dynamics and Machine foundation” Golgotia (1999)
6. P. Srinivasalu and C.V. Vydyanathan “Hand book of Machine foundation” Tata Mc
Graw Hill (1976)
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 16
Engineering

2K8GT202 ROCK MECHANICS

1. Introduction: Fields of application of rock mechanics. Rock forming minerals,


classification of rocks-geological, petrographic and engineering. Index properties
of rocks – porosity, density, permeability, strength slake and durability, logging of
cores, core recovery, rock quality designation and its engineering importance.
2. Strength of rocks: stress strain behaviour, factors influencing the strength of rocks-
temperature, confining pressure, strain rates, modes of failures of rocks, failure
theories of rocks, Mohr’s Hypothesis, Griffith’s Criteria, Murrel’s extension of
griffith’s theory, elementary theory of crack propagation, failure of rock by crack
propagation, effects of cracks of elastic properties.
3. Testing of Rocks: laboratory testing – uniaxial compression test, tension test,
torsion test, hollow cylinder test, diametrical compression test, permeability tests,
field tests- flat jack test, plate bearing tests, etc. Insitu test for strength assessment
in compression and shearing.
4. Rock foundations: Introduction, types of shallow and deep investigations for
foundation design and construction aspect.
5. Rock slope stability, modes of slope failures in rocks, engineered slopes, slope
design aspect, excavations in rocks and stabilization concepts.
6. Strengthening of rocks: Foundation treatment for dams and heavy structures by
grouting and rock reinforcement. Methods and principles of grouting, Principles
of design of rock bolts.
7. Tunnels - Basic Terminology, history and application, site investigations, methods
of excavation of tunnels supports and stabilization, construction control and
maintenance, tunnel ventilation, control of ground water and gas.
8. Underground Mining - Introduction, Mining methods, planning and design, mining
equipments and mining procedures, cause for subsidence and its remedial
measures.
References
1. R.E. Goodman, Introduction to Rock Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons, NewYork (1976
2. John A, Franklin and Maurice B, Dusseault Rock Engineering Application, McGraw
Hill Inc., New Delhi.
3. J.C. Jeager and N.G.W. Cook, Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics, Chapmen and Hall
Ltd., London, 1976.
4. Roberts. A – Geotechnology, Pergamou Press Ltd., Oxford
5. Principles of Engineering Geology and Geotechniques by Krynine and Judd.
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 17
Engineering

2K8GT203 DESIGN OF DEEP FOUNDATIONS

1. Single pile – Static capacity and lateral loads


Introduction, Timber, Concrete, Steel piles, Corrosion of steel piles, Soil properties
for static pile capacity, Ultimate static pile point capacity, Skin resistance, Static load
capacity using Load-transfer, load test data. Tension piles - Piles for resisting uplift.
Laterally loaded piles, Buckling of fully and partially embedded piles and poles

2. Single pile – Dynamic analysis and load tests


Dynamic analysis, Pile driving, rational pile formula, other Dynamic formulae and
general considerations. Reliability of dynamic pile driving formulae. The wave
equation, pile load tests, Pile driving stresses, General comments on pile driving.

3. Pile foundations - Group. Single pile Vs Pile group, Pile group considerations,
efficiency of pile groups, stresses on underlying strata from piles, settlements of pile
groups, Pile caps, Batter piles, Negative skin friction, Matrix analysis for pile
groups, Pile cap design by Computer.

4. Types of Caissons, Bearing capacity, stress distribution and settlement, Design of


drilled caissons elements, forces in drilled Caissons, design of elements of Caissons,
Constructional aspects of a drilled caissons, Construction of Caissons, problems
associated with installation, advantages and disadvantages of Caissons foundation,
Comparison of Caisson types.

References
1. Joseph.E. Bowles “Foundation analysis and Design” McGraw Hill, International
edition
2. S.P. Brahma “Foundation Engineering” Tata McGraw Hill publishing company Ltd,
New Delhi.
3. Narayana V. Nayak “Foundation design Manual” Dhanpat Rai Publications
4. Purushotham Raj “Geotechnical Engineering” Tata McGraw Hill publishing company
Ltd, New Delhi.
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 18
Engineering

2K8GT204 EARTH AND ROCKFILL DAMS


1. Introduction: Why earth and earth-rockfill dams, homogeneous earth dams, zoned
earth and earth-rockfill dams, typical embankment dam sections.
2. Site selection and exploration: Influence of topography and subsoil conditions on
location and alignment of the dam, foundation subsurface exploration and studies of
embankment construction material.
3. Factors influencing design: Material available for embankment construction,
character of the foundation, climate, shape and size of the valley, river diversion,
probable wave action, time available for construction, function of the reservoir and
earthquake activity.
4. Design details: Material, location and inclination of earth core, shell materials and
embankment side slopes, free board, crest width and camber. Filter zones, curving
embankment for arch action and raising earth dams. Design provisions to control
construction and draw down pore pressures. Berms, upstream and down stream slope
protection, internal drainage systems.
5. Treatment of rock foundations and abutments: Types of rock foundation, object of
grouting, evaluation of necessity of grouting, planning grouting details, blanket
grouting, drilling equipment, size and direction of holes, washing and pressure
testing of holes, grouting equipment, procedures for grouting, pressure and
consistency of grout, stopping surface leakage, surface treatment of rock foundation
and abutments. Earth compaction against rock foundations and abutments, grouting
through completed earthern embankments, drainage holes, grouting and drainage
galleries.
6. Earth dams on pervious soil foundations: Methods of foundation treatment,
preventing under seepage with complete vertical barriers and grouting, reducing
under seepage with partial vertical cutoffs and horizontal upstream impervious
blankets, controlling under seepage by regulation of leaks and relief wells.
7. Stability analysis: Zones of planes of weakness in foundation, linear failure, plastic
failure, composite failure, bearing capacity failure, stability analysis of embankment
by Taylor's modified method suggested by Sherard et al., Wedge method, stability
analysis in three dimension, stability during construction, full reservoir and
drawdown conditions.
8. Special design problems and details: Design considerations in earthquake, ground
movements, earthquake intensity scales, periods and amplitudes of ground motion,
influence of foundation material, earthquake waves, seiches, slope stability analysis
during earthquake as per ISI, problems in loose sand, soft clay and silt foundation.
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 19
Engineering

9. Measurements of pore water pressure and movements: Purposes and types of


instruments, piezometer, devices for measuring movements, USBR measurements of
pore water pressure and embankments compression, compression of rock fill
embankment sections, during construction and post construction foundation
settlement, foundation spreading, observation and measurement of leakage.
10. Embankment construction: Equipment for excavating, hauling, spreading, blending,
compacting and separating oversized rocks and cobbles, construction procedures and
quality control of impervious and semi pervious embankment sections, handling dry
and wet materials, construction problems caused by fines, construction procedures of
hard and soft rockfill embankments, field test on rock fill embankments, slope
treatment and riprap.
References
1. Sherard, J.L., Woodward, R.J., Gizienski, S.F. and Clevenger, W.A. Earth and earth-
rock dams, John Wiley & Sons, NY.
2. Sowers, G.P. and Sally, H.L. Earth and rockfill dam engineering, Aisa Publishing
House, New Delhi.
3. Creager, W.P., Justin, J.D. and Hinds, J. Engineering for dams, John Wiley & Sons, NY.
4. Strange, W.L. Indian storage resources with earthen dams, R & FN Spon Ltd.,
London.

2K8GT205 REINFORCED SOIL STRUCTURES

1. Historical back ground - Introduction to reinforced soil structures, comparison with


reinforced cement concrete structures.
2. Principles, concepts and mechanisms of reinforced earth.
3. Materials used, properties, laboratory testing and constructional details, metallic
strips, metallic grids, geotextiles, geogrids, geomembranes and geocomposites, their
functions and design principles.
4. Geotextiles – Introduction, Design methods, Function and Mechanism, Geotextile
properties and test methods. – Physical, Mechanical and Hydraulic properties,
Construction methods and techniques using Geotextiles.
5. Design applications of reinforced soil structures in pavements. Embankments,
slopes, retaining walls and foundations. Reinforced soil structures for soil erosion
control problems, Geosynthetic clay liners.
6. Case studies of reinforced soil structures, discussion on current literature.
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 20
Engineering

References
1. Koerner, R.H. Designing with Geosythetics, Prentice Hall Inc, 1994.
2. Jones, C.J.E.P. Reinforcement and soil structures, Butterworth Publications, 1996.
3. Jewel, R.A. Soil reinforcement with Geotextiles, CIRIA, 1996.
4. Ingold, J.S. and Miller, K.S., Geotextiles hand book, Thomas Telford Ltd, 1988
5. Rankilor, P.R., Membranes in ground engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 1985.
Current literature

2K8GT 206 a) ENVIRONMENTAL GEOTECHNICS (Elective – II)


1. Production and classification of wastes.
2. General environmental effects on geotechnical problems. Mitigative measures and
soil pollutant interaction, waste disposal facilities.
3. Liners, basic concepts, design and construction.
4. Transport phenomena, contaminated ground water and seepage.
5. Stabilization/ solidification reuse of waste materials.
6. Monitoring of subsurface contamination, special application and case studies.
7. Environmental significance of geotechnical processes and their consequences.
References
1. Thick, S.G., Planning and analysis of tailing dams, Wiley (1979).
2. Daniel, D.E. (1993) Geotechnical practice for waste disposal, Chapman and Hall,
London.
3. Proceedings of International Symposium on Environmental Geotechnology (1986).

2K8GT206 b). SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN HIGHWAY


(OFFERED BY HIGHWAY ENGINEERING STREAM)

2K8GT206 c). AIRPORT PLANNING AND DESIGN


(OFFERED BY HIGHWAY ENGINEERING STREAM)

2K8GT206 d). PLANNING AND DESIGN OF FLYOVERS AND BRIDGE


STRUCTURES
(OFFERED BY HIGHWAY ENGINEERING STREAM)

2K8GT207 SEMINAR – II
Student has to select any one topic of his / her choice under the guidance of the faculty
in the discipline. He/she should prepare and submit the report (3 copies) after it is
presented in the presence of faculty members of the discipline.
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 21
Engineering

III SEMESTER

2K8GT301 FOUNDATION ENGINEERING IN DIFFICULT GROUND

1. Introduction: Classification, swelling and shrinkage, sensitivity, settlement and


bearing capacity of clays, fissures in clay, glacial deposits, and difficult rocks.
2. Site investigation in difficult ground: Objectives, difficulties in determining the
characteristics of the ground, remedial measures.
3. In-situ testing and geophysical surveying: Introduction, penetrometers, SPT, CPT,
Plate bearing tests, pressure meters, seismic surveying, Resistivity surveying.
4. Ground water and foundations: Introduction, effective stress theory, Oil tanks on
poor ground, effect of raising the ground water level - Reclaimed land, Foundation
on the sea bed.
5. Foundations and earth movements: Introduction, creep of rock masses, landslides,
earthquake - primary and secondary effects, earthquake resistant design.
6. Design of foundations: Introduction, General principles, strip and pad foundations,
Building on shrinkable soils, Building on fill, Raft foundation - variable soil and
make up ground, pile foundation - choice, type construction problems.
7. Stability of slopes in difficult ground: Introduction, mechanism of stability, strength
of distorted clay, factor of safety, analysis, remedial measures.
8. Ground treatment: Introduction, ground water lowering techniques, electro-osmosis
and electro-chemical stabilization, thermal techniques, grouts and grouting,
reinforcements, other stabilization techniques, Dynamic consolidation, pre loading,
vibroflotation, stone columns.
References
1. Foundation in difficult ground, F.G. Bell, Butterworths & Co.
2. Foundation design and analysis, J.E. Bowles.
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 22
Engineering

2K8GT302 BEHAVIOUR AND TESTING OF UNSATURATED SOILS


1. Introduction to unsaturated soil mechanics. Types of problems, typical profiles of
unsaturated soils. Tropical and residual soils, Expansive and collapsing type of soils.
Origin and formation, Identification and classification of expansive and collapsing
soils.
2. Collapse and heave – Collapse potential and swell potential, Importance and their
determination by different laboratory methods, Heave prediction based on oedometer
tests. Suction tests and empirical procedures, Heave and collapse settlement
3. Soil suction – Matric and osmotic suction, Total suction. Theory of soil suction,
Measurement by direct and indirect methods – Tensiometers, Axis translation
technique, Pressure plate apparatus, Filter paper method, Psychrometers, Squeezing
technique of measuring osmotic suction
4. Design alternatives for structures on expansive soils - Structural foundation
alternatives. Treatment of expansive soils – General considerations and guidelines,
Surcharge loading, Prewetting, Use of admixtures, Electrochemical soil treatment,
Moisture control and soil stabilization, Treatment alternatives for highways and
airfield pavements.
5. Phase properties and relations for unsaturated soils. Properties of individual phases,
Interaction of air and water, Volume – mass relations, changes in volume – mass
properties. Densities of mixtures subjected to compression of the air phase, Piston
porous stone analogy Effective stress concepts and stress state variables for
unsaturated soils. Equilibrium analysis for unsaturated soils – Total or overall
equilibrium, Independent phase equilibrium – water phase, Air phase, Contractile
skin (meniscus)
6. Shear strength – History of shear strength, Failure envelope for unsaturated soils,
Use of effective stress parameters to define shear strength, Mohr-coulomb and stress
points envelopes. Triaxial tests on unsaturated soils, CD tests, Constant water
content tests, CU tests with pore pressure measurements, Undrained tests, Multistage
testing, Measurement of shear strength parameters.
7. Flow through unsaturated soils – Flow laws, Darcy’s law for unsaturated soils,
Coefficient of permeability with respect to water phase and air phase, Air diffusion,
Measurement of permeability and air coefficient of permeability.
References
1. D.G. Fredlund and H. Rahardjo, Soil mechanics for unsaturated soils, Wiley-
interscience publication, John Wiley and Sons, NY.
2. G.E. Blight, “Mechanics of residual soils” A.A. Balkema publishers, USA
3. John D. Nelson and Debora J. Miller “Expansive soils-Problems and practice in
foundations and pavement engineering” John Wiley and Sons, NY.
4. Unsaturated soil mechanics Ning Lu and William J. Likos John Wiley and sons, INC
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 23
Engineering

2K8GT303 (a) EXPANSIVE SOIL ENGINEERING (Elective – III)

1. Introduction: Origin, distribution of expansive soils, recognition and identification of


expansive soils - clay mineral, x-ray diffraction, DTA, electron microscopy,
classification, free swell, shrinkage index, swelling potential and swelling pressure -
methods of determination, factors influencing.
2. Heave prediction: Introduction, soil suction, measurement of soil suction -
tensiometers, axis translation, filter paper method, psychrometers, osmotic method.
Heave prediction based on oedometer tests, based on soil suction tests.
3. Design alternatives: Introduction, drilled pier and beam foundation, mat foundation,
under-reamed pile foundation, general conditions for under reamed piles, design and
construction.
4. Design for highway and air-field pavements: Introduction, general principles of
pavement design, design features and treatment methods for expansive soil
subgrades, air-field procedures.
5. Treatment of expansive soils: Introduction, removal and replacement, remoulding
and compaction, pre-loading, pre-wetting, stabilization - lime, cement, fly ash,
application methods, moisture control, electro chemical treatments.
6. Remedial measures: Introduction, remedial measures for buildings and pavements,
case histories.
7. Methods of construction on expansive soils: Introduction, sub-base preparation,
constructional and water - protection measures, maintenance and rehabilitation of
structures founded on expansive soils.
8. Swell - shrink behaviour of expansive soils: Introduction, investigation of foundation
movements, cyclic behaviours, factors affecting cyclic behaviour, case histories.

References
1. Foundations on expansive soil, F H Chen, Elsevier Science Publishing Company, NY.
2. Construction of buildings on expansive soils, E A Sorochan, Oxford & IBH
Publications.
3. Expansive soils - Problems and practice in foundation and pavement engineering - John
D. Nelson and Debora J. Miller, John Wiley & Sons.
Bangalore University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, UVCE, ME (Civil) Major: Geotechnical 24
Engineering

2K8GT303 (b) / 2K8HW301 RURAL ROADS (Elective- I)

(Offered by Highway Engineering stream)

2K8GT304 DISSERTATION

Candidate has to make a detailed literature study on a specified topic in the related field
under the guidance of a concerned faculty member. The same topic shall be continued in
the fourth semester. The preliminary report may include the literature review along with
the proposed study and its detail. An internal examiner and the concerned guide will
evaluate this report.

2K8GT305 SEMINAR – III

Student has to select any one topic of his / her choice under the guidance of the faculty
in the discipline. He/she should prepare and submit the report (3 copies) after it is
presented in the presence of faculty members of the discipline.

2K8GT401 DISSERTATION

The Dissertation topic selected in the Third semester should be continued. A detailed
investigation of the selected topic should be made and the Dissertation thesis should be
submitted which shall be evaluated by an external examiner and the concerned guide
(internal examiner). The quantity of work done should be equal to one semester work
load.

2K8GT402 SEMINAR - IV

Students have to select any one topic of his / her choice, preferably in connection with
their Dissertation topic, under the guidance of the faculty in the discipline. He/she
should prepare and submit the report (3 copies) after it is presented in the presence of
faculty members of the discipline.

*****

3020-BUP-250-Oct. 2008