CONCRETE
HIGHWAY BRIDGE
SUPERSTRUCTURES
DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND
CONSTRUCTION METHODS
This book has been written with the intention of describing the fundamen
tal structural behavior of the most commonly used prestressed concrete
bridges. The authors believe the contents of this book will be especially
useful to engineers having little or no previous experience in the design of
prestressed concrete bridges as well as those whose practice includes an
occasional bridge design.
The first chapter is devoted to basic information and serves as a founda
tion for subsequent chapters.
Chapter 2 is devoted to girder bridges. The authors elected to use this
name over “stringer bridge” in view of the fact that the term “stringer” is
not applied to beams of reinforced or prestressed concrete in the Standard
Specifications for Highway Bridges which is published by the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. This form of
concrete bridge has been the type most commonly used in the United
States. Its use has been widespread and is expected to continue. Methods
of analysis for girder bridges which have been in use in Europe for a number ’
of years are presented in this chapter. These methods have not been
V
commonly used in this country because they are not usually taught in our
universities. In addition, they are not included in the bridge design criteria
normally used in this country. The significant effect of well designed
transverse beams or diaphragms on the distribution of live loads to the
individual girders is emphasized.
Boxgirder bridges are treated in Chapter 3. This important form of
castinplace construction has been widely used in the western United
States. Its use in other parts of the country is increasing and is expected to
reach very significant levels in the next few years. The importance of the
torsional stiffness of the boxgirder cross section is explained as is its effect
on the distribution of flexural stresses due to live loads.
A relatively new form of concrete bridges has been treated in Chapter 4.
It has been referred to as a segmental boxgirder or a segmental bridge in
this book. Design considerations and construction techniques unique to
this mode of bridge construction are treated in detail. This chapter contains
information that should be of value to experienced bridge designers as well
as to those without extensive experience.
The additional design considerations of Chapter 5 and the construction
considerations of Chapter 6 have been included as a means of calling the
reader’s attention to a number of factors requiring consideration in for
mulating a complete bridge design. Some of the subjects included may not
be new or may be apparent to some of the readers. Others will find these
chapters convenient sources of reference from timetotime.
The authors wish to acknowledge the technical information and photo
graphs that have been provided by the French engineering firm, Europe
Etudes. In particular, the contributions of Jean Muller and Gerard
Sauvageot are acknowledged with sincere thanks. The authors also wish to
thank the publishing firm of SpringerVerlag for permission to publish the
influence surface charts reproduced in this book as Figures 1.2 through 1.5
and Jacob Dekema of the California Department of Transportation for the
excellent photographs of bridges designed and constructed under supervi
sion of the Department.
San Diego, California James R. Libby
September, 1975 Norman D. Perkins
vi
Contents
Preface V
1 1INTRODUCTION
1.1 Scope of book 1
1.2 Design criteria 2
1.3 Design loads 3
1.4 Design methods 5
1.5 Allowable stresses 13
1.6 Bridge types considered 15
1.7 Span length vs. bridge type 28
2 1GIRDER BRIDGES
2.1 Introduction 29
2.2 Girder design 42
2.3 Intermediate diaphragms 44
2.4 Decks for girder bridges 46
2.5 Continuity 48
2.6 Overhanging beams 49
2.7 Construction details 50
3 ) BOXGIRDER BRIDGES
3.1 Introduction 57
3.2 Flexural analysis 59
3.3 Longitudinal flexural design 66
3.4 Decks for boxgirder bridges 67
3.5 Shear distribution 69
3.6 Construction details 73 ’
vii
4 ( SEGMENTAL BOXGIRDER BRIDGES
4.1 Introduction 83
4.2 Longitudinal flexural analysis 85
4.3 Creep redistribution of moments 96
4.4 Transverse flexure 100
4.5 Proportioning the superstructure 119
4.6 Proportioning the segment 126
4.7 Intermediate hinges 134
4.8 Support details 135
4.9 Construction details 141
6 \ CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATIONS
6.1 Introduction 175
6.2 Falsework , 176
6.3 Formwork 179
6.4 Concete finishes 187
6.5 Erection of precast girders 188
6.6 Erection of precast segments 188
6.7 Camber control 195
6.8 Quantity of prestressing material 203
APPENDICES
A. Longterm Deformation of Concrete 205
B. Standard Shapes of Precast Beams 213
C. Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures With the
Method of Support Constants 217
D. Thermal Stresses In Concrete Bridge Superstructures 241
References 247
Index 251
...
Vlll
1 ‘I Moduction
This book has been written with the principal purpose of describing the
design methods that are applicable to the various major types of prestres
sed concrete highway bridge superstructures currently in use in the United
States. Secondary purposes have been to describe the advantages and
disadvantages of the various bridge types and to briefly discuss the con
struction methods used with the different types.
Reinforced concrete bridge superstructures are not considered. The
basic principles of elastic design which are discussed in this book are,
however, equally applicable to reinforced concrete and prestressed con
crete.
Bridge substructure design is considered only as it affects the design of
the bridge superstructure or the bridge as a whole.
The fundamental principles of reinforced concrete and prestressed con
crete structural design are not presented in this book. It is presumed the
reader is competent in the design of these forms of concrete construction
(Ref. 1,2).* In addition, it is presumed the reader is familiar with the
The most widely used criteria for the design and construction of highway
bridges in North America are contained in the “Standard Specifications for
Highway Bridges” (Ref. 6) published by the American Association of
State Highway and Transportation Officials.* These criteria, which are
referred to subsequently in this book as the “AASHTO Specification”, or
simply as “AASHTO”, are used as the basic criteria for design except
where otherwise stated.
/ The design criteria pertaining to reinforced and prestressed concrete
contained in the AASHTO Specification are based to some degree upon
the American Concrete Institute publication “Building Code Require
ments for Reinforced Concrete” (AC1 318) (Ref. 7). This publication is
referred to subsequently as AC1 318. In some instances specific references
to this publication are made in the AASHTO Specification. This AC1
publication, which is under constant review and frequent revision, reflects
*Previous to the year 1974, this organization was known as the American Association of State
Highway Officials.
INTRODUCTION I3
Like other structures, bridges must be designed for the dead and live loads
to which they are subjected.
The dead loads consist of the selfweight of the basic structural section
itself as well as superimposed dead loads such as bridge railings, sidewalks,
nonstructural wearing surfaces, and utilities which the structure must
support. Dead loads can generally be estimated with a high degree of
accuracy during the design, accurately controlled during the construction
and are normally considered to be permanent loads. Due to their more or
less permanent nature, loads resulting from concrete volume changes are
sometimes categorized as dead loads.
Live loads are those due to the effect of external causes and are generally
transient in nature. Live loads include those resulting from vehicles and
pedestrians which pass over the bridge as well as the forces resulting from
wind, earthquake and temperature variation. Other live loads are secon
dary in nature and result from impact forces. Vertical impact forces are
created by the vehicles using the structure. Horizonal impact forces result
from braking and turning of these vehicles. The live loads that will be
imposed upon a structure cannot generally be estimated with the same
precision as can the dead loads. In addition, the designer often has little if
/ any control over these loads once the structure is put into service.
The minimum live loads for which bridge structures must be designed are
generally specified by design criteria such as the AASHTO Specification.
/ Considerable differences exist in the live load design criteria used through
out the world. Much has been written on this as well as on the fact that the
criteria used in the United States may be unrealistically low and may not be
representative of the actual loads to which our bridges are exposed (Ref.
10,ll). From these discussions the bridge designer should keep two facts in
4 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
mind. These are: (1) the live load requirements specified by the AASHTO
Standard Specification are among the lightest loadings used in the world;
and (2) these live load requirements may be lower than the maximum loads
one might expect on a highway bridge in the United States.
It may very well be that other requirements of the AASHTO Specifica
tions compensate to some degree for the relatively light design live loads
specified therein. Some engineers feel the day has come for the AASHTO
Standards to be materially revised with a view toward specifying’ more
realistic truck loadings as well as encouraging more sophisticated methods
of bridge design and analysis. Zf the design live loads of the AASHTO
StandardSpecification are too low, they should be increasedso that elastic
analyses will yield reasonable agreement with what is actually occurring in
real bridges. One should not rely upon the conservatism of empirical
coeficients to compensate for inadequate load criteria. This is especially
true when strength rather than service load design methods are used.
The design loads that must be considered in the design of reinforced
concrete and prestressed concrete are identical except for those caused by
volume changes. The effect of concrete shrinkage is less in the case of
reinforced concrete than in the case of prestressed concrete. This is due to
the fact that nonprestressed reinforcing steel tends to resist concrete
shrinkage strains and, in reinforced concrete members, promotes the for
mation of fine cracks. The fine cracks relieve the shrinkage stresses in the
concrete as well as the need for the member to shorten. The important
effect of concrete creep on reinforced concrete members is the time
dependent effect on deflection. In prestressed concrete the cracking
mechanism related to shrinkage does not take place and provision must be
made for the total shrinkage strain which may occur and cause undesirable
effects. In prestressed concrete creep and shrinkage both affect deflection.
This must be considered in the design. Shortening due to creep and shrin
kage can be significant in prestressed concrete structures and must be
taken into account if good results are to be obtained.
Although there are considerable data in the literature relative to creep
and shrinkage of concrete, there is no accepted U.S. recommended prac
tice for estimating the magnitude of the creep and shrinkage strains the
designer should accommodate in his design. Methods have been proposed
in the literature (Ref. 12,13) but these have not achieved the status of a
standard or recommended practice. For the benefit of the reader, the
methods used for predicting concrete shrinkage and creep in the French
Code (Ref. 14) are included as Appendix A of this book.
Due to the complexity of the live load criteria given in the AASHTO
Specification, these provisions will not be repeated in this book. Most
bridges are designed for the AASHTO HS2044 live load. Live loads of
INTRODUCTION (5
TABLE lFactors in the AASHTO Specification related to live load design criteria.
H Truck & Lane loadings, dimensions & loads Para. 1.258
HS Loadings, dimensions & loads Para. 1.2.5C
Traffic Lanes. number and width See Interim 1, 1974 Interim
Specification Bridges of AASHTO.
Prohibition of use of fractional truck
and loadings. Para. 1.2.8A and Interim 1, 1974 Interim
Specifications Bridges of AASHTO.
Use of truck versus lane loadings Para. 1.2.88
Continuous spansmodification to lane
loadings Para. 1.2.8C
Loading for maximum stress Para. 1.2.8D
Reduction in load intensity, multilane
structures Sect. 1.2.9
Sidewalk, Curb and Railing Loading Sect. 1.2.11
Impact Loading Sect. 1.2.12
I
1.4 Design Methods
cients is not mandatory but they are given for use when more sophisticated
methods of analysis are not used.
The live load distribution factors which are contained in Section 1.3.1 of
the AASHTO Specification, are based upon the assumption a bridge can
be divided into several longitudinal beams for the purpose of design and
analysis. A bridge is, of course, a three dimensional structure and should
be designed with this being taken into account. Approximate elastic
methods of analysis, which consider the superstructure as a whole, are
presented in Chapters 2,3 and 4 for use in the design of bridge superstruc
tures which are narrow with respect to their span as well as relatively deep
with respect to their width. The approximate methods are applicable to
most conditions encountered in practice.
Sophisticated methods of analyzing bridge structures including the
14
I
I I I I
10 15 20 25
Span (Ft.)
Fig. 1 .l Comparison of the design moment required by the 1957 and 1961 AASHTO Specifi
cations for concrete bridge decks with their main reinforcement perpendicular to the
direction of traffic, together with elastic analyses for two specific conditiont of
loading. Simple spans, no impact.
INTRODUCTION ( 7
folded plate method, the finite segment method and the finite element
method are described in the literature (Ref. 15). These methods result in
higher precision in the determination of the stresses and deflections than
can be obtained by use of the familiar flexural theory. These methods have
a place in structural research and in the design of special structures but
their use is not needed nor considered to be practical in normal design
work. The slightly greater accuracy in determining stresses with these
methods in bridges of normal proportions is not significant when one
considers the differences between the loads used in design and the actual
loads to which a structure can be subjected. The cost of employing the
more sophisticated methods as a design procedure is prohibitive in most
cases.
For many years the design of bridge decks has been done using empirical
relationships contained in the AASHTO Specification. Relationships
which are based upon the work of H. M. Westergaard (Ref. 16), are given
for slabs which have their main span perpendicular to the direction of
traffic as well as for slabs which have their main spans parallel to the
direction of traffic.
A major revision of the empirical relationships for the design of bridge
slabs occurred in the interim between the 1957 and 1961 AASHTO Speciti
cations. A comparison of the design requirements for simply supported
slabs having their main reinforcement perpendicular to the direction of
traffic according to the 1957 and 1961 AASHTO Specifications for HS20
44 live loads without impact is given in Fig. 1.1.
Two basic design deficiencies exist with these empirical relationships.
The first of these is the lack of provisions to account for the differences
between the distributions of positive and negative moments in members
having constant and variable depth. The second is the moment continuity
coefficient of 0.80 which is specified for decks which are continuous over
three or more supports regardless of the elastic restraints which are pro
vided by the various members which are connected at the supports of the
deck.
The empirical relationships ofthe AASHTO Specifications have proved
to be satisfactory for the decks of bridges which are supported by torsion
ally flexible stringers that may or may not be connected together with
flexurally stiff transverse diaphragms. Hence, these relationships can be
considered to be conservative for all structural schemes. The relationships
may, however, be overly conservative with respect to the moments in
decks that are supported by torsionally flexible stringers connected with
flexibly stiff intermediate diaphragms or which are supported by torsion
ally stiff systems. Additionally, the empirical relationships do not alert the ,
designer to the importance of considering the live load deck moments
. \ I 1. :._ ‘.; ‘.
/_ ‘~’ e_______ \ \ ._,.
Fig. 1.2 Influence surface for the midspan moment in the xdirection of a plate strip of constant
depth with two restrained edges and Poisson’s ratio = 0 (8 T times the actual values
shown). (Courtesy SpringerVerlag).
INTRODUCTION 19
induced in the webs of flexurally stiff supports. Hence, in this respect they
are unconservative.
In view of the above, elastic design methods are recommended for decks
of most concrete bridges.
Charts of influence surfaces, which can be thought of as being similar to
twodimensional influence lines, are available for the determination of
moments, shears and deflections for slabs having a variety of dimensions
and boundary conditions (Ref. 17,18). Examples ofthe charts* are given in
Figs. 1.2 through 1 S. The charts are used by plotting the “footprints” of
the applied wheel loads, adjusted to the proper scale, on the charts and
computing the volumes defined by the area of the “footprints” and the
ordinates of the chart. The sum of the products of the volumes and their
respective loads is equal to the moment, the shear or the deflection coefft
cient for which the chart has been prepared. The charts are prepared with
the assumption that Poisson’s ratio, for the material of which the slab is
composed, is equal to zero. Hence, a correction factor must be applied to
the computation to correct for this assumption. The instructions which are
included with the charts explain how this correction should be made. The
charts are based upon an elastic analysis. The moments or shears com
puted by use of,the charts are expressed per unit of length (i.e. Kipfeet per
foot or kips per foot for moment and shear respectively) at the location in
the slab for which the chart was prepared.
The charts presented by Pucher are for slabs of constant depth only
while those prepared by Homberg include charts for slabs of constant as
well as variable depth.
The use of influence charts permits the designer to take the effects of
variable slab thickness into account. In addition, because the charts are
based upon rational elastic analysis, they permit the designer to analyze the
effects ofjoint restraint. This is accomplished by determining the fixedend
moments for the critical conditions of loading and distributing them to the
supporting members in accordance with normal elastic design procedures.
As was stated above, the empirical relationships for the design of bridge
decks which are contained in the AASHTO Specifications do not give the
designer a basis for taking either of these factors into account.
The design span to be used in the design of prismatic solid slabs which
are constructed monolithically with their supports is generally taken as the
clear distance between supports. This assumption is limited to spans of 10
feet or less by the AC1 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Con
crete (Ref. 19) but not by the AASHTO Specification (Ref. 20). For spans
in excess of 10 feet, according to the AC1 Requirements, one should base
*Courtesy of SpringerVerlag.
Fig. 1.3 Influence surface for the moment at the support in the x direction for a cantilevered
plate strip of constant depth and Poisson’s ratio = 0 (8 n times the actual values
shown). (Courtesy SpringerVerlag).
SYMMETRICAL
P ~
Fig. 1.4 Influence surface for the moment at the support in the x direction for a plate strip of
variable depth (parabolic) with two restrained edges and Poisson’s ratio = 0.
(Courtesy SpringerVerlag).
CANTILEVER 1 : 2
‘STRAIGHT
Fig. 1.5 Influence surface for the support moment in the x direction for a cantilevered plate
strip of variable depth (constant variation from d to 2d) and Poisson’s ratio = 0.
(Courtesy SpringerVerlag).
L;
INTRODUCTION 113
The allowable stress criteria that are followed in a structural design obvi
ously have a major influence on the results. If, for example, no flexural
tensile stresses are to be permitted in a prestressed concrete flexural
member under full dead, live and impact loading, significantly more pre
stressing steel may be required in the member than would be required if the
allowable stresses permitted by Section 1.6 of the AASHTO Standards
were followed.
In spite of the fact that Section 1.6.6 of the AASHTO Specifications
permits tensile stresses in prestressed concrete members, some engineers
feel tensile stresses should not be permitted in certain instances. One of
these is in the design of bridge decks. It has been argued that wheel loads in
some instances, whether legally or illegally, exceed the design loads
specified by the AASHTO Specification. Iftensile stresses were permitted
when designing for the AASHTO wheel loads, the tensile strength of the
concrete could be exceeded if the slabs were subjected to wheel loads
greater than the AASHTO wheel loads. Some engineers believe that
segmentally constructed bridges, which are treated in detail in Chapter 4,
should be designed as Class I structures. * This opinion is based upon the
belief that the many joints in segmental bridges makes them more suscepti
ble to deterioration than is the case for monolithic structures and hence
more conservative stresses are indicated. In addition, the redistribution of
*Current European practice is to categorize structures into three classes. The distinguishing
factor is the allowable tensile stress and hence degree of cracking, which is permitted.
Tensile stresses are not permitted in Class I structures. Tensile stresses as high as the tensile
strength of the concrete are permitted in Class 11 structures. Tensile stresses which exceed ’
tensil strength of the concrete are permitted in Class II structures (Ref. 22).
14 ( HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
L = DESIGN SPAN
F i g . 1.6 Method of determining design span for haunched slats according to the French code
for prestressed concrete.
moments which occurs due to concrete creep in segmental bridges that are
erected in cantilever is sometimes estimated by approximate calculation
rather than being determined with precision and hence conservatism in
areas of positive moment seems appropriate. Finally, the existence of a
temperature differential between the deck and girders of a girder bridge or
between the top slab and the remaining portions of a boxgirder bridge
results in the creation of moments and hence flexural stresses in a struc
ture. The stresses due to differential temperature in a simplespan structure
may be of relatively nominal magnitude and are directly dependent upon
the magnitude of the temperature differential. In the case of continuous
structures, it can be shown that nominal temperature differentials can
result in flexural tensile stresses as great as 500 psi and can result in
significant temperature induced variations in the reactions at the beam
INTRODUCTION 1 15
Three types of bridges are considered in detail in this book. The design
considerations unique to each of the three methods of construction are
treated in Chapters 2, 3 and 4. Construction considerations for each of the
three types of bridges are treated in Chapter 6. The bridge types considered
in detail are referred to as girder bridges, boxgirder bridges and segmental
7 k
Fig. 1.7
2&O”
Typical cross section of a Tbeam bridge.
I
28’0” \
Fig. 1.8 Typical cross section of a precast lbeam bridge.
16 1 HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
/#5 TYPICAL
$8 DOWEL THRU’
1 ?z’: Q HOLE IN WEB
n
SECTION AA
Fig. 1 .lO Typical intermediate diaphragm details for an lbeam bridge.
analysis are used to analyze girder bridges, the torsional stiffness of the
beams is normally neglected. This is treated in greater detail in Chapter 2.
Transverse beams, which are called end diaphragms, are normally pro
vided at each support of girder bridges. The end diaphragms connect the
longitudinal girders to each other as well as to the deck and provide an
efficient means of transferring lateral loads, acting upon the superstruc
ture, to the substructure. The end diaphragms also prevent movement of
the ends of the beams with respect to each other. Typical end diaphragm
details are shown in Fig. 1.9.
Diaphragms are usually provided between the girders at one or more
locations between supports. These diaphragms are termed intermediate
,,, CONSTRUCTION JOINT
i 28’0”
I I
13'0"
Fig. 1.12 Typical cross section, lntracoastal Canal Bridge, Corpus Christi, Texas.
39’6” >1
z
Fig. 1 .13 Typical cross section, Bear River Bridge, Nova Scotia.
Fig. 1.14 Typical cross section, Bridge on U. S. Route 50 over the Vernon Fork df the
Muscatatuck River, Indiana.
INTRODUCTION 1 21
9’~6”
Fig. 1 .15 Typical cross section, Pine Valley Creek Bridge, California.
68’0” c
SYMMETRICAL
9 N
7 %
I I
4 1
PARABOLIC
1
&
r 61’6”
SYMMETRICAL
v
ABOUT,
&I,

f
149”
SECTION AA
Fig. 1.18 Typical cross section, Saint Andre de Cubzac Bridge, France.
24 ) HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES.
Fig. 1 .19 Typical cross section, Saint Cloud Bridge, Paris, France.
ture to the substructure when diaphragms are not provided at the inter
mediate points of support.
Concrete slab bridges are normally used only for short spans because of
reasons of economy. Slab bridges can be constructed with precast pre
stressed concrete components together with a castinplace topping or
might be entirely castinplace. Slab bridges require the least construction
depth of all the types of concrete bridges. Slab bridges are sometimes used
in lieu of other bridge types because of the minimum construction depth
associated with their use.
Typical cross sections of slab bridge superstructures are given in Figs.
1.20 and 1.21.
Slab bridges can be designed using the empirical relationships found in
Section 1.3.2 ofthe AASHTO Specifications, using the influence charts of
Pucher or Homberg (Ref. 17,18), or other methods of elastic analysis (Ref.
32’0”
F 4
/CASTINPLACE TOPPING
r
0 0 0 0 0 0 .o 0 0
PRECAST SLABS J
Fig. 1.20 Typical cross section, slab bridge with precast soffit slabs. ’
I N T R O D U C T I O N 12 5
\ I
L;ooo!J
Fig. 1.21 Typical cross section, castinplace voided slab bridge.
CASTINPLACE TOPPING
v 32’0”
CASTINPLACE DECK
T
1 _ ,O
L INTERMEDIATE DIAPHRAGM
CASTINPLACE TOPPING
32’0” A
TINPLACE TOPPING
girders with a connecting slab. If one does not wish to evaluate these
moments, the empirical slab design relationships of AASHTO Section
1.3.2(C) can be used.
Bridges are sometimes constructed using precast concrete members of
types normally used in building construction. Typical sections for bridges
of these types are shown in Figs. 1.24, 1.25 and 1.26. These structures are
usually shortspan structures and are provided with end diaphragms and
castinplace decks which, among other functions, transfer shear forces
between the girders. The structural behavior of these types of structures
is similar to either girder bridges without intermediate diaphragms or slab
bridges.
G \ CASfINPLACE TOPPING> / 3
0 0 Of0 0 of0 0 QfO 0 of0 0 of0 0 Of0 0 010 0 0
PRECAST CORED SLAB!+
r 3(r0”
Fig. 1.26 Typical cross section, bridge utilizing hollow precast slabs.
2.1 Introduction
NO iNTERMEDIATE DIAPHRAGM/
P P
J 1
Fig. 2.2 Typical cross section of a multigirder bridge which does not have intermediate
diaphragms and which is subject to the loads of safety walks and railings.
GIRDER BRIDGES ( 31
Fig. 2.3 Typical cross section of a multigirder bridge which does not have intermediate
diaphragms and which is subject to a single eccentricallyapplied concentrated
load.
Fig. 2.5 Deflection of a multigirder bridge having an intermediate diaphragm due to the loads
of safety walk and railings.
r3
1 #
J 1
ST
..~~
Fig. 2.6 Deflection of a multigirder bridge having an intermediate diaphragm due to a sihgle
eccentricallyapplied concentrated load.
GIRDER BRIDGES 133
I
l tion of loads to the girders. The provision of additional intermediate dia
phragms will not change the distribution of loads to the girders nor change
, the shape of the deflected girders either transversely or longitudinally.
I From this simple example it is seen that the bridge superstructure of this
type is a special case in which the distribution of loads to the girders can be
determined with the basic rules of statics.
/. In employing the sophisticated methods of analysis, it is suggested that
the procedure be to develop influence lines for the various critical mo
ments, shears and deflections required to insure a safe and serviceable
I structure rather than attempting to analyze the structure as a whole for the
i many combinations of live loading that could be imposed upon it. With this
3 4 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
INTERMEDIATE
DIAPHRAGM
Fig. 2.8 Deflection at midspan of a multigirder bridge which has an adequate intermediate
diaphragm and which is subject to a single eccentrically applied concentrated load.
GIRDER BRIDGES 135
(2.2)
or
,i=xL[1+23$L] (2.3)
I J
In Eq. 2.4, the beam number i is to be taken with beam number 1 being on
the same, side of the axis of symmetry as is the eccentricity. This is
illustrated in Fig. 2.8
A comparison of the results obtained with the approximate method just
explained to that found with a finite element analysis for the superstructure
of Fig. 2.4 is shown in Fig. 2.9. It is apparent that the approximate analysis
yields results of sufficient accuracy for normal bridge design work. It is
important to note that each method of analysis reveals that the exterior
girder is subjected to a considerably greater portion of the load than the \
interior girders.
3 6 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
100 KIPS
I
0  I’
7i
2i
c”
3.125 
p
:O 250.
ii!”
x FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
$o.375 a.   _  
8
5. APPROXIMATE ANALYSISf
0.500
5 4 3 2 1
(a)
100 KIPS
5 4 3 2 1
(b)
Fig. 2.9 Deflection of the bridge having the cross section of Fig. 2.4 as determined by the
approximate and finite element methods for (a) a single concentrated load at tQe
center, and (b) a single concentrated load with an eccentricity of seven feet.
GIRDER BRIDGES / 37
The distribution of dead and live loads to interior and exterior beams is
covered in Section 1.3.1 of the AASHTO Specification. The wheel load
distribution factors for interior beams that have been included in the
AASHTO Specification since 1949 are shown in Table 2.1. Note that the
distribution factors vary from S/5.0 to S/6.0 for torsionally flexible beams
of different types. The reason for this variation is not clear and cannot be
rational. The wheel load distribution factors for interior beams supporting
concrete decks, as contained in the 1973 edition of the AASHTO Specifi
cation, are given in Table 2.2.
Using the empirical wheel load distribution factors from the AASHTO
Specification, the portion of a wheel load assumed to be imposed upon an
interior concrete TBeam and a prestressed concrete girder are as shown in
3.0
I  
0.5
/
I
// / ’
/,x
0
1/ I 2 4 6
GIRDER SPACING (FEET)
6 10 12 14
Fig. 2.10 Comparison of the empirical wheel load distribution factors for an interior girder as ,
provided in the 1973 AASHTO Specification for a concrete Tbeam (S/6.0) and a
prestressed concrete girder (S/5.5).
38 1HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTFkJCTURES
Table 2.lLive Load Sanding Moment Distribution Factors From AASHTO Specifioation For
Concrete Floors Supported by Various Types of Beams
r Type of Beam 1
Yew steel zalcrets hcretc j
spzed IBeams shingem
resmssel
concrete
Girders
Timber
s xrlnger
concrete
Box
Girders
Muni
Beam
PreCasl
spread
Box
Beam
Zmcrete
Beams
1949 Y5.0
1953 Y5.0
1957 Y5.5 Y5.0 Y5.0
I%I Y5.5 Y5.0 Y5.0 Y7.0
I%5 Y5.5 S/6.0 Y5.5 Y5.0 Y7.0
1969 Y5.5 Y6.0 Y5.5 Y5.0 Y7.0
1973 Y5.5 Y6.0 Y5.5 Y5.0 Y7.0 .
l *
1974 Y5.5 Y6.0 s15.5 Y5.0 s/7.0
!
‘Spread box beam superstructures are covered m SectIon 1.6.24(A) of the AASHTO Specification by speaal empirical
formulas.
“Multibeam bridges, formed of precast box girders placed sidebyside. were treated as slabs prvor lo the 1974 Interim
Speafication. They are currently covered in Sedion 1.3.1 (D) of the 1974 Interim Speclcation.
TABLE 2.2
Concrete:
On Steel IBeam Stringers
and Prestressed Concrete
Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s/7.0 SIC.5
IIf S Exceeds IO’ us6 If S exceeds 14’ use
footnote footnote
On Concrete TBeams __.__.. S/6.5 S/6.0
If S exceeds 6’ use If S exceeds IO use
footnote footnote
On Timber Stringers . . ..____.. S/h.0 s/s.0
If S exceeds 6’ use If S exceeds IO’ use
footnote footnote
Concrete box girders S/8.0 s/7.0
If S exceeds I?’ use If S exceeds 16’ use
footnote footnote
.
S = average stringer spacing in feet.
Footnote: In this case the load on each stringer shall be the reaction of the wheel
loads, assuming the flooring between the stringers to act as a simple
beam.
\
GIRDER BRIDGES 139
Fig. 2.10. Note that even though the stiffnesses of the two beams may be
identical, the prestressed girder is assumed to carry more load than the
Tbeam.
The 1969 edition of the AASHTO Specification provided that outside or
exterior beams of girder bridges be designed for the dead load of the deck
which they support. This is normally taken to mean the portion of the deck
load that would be imposed upon the exterior beam if the deck slab were
simply supported at the frost interior beam and the exterior beam. In
addition, the 1969 AASHTO Specification provided that the loads from
curbs, railings and wearing surfaces could be considered to be equally
distributed to all roadway beams if these loads were imposed after the deck
slab had been cured. The live load to be carried by the exterior beam was
specified as the reaction ofwheel load or loads determined by assuming the
deck slab to act as a simple span between the exterior and fust interior
girder.
Using the provisions of the 1969 edition of the AASHTO Specification,
exterior beams were frequently designed for less live load than were the
interior beams. A rational elastic analysis of girder bridges, as has been
described above, reveals that the opposite situation might actually exist.
The exterior beams are subject to greater stresses due to live load than are
the interior beams if the intermediate diaphragms are of adequate design.
A more recent edition of the AASHTO Specifications states that the
exterior beams of girder bridges shall in no case have less carrying capacity
than an interior beam. The term “carrying capacity” is not defined and
could be subject to different interpretations.
The number of traffic lanes for which a bridge is to be designed in
accordance with the provisions of the AASHTO Specifications is covered
by Article 1.2.6 as revised by the 1974 Interim Bridge Specifications. The
provisions of this Article are as follows:
The lane loading or standard truck shall be assumed to oc
cupy a width of ten feet.
These loads shall be placed in 12foot wide design traffic
lanes, spaced across the entire bridge roadway width, in num
bers and positions required to produce the maximum stress in
the member under consideration. Roadway width shall be the
distance between curbs. Fractional parts of design lanes shall
not be used. Roadway widths from 20 to 24 feet shall have two
design lanes each equal to onehalf the roadway width.
The lane loadings or standard trucks having a IOfoot width
shall be assumed to occupy any position within their individual
design traflic lane, which will produce the maximum stress.
It is interesting to compare the results one obtains for the portion of a ’
40 ) HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTUFIES
wheel load carried by a bridge girder using the AASHTO empirical coeffr
cients of Table 2.1, to those obtained from the approximate elastic analysis
of Courbon. Using the notation shown in Fig. 2.11 and the provisions of
AASHTO Article 1.2.6, it can be shown that the maximum eccentricity of
the live load on a bridge that is 24 feet wide or wider is as follows:
emax = W 6N+l (2.5)
2
in which N is the number of design traffic lanes on the bridge and W is the
width between curbs or railings. Using the Eqs. 2.4 and 2.5 for various
combinations of bridge roadway width W, number of traftic lanes N, and
number of beams n, one obtains the results shown in Table 2.3. An
examination of these results will show that the AASHTO coeffkients are
more conservative for bridges designed for two design traffic lanes than for
bridges of greater width. The results summarized in Table 2.3 also illustrate
that the AASHTO empirical coeffkients do not reflect the effects of
number of design traffic lanes on a superstructure nor the effect of load
intensity reduction for multilane structures.
Some engineers feel that the design traffk lanes should be ten feet wide
rather than twelve feet wide as provided by the AASHTO Specifications.
W=28’0” P
TABLE 2.3
12’ Traffic Lanes
TABLE 2.4
10’ Traffic Lanes
* These factors could be reduced to 90% and 75% of the values obtained from Eq. 2.4 for three
and four design traffic lanes, respectively, in compliance with Section 1.2.9 of the
AASHTO Specifications.
42 ( HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
Using the design traffic lane width of ten feet rather than twelve feet, the
relationship for maximum live load eccentricity becomes:
With this value of eccentricity, one obtains wheel load distributions to the
girders as shown in Table 2.4.
From the preceding discussion one must conclude that the provisions of
AASHTO regarding the distribution of live load to interior girders of
concrete bridges are conservative for bridges having two design traffic
lanes and are progressively less conservative as the bridge roadway width
increases and the width of the design traffic lane decreases. They do not
vary in the same manner as one obtains from an approximate elastic
analysis. It can also be shown they do not agree with the results one obtains
from a rigorous elastic analysis.
L zq
TYPE I TYPE II TYPE Ii TYPE IV
II Z4” 4
TYPE V
Fig. 2.12 Cross sections of the AASHTOPCI Standard Bridge Beams.
44 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
,/ POSTTENSIONING TENDONS
\ INTERMEDIATE DIAPHRAGM
CONCRETE COVER TO PROTECT AT MIDSPAN
END ANCHORAGE
%NTERMEDIATE D I A P H R A G M ”
(a)
100 KIPS
4 3 2 1
(W
Fig. 2.15 Study of secondary stresses in the deck of a girder bridge; (a) loading arrangement, ,
(b) def!sction at point of application of a 100 kip load, and (c) elastic curve of the deck
between points 3 and 4.
48 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
2.5 Continuity
Prestressed concrete girder bridges utilizing castinplace Tbeams are not
a commonly used form of construction. Castinplace reinforced concrete
Tbeam bridges are rather frequently used and it is not uncommon for them
to be made continuous over three or more supports. Concrete Tbeams
have found greatest use in bridges of medium span length and this probably
accounts for the rather infrequent use of this shape with prestressing. The
design of a Tbeam bridge using prestressed reinforcement is straightfor
ward and only the computation ofthe secondary moment resulting from the
prestressing is a factor that is markedly different from the design proce
dures that must be followed with the two different materials.
Continuity has often been established in bridges incorporating precast
prestressed concrete beams. This is normally accomplished through the
provision of reinforcing steel in the castinplace deck which is placed over
the precast girders. In this mode of construction the major portion of the
dead load is carried by the precast beams acting as simple beams. The dead
load of railings, sidewalks, wearing surfaces and other superimposed loads
are carried by the continuous structure, as are the live loads. In the design
of bridges of.this type, positive moments may occur at the interior supp,orts
due to the effects of temperature as well as creep and shrinkage of the
GIRDER BRIDGES I49
Fig. 2.16 Elevation of a bridge with two overhanging beam spans and a suspended span.
mediate diaphragms and deck slabs must take into account the effects
of elastic and nonelastic shortening of the concrete.
4 . Elastic stability of the girders (buckling) must be given consideration.
5. Erection procedures that can be used with the suspended spans may
be restricted due to the stresses that could be imposed on the over
hanging beams.
6 . Excessive principal tensile stresses sometimes occur in the overhang
ing portions of the beams prior to erection of the suspended spans.
Each of the above should be given careful consideration before this mode
of framing is adopted for use.
are of the same length and very similar in detail. With equal span lengths,
the negative moments at the first interior supports will be greater than those
at the other interior supports. This is not generally a serious problem
because the negative moments result only from superimposed dead loads
and live loads and, particularly for the longer span structures, are of less
importance than the primary dead load which is carried by the precast
members acting as simple beams.
/ /
____ _________
_____ 
/ / /
Fig. 2.19 Preferred layout of diaphragms.
Fig. 2.22 Harbor Drive Overcrossing, San Diego, California. (Owner: City of San Diego.)
\
:
’ \
\ \
’ \’
Fig. 2.23 Los Penasquitos Creek Bridge, San Diego, California. (Courtesy of California
Department of Transportation.)
Fig. 2.24 West Mission Bay Drive Bridge, San Diego, California. (Owner: City of San Diego.)
Fig. 2.25 Pacora River Bridge, Republic of Panama. (Owner: Republic of Panama.)
56 1 HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
forcing is not possible and torsional stresses are induced in the girders near
the diaphragms. It must be recognized that the diaphragm connection
details for bridges incorporating precast girders can become complicated in
detail and difftcult to construct along the skew as shown in Fig. 2.19,
especially for a structure having a large skew.
Girder bridges incorporating”precast prestressed concrete girders have
been constructed with bent caps located below the superstructure as well
as within the depth of the superstructure. The former type of cap construc
tion is shown in Figs. 2.21 and 2.22. Although attractive appearance can be
achieved with this mode of framing, many engineers prefer the appearance
that is achieved when the pier or bent cap does not protrude below the
superstructure as shown in Figs. 2.23 and 2.24.
A castinplace posttensioned Tbeam bridge having variable depth is
shown in Fig. 2.25. This structure, has a main span of 200 feet. A sus
pended channel span of 120 feet is supported on overhanging beams can
tilevering 40 feet from each pier.
The details ofconstruction for prestressed concrete girder bridges varies
throughout the country. Details commonly used in each locality should be
determined from local contractors and producers of precast concrete. If
the details which are commonly used are considered adequate, their use
may be less costly than new and unfamiliar details. Other sources of
standard details include the Prestressed Concrete Institute*, the various
State Highway Agencies and the Federal Highway Administration.**
3.1 Introduction
Typical cross sections for concrete boxgirder bridges of the types which
are commonly used in the United Sates are shown in Figs. 3.1, 3.2, and
3.3. Bridges of these types, in both reinforced and prestressed concrete,
have been widely used in the western part of the country, although their
use has not been limited to this region.
The relative economy of the boxgirder bridge has contributed greatly
to its popularity as has its relatively slender and unencumbered appear
ance. Some proponents of the boxgirder bridge have claimed its smooth
sofftt to be very desirable in urban areas for reasons of esthetics. The
structural simplicity of the boxgirder bridge, particularly in continuous
structures of medium to long spans, has been well demonstrated. The
efftciency of the cross section for positive and negative longitudinal
bending moments as well as for torsional moments is apparent even to
the casual observer. Especially important advantages for this mode of
concrete bridge construction include the low depthtospan ratio that can
be economically achieved together with the ease with which variable,
conditions of bridge width, superelevation and curvature, both vertical
57
58 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
B
&I
TX ; 1: I 1 d
21
Fig. 3.1 Cross section of a box girder bridge with vertical exterior webs.
Fig. 3.2 Cross section of a box girder bridge with inclined exterior webs.
\
Fig. 3.3 Cross section of a box girder bridge with curved exterior webs.
BOXGIRDER BRIDGES 159
Fig. 3.4 Cross section of a simple span box girder bridge used in the comparison of the \
results obtained with the approximate and finite element methods of analyses.
6 0 1HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
100 KIPS
si
w
5 0.125
z
=
5
F
p 0.250
2 ,/FINITE ELEMENT
x    
     
f     /
0.375
iii
r AP ‘ROXIMATE METH3D
0.500 ’ 3
5 4 3 2 1
Fig. 3.5 Transverse deflection of the bridge cross section shown in Fig. 3.4 due to a single
concentricallyapplied load of 100 kips as predicted by the approximate and finite
element methods.
100 KIPS
FINITE ELFMENT
7
2
  
 
f, \\ CH
‘\
if!
5 0.500 ; ..IPPRCjXIMATE METH0IJ’ 1
20.375 r
5 4 3 2 1
Fig. 3.6 Transverse deflection of the bridge cross section shown in Fig. 3.4 due to a single
eccentricallyapplied load of 100 kips as predicted by the approximate and finite
element methods.
was avoided. Hence, one can conclude that the secondary moments in
duced by truck design wheel loads in the decks of bridges of this type
are of a minor nature under usual conditions and therefore can be ig
nored. The design of the deck can safely be made under usual conditions
using the elastic methods of analysis described in Chapter 1 disregarding
the relatively minor stresses resulting from transverse frame action.
An approximate longitudinal elastic flexural analysis for a boxgirder
bridge, which includes the effect of torsional rotation but which ignores
the effect of transverse bending, consists of using the principle of super
position and combining the effects of the vertical deflection due to the
load to that of the rotation due to the torsional moment. The procedure
consists of computing the vertical deflection of the superstructure with
due regard to the restraint of the supports, assuming the transverse stiff
ness to be infinite and using the section properties of the gross section.
Secondly, the effect of the rotation due to the torsional moment is de ’
62 1 HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
termined based upon the torsional constant of the gross section, again
neglecting the effects of transverse flexural deflection. Combining the
results of these two steps results in the approximate deflected shape of
the structure due to the loading condition under study. The flexural
stresses are proportional to the deflection of the structure. Hence, the
approximate (and conservative) values of the longitudinal flexural stresses
are easily determined.
The torsional constant of a section must be determined in order to
evaluate the effect of torsional stiffness. This can be done using the
membrane analogy (Ref. 39) or by solving the equations of equilibrium
(Ref. 40).
For the section shown in Fig. 3.7(a), shear flows exist as shown in
Fig. 3.8 due to the torsional moment MT. The equations for the web
shear flows at sections BB’ through EE’ are:
4ti = 42  41 (3.1)
4i = 43  42 (3.2)
4” = 43  4.1 (3.3)
49 = 4,  45 (3.4)
Shear flow is equal to the product of the shear stress and the wall thick
ness of the element under consideration.
The relationship for the torsional couple is:
in which the notation is as defined in Fig. 3.7(a), the areas are as defined
in Fig. 3.7(b) and MT is the torsional moment applied to the member.
The relationships between the shear flows and the rate of twist 8,
using the same notation from Fig. 3.7(a) are:
,,[~+++JL]4.$=2~&~ (3.6)
4i 
t23
H23 +43
[ 
B3
fh3
+

J3
ttn 1  4 f$ * = 2 GA3B (3.8)
1
BOXGIRDER BRIDGES ) 63
Fig. 3.7 Cross section of a “closed” section used to illustrate the computation of torsional
shear flow and the torsional constant.
4”1
HA++4
34
B,
fh4 +f14
T4 1  49 ++ = 2 GA40 (3.9)
’ ds (3.11)
s 0 t 
for these members of constant thickness. For sections which have com
ponents of variable thickness, such as haunched slabs, one must solve
Eq. 3.11 for each component of each cell. \
64 ( HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
A 7 B’ 7 c’ q D’ 4 E’T F
Fig. 3.8 Diagram of shear flows for the cross section of Fig. 3.7 when subjected to a torsional
moment M T .
The relationship between the rate of twist and the applied moment is:
(j=EL (3.12)
JG
GO = + (3.14)
Hence, in equations 3.6 through 3.10 the terms on the right side can be
t a k e n e q u a l t2A1
o   2Az 9. . . . . .and
2A5 in equation 3.5 the
J J J
term on the right side can be taken equal to one. Solving these equations
will give the values of 41 through & and J.
The unit shear stresses due to torsion can be found by dividing the shear
flow for any element by its thickness. This is:
4J
VI = f (3.15)
inr. From these the vertical, rotational and total deflections of the webs
one through five for a vertical load of 100 kips applied with an eccentric
ity of seven feet can be determined. The vertical deflection is computed
as:
The resulting deflections for beams one through five are summarized in
Table 3.1 together with the deflections obtained from finite element
analysis. In each of the analyses the values for elastic modulus and
shear modulus were taken as 3000 and 1200 kips per square inch respec
tively.
TABLE 3.1
Deflection
Vertical Total from a Finite
Deflection Deflection Deffection Element Analysis
6 60 61 6 F.E.
BEAM NO. fin ) (in.) (if?.) (in.)
not reasonably reflect the actual loads which are imposed upon a bridge
structure. A rational analysis, as described above, gives the designer a
good understanding of the structural behavior that can be expected from
a given set of conditions. The empirical distribution factors may be safe
(perhaps unduly safe) but do not necessarily reflect the true behavior of
the structure.
A comprehensive study of a model of a reinforced concrete boxgirder
bridge has been reported (Ref. 25, 26). The tests confirm the adequacy
of usual flexural theory for the design of bridges of this type. This con
clusion can reasonably be extended to include bridges of prestressed
concrete.
section. The cross section should not be divided into fictitious “in
terior” and “exterior” girders. The effect of live load eccentricity
should be included, using the approximate method explained herein,
when it is of significant magnitude.
As stated previously, bridge superstructures which are relatively wide
in comparison to their span, should be designed with consideration being
given to transverse flexibility and its effect on the distribution of live
load in the longitudinal direction.
The question of the effect of shear lag on the accuracy of using the
gross section properties in the analysis of a boxgirder bridge is some
times raised. Analytical studies have shown this phenomenon does not
significantly affect boxgirder bridges, nor even segmental bridge
superstructures of usual proportions (Ref. 41 and 42). The use of very
thin deck slabs in boxgirder and tubulargirder bridges could conceiva
bly result in cases where shear lag should be taken into account but with
current construction methods and materials, it is doubtful if designs of
such proportions would be feasible.
Yt
FIBER a
X     .  X
r
\ CENTROIDAL AXIS
Fig. 3.9 Cross section of an “open” section used to illustrate the computations of fleyural
shear stresses.
BOXGIRDER BRIDGES ) 69
Y
SYMMETRICAL ABOUT
THIS AXIS
,
Fig. 3.10 Cross section of a closed section which is symmetrical about a vertical axis.
70 1HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
in which the terms are shown in Fig. 3.9 and are defined:
va is the unit shear stress at fiber a.
V is the shear force acting at the section under consideration.
Qa is equal to the moment of the area ofthe cross section between yt and
ya with respect to the centroidal axis of the section.
I is the moment of inertia of the cross section with respect to the
centroidal axis.
ba is the width of the section at ya above the centroidal axis.
by is the width of the section at y above the centroidal axis.
The locations of points of zero shear stress are known in open sections.
This is also true for the case ofclosed sections which are symmetrical about
a vertical axis as shown in Fig. 3.10.
In the case of a closed section that has a single cell and which is not
symmetrical about a vertical axis, the location of the points of zero shear
are not known and a special method of analysis is required to determine
the distribution of shear stresses. The special method must also be used
for sections composed of several cells, as shown in Fig. 3.7. This too is
because the points of zero shear are not known (Ref. 43). This method
of analysis is similar to that used in the analysis of a multicelled section
for torsional stresses.
The procedure consists of assuming slits or cuts made in each of the
cells of the multicelled section as shown in Fig. 3. Il. The existence of
the cuts results in the section being open and hence the distribution of
shear stresses can be determined by using Eq. 3.18. If the locations of
the assumed cuts do not coincide with the locations of zero shear stress,
a shear deflection will exist in the section at the location of each cut. A
shear flow, similar to that resulting from torsion, must exist to nullify
these deflections. A different shear flow is required at each cell to re
store the deflected shape of the section. It can be shown that for a sec
CELL j CELL k
4
I
SLITS
Fig 3.11 Cross section of a multicell section with slits assumed in the bottom of each cell in
order to render it an “open” section for purposes of shear stress analysis. \
BOXGIRDER BRIDGES 171
(3.20)
(3.21)
’ ds (3.22)
§0’
and
(3.23)
in which q. is the shear flow at any point in cell j with the section being
open (assumed slits in each cell).
For cells composed of elements of constant thickness the terms &i and
& are equal to the length of the element ji and element jk divided by
their thicknesses respectively. The term sii is equal to the length of each
element forming cell j, divided by its thickness. The term sjo is easily
solved because ds / t is a constant for each element of the cell and q.
i 7476  ls?fl 1416
Fig. 3.12 Shear flow for the cross section of Fig. 3.11 if cuts exist in the bottom of each cdl.
72 ( HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
r
a 111 111 361
Fig. 3.13 Shear flow required to nullify the shear deflections for the cut section.
SYMMETRICAL
ABOUT
TABLE 3.2
/I
Effective Jacking Dimension’ Dimension”
@ 0.6Of’s @ 0.75f’s X (inches) H (inches)
Maximum
Max. Number of Min. Prestressing Force
YZ”C#J Grade 270 Duct Per Tendon (Kips)
Strands Per Dia.
Tendon fin) @ 0.60f ‘s @ 0.70f ‘s @ 0.75f ‘s’ @ 0.85 f ‘s”
means of insuring the adequacy of the width of the webs for tendon and
concrete placing as well as confirming the required eccentricity of the
prestressing force can be achieved at the critical points.
An important item to be checked (See Fig. 3.15) is that adequate
space is provided for both the pier or bent cap reinforcing and the lon
gitudinal tendons at points of negative moment. The necessity of con
firming the adequacy of space also applies in areas of positive moment
where the longitudinal tendons must not conflict with the space occupied
by the bottom deck (See Fig. 3.16) and intermediate diaphragm reinforc
ing (if any). As an aid in accomplishing this, the data in Tables 3.2 and
3.3 are presented. These data are to be used in conjunction with the
\
details shown in Fig. 3.15 and 3.16.
BOXGIRDER BRIDGES 175
CHECK CLEARANCE IF
INTERMEDIATE
DIAPHRAGMS
ARE SPECIFIED.
Fig. 3.16 Typical joint detail of bottom deck and web in a box girder bridge.
76 ) HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
Fig. 3.17 Anchorage space requirements at the end of a typical boxgirder bridge.
Fig. 3.18 Typical second degree parabolic tendon trajectory for a simple span bridge.
Fig. 3.19 Tendon trajectory composed of two second degree parabolic curves connected by a
tangent.
pounded with tangents, such as shown in Fig. 3.19 may have merit in
some instances because the straight portions of the tendons are more
easily tied in position during construction and the curvature of the ten
dons can be confined to the areas where it is most beneficial in reducing
shear stresses on the concrete. The friction loss during stressing will be
less for the trajectory of Fig. 3.18 than for that of Fig. 3.19.
In continuous structures, the tendons are generally placed in such a
manner that the center of gravity of the prestressing steel is on a trajec
INFLECTION POINT, B,
\ \
Xl X3 x3
L
SLOPE = 0 AT POINTS A & B
TAN al = 511%
TAN a2 = TAN a, = Z!Y,/X, = 531x3
Fig. 3.21 Tendon trajectory geometry for an end span of a continuous boxgirder bridge.
INFLECTION POIN
INFLECTION POINT
SLOPE = 0 AT POINTS A, B h C.
TAN a, = TAN a2 = a,/~, = a,/ X2
TAN a3 = TAN a4 = 2y3/x3 = fi?yr/Xa
Fig. 3.22 Tendon trajectory geometry for an intetior span of a continuous boxgirder bridge.
BOXGIRDER BRIDGES 179
BENT
&COLUMN
Fig. 3.23 Tendon layout designed to reduce shear stresses at the interior support
*The designer must evaluate the friction losses and effects of anchorage deformation which
occur during stressing continuous tendons of this type in order to ascertain the minimum \
amount of prestressing that will satisfy the design criteria (Ref. 45).
8 0 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
8 8 8
Fig. 3.24 Clearance requirements for posttensioned ducts in precast girders according to the
requirements of the California Department of Transportation.
BOXGIRDER BRIDGES ( 81
,
I 1
Fig. 3.27 Mission Valley Viaduct in San Diego, California. (Courtesy of California Department
of Transportation.)
4 Segmental
BoxGirder
Bridges
4.1 Introduction
P P
e
tr IYr?
P P P
8
8 Tl!?
P
TIP
T
I
=I!7
ERECTION EQUIPMENT
:n I
TENDONS
EMPORARY SHORES
///,I
I,,, I , , , , , , , , ,
A i
ZFORM
“UNBALANCED” MOMENT
TO BE RESISTED BY
THE SUBSTRUCTURE
MOMENT DUE
TO TRAVELING
Fig. 4.7 Unbalanced moment due to form travelers in castinplace segmental construction.
CENTERLINE OF
SUPPORT SECTION
t
tlj10~9~8~7~6~5j4~3~2jl jl 12j3j415j61718j9110111
I )
MIDSPAN MIDSPAN
Fig. 4.8 Moments during erection of a cantilever.
I I I I I
155’ 210 155’
I
ABUT. 1 PIER 2 PIER 3 PIER 4 PIER 5 ABUT. 6
iYEJ?J
(a) ERECT CANTILEVER AT PIER 2
I I I
t t
(e) ERECT CANTILEVER AT PIER 4
I I 1 I
t t t
(f) ERECT CANTILEVER AT PIER 5
TENDON SPAN 3
CONTINUITY TENDON SPAN 4\
I I I \ I
I
1
I I
I I I
1
I
k&z
/
I
‘(d) SECONDARY MOMEtiT D
I 
/
I I
I I I
, I I
1
F SECONDARY MOMENTS D
Fig. 4.10 Secondary moments which occur during erection of the bridge shown in Fig. 4.9.
92 ( HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
(a)
SLIDE u
Fig. 4.12 Erection of a freeway overcrossing structure using temporary towers and tempor
ary prestressing.
135’~0” 135’0” d
are erected, the two outermost assemblies are slid towards the middle
assembly until they are in contact as shown in Fig. 4.12(b). It should be
recognized that all of the precast units fit together perfectly because they
are precast one against the other in the same order as they are to be
assembled in the structure. This procedure also results in the outer as
semblies of precast units fitting the inner assembly of precast units per
fectly and eliminates the need for castinplace joints between the as
semblies. In addition, hydraulic jacks are provided between the as
semblies of segments and the temporary erection towers. (See Fig.
4.12a). The hydraulic jacks allow realignment of the assemblies during
erection in the event it is necessary to correct for settlement of the tem
porary towers or make other minor adjustments. After the assemblies
have been slid together, the first stage permanent prestressing tendons,
having the shape shown in Fig. 4.13, are installed in preformed ducts in
the segments and prestressed. Because the superstructure is continuous
over six supports at the time the first stage tendons are stressed, a sec
ondary moment as shown in Fig. 4.14 is created by the stressing. (Note:
The hydraulic jacks at the top of each set of twin towers are intercon
nected during this operation with the result they act as a “hydraulic
Fig. 4.14 Secondary moment due to first stage prestress for the bridge of Fig. 4.11.
E PIER
t
Fig. 4.15 Moment due to removal of the temporary erection towers shown in Fig. 4.12.
1
94 1HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
Fig. 4.16 Secondary moment due to removal of the temporary prestressing tendons.
hinge” and the two jacks can be considered as one point of support.)
The next step in the erection consists of removing the erection towers.
This results in a primary moment, having the shape shown in Fig. 4.15,
being imposed upon the structure. Removal of the temporary prestress
ing tendons constitutes the next step in the procedure. This results in
the secondary moment distributed as shown in Fig. 4.16. The secondary
moment due to the second stage permanent prestressing tendons is
shown in Fig. 4.17. Installation and prestressing of the second stage ten
dons completes the erection procedure.
From the above description of the various different moments which
occur in bridges that are erected segmentally it should be apparent that
the design of bridges of these types requires a considerable amount of
engineering effort. Because the moments are dependent upon the con
struction methods that are to be used, the designer must specify the
construction sequence that is to be followed. Because the stresses at
each joint between the segments must be considered for each step in
construction more design effort is required for segmental bridges than
for more conventional bridge types. It should also be recognized from
the above discussion that the basic elastic analysis involves methods
familiar to all structural engineers.
The effect of live load on a segmental bridge must be found using
fundamental engineering principles together with the basic provisions of
Section 1.2 of the AASHTO Specifications. The provisions of Section
1.3 are clearly not intended to apply to bridge superstructures composed
SEGMENTAL BOXGIRDER BRIDGES 1 95
Fig. 4.18 Cross section of a typical segmental bridge having a single tubular girder. ’
96 ( HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
from the greatest number of design traffic lanes that can be placed upon
the structure. The design for torsional stresses should be based upon the
number of design traffic lanes which results in the greatest torsional
moment.
The usual “beam” or “flexural” theory is adequate for the analysis of
longitudinal flexural and shear stresses of most bridges which are to be
built segmentally. The effect of the transverse flexural and torsional de
formations on the longitudinal flexural and shear stresses is small and
hence can safely be ignored. Bridge superstructures which are wide in
comparison to their span or depth, require special consideration because
of the transverse deformations which result when concentrated loads act
upon them. This is not unique to bridge superstructures which are to be
constructed segmentally but is also true for slab, girder or boxgirder
bridge superstructures which are constructed using conventional
methods.
Shear lag is not normally a problem in segmental bridge superstruc
tures of normal proportions (Ref. 41). Segmental bridge superstructures
of usual proportions, which is intended to mean relativly narrow in
width in comparison to the span length, are generally analyzed for fle
xure using the section properties of the gross section. Experience and
analytical studies have shown this to be a reasonable assumption (Ref.
42).
Although the torsional stiffness of the tubular girders eliminates the
need for intermediate diaphragms, diaphragms are normally needed at
the points of support. Support diaphragms are used to transfer vertical
loads as well as longitudinal and torsional moments to the substructure.
This important need should not be overlooked. In a number of small
structures constructed in France, diaphragms have been provided at the
abutments alone with the bearing details at the piersuperstructure con
nections being such as to preclude the transfer of longitudinal bending
moments to the substructure.
Crete structures or with segmental bridges that are assembled and stres
sed in one operation. This phenomenon is generally characterized by a
relatively small reduction in the effective negative moment at the piers
and a relatively great increase in the effective positive moment at
midspan. Effective moment is defined as that which is due to the com
bined effects of dead load and prestressing.
The cause of the redistribution of moment can be illustrated by con
sidering two cantilever beams as shown in Fig. 4.19. These beams are
rendered continuous when the castinplace joint between them is con
 C.I.P. JOINT
Fig. 4.19 Two cantilever beams used to illustrate the cause of moment redistribution due to
creep
strutted and the continuity tendons between the two cantilevers are in
stalled. It should be apparent that if the two beams were not rendered
continuous, the effect of creep would be to cause vertical deflection and
a rotation of the ends of the beams with the passing of time. Because
this rotation is prevented by the provision of continuity, a positive mo
ment is created near midspan. The creepcaused positive moment is of
significant magnitude and is accompanied by a reduction of the negative
moment at the supports which is normally of negligible magnitude.
The existence of creepinduced moment redistribution was not recog,
nized in the early applications of segmental bridges. The result was that
98 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
some months after being put into service, cracks developed in the tensile
flanges of some of these bridges in the areas of high positive moment.
Although the bridges were not considered to be dangerous as far as their
ultimate strength was concerned, it was felt their durability might be
adversely affected by the existence of the cracks. For this reason, addi
tional positive moment prestressing was introduced to close the cracks.
An early discussion of this phenomenon appeared in a paper by Jean
Muller (Ref. 46) in 1967. In this discusssion Muller has shown an exam
ple of a structure where it is estimated (by approximate calculations)
that the effect of creep would reduce the effective negative dead load
moment by 3% and increase the effective positive dead load moment by
20%. A more sophisticated method of evaluating the effect of this
phenomenon is to use a numerical integration process in which concrete
strength, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage and creep as well as relaxation
of the prestressing steel are all treated as time functions using the
methods first proposed by Subcommittee 5 of AC1 Committee 435 (Ref.
47). The results of such an analysis, together with the effect of superim
posed dead loads, can be used to determine the timedependent rotations
at various sections along a span. The rotations can then be used to de
termine incremental changes in the distribution of moments throughout
the bridge structure as well as the changes in stress which result there
from. If one makes these computations using numerical integration with
a small time interval, and carries out the computations for a total time
period (for the youngest concrete) of the order of 1,000 days, substan
tially limiting results will be obtained. An electronic computer is re
quired for these computations due to the large number of variables in
volved in the analysis.
An approximate method which has been used in France to provide for
the positive moment which results from the redistribution is to simply
provide a residual compression of at least 225 psi under the effects of
dead plus live plus impact loads in areas of positive moment. Because of
the smaller design live loads used in this country, this latter method may
not be conservative in the United States.
As an alternative to attempting to compute or estimate the magnitude
of the redistribution of moments resulting from the creep of structures
erected in cantilever, provision for future additional positive moment
prestressing can be made during construction. This is accomplished by
providing extra ducts for ‘prestressing tendons in the positive moment
areas during the original construction. In this manner, additional posi
tive moment prestressing tenddns can be added to the structure anytime
after its completion in the event distress is subsequently detected in the
areas of positive moment. I
SEGMENTAL BOXGIRDER BRIDGES (99
M = _ Wl @ [ 1  r (tl  t0) ]
(4.1)
02 [l + Q]
in which
01 is the rotation in radians at the end of the cantilever due to the
combined effects of dead load and prestressing which the can
tilever would undergo if not rendered continuous, with the elastic
modulus being taken as unity. (See Fig. 4.20 for sign convention).
02 is the rotation at the end of the cantilever due to a unit moment
applied at the end of the cantilever, with the elastic modulus
being taken as unity. Units are radians (per unit moment).
to is the time in days at which the dead load and prestressing are
applied.
t1 is the time in days at which continuity is established.
a is a coefficient dependent upon the concrete quality, creep
maturity (age at loading) and theoretical thickness of the con
crete as well as the creeptime coefftcient.
0 = KR r(tx  t 0) (4.2)
Ku and r(r) are from the Appendix I of the French prestressed concrete
code which appears as Appendix A in this book.
The numerator of Eq. 4.1 is proportional to the amount of rotation the
end of the cantilever would undergo under the action of dead load and
Fig. 4.20 Sign convention for creep redistribution calculation method proposed by Thenoz. ’
100 1 HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
(a)
(b)
Fig. 4.21 Moment diagram for a singlecell tubular girder (a) dead load of section plus live
load on cantilevers, (b) dead load of section plus live load on center span only, and
(c) for transverse posttensioning of the upper slab, only.
1 0 2 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
4’ 6 6 it 6 6 4’
,, 1 1 V
6’
T
2 6’ I 6’ 2’
t Fig. 4.22 Moment diagram for concentrated live loads on the center slab of a singlecell
tubular girder.
\
1 0 4 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
in order to control the flexural tensile stresses in the webs. The number and
positions of live loads which result in the greatest requirement for shear
reinforcing at a section along the length of a beam, may be different from
that which produces the maximum web flexural stresses. Because of this,
the amount of web reinforcing required for the critical combinations of
loading at any section might be less than the sum of the amounts required
for shear and flexure if acting alone. This is illustrated in Fig. 4.22. The
loading condition for maximum shear, for the cross section under consid
eration, is shown in Fig. 4.22(a) while those for two different conditions of
web flexure are shown in Figs. 4.22(b) and 4.22(c).
Special attention must be given to the manner in which the web reinforc
ing and deck reinforcing are anchored in the webdeck joints. The details
used must insure that the reinforcing that terminates in the joint is
adequately anchored for the use intended and that continuity of the rein
forcing steel is provided through the joint for the transfer of positive and
negative moments which act upon the joint. This is illustrated in Fig. 4.23.
Reinforcing steel bars must not be bent around reentrant corners as shown
in Fig. 4.24 unless properly tied, so that lateral force generated by a tensile
force in the bar cannot spa11 the concrete. ’
The dimensions selected for the webdeck joint are not always com
pletely dictated by considerations of transverse flexure. In the case where
the longitudinal prestressing tendons may consist of a number of seven
wire strands, the size of the joint may have to be increased to accommodate
the large number of tendons that must be concentrated in or near the joint.
This is illustrated in Fig. 4.25. This problem is not as severe in structures
utilizing a large number of short straight bar tendons because the short bar
tendons are terminated in the joints between the segments, including the
deck area, rather than being bent downward from the deck into the web to
their anchorages as is normally the case with multistrand tendons. A
typical cross section for a tubular girder with bar tendons is shown in Fig.
4.26.
As mentioned above, the bridge designer has the option of reinforcing
the bridge deck with ordinary reinforcing steel or with prestressed rein
forcement. It is impossible to give specific limitations as to which of the
two should be used because there are so many variables which should be
considered. If designed without tensile stresses in the concrete under
service loads, prestressed decks would be expected to be virtually crack
free and more durable than those utilizing nonprestressed reinforcement.
On the other hand, segmental girder bridges generally have many trans
verse construction joints in the structure and hence cannot be assumed to
be crackfree. Some engineers believe the existence of the many construc
tion joints necessitates the use of a waterproof membrane on the deck of all
SEGMENTAL BOXGIRDER BRIDGES 1 105
I
INCORRECTLY
REsTREsslNG BARS S H O W N .
REINFORCING STEEL BARS NOT
SHOWN FOR CLARITY.
Fig. 4.26 Details of prestressing in the deck of a bridge prestressed with bar tendons.
1 2 3 4
Jzr El
Fig. 4.27 Bridge superstructure composed of two tubular girders connected together with a
common slab and without intermediate diaphragms.
SEGMENTAL BOXGIRDER BRIDGES 1107
Fig. 4.28 Deformation of a bridge superstructure composed of two tubular girders connected
by a common slab under the action of an eccentrically applied load.
I 1 2 3 4
A AA
/////I
2FICTITIOUS’ SUPPORTS (TYP,)
Fig. 4.29 Idealized structure for the determination of the primary moments due to the live ’
load.
108 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
+P +P
fY Y
,J (,!
0 0
2d’
F 1
ture for live loads under the assumption that supports exist under the
webs of the structure as shown in Fig. 4.29. The fictitious supports
would prevent vertical deflection of the girders as well as their rotation.
This type of analysis is well known to all structural engineers and does
not require explanation. It will yield results that can be summarized as
influence lines for primary transverse bending in the deck at the critical
points.
The secondary bending moments for a line load applied to the struc
ture are determined by replacing the single line load with two combina
tions of line loads and line moments which are equivalent to the single
line load being considered. The replacement loads and moments are
+P P
2d’
applied directly above the webs in order to avoid primary bending. The
replacement loads and moments can be made to be in two distinct forms
which are termed symmetrical and asymmetrical. These are illustrated in
Figs. 4.30 and 4.31. As an example, the load shown in Fig. 4.32, can be
replaced by the equivalent loading conditions shown in Figs. 4.33 and
4.34.
The transverse deformations for the symmetrical portion of the equi
valent loading are shown in Fig. 4.35. Because of the symmetry, the two
girders have identical deflected shapes in the longitudinal direction. This
shape is as shown in Fig. 4.36. The reversals in curvature near the sup
ports are due to end restraints on the girders. The end restraints may be
27
\I
I 0
@
Q
2d 1 I
Fig. 4.33 Symmetrical component of loading shown in Fig. 4.32.
1 1 0 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
due to the flexural and torsional stiffness of the supports, due to adja
cent spans, or both.
In the case of symmetrical loading, there are three unknowns which
vary along the span length. These are the vertical deflection (y) of the
girders, the angle of twist of the girders (0) and the moment (m) in the
connecting slab. Because of the symmetry, the connecting slab is subject
to a constant moment, as shown in Fig. 4.37 and is without a shear
A A
11 ! ! ’
1’
+P +P
\
Fig. 4.35 Transverse deformations for symmetrical loading.
SEGMENTAL BOXGIRDER BRIDGES 11 1 1
G&(J$)= y + m
m=
K+Oa+b (4.5)
SPAN = L
/ L, = 2d
m, = m,
Fig. 4.37 Shear and moment conditions for the connecting slab under symmetrical loading.
)
I F
m
;
m = qd
Fig. 4.39 Shear and moment conditions for the connecting slab under asymmetrical loading.
SEGMENTAL BOXGIRDER BRIDGES ) 113
There remain three unknown variables. These are the girder deflections
(y), the girder rotations (w) and the shear force (q) in the connecting
slab. The equations for the three unknowns are:
(4.9)
GJ $ = y + d’q
and
y = d’w + d2q (K + a  b) (4.11)
All of the terms in the above equations have been defined except for d
andd’ which are defined in Fig. 4.33.
The longitudinal deformation of the two girders under asymmetrical
loading may be as shown in Fig. 4.40. The torsional stiffness of the end
diaphragms together with the flexural stiffness of adjacent spans account
for the reversal of curvature in the curves.
A correct solution requires the restraints of the supports be taken into
account in the analysis. For symmetrical loading, both girders deflect
vertically as well as rotate equally at the supports. Therefore, they do
not induce a torsional moment in the support diaphragms. Because the
two girders have equal but opposite support torsional moments when
symmetically loaded, a circular bending will be induced in the support
diaphragms. The bending deformation of the support diaphragms due to
the torsional moments is generally small and can normally be neglected.
In the case of asymmetrical loading the vertical deflections of the girders
are in opposite directions and hence a torsional moment is induced in the
support diaphragms. The torsional rigidity of each support diaphragm is
additive to the flexural rigidity of the beams from the adjacent span, if
any exists. The deformations of the support diaphragms are generally ’
1 1 4 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
I= SPAN = L
very small and can be neglected without serious errors being introduced
into the calculations. Flexural rigidity of adjacent spans or of a support,
on the other hand, have an important influence on the deflection curve
of a girder and hence should not be ignored.
The six equations, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.8, 4.9 and 4.11 can be transformed
into linear equations by assuming a particular distribution of the shear
force (q) and moment (m) in the connecting slab. It is known the dis
tribution of the shear force (q) closely follows the shape of deflection
curve (y) of the girders. Hence, the value of the shear force (q) can be
assumed to vary parabolically from zero at the support to a maximum
value (qJ at midspan without the introduction of significant error. In this
case, the magnitude of the shear force (q,) at a distance of x from
midspan is:
qx =qcl(l i24x2) (4.12)
w = Ktm
in which KI is the torsional elasticity constant of the girder. The actual
value of Kt is maximum at midspan and is equal to zero ‘at the (torsion
SEGMENTAL BOXGIRDER BRIDGES 1 115
K;=LLZ (4.15)
48 GJ
With the simplifying assumptions described above, it can be shown
the values for the shear q and moment m in the connecting slab can be
determined for a single line load (p), uniformly distributed along the
span, by first determining the primary moments for unit loads in the
frame under the assumption fictitious supports exist under the webs of
the tubular girders as shown in Fig. 4.29. From the primary moments so
obtained, the reactions at points 1,2,3 and 4, as shown in Fig. 4.29, are
determined. The terms L1 through L5 are defined in Fig. 4.29. Using
these reactions, one computes the equivalent loads and moments on gir
ders 1 and 2 as follows:
1’1 = R, + R, (4.16)
(4.17)
~1 = (Rz  R,) +
p2 = Ra + R, (4.18)
y2 = (Rq  R,) L (4.19)
2
Yl ‘=Y (4.21)
I, _
 Pl  P2 (4.22)
Pl 2
Yl
!I _
 y1 + y2
 (4.23)
2
1 1 6 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
in which K, a3 and b3 are the elasticity constants for the connecting slab.
The shear in the connecting slab due to the asymmetrical vertical loads
are determined from:
p?y'
(4.25)
q2 = yfJ + K: (L, + L3)2 + L32 (K + a3  b3)
4 4
in which y’ is the midspan deflection of one of the tubular girders, with due
regard to the restraint of the supports, under a uniformly distributed unit
load and y” is the midspan deflection of one of the tubular girders due to a
parabolically distributed load having a value of unity at midspan and zero at
the supports, with due regard to the elasticity of the supports. From this,
one obtains,
The shear and moment in the connecting slab due to the asymmetrical
moments are computed from:
”d
\
Fig. 4.41 Location of the critical section for negative moment in the connecting slab.
SEGMENTAL BOXGIRDER BRIDGES (117
and
L3
m 3 = q3 r
(4.28)
L
The total support secondary moments at points 2 and 3 are equal to:
m = ml + m2 + m3 (4.29)
q = q2 + q3
(4.30)
The secondary moment at the critical section (See Fig. 4.41) for negative
moment is:
m’ = ml + (q2 + q3) d (4.31)
w’=w ( Yu
+Yc
)
(4.32)
Yq
Fig. 4.42 Influence line for negative moment at the critical section of the connecting slab.
0.5
SIONAL
RSIONAL
I 0.5
z
P l.O \\ II
1.5
2.0
L, L, _ L == Lb>
I I
Fig. 4.43 Influence line for the positive moment at midspan of the connecting slab.’
S E G M E N T A L B O X  G I R D E R B R I D G E S 11 1 9
For beams which have variable moments of inertia and torsional con
stants, a trial and error method of analysis must be used. The procedure
can be illustrated by considering the case of asymmetrical loading which
is defined by equations 4.8, 4.9 and 4.11. The specific procedure is as
follows:
1. Calculate the ordinates to the elastic curves for one of the girders
under a uniformly distributed load with due regard to end re
straints.
2 . Assume the variation in the intensity of the shear in the connect
ing slab q is proportional to the deflection computed in Step 1.
Designate the unknown shear force at midspan as qo.
3 . Using the variation in the shear force determined in Step 2, solve
equations 4.8 and.4.9 for the values of y and o respectively.
4 . Using the values of y and w from Step 3, solve equation 4.11 and
obtain a new value for q. at midspan and a new distribution of q
along the span.
5 . If the distribution of q obtained in Step 4 varies appreciably from
the assumed distribution, the procedure is repeated using the dis
tribution obtained in Step 4 as the new assumed distribution of q.
It is reported the method results in rapid convergence for the effect of
the vertical load. Convergence is slower for the effect of the moments
(Ref. 49).
Influence lines of the types shown in Figs. 4.42 and 4.43 can be con
structed from the results of finite element or other methods of structural
analysis in instances where one does not wish to employ the approxi
mate method just described and the cost of the more sophisticated
analysis can be justified.
42’0” *
1
~ 9’3%” ~
N
2
! J
b’*
E
f?
7 ii
t
%8’/2” MIN.
VARIES (19’0” MIN. 21’0” MAX.
Fig. 4.44 A typical midspan crosssection for the prestressed concrete segmental bridge
alternatives for the Vail pass portion of I70 in Colorado.
The lighter live loads used in United States bridge design, as com
pared to those used in other parts of the world, should also contribute to
the feasibility of using less superstructure depth. The depthtospan
ratios which result in optimum economy in the United States will be
come more apparent as the use of this method becomes more common
and widespread. “Americanization” of the construction details as well
as the construction methods will undoubtedly occur. This evolution may
have a profound effect on the depth of superstructure that is most
economical for a particular structure as well as on the overall economy
of the method.
Examples of cross sections of bridge superstructures having constant
depth are those which were used on Interstate Highway I70 over Vail
Pass in Colorado. These are illustrated in Fig. 4.44. It should be noted
that the dimensions of the upper slabs are identical for segments of all
depths as are the slopes of the webs. The principal variable dimensions
include the depth of the segments as well as the width and thickness of
the bottom slabs. The bottom slab thickness was increased near the
piers in order to accommodate the large negative moments which occur
in these areas. This method of varying the principal dimensions was
selected to facilitate the manufacture of segments having different
depths. The depthtospan ratios used on Vail Pass, due to esthetic con
Fig. 4.46 St. Cloud Bridge over the Seine River in Paris, France. (Courtesy of SokiBtB
Technique pour L’Utilization de la prbcontrainte, Paris, France).
S E G M E N T A L B O X  G I R D E R B R I D G E S )1 2 3
tl
Fig. 4.47 Ol&on Bridge between the European Continent and the island of OMon in France.
124 (HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
66’4)”
k 4
Fig. 4.49 Typical cross section of the Napa River Bridge, California.
SECTION AA
Fig. 4.49 Typical cross section of the Saint Andre de Cubzac Bridge in France.
SEGMENTAL BOXGIRDER BRIDGES 1125
+\i
Fig. 4.51 Comparison of typical cross sections for castinplace boxgirder and segme:tal
girder bridges.
SEGMENTAL BOXGIRDER BRIDGES 1 127
tions other than the longitudinal flexural stresses may control the dimen
sions of a crosssection. If one examines the function of each of the
components of the crosssection, the following observations will be
made :
Flanges With respect to the longitudinal bending moments, the width
and thickness of the flanges, as well as the distance between them, have
direct bearing on the magnitude of the flexural stresses. In other words,
the dimensions of the flanges and the distance between them must be
great enough to confine the flexural stresses within the allowable limits.
This accounts for the fact that the bottom slab thickness frequently must
be greater in the vicinity of the piers than at midspan. The large negative
dead load moment which exists at the pier makes this factor especially
important when cantilever erection procedures are used. The bottom
flange must also be of sufftcient thickness to resist the transverse dead
and live load moments to which it is subjected. The top flange must act
as the deck and hence be of adequate thickness to resist the transverse
moments and shears due to the dead and live loads. An important prac
tical consideration is that the flanges must be sufftciently thick to ac
commodate the reinforcing steel and prestressing tendons that must be
embedded in them. A minimum thickness for the bottom slab of 5.5
inches is frequently specified while for the top slab a minimum thickness
of 6 inches is often used.
Web Layout The number and location of the webs has significant influ
ence on the transverse bending moments in the deck as well as in the
bottom slab. Optimum deck design is achieved when there is a good
balance between the effects of the minima moment which occurs in the
deck at the location of the web and the maxima moment which occurs in
the deck between webs. This balance is not only affected by the number
and spacing of the webs but also by the thickness of the deck at midspan
L9 aL
and at the support. The designer has the option of determining the
amount of slab overhang he wishes to provide in a particular design.
This is illustrated in Fig. 4.52 in which it will be seen that coefficient
“ a“, which is a measure of the slab overhang, is a major factor in
achieving an efficient design for the deck. The designer also must estab
lish the thickness of the deck at the supports as well as at intermediate
points and in the deck overhang. These decisions also affect the efft
ciency of the deck design.
Exterior webs are often inclined as a means of attempting to enhance
the appearance of a segmental bridge. This is illustrated in Fig. 4.53. It
will be recognized that inclining the web reduces the transverse span of
the bottom slab. This in itself is not of major importance. The fact that
the bottom slab is reduced in width by using inclined webs is an impor
tant consideration in areas of negative moment. In areas of negative
moment the bottom slab is the compression flange. It is frequently
necessary to increase the bottom slab thickness in areas of negative
moment as a means of confining the longitudinal flexural stresses to an
acceptable level. A narrow bottom flange will require a greater increase

I
‘(aL ) bL aL
. L
k 8’0” 3
II IT CANTILEVER TENDON
I
SECTION AA
may not be equal and must be determined using special methods. This
was explained in detail in Section 3.5. The webs also must resist flexural
stresses which are induced by transverse dead and live loads. In estab
lishing the web thickness that is to be used in a particular design, in
addition to consideration of stresses, one must also consider the space
required to accommodate the embedded items as well as to provide for
the necessary minimum concrete thicknesses over and between the em
bedded items. The provision of sufficient space for placing the concrete
during construction of the segments is very important. If the end an
chorages of the longitudinal prestressing tendons are to be terminated in
the web at the joints between the segments, as has been done exten
sively in the past, the web must also perform the function of an end
block. The web thickness may have to be made greater than would be
required by other design considerations when the end anchorages are
placed in the webs.
Web Stiffeners A relatively recent innovation in precast segmental
bridge construction has been the provision of web stiffeners inside the
segment as shown in Fig. 4.54. The stiffeners are provided in order to
achieve a convenient means of anchoring temporary prestressing ten
dons that are used in some erection techniques as well as to accommo
date permanent prestressing anchorages. They can also be used to
strengthen precast segments with respect to stresses which are induced
during transportation and erection.
Fillets The fillets which are provided between the webs and flanges
serve an important function in relieving stress concentrations which
could result from transverse flexure in these locations. They also serve
the important function of providing necessary space for longitudinal pre
stressing tendons together with longitudinal and transverse reinforcing.
An illustration of the concentration of tendons in the joint between a
web and top flange is given in Fig. 4.25.
Shear Keys Shear keys are provided in the webs and flanges of precast
segments. They serve two functions. The first is to align the segments
when they are erected. The second is to transmit the shear force be
tween segments during construction when the epoxy bonding compound
applied to the segment joint is still plastic and behaves like a lubricant.
The web shear keys alone must be relied upon to transfer the shear force
across the joint. The plastic bonding compound precludes the existence
of friction between the segments. The forces acting on a joint during
erection are as shown in Fig. 4.55. Although in the past the epoxy bond
ing compound provided in the joints between precast segments has been
relied upon to transmit shear stresses in the completed structure, the use
of multiple shear keys as shown in Fig. 4.56 makes this unnecessary.
The web shear keys should be designed using the stresses permitted in
Chapter 17 of the Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete
(Ref. 7).
Anchorage Blocks In precast segmental construction the longitudinal
prestressing tendons are frequently anchored inside of the segments at
1 3 2 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
internal anchorage blocks as shown in Fig. 4.54 rather than in the webs
at the joint between segments as has been traditional in castinplace
construction. Two advantages evolve from this practice. Firstly, the
webs do not have to function as end blocks and resist the high tensile
stresses that occur in the concrete which is immediately under the end
anchorages. Secondly, this procedure permits the construction crews
that are installing and stressing the permanent prestressing tendons to
work independently of the crews that are erecting the segments and
installing the temporary prestressing. Internal anchorage blocks are
frequently, but not always, accompanied by web stiffeners which were
described above.
Segment Length In designing and detailing a bridge that is to be con
structed segmentally, one needs to know the length of the segments in
order to completely analyze the structure and check the stresses in the
joints between the various segments. One cannot be certain his design is
complete unless this is done. On the other hand, the designer generally
prefers to leave decisions such as this to the contractor with the purpose
of not being unnecessarily restrictive and obtaining the lowest cost for
the owner. One solution to this problem is to select a segment length
that seems reasonable under the circumstances and prepare the com
plete design on this basis. An appropriate clause in the specifications
can be provided to allow the contractor to use other than the detailed
segment length and prestressing details providing he submits proof of the
adequacy of any changes he wishes to make.
With these thoughts in mind, one should consider the factors which
dictate segment length. A primary consideration influencing the size of
the segment is the unbalanced moment the substructure, substructure
superstructure connection, or substructure foundation, can withstand.
In castinplace construction, the design of the traveling forms is af
fected by the weight of the segments they support. One large company
that has constructed many castinplace segmental bridges has devised a
standard adjustable traveler that will accommodate a segment having a
maximum length of 16 feet. This then seems like a reasonable upper
limit for castinplace segments. Precast segments which must be hauled
over the public highways, should not exceed lengths and weights that
would require special fees, transportation costs or special permits. A
length of 8 feet would normally be able to be hauled without exceeding
legal load widths but segment weights that can be accommodated must
be investigated for each locality. Precast segments which are to be job
site cast and not hauled over public roads or highways are limited only
by the practical considerations of fabrication, handling and erection. For
segments which are to be castinplace on falsework, the practical limita
SEGMENTAL BOXGIRDER BRIDGES t 133
. SPAN = L
WITHOUT HINGE
HINGE AT ‘h POINT
HINGE AT MIDSPAN
Fig. 4.57 Comparison of the elastic curves for no hinge within a span to those for one at ’
midspan and one at the quarter point.
1 3 4 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
/HINGE SEGMENT
MPORARY PRESTRESSING
TENDONS (BLOCK JOINT)
/CANTILEVER TENDONS
(b)
Fig. 4.58 Procedure in providing an intermediate hinge within a span at other than midspk.
SEGMENTAL BOXGIRDER BRIDGES ( 135
creasingly important with the length of the bridge. This is most often
done by providing joints within one or more spans which include provi
sion for translation and rotation. The joints are referred to as hinges.
The provision of a hinge within a span results in a discontinuity of the
structure. Hence, abrupt angles between the tangents to the structure on
i
each side of the hinge may develop due to applied loads or the effects of
creep. Elastic curves for three hinge conditions in an interior span,
which is a part of a multispan continuous beam, are shown in Fig. 4.57.
1
The curves are for the condition of a uniformly distributed live load with
a hinge located at midspan, at quarter point and without a hinge. Note
that the angle between the tangents to the elastic curve on each side of
the hinge is nearly three times as great when the hinge is at midspan than
when it is at the quarter point. Hinges should be avoided where possible.
When required, it is better to place them at the quarter point than at
midspan.
! Hinges can conveniently be provided between midspan and the sup
port at any desired location in segmental construction. This is done by
1 providing temporary prestressing and blocking across the hinge until
such time as the abutting cantilevers are joined at midspan. The hinge is
rendered free to translate and rotate by the removal of the temporary
prestressing tendons and blocking. This procedure is illustrated in Fig.
4.58.
It should be recognized that releasing a hinge which was fixed tem
porarily during construction results in a redistribution of the moment
that existed at the joint while it was restrained. The effect of releasing
I
the hinge on the stability of the structure, with the configuration it has at
the time the hinge is released, must be investigated. At the time the
1
hinge is released, the portion of the structure from the hinge back to
ward the direction from which the construction proceeded is continuous
while that portion from the hinge toward the direction the construction is
proceeding may be simply supported and unable to support the reaction
from the continuous structure without auxiliary supports. In addition to
the moment which results from the releasing of the hinge, moments due
to the removal of temporary hinge prestressing tendons must be taken
j into account when the hinge is released.
relatively small. The result is that the taller piers can frequently be con
structed with a momentresisting (fixed) connection to the superstructure.
On the other hand, short stiff piers frequently must be provided with
bearing devices in the joint between the top of the pier and the superstruc
ture. Properly selected bearing devices permit the designer to control the
moments and shears that are induced in the pier due to vertical loads,
superstructure length variations and horizontal forces. This, of course, is
true in bridges of all types and is not unique to segmental bridges.
In segmental bridges, the design of the superstructure segments over
the piers must be such as to be able to transfer the required forces and
moments between superstructure and substructure.
Consider the pier proportioned with a width that is less than the width
of the superstructure soffit as shown in Fig. 4.59. It is apparent that the
SECTION BB
SECTION AA
Fig. 4.59 Pier with a width less than the width of the superstructure
SEGMENTAL BOXGIRDER BRIDGES 1137
SECTION BB
SECTION AA
CENTERLINE OF BRIDGE
:
I I
I I CENTERLINE OF PIER
CENTERLINE OF BRIDGE
. i
\
\ ~_ _ 
’ 7
CENTERLINE OF PIER
”
CENTERLINE OF BRIDGE
,/TEMPORARY BEARING
x JACKS
SECTION AA
Iir
t
1
t L ELASTbvlERlC
BEARING PADS
SECTION AA
dimensions are not normally desirable from the standpoints of cost and
structural efficiency.
Supports which have a reasonable width in the direction of the span at
the junction with the superstructure, say of the order of eight to ten feet,
as shown in Fig. 4.65, facilitate superstructure erection when the can
tilever erection method is to be used. When the width is adequate, the
unbalanced moment which occurs at the support with the cantilever
erection technique can be transfered with temporary prestressing ten
dons together with temporary bearing pads. Provision of adequate space
and means of access for inserting hydraulic jacks, as shown in Fig. 4.66,
permits removal of the temporary bearings and insertion of the perma
nent bearings upon the completion of the cantilever. Provision of space
and access for the hydraulic jacks also permits adjustment of the posi
tion of the completed cantilever before the continuity joint between ad
jacent cantilevers are cast. After final adjustment of the cantilever and
insertion of the permanent bearings, the connection can be left free to
rotate, and hence act as a hinge, or can be fixed against rotation by
grouting the joint and inserting permanent prestressing tendons across
theajoint.
When using the cantilever erection technique together with tendons com
posed of high strength wires or strands, tendon layouts similar to those
shown in Fig. 4.67 are frequently employed. The tendons are generally
referred to as “cantilever” tendons and “continuity” tendons.
The cantilever tendons are those which are located in the areas of
negative moment and are normally placed and stressed during the erec
tion of precast segments or casting of castinplace segments. They are
generally on a trajectory that is symmetrical about the centerline of the
pier. Cantilever tendons may be extended downward from the upper
surface of the structure as shown in Fig. 4.67 or may terminate near the
upper surface of the structure. When extended downward into the webs
of the segments, the cantilever tendons exert a vertical component of
prestress which reduces the shear force imposed upon the concrete sec
tion. When the tendons (either cantilever or continuity) are extended
into the webs, the French Code (Ref. 50) requires the shear design be
based on the net section.
The continuity tendons are those that provide prestressing in the
areas of positive moment. They are placed and stressed after the closure
joint has been placed. The continuity tendon may or may not be ex ’
1 4 2 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
PIER SPAN
QSYMMETRICAL
f
/CANTILEVER TENDONS I ABOUT
jI N T E R I O R S P A N
Fig. 4.67 Typical layout of longitudinal wire or strand tendons with the CantileVer
erection technique.
7 PIER
yM’oLF;ER ~%Z!IETRICAL
ABOUT
Fig. 4.66 Tendon layout for tendons which do not extend into the webs.
S E G M E N T A L B O X  G I R D E R B R I D G E S 11 4 3
5.1  Introduction
Included in this Chapter are brief discussions of several topics which may
be completely understood by the reader and hence need not be given
furtherconsideration. On the other hand, experience has shown that not all
bridge designers are familiar with these subjects. It is for this reason that
this chapter has been included.
criteria. Many engineers, however, question the necessity for the more
complex relationships and point out that the new relationships do not show
obvious economy with respect to shear design nor were the previously
used relationships obviously inadequate.
The fact that some engineers believe the AC1 criteria are unconservative
when applied to large concrete beams is worthy of note. This group of
engineers is of the opinion that when the shear capacity of a concrete beam
is exceeded by the design load, the entire shear force should be carried by
reinforcing steel. They believe the combined effects of dowel action,
aggregate interlock and friction in the compression flange can be significant
in the shear strength of small beams but not significant in large beams (Ref.
52). They point out the fact that shear strength relationships contained in
AC1 31871 have been confirmed by results obtained from tests of small
beams.
The contemporary shear design criteria of AC1 31871 lends itself to
computer analysis. A minicomputer or programmable calculator of mod
erate size will suffice. Once the computer has been properly programmed,
the fact that the computations are somewhat complex is unimportant. One
cannot, however, properly program a computer unless he completely
understands the meaning of the terms which are included in the relation
ships involved.
There is considerable confusion in the meaning of the terms in Eq. 1 ll 1
of AC1 31871. This equation, as revised in 1973, is:
The official AC1 definitions of the terms in the second part of the equation,
are as follows:
Vd = Shear force at section due to dead load.
Vi = Shear force at the section considered due to externally applied
design loads occurring simultaneously with Mm=.
MU = Bending moment causing flexural cracking at the section consi
dered due to superimposed loads.
M max = Maximum bending moment at the section considered due to
externally applied design loads.
bw = Web width, or diameter of circular section, in.
d = Distance from the extreme compression fiber to centroid of
reinforcement. in.
It is the opinion of the authors that the definition of Vd should be the shear
force at section due to service dead load because it is not intended that this
ADDITIONAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 1147
load be factored. The term “externally applied design loads” which is used
in the definition of Vi and Mmax should be defined as the design loads less
the service (unfactored) dead load. It should be recognized that design
loads are factored service loads.
It should be remembered that Vci is intended to be a measure of flexurally
initiated shear cracks while vcW is intended to be a measure of cracks
resulting from excessive principal tensile stress. The relationship for vcw
(Equation 1112 of AC1 31571) is as follows:
Although Eqs. 5.3 and 5.4 would have been considered much too difftcult
for every day use in the day of the slide rule, they are easily solved today on
inexpensive electronic calculators.
It has been pointed out that prestressing tendons which are inclined to L
the gravity axis of a beam have a vertical component offorce which usual/y
146 \ HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
9. PIER
Fig. 5.1 Freebody of a portion of a bridge superstructure having variable depth. ‘(R&al
effect.)
ADDlnONAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 1149
, The values of Vci and vcw would then be computed using equations 5.1 and
5.4.
In using the lane load design criteria of the AASHTO Specification, it
will be remembered that the magnitude of the concentrated loads used in
determining maximum values of moment and shear differ. Furthermore, in
continuous spans, two concentrated loads are used in determining the
maximum negative moment. Only one load is used in determining
maximum positive moments (even in continuous structures) and maximum
shears. Because the shear Vi is the shear at the section under consideration
when the loads are ofthe magnitude andpositioned to produce the greatest
value of Mmor, the correct value of Vi is less than would be obtained if the ’
1 5 0 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
largest live load shear force which occurs at the section were used in
determining L’;. It should also be recognized that computing Vi using the
largest live load shear force which occurs at a section, rather than the shear
force which is conco’mitant with the loading which produces Mm+ is
unconservative because it will result in a greater value of Vci.
Bridges which have closed cross sections, such as the boxgirder bridges
described in Chapter 3 and the segmental bridges described in Chapter 4
are efficient in resisting torsional as well as flexural moments. For this
reason bridges of these types are especially desirable in structures which
must have a horizontally curved alignment. The horizontal curvature re
sults in torsional moment from both dead and live load. Intermediate
diaphragms are generally provided in boxgirder bridges that have signific
ant horizontal curvature. Diaphragms are normally required at each sup
port in order to transfer shears and moments from the superstructure to the
substructure.
k method for the rigorous analysis of a horizontally curved structure,
which requires the use of a computer, is described in the literature (Ref.
55). This rigorous method has been used to confirm the adequacy of an
approximate method for usual design applications. The approximate
method, which has been described by Witecki (Ref. 56) is simple to apply
and does not require a computer.
The approximate method described by Witecki is based upon the rela
tionship:
(5.6)
in which
M = total external bending moment produced by dead load,
superimposed dead load, live load and any other anticipated
loadall computed as for a straight structure.
R = radius of curvature.
M/R = torque per ft. produced by bending moment.
T = qe = torque per ft. produced by eccentrically applied load.
S = length on which the torsional moment is being computed.
The method is used to determine the torsional moments as follows:
1. Determine the vertical dead, superimposed dead and live load.
2. Determine the uniformly applied torque moment which must be ac
counted for in the design. This torque moment should include the
ADDITIONAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 1151
Continuous structures, particularly those which have short spans and rela
tively large moving live loads, can experience moment reversals in un
loaded spans which are adjacent to loaded spans. This phenomenon is well
known and is not unique to prestressed concrete structures.
A related strength consideration in the design of prestressed concrete
continuous structures which is not as well known is illustrated in Figs. 5.2
and 5.3. Moment capacity envelopes are shown in the two figures together
with a moment diagram that is associated with a particular combination of
design loads. In Fig. 5.2 the moment diagram is for the condition of
‘secondary moment due to prestressing plus design dead and design live
loads on all the spans. For the moment diagram shown in Fig. 5.3, the
loading consists of secondary moment due to prestressing plus service *
152 1HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUF‘ERSTRUCTURES
dead load on all the spans together with design live load on alternate spans.
It will be seen that with design dead and design live load on all the spans,
the simple span moment capacity for each span is 46,300 kipEt. and the ,
negative moment capacity of 35,400 kipft. at each support can be fully
utilized. With service dead load on all spans together with design live load
on alternate spans the simple span moment capacity for the loaded span is
34,200 kipft. In the latter case the negative moment capacity at the ends of
the loaded spans is restricted to 23,300 kipft. due to negative moment
capacity of 5,200 kipft. at midspan of the unloaded spans. It will be
recognized that when the moment of 5,200 kipft. is attained at midspan of
the unloaded spans, plastic hinges will form. Further increase in load will
increase the positive moment at midspan of the loaded span until the value
of 10,900 kipft. is obtained at which time an additional plastic hinge would
form and the structure will no longer be stable.,
This type of strength analysis should be made for all continuous pre
stressed concrete bridges. It is especially imperative that this type of
analysis be made for segmental bridges which are erected in cantilever.
This is because there is a tendency in this type of structure to have little, if
any, negative moment capacity at midspan. It is frequently found to be
necessary to place steel that is not required at service load in the upper
ESUPPORT f&SUPPORT
// I \\ I /I I \\ I! [/// I
! +10,900!
FAC”ORED D.L, + L.L.
+20,000
Fig. 5.2 Ultimate moment capacity diagram for a continuous prestressed concrete struc!ure
under design dead and live loads on all spans. (After J. Muller Ref. 67.)
ADDITIONAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
qpUPPORT q SUPPORT
,
+logoo L D.‘L. + FACiORED L.L.I
OUSPAN2
Fig. 5.3 Ultimate moment capacity diagram for a continuous prestressed concrete structure
under service dead load on all spans and design live load on alternate spans. (After
J. Muller Ref. 67.)
Fig. 5.4 Elastomeric bearing pad used to explain European design practice.
154 ) H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
TABLE 5.1
AASHTO FRENCH
ITEM CODE PRACTICE
Allowable compressive stress
D. L. 500 psi none
T. L. 800 psi 2000 psi
Allowable shear stress
Total none 570 psi
Vertical load (approx.) none 340 psi
Horizontal displacement none 60 psi
Rotation none 170 psi
Translation .
Long term (temp., shrinkage, creep) none 0.5 T
Long term (temperature) See below
Short term (Dynamic loads) none 0.7 T
Rotation 1
For each layer cq 3 0 a 2
l
II
E
: A
Steel Plates
Tp =  3P (5.71
2 abS
and the maximum allowable value is 0.5G (60 psi) which limits the horizon
tal deflection due to static loads to 0.5 T.
The shear modulus of the elastomer, is twice as great for loads of short
duration as it is for longterm loads. Hence the shear stress due to dynamic
loads is:
ZG 8, _ H,,
T,I =    (5.9)
T ab
ADDITIONAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ( 157
4 0.7 (5.13)
T,, =
G ( a )‘tan
2 T
(Y (5.14)
and the maximum value is limited to 1.5 G. Because for small angles,
the tangent of the angle is equal to the angle, the rotation of the bearing
is limited to
Pier
g
G Pier
SECTION AA
Fig. 5.7 Example of reactions at a pier which is provided with twin, spaced elastomeric
bearings.
WCENTERLINE OF PIER
J 4
Fig. 5.8 Superstructuresubstructure detail at a typical interior pier of the 0l”ron Bridge in
France.
1 6 0 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
sion of spaced bearings results in the span having a larger negative mo
ment and smaller positive moment than it would have with a single
hinged support; the spaced bearings increase end moment restraint and
reduce deflections.
Consider the fivespan bridge shown in Fig. 5.10. The structure
traverses a deep valley which results in the two interior bents being rela
tively high while the outermost bents are relatively low. The prestressed
concrete superstructure will shorten with the passing of time due to ef
fects of shrinkage and creep. In addition, its length will vary with temp
erature changes. The changes in length require the provision of one or
more expansion joints in the superstructure. The number and location of
the expansion joints has significant influence on the moments which will
exist in the structure as a result of length changes as well as due to
lateral loads. Normally one prefers to use the minimum number of ex
pansion joints possible because joints require maintenance during the life
of the structure and may be costly to provide.
One joint layout that could be feasible for the bridge of Fig. 5.10, would
consist of expansion joints at the abutments only. With this layout, if the
superstructure were fixed to the bents, the changes of length of the
superstructure would induce moments in the bents. The moments in the
taller central bents are frequently not critical under such circumstances
whereas they frequently are critical for the shorter and stiffer outer bents.
Provision of expansion bearings between the top of the shorter bents and
the superstructure would eliminate the moments in these bents but would
require the higher bents to resist all longitudinal lateral loads.
Another and perhaps better method of solving the problem is to place
spaced elastomeric pads, as shown in Fig. 5.7, between the tops of the
shorter bents and the superstructure. By carefully selecting the size and
shape ofthe bearings, the designer can obtain almost any effective stiffness
of the combined bearing and bent and still transmit moment due to vertical
loads to the shorter bents. This is discussed further in the following section.
Solid piers. Solid round and rectangular columns have been extensively
used in bridge construction and most particularly in bridges spanning
roads, highways and railroads. Their use has generally (but not always)
been confined to structures of moderate span and height. Primary advan
tages of these shapes include relatively low cost, unless they are large in
cross section, and acceptable appearance under most conditions.
Fig. 5.11 Solid piers which are round in cross section. (Courtesy California Department of
Transportation).
ADDITIONAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 1163
Fig. 5.12
cl
Prismatic piers which are hollow.
E8 = AM + BQ (5.17)
E6 = BM + CQ (5.18)
Ev= KN (5.19)
in which for a pier alone (no elastomeric bearing pads) the elastic constants
for rotation (A due to moment and B due to shear), displacement due to
shear (C) and vertical deflection (K)* are as follows:
*Note: B is both the coefficient for rotation due to shear and the coefficient
for displacement due to moment. This can be explained by Maxwell’s law.
ADDITIONAL DESIGN CONSKJERATIONS ( 165
h dx (5.20)
A, =
sUT
h
xdx
BP=  (5.21)
s0 I
cp=
x ’ d x
 (5.22)
s0 1
K, = h dx
(5.23)
s“ A
tr a
PLAN ELEVATION
A,, = + (5.24)
h*
BP = E (5.25)
c, = g (5.26)
in which I and A are the moment of inertia and area of the pier cross section
respectively and h is the height of the pier. If spaced elastomeric pads,
having the dimensions shown in Fig. 5.15 are placed on top of a pier the
values of the elastic constants A, B, C and K in Eqs. 5.17, 5.18 and 5.19
must include the effect of the bearing pads. These effects are:
A, cc ;z*, t3 (5.28)
GSa*
B, = 0 (5.29)
(5.30)
(5.31)
TABLE 5 . 2
b/a 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.5 2 3 4 5 10 30
c 5.83 4.44 3.59 3 . 2 8 3 . 0 3 2 . 6 5 2.37 2.01 1 . 7 8 1 . 7 0 1 . 4 6 1 . 2 7 1 . 1 8 1 . 1 5 1 . 0 7 1
The coeffkient c has the value shown in Table 5.2. It can be shown that for
the combined effects of the pier and elastomeric pads, the elastic coeffi
cients are as follows:
168 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
A = A, + A, E (5.32)
B = B, (5.33)
C = Cp + C, E (5.34)
K = Kr + K, E (5.35)
Using the above, it can be shown that for a pier which has no horizontal
deflection (6 = 0) the moment at the base, Mb can be determined from
Mb = (I  C T’; E) M (5.36)
P e
in which M is the moment at the top of the pier. The term
,  bh (5.37)
cp + CeE
is the carryover factor. Consideration of Eq. 5.37 will reveal that for the
case of a prismatic pier without elastomeric bearing pads the value of Eq.
5.37 is 0.50 (the familiar carryover factor). On the other hand if
t C,E = hBF  C, (5.38)
P
the carryover factor is equal to zero and there is no moment at the bottom
of the pier. Finally, as the value of Ce approaches infinity, the carryover
factor approaches unity. These are illustrated in Fig. 5.15.
Consideration of these fundamental elastic principles will reveal the
important advantages that can be realized through the use of spaced elas
tomeric bearings. Their use permits the engineer to control the elasticity of
the substructure and transfer bending moments due to vertical loads bet
ween superstructure and substructure. In addition, the effects of length
changes can be controlled.
Piers having twin walls. Rather than employing spaced elastomeric bear
ing pads as shown in Fig. 5.7 to control the effects of volume changes in
bridges having piers of small to medium height, piers having twin vertical or
I inclined walls as shown in Figs. 5.13 and 5.16 have been used. This pier
configuration behaves in a manner similar to that of a hollow prismatic pier
with spaced elastomeric bearing pads (Ref. 60). The walls may be fixed to
the superstructure as well as to the solid base of the pier. Piers have also
been made with concrete hinges at one or both ends of the walls. Longitud
inal length changes such as those caused by temperature variations, shrin
ADDITIONAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 1169
kage and creep cause bending of the wall elements which in turn results in
very little resistence to these movements. On the other hand, under the
action of vertical loads, the structure containing twin wall piers behaves as
a frame and moment is transferred from the superstructure to the substruc
ture. Unbalanced superstructure moments can result in uplift forces being
applied to one of the two walls of a pier and if the uplift force exceeds the
dead load in the pier, the wall will act as a tension member and must be
reinforced accordingly (Ref. 61). When converging walls are used, a por
tion of the longitudinal deformation of the superstructure is resisted by
truss action as contrasted to bending alone in the case of vertical walls. If
converging walls which have hinges at both their tops and bottoms are used
on slopes that result in their axes converging at the bottom of the founda
tion, as shown in Fig. 5.16, the foundation is subjected to vertical load
alone. On the other hand, if the axes of the walls converge at a point above
or below the bottom of the foundation, the foundation must resist a bending
moment in addition to the vertical load. Needless to say, thin pier walls of
this type must be investigated for elastic stability, This type of pier is
relatively economical in segmental construction because they are stable
during construction with very little in the way of temporary bracing. The
appearance of piers of this type can be quite acceptable as shown in Figs.
5.17 and5.18. Adetailed study ofpiersofthis type iscontained in Ref. 60.
Fig. 5.17 ChoisyLeRoi Bridge, France (Courtesy of Sock%6 Technique pour L’Utilization de
le Prkontrainte).
Fig. 5.18 Chillon Viaduct, Switzerland. (Courtesy of SociQ6 Technique pour L’Utilization de
la Prbcontrainte).
Flared piers. Piers which are provided with flared upper portions, such
as shown in Figs. 5.19 and 5.20 have been used on a number of bridges.
Piers of this shape are not normally used on structures which are low (short
piers). The pier shafts may be solid but they are usually hollow because the
shafts themselves generally are quite large in cross sections. The piers may
have openings, recessed areas or “special architectural details” which are
intended to enhance their appearance. The flared outer edges of the piers
near their tops as well as the openings, recesses and other architectural
details often complicate the structural details of the piers. This in turn
results in structural inefficiency, imposition of specific construction
methods that must be used in the pier and superstructure and additional
cost. The flares at the tops of piers are particularly a problem in precast
segmental construction when the design is predicated upon a fixed connec
tion between superstructure and substructure. The construction details
required to effect such aconnection are complicated and costly. The use of
piers with flared tops is less objectionable with castinplace segmental
construction. Many persons feel piers of these types are attractive and
Fig. 5.19 Mission Valley Viaduct, San Diego, California. (Courtesy of State Department of
Transportation).
Fig. 5.20 Pine Valley Creek Bridge, California. (Courtesy of State Department of Transporta
tion).
ADDITIONAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS I 173
hence the additional cost they entail is worthwhile. Others feel the basic
shape of the pier should be chosen to satisfy its functional (structural)
requirements with due consideration to cost and appearance.
6.1 Introduction
Many factors affect the relative cost of the various modes of bridge con
struction. The relative importance of the factors varies throughout the
country (and the world) and hence escape generalization. For this
reason no attempt has been made to give specific cost data nor even
relative cost data for the different bridge types. Construction considera
tions vary in importance between the bridge types and an attempt is
made to discuss the basic considerations of falsework, formwork, con
crete finishing and camber control.
Girder and boxgirder bridges have had wide use in the United States
for a number of years and it is doubtful if major innovations will evolve
with these modes of construct4on. Segmental bridge construction has not
as yet been widely used in the United States, in spite of the fact that
several hundred segmental bridges have been constructed in other parts
of the world. It is expected that many innovations will be made in this
country when the use of this method becomes more common.
175
1 7 6 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
6.2 Falsework
Bridges which are castinplace on falsework are normally of the type
that are classified as Tbeam or boxgirder bridges. Bridges have, how
ever, been constructed on falsework, even though they have been de
signed to be erected segmentally in cantilever. This is illustrated in Fig.
6.1. This permits advantage to be taken of the economies of both
methods. The falsework normally consists of timber or steel beams sup
ported by timber or steel columns. A typical bent which utilizes steel
beams supported on timber posts is shown in Fig. 6.2(a). Typical details
for falsework composed of steel beams supported by steel towers are
shown in Fig. 6.2(b).
In recent years the trend has been toward greater use of steel
falsework and less use of timber falsework. This has partially been the
result of improved modular systems of steel falsework becoming com
mercially available and partially due to timber becoming more expensive
than it was in previous years.
The costs related to falsework can represent a major portion of the
total cost of a bridge. The falsework related costs, which are in addition
to the purchase or rental of the basic falsework materials, include the
following:
1 . Engineering costs for design and inspection of the falsework.
2 . Preparation of the foundation. This might consist of preparing soil
J CANTILEVER TENDONS \
IIII I
t
iJ Lj
kONTINUITY TENDON
Fig. 6.1 Falsework for use with the segmental erection technique.
CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATIONS 1 177
1i
‘,LA LJ
I IL
Fig. 6.2
s
(b) Falsework incorporating steel beams and steel towers
178 1 HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUF’ERSTRUCTURES
6 . 3 Formwork
The cost of formwork, per unit of area, varies significantly between the
various modes of prestressed concrete bridge construction. Surprisingly,
the unit price (cost per square foot of bridge) of bridge types which re
quire more jobsite constructed formwork may be lower than bridges of
other types. The phenomenon is attributable to the quality of the
formwork required together with the degree of prefabrication that is pos
sible and the working conditions available for the assembly of non
.prefabricated forms.
Boxgirder bridges of normal configuration have more formwork con
tact area per unit area of bridge deck than Tbeam or precast prestressed
concrete girder bridges. On the other hand, the formwork for boxgirder
bridges is relatively easy to construct and much of it does not need to be
of high quality material nor fabricated with high precision. The sofftt
formwork generally consists of 4 x 4 wood sleepers placed transversely
on top of the falsework beam camber strips over which 5/8inch plywood
is nailed (nominally). The sofftt fonnwork is easily constructed because
there is little (if any) cutting and fitting of material and the work can all
be done “downhand”. High quality formwork is required for the deck
slab overhang and the exterior surface of the fascia girder. The surfaces
of the interior webs do not require high quality formwork because they
are hidden from view in the completed structure. Formwork for the in
terior webs is usually reasonably well made with material of good quality
because they are frequently reused many times. The formwork for the
upper slab of the interior cells of boxgirder bridges is normally not
stripped after the slab has cured and for this reason it is frequently refer
red to as the “lostdeckform”. Because the lostdeckform is used only
once and because the surface it forms is not subject to view in the com
pleted structure, material of very low quality together with only
adequate workmanship is normally used in its construction., Stripping of
all the formwork (webs, slab overhangs and soffit) is relatively easy and
little must be done “overhead”. This combination of requirements re
sults in relatively inexpensive formwork and even though the quantity
which is required is relatively large, the overall formwork cost is rela
tively low.
180 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
Fig. 6.3 Forms for the deck of a girder bridge incorporating precast girders.
forms must be field cut to fit the actual space between girders. The rein
forcing steel stirrups which project from the tops of the girders hinder
the construction of the deck form. Strippmg the deck forms is always
overhead work and frequently must be done under adverse and poten
tially dangerous conditions. Formwork quality must be high because the
surfaces are visible in the completed structure and leakage during plac
ing of the concrete must be minimized as is explained below in Section
6.4. These conditions result in relatively costly formwork.
The traveling forms, or simply the travelers, which are used in cast
inplace segmental bridge construction perform two functions. These are
the forming of the desired shape of the concrete segments and holding
the forms, falsework, concrete and other materials in the desired posi
tion, cantilevered from the previously constructed work. These func
tions may be done by two independent portions of the travelers or may
be done by a single device which performs both functions. The
formwork function of the travelers is normally done with steel forms
although particularly in the vicinity of the piers, where transverse dia
Fig. 6.4 Traveling form for castinplace segmental bridge construction. (Courtesy of
California Department of Transportation).
182 1HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
L PRECASTING BED
Fig. 6.5 Principle of the precasting technique for segmental box girder. construction
utilizing a long soffit form.
CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATIONS 1163
CANTILEVER 1 SEGMENTS
Fig. 6.6 Principle utilized in precasting the segments for the bridge between the continent
and the Island of Oleron.
184 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
PIER SEGMENT
(CAST LEVEL AND PLUMB)
END FORM
\ADJUSTABLE CART
PERMANENT BULKHEAD
(a) FIRST STEP  CAST PIER SEGMENl
I
3 n
 
2 nl
. Fig. 6.6 The technique used in match casting segments in a vertical position.
____ x
is used in the manufacture of concrete pipe. The third method has been
used exclusively on the production of a large number of freeway over
crossing structures in southeastern France and is particularly useful in
producing segments which have small depths.
Specifications for the finishing of concrete bridges vary between the var
ious jurisdictions. Hence, the statements made herein in this regard,
which are based upon the standard specifications used in highway bridge
construction in California (Ref. 63, may not be universally applicable.
In general two types of finishes are required. These are termed ordi
nary surface finish and Class 1 surface finish. Ordinary surface finish
consists of filling all holes or depressions in the surface of the concrete,
repairing rock pockets and repairing honeycomb as well as removing
fins, stains and discolorations which are visible from traveled ways. Or
dinary surface finish is the final finish for most surfaces on a bridge and
is a preparatory finish to surfaces required to have a Class 1 surface
finish. The Class 1 surface finish includes eliminating any bulges or de
pressions or other imperfections which exist due to the forms not being
of high quality. The removal of bulges requires grinding the surface after
which they must be “sacked” to give a uniform appearance.
The Class 1 surface finish is required for the deck overhang and ex
terior faces of the exterior beams or webs of all bridge types. Hence the
cost of this portion of the work is roughly the same for bridges of all
types.
The inside surfaces of boxgirder bridges do not require fin, stain or
discoloration removal. Ordinary finish is required for the deck, and
beam sofftts as well as the sides of the beams in girder bridges. Only the
bottom deck surface of a boxgirder bridge requires the ordinary finish.
In the construction of girder bridges in which the deck is not placed
monolithically with the girders, care must be exercised during the plac
ing of the deck concrete to insure that concrete does not leak through
the deckformtogirder joint and become deposited upon the side of the
girder. If such deposits do occur, they should be washed off with fresh
water before they harden. Otherwise they increase the effort (and cost)
required to properly finish the concrete surfaces.
As a result of the above, concrete finishing costs are usually less for a
boxgirder bridge than for girder bridges. Segmental bridges should have
finishing costs comparable to those of a boxgirder bridge.
188 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
Fig. 6.11 Erection of the ChoisyLeRoi Bridge with floating cranes. (Courtesy of Sock% pour
L’Utilization de le Prkontrainte, Paris, France).
190 ( H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
the erected segment and the segment must be transported to the crane.
Site restrictions may preclude such access. It should also be recognized
that conventional cranes are relatively flexible, particularly with the
longer booms, and because of oscillations and the difficulty of raising or
lowering a load slowly in minute increments, segment erection with con
ventional cranes is generally slow. Segment erection requires greater
precision in positioning the load being erected than is required in the
erection of precast beams.
Bridges which traverse bodies of water can often be erected with fldat
ing cranes as shown in Fig. 6. Il. Floating cranes of very large capacity
exist, and very long booms can be used with them where necessary. The
effects of wind, current, waves, tide and wakes of moving vessels can
result in conditions which render the use of floating cranes difficult and
slow, if not impossible. One solution for this problem is to use the float
ing crane to erect the segment on a secondary piece of erection equip
ment that is supported on the bridge superstructure, the secondary
equipment being used to adjust the segment into final position. Secon
dary equipment of this type was used in the bridge shown in Fig. 6.11. It
would be practical for use with conventional truck or crawler cranes.
When it is possible to transport the segments to a position directly
below their final position in the completed structure, equipment of the
type shown in Fig. 6.12 can be used to erect the segments. This type of
equipment is considerably less costly than a gantry but is also much
slower.
An erection gantry was used for the first time in precast segmental
bridge construction in the Oliron Bridge. This gantry is shown in Fig.
6.13. There have been a number of bridges constructed by gantry since
the construction of the Ole’ron Bridge. The design of the gantries has
gone through a constant evolution and their efficiency has been progres
sively increased. As an example, the gantries used in the construction of
the RioNiteroi Bridge in Brazil were able to erect a typical span of 262
feet every seven days. The RioNiteroi Bridge is shown during construc
tion in Fig. 6.14. Gantries can be used to erect segments which are
transported to the gantry over the top of the previously erected
superstructure as was the case with Oleron or which are transported to a
point below the gantry as was the case with the RioNiteroi. In in
stances where the pier or piersuperstructure connection is not sufli
ciently strong to resist the unbalanced moment induced by the cantilever
erection technique, the magnitude of the unbalanced moment can be
minimized by erecting two segments simultaneously as shown in Fig.
6.15 or its effect can be nullified by using the gantry itself to brace the
structure during erection as shown in Fig. 6.16. Erection gantries are
 Remove
truss after
Step1
L Step 2 Step 3
Fig. 6.12 Erection procedure with segments transported to a position directly below their
final position.
Fig. 6.13 Gantry erecting precast segments on the Ol&on Bridge. (Courtesy of Soci&~ pour
L’Utilization de la Pr&xntrainte, Paris, France).
Fig. 6.14 RioNiieroi Bridge during construction. (Courtesy of !Soci&h pour L’lJtilization de la
Prbcontrainte, Paris, France).
the cantilevers
Fig. 6.16 Gantry used to brace the superstructure as well as to erect the segments.
6.17 that the structure is rendered stable after each new cantilevered
section has been erected. The stability is achieved by connecting the
newly erected cantilever to the previously erected portion of the
superstructure. In the case of the first cantilever, the stability is
achieved by completing the first span. If all the cantilevers were to be
erected before continuity was established between the cantilevered por
tions of the bridge, the construction cost and risk would be greater. This
I 1
t n
ll
2. COMPLETE END SPAN
LI r’
3. ERECT SECOND CANTILEVERS AND EFFECT CONTINUITY
I I I
t r’
I I
1 n
1. ERECT FIRST CANTILEVERS
r I I
7 r
2. ERECT SECOND CANTILEVERS AND EFFECT CONTINUITY
I I I
‘I 1
3. COMF’LETE END SPANS
Fig. 6.18 Erection sequence not recommended with gantryerected precast segments.
which it will be seen that the first segment is erected on top of four
25ton hydraulic jacks after which the second and third segments are
connected to the first with temporary prestressing. The temporary pre
stressing which connects the first three segments includes top and bot
tom prestressing. Four lOOton jacks, which are equipped with low
friction slide plates, are then installed to support the segments and the
four 25ton jacks .are removed. The segment erection is continued using
the cantilever technique with the prestressing being provided by tempor
ary bar tendons attached to the tops of the segments. After each half of
the segments have been erected, the assemblies of segments are pushed
together thereby eliminating the need of a castinplace closure joint.
The erection procedure is completed by installing the permanent pre
stressing tendons (in two stages), erecting the abutment segments, and
removing the temporary prestressing tendons as well as the falsework.
Superstructures can be erected in as little as four days with this
technique.
Move assemblies to
close joint
Install
I
secondstage permanentpresttussing
and remove tie by.
(6.2)
196 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
In which
f’,t = concrete strength at the age of time t
f, = concrete strength at the age of 28 days
c,d = coefficients for concrete strength which are taken to be 2.24 and
0.92 respectively for water cured concrete of usual quality.
(Type III Cement).
Ect = elastic modulus of the concrete at the age oft days
W = unit weight of the concrete which is taken as 145 pcf for normal
concrete.
one can show that in any one cantilever the elastic modulus can vary
from 3,660,OOO psi to 4,210,OOO psi. The oldest concrete has an elastic
modulus equal to 115% of that of the youngest. Obviously variations in
elastic properties as great as this should be taken into account in com
puting the deflections of the cantilevers. Furthermore, in the case of
castinplace construction, because the concrete is prestressed and in
corporated in the structure at a relatively early age, a high portion of the
total concrete shrinkage is effective in reducing the prestressing force.
Additionally the total creep strain is much greater for concretes which
are stressed at early ages. This is illustrated graphically in Fig. A.6 in
Appendix A where it will be seen that concrete stressed at the age of 3
days exhibits a creep strain that is 160 percent of that for the same con
crete being stressed at an age of 28 days, all other conditions being
equal. This effect also has a tendency to increase the loss of prestress,
add to deflection and render the accurate prediction of the deflection
more difftcult.
In the case of bridges composed of precast segments, the segments of
any one cantilever are frequently cast one per day with the result that a
cantilever which has 20 segments may have a difference in age between
the oldest and youngest segment of the order of 25 to 28 days (including
an allowance for weekends). Because the youngest segments would
normally be 30 days old or more at the time of erection, the ratio of the
elastic modulii of the oldest and youngest concrete at the time of erec
tion would be of the order of 1.02 or less which is negligible. Because of
the rapid rate of erection normally achieved with this mode of construc
tion, the amount of creep which takes place during erection is less than
that experienced with castinplace segments and the total creep strain is
less because the concrete has a greater age at the time of stressing. For
these reasons the loss of prestress is relatively low with precast seg
ments as is the total deflection of the cantilever at the time of erection.
Studies of the relative deflection of cantilevers composed of castin
place and precast segments have been reported in the literature. (Ref.
CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATIONS I 199
IAINT fl 1 2 3 4 5
(4
JOINT 0 1 2 3 4 5
SEGMENT
Fig. 6.21 (a) Deflection of a segmentally constructed cantilever in which no provision has
been made for camber. (b) Deflection of a segmentally constructed cantilever in
which provision is made for camber.
I 2 0 0 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
67.) These studies have shown the deflection of the former can be as
great as 2.5 times that of the latter for identical cantilevers constructed
under normal conditions for each construction mode.
Deflection control for a bridge erected in cantilever involves the de
termination of the deflection of each cantilever as it is assembled fol
lowed by the determination of the deflection of the total structure as new
portions are added to it. These are illustrated in Figs. 6.21 and 6.22. A
typical deflection curve for a cantilever that is erected segmentally with
out camber but including the effects of prestressing is shown in Fig.
6.21(a). The deflection curves for each stage of construction for the
same cantilever in which the appropriate correction for camber has been
built into the member, is shown in Fig. 6.21(b). The cantilever camber
that is to be constructed into the structure at any point, such as point 3
in Fig. 6.21(a), is the deflection the point undergoes from the sub
sequently erected segments. In other words, point 3 must be constructed
with a camber equal to the sum of the deflections due to the effects of
segments 4 and 5. These are shown graphically in Fig. 6.21 in which
they are designated 83.4 and 63.5. The deflection which must be taken
into account in the construction of a fourspan continuous bridge that is
erected in cantilever, in addition to the cantilever deflection, is shown in
Fig. 6.22. The downward deflection of the cantilevered ends results
from the stressing of the continuity tendons in each span as the con
struction proceeds. The downward deflection of the cantilever accounts
for the discontinuities in the deflection curves.
In castinplace construction the deflection analysis must also include
the effects of the traveling form because it contributes significantly to
the deflection of the cantilever. Because the traveler is moved forward
as the construction progresses, the amount of deflection attributable to
the traveling form progressively increases. When the construction of the
cantilever is completed, the traveling form is removed and the elastic
deflection caused by the traveling form is recovered.
The camber is built into the structure in castinplace cantilever con
struction much in the same way that it is in conventional castinplace
construction. That is to say the elevation of the traveling form is field
adjusted by a crew composed of surveyors and workmen in such a way
that the desired camber is built into the structure. In addition, as the
construction progresses, the surveyors periodically measure and plot the
camber in order to compare the actual values to the computed values. If
it is found the actual values differ significantly from the computed val
ues, the camber provided in subsequently constructed segments can be
adjusted to correct for the deviation between the two values.
In the case of precast segments which are provided with relatively
CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATIONS I201
CIP CLOSURESTYPICAL
ABUT. 1 PIER 2 f PIER 3 PIER 4 ABUT. 5
f
I I I
,I 4,
SPAN 2 SPAN 3 SPAN 4 .
 I


i
IO ! 01
t*i+t
Hydraulic Jacks
Elastromeric bearing pads ’
SECTION AA
Vertical Section Through
Bridge at Pier
TABLE 6.1
Precast
3 90 140 140 14090 Segmental 232 120,000
*12+%” 4 2 7 0 strand anchorages.
  
Appendices
A LongTerm
Deformation
of
Concrete *
205
2 0 6 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
NT RATIO
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.6
Fig. A.1 Chart showing relationship between coefficient kb and watercement ratio for var
ious cement contents. (Note that 100 Kg/m3 equals 169 pounds per cubic yards
or 1.79 sacks per cubic yard).
100 90 80 70 60 50 40
Relative air humidity, in %
Fig. A.2 Shrinkage coefficient EC shown as a function of relative humidity of average am
bient air during service.
APPENDIX A 1207
For heated floors, ovens etc., the values of l c should be drawn from
experience.
kp= ’
1 + nf%
with n = 20, having regard to the effects of creep.
2 0 8 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
r(tJ
I
1.0
0.94
0.8 i   
0.82
/ I 4 0.89
I
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1 3 7 14 28 90 180 365 days 
1 2 5 years
Fig. A.4 Rate of deferred deformation (shrinkage and creep) with respect to time. Time is
actual time from application of load in the case of creep and is “theoretical time”
(defined in text) for shrinkage.
In order to take into account the size of the member, instead of the actual
time t (age of the concrete) the “theoretical time” is used in the diagram,
obtained from the following expression:
10
ti = t d
em
in which the theoretical thickness em is expressed in cm.
That part of the deformation due to shrinkage in any interval of time
(t  ti) is equal to:
l r [r(t)  r(t)]
3.0
2.5
100 90 80 70 60 50 40
Fig. A.5 Creep ratio kc versus relative humidity of average ambient air during service.
2 1 0 )H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
k,
2 I
1.8
tLog
1 3 7 14 28 90 180 360 days
Age at loading
A.6 Coefficient kd versus the age of the concrete at loading for ambient temperature of 20” C
(W F.). (See text for adjusting for different average ambient temperatures.)
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Fig. A.7 Theoretical thickness coefficient for creep, kez, versus theoretical thickness.
2.5 The law r(t) is the same as for shrinkage, but the number of days is
counted from the application of the load; on the other hand, the actual time*
is taken into account, since the development of creep with time is less
sensitive than that of shrinkage, to the influence of a reduction in the
theoretical thickness of the member.
2.6 At a given time t counted from the application of loads, the effect of
a stress dbj applied at a momentj and subjected at any instant i to variations
in intensity AC'bi (algebraically) may be taken as equal to:
‘?YPE V TYPE VI
TABLE B.l
Moment of
Beam Type Area Inertia Yt Span
in2 in4 .i n feet
213
214 1 HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
1 l’7” 1
Fig. 8.2 California standard lgirders.
TABLE 8.2
Moment of
Depth Area inertia Yf Span
in in2 id in Feet
TABLE 8.3
Moment of Maximum
Depth Area Inertia Yt Span
in in* in4 in Feet
24 ,
TABLE 8.4
Moment of Nominal
Depth Area Inertia Yt Span
in in2 id in Feet
*Private communication from Gerard Sauvageot, Project Engineer, Europe Etudes, Paris,
France.
217
2 1 8 )H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
K l/12 = + (1)
12
The moment Ml2 is applied to the joint 1 as shown in Fig. C.2. In a similar
manner the elasticity of joint 2 with respect to beam 21 is as follows:
82
K U2I = 
I+421
(2)
The stiffness (R) is reciprocal of the elasticity. The stiffness ofthe joint 1
with respect to beam 12 is equal to:
R MIZ
l/l2 = 
81
In a similar manner for member 14, there is a moment at joint 1 equal to:
MH = &Ra (7)
Finally, one can relate the sum of the moments in the members which
constitute the supports at joint 1, to the moment MIZ, as follows:
and
R l/l2 = R13 + RI, + R,, (10)
Hence, the stiffness of the joint 1 with respect to the beam 12 is equal to the
sum of the stiffnesses of all the members at joint 1 except for beam 12.
Knowing the stiffnesses of the members which frame into the joints, one
can determine the joint stiffness and elasticity.
2 2 0 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
and
m2
r2i/2 = 
e2 (14)
a=1 ’ (lx)2 dx
fi (13
I2 s0
Fig. C.5 Freebody diagram for beam 12 simply supported with a unit moment at 1.
dx (16)
Nx) E
In which E and I are the elastic modulus and the moment of inertia of the
beam respectively.
In a similar manner if a unit moment is applied at end 2 as shown in Fig.
C.6, rotations equal to b and c are obtained at ends 1 and 2 respectively.
The value of c is:
1 ’ xz dx
c =
F s0 fi (171
Fig. C.6 Freebody diagram for beam 12 simply supported with a unit moment at 2.
2 2 2 (H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
The rotation at the ends opposite to that at which the unit moment is
applied is equal to b in each case. This can be explained by Maxwell’s Law
of Recriprocal Deflections.
For loads applied to the simply supported beam 12, rotations occur at
ends 1 and 2 which are designated WI and ~2 respectively. This is illustrated
in Fig. C.7.
and
substituting equations (1) and (2) for & and 02 respectively in equations (19)
and (20) and solving for Ml2 and MU, one obtains:
( c + Ku24 01 +boz
(21)
M12 = (a + KIN) (c +Ku21) b2
and
bo, + (a + K/12) wz
M21 =  (a + KI,I~) (c +Ku21)  b2 (22)
In the equations (21) and (22) “beam” moment sign convention, as shown
in Fig. C.9 is used.
APPENDIX C ) 223
Fig. C.8 Rotations at the ends of beam 12 resulting from transverse loads and end mo
ments.
o W+
c  :’ i: MuM>
MOMENT SIGN CONVENTION
ROTATION SIGN CONVENTION
Fig. C.9 Sign convention for rotation and moment (beam convention).
2 2 4 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
and
8, = kzl/2 m2
(24)
but
and
B2 = bM,2 + cm2 (26)
from which
and
Therefore
and
From which the general equations for the elasticities of the beam are
determined to be:
b2
k 21/z = c  (32)
a + KVIZ
and
bZ
k IUI =a 
c + Kz21 (33)
6. Carryover Factors.
c,, = b (35)
a + h12
\\
m2
r!i
15
/
Fig. C.11 Relationship between joint moment mz at beam moment MIZ.
2 2 6 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
and from 1 to 2
Cl, = b
c + Ku21
The carryover factors are illustrated in Fig. C.12.
The equations for the end moments in the continuous beam can be
written from equations (21) and (22) as:
M,* = + cT . (;)I+cc12cu2 (37)
12 21
SUMMARY:
Elasticity of the Joints: The elasticity of the joint is computed as the
reciprocal of the sum ofthe stiffnesses of the members which frame into the
joint, neglecting the beam under consideration. The elasticity of a member
is equal to the angle of rotation of the member under a unit moment,
assuming the member is hinged at the joint under consideration. For
C 21
4
prismatic members, the relative stiffnesses for members hinged and fixed at
their far ends are:
k 21/z b2
= c 
a + KI/I~
Carryover Factors
c,, = b (43)
c + Kv21
cpl =a + bKlj12
End Moments
Ml2 = + k . 01 + Cl202
(45)
b 1 Cl2CPl
(46)
Example Problem
Compute the bending moments due to the applied live load of 10 klf as
well as the secondary bending moments due to the prestressing force for
the structure shown in Fig. C. 13. The structure can be idealized as shown
in Fig. C. 14 where it will be seen the moments of inertia for the beams and
piers are 400 ft.4 and 100 ft.4 respectively.
The properties of the structure are determined by first finding the unit
moment coefftcients a, b and c using Eq. 18. These are as follows:
2 2 8 )H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
10 KIFWFT.
70 *
In the case of pier 36 (Fig. C. 16), the joint 6 is fixed (K&x = 0) and from Eq.
32:
km = 0.0666  y=& = 0.05
I = 400 ft.* r/
1 2 3 45
/
7///f I=100 ft.’
/\5 6 /
/f/f
/////
For beam 12, joint 1 is hinged (KI/IZ = m) and from Eq. 32:
1 1
i&3 = iii,* + iii2
1 = 1  1
iG*3 0.0833 + 0.0666
Kux = 0.037
3
. .
and the elasticity ofjoint 3 wit,h respect to span 34 is computed using Eq. 10
as follows:
1 1 1
E/34 =m+ 0.05
K3,34 = 0.032
1 1 1
G = 
0.0625 ‘+ 0.05
K3,32 = 0.0277
and
k3uz = 0.108  0.0542 = 0.0866
0.108 + 0.0277
from which
L
1 l = 0.0866
1 + 0.0666
1
and
Kz,z, = 0.0377
is
1 7
77
5
97
/ 55.6%
The distribution factors for each joint are determined from the stiffness of
the members. For moment M23 as shown in Fig. C.17:
M \/
c 2 3 45
/
56.5% /
\ I\5
6
/Y/f
///’
Fig. C.18 Freebcdy diagram for joint 2 right.
1 2 3
/I///
Fig. C.20 Freebody diagram for joint 3 left.
The carry over factors from right to left are computed from Eq. 35 while
that from left to right from Eq. 36. These are:
EON =  2288
EWQ = + 2288
M32=  . 
0.054 0.4 2288
1  x0.372
0.372x +0.42288 = _ 12 , 50, K  Ft .
using the distribution factors computed above for M23 and h&2 one
obtains a distribution of moments as shown in Fig. C.21.
The secondary moments for the portion of the tendon in span 23 is
computed next. The same procedure should be used for the portions of the
tendon in spans 12 and 34 and the results of the three analyses added
together for the combined effect. Refer to Fig. C.22. Assuming the tendon
Fig. C.21 Moment diagram for frame with loading shown in Fig. C.13.
2 3 4 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
I\/
A
////
1
2917 ASSUMED PARABOLIC
Fe
= 5000x4 = 50
I 400
Area =  50 x 30 x f =  1000
Between 23:
Fe
= 5ooox5 ~625
I 400 .
03 =  458
and the secondary moment diagram as shown in Fig. C.23 is found using
the distribution factors for moments M23 and M32.
Note: When the tops ofthe piers are free to translate horizontally, ageneral
method must be used for the computation of the piers. With reference to
Fig. C.24, it will be seen that the pier is subject to a bending moment of M
and a horizontal force Q which are applied at the top. The rotation at the
top due to M and Q is 8 while the displacement is equal to 6. Using the
notation:
A = the rotation due to the moment (elasticity for rotation.)
B = the rotation due to the horizontal force, which because of the
Maxwell Theory is equal to the displacement due to the moment.
C = the displacement due to the horizontal force (elasticity for dis
placement.)
E = Young’s modulus.
E6=BM+CQ (48)
in which
h dx
A = (49)
s3 \
B= h xdx

s0 I
(51)
EB=M(A!!&kM (53)
or
k=AE (54)
A=+ (55)
fj=hZ (56)
21
(57)
For the case where the top of the pier cannot deflect horizontally
(ES=O) it can be shown that the distance x from the top of the pier to
the point of zero moment is:
C
x = (58)
B
Under the effect of a lateral load, the tops of the piers deflect as
shown in Fig. C.25. Considering the joint at the top of the pier on the
left side, it can be shown that for the pier Eq. 47 applies while the rota
tions result in the following relationships for the beams:
span 1: E8 =  GM (59)
M = M’ + M” (61)
M” = Cl M
(63)
cl + (az  b2)
If
A= l +’ (64)
(alb2) cl
2 3 8 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
x =Bh (66)
AX + 1
The effect of a length change, which may be due to a combination of
creep, shrinkage or temperatureinduced strain, the piers deflect as
shown in Fig. C.26. Eq. 47 remains correct for the pier and the rota
tional relationships for the beams at the top of the left pier are as fol
lows:
and for the joint Eq. 61 applies. From this one can show that
M, = (a2 + W M
(69)
cl + (ao+ b2)
M” = Cl M
(70)
cl + (a2 + b2)
and if
1
*’ = (a2 : b2) + z (71)
M = BA’Q (72)
Ah’ + 1
APPENDIX C 1239
and the distance x from the top of the pier to the point of zero moment
is:
x= BX’
AA’ + 1
Finally, it can be shown that the relationship between the shear force Q
and the deflection at the top of the pier is:
Q = ESB,~, (74)
’  AA’ + 1
D Thermal
Stresses in
Concrete Bridge
Superstructures
fy = E (~1 + ~2 f  CY ty)
ty by dy
242 ) HIGHWAY BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
in which the terms are defined in Figs. D. 1 through D.3 and (Y is the linear
coefficient of thermal expansion, A is the area of the section and I is the
moment of inertia of the section about the horizontal axis pasing through
the centroid. The procedure consists of solving equation (D.3) which gives
the curvature of the section and the value of ~2. With ~2 known,equation
(D.2) can be solved for the value of El and the stresses found from equation
(D.l). The curvature found with equation (D.3) is used to determine the
additional stresses induced by continuity in structures which are continu
ous. Curvature is equal to M/E1 and deflections can be computed there
from.
The bridge designer generally does not have precise data relative to the
extreme temperature gradient a particular bridge will experience in ser
vice. For this reason an approximate method of analysis will yield results
that are adequate for most design work. The approximate method consists
Y
br
X
L4El
(a) . W
Fig. D.3 Strain and stress distributions in beam of Fig. D. 1 due to temperature gradient of Fig.
D.2.
2 4 4 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
of assuming the top deck is raised to a uniform temperature higher than the
other parts of the cross section. If unrestrained, the top deck would
experience an increase in length as a result of the temperature increase.
The expansion of the top deck is resisted by the webs and bottom flange.
The first step in computations with the approximate method consists of
computing the forces that would exist in the top flange due to the increase in
temperature if the flange were completely restrained. The force results in a
compressive stress in the top flange. The effect ofthe force in the top flange
on the section as a whole is computed by applying a tensile force equal in
magnitude to the compressive force, applied at the centroid of the top
flange. The sum of the stresses from the two forces gives the approximate
stresses due to thermal effects in the section.
(a) W w
Fig. D.5. Stresses in the bridge of Fig. D.4, by approximate calculation, for a temperature
differential of 30°F.
APPENDIX D 1245
A A i
210 210 t, 155 w
I

POSITIVE MOMENT
(TENSION IN BOlTOM FIBER)
W
Fig. D.6 (a) Elevation of beam continuous over four spans and (b) secondary moments in the
beam due to differential temperature of 30°F.
The tensile force applied 5.29 inches from the top of the section produces
the stresses shown in Fig. D.5(b) and the combined stresses are as shown
in Fig. D.~(c). These are the approximate stresses that would exist if the
beam were a single simplysupported span.
If made continuous over four spans as shown in Fig. D.6(a), it can be
shown that secondary moments and reactions as shown in Fig. D.5(b)
would exist. The secondary reactions are those required to prevent the
beam from deflecting upward from its supports as a result of the thermal
gradient. The secondary moment at the first interior support results in a
stress of 314 psi (compression) in the top fiber and 510 psi (tension) in the
bottom fiber. The net stress in the member due to the effect of the differen
tial temperature would be those obtained by combining the stresses shown
in Fig. D.5(c) with those resulting from the secondary moment of Fig. D.6.
References
10. Seni, Alfio. “Comparison of Live Loads Used in Highway Bridge Design in
North America with Those Used in Western Europe.” Second International
Symposium on Bridge Design, Volume 1. Detroit: American Concrete Insti
tute, 1971, pp. l34.
11. Rajagopalan, K. S. “Comparison of Loads Around the World for Design of
Highway Bridges.“Second InternationalSymposium on Bridge Design, Vol
ume 1. Detroit: American Concrete Institute, 1971, pp. 3548.
12. Libby, pp. 4058.
13. Branson, D. E. and Kripanarayanan, K. M. “Time Dependent Concrete
Properties, Prestress Loss, Camber and Deflection of Noncomposite and
Composite Structures of Different Weight Concretes.” Sixth Congress, Fed
eration lnternationale de la Precontrainte, Prague, June 1970.
14. Association Francaise du Btton. Conception et Calcul du Beton Prtcontraint
(Conception and Design of Prestressed Concrete), Instruction provisoire du 13
aout 1973, Appendix 1, Paris, France, (in French).
15. Scordelis, A. C. and Davis, R. E. “Stresses in Continuous Concrete Box
Girder Bridges.” Second International Symposium on Bridge Design, Volume
1. Detroit: American Concrete Institute, 1971, p. 284.
16. Westergaard, H. M. “Computation of Stresses in Bridge Slabs Due to Wheel
Loads.” Public Roads, March 1930.
17. Pucher, Adolf. Einflussfelder Elastischer Platten (Influence Surfaces of Elas
tic Plates). New York: SpringerVerlag, 1964 (in German and English).
18. Homberg, Hellmut. Fahrbahnplatten mit veraenderlicher Dicke (Decks with
Variable Thickness), Volumes I and II. New York: SpringerVerlag, 1968, (in
German).
19. AC1 Committee 318, p. 23.
20. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, p. 33.
21. Association Francaise du Btton, p. 189.
22. Ibid, pp. 1316.
23. Priestley, M. J. N. “Model Study of a Prestressed Concrete BoxGirder
Bridge Under Thermal Loading.” Proceedings ofthe Ninth Congress ofthe
IABSE, Amsterdam, May 1972.
24. Radolli, M. and Green, R. “Thermal Stresses in Concrete Bridge
SuperstructuresSummer Conditions.” Presented at the 54th Annual Meet
ing, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., January 1975.
25. Bouwkamp, J. G., Scordelis, A. C. and Wasti, S. T. Structural Behavior ofa
Two Span Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridge Model, Volume I, UC
SESM Report No. 715. Berkeley: College of Engineering, Office of Research
Services, University of California, April 1971.
26. Scordelis, A. C., Bouwkamp, J. G. and Wasti, S. T. Structural Behavior ofa
Two Span Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridge Model, Volumes II and III,
UCSESM Report No. 7116 and 7117. Berkeley: College of Engineering,
Office of Research Services, University of California, October 1971.
27. Kristek, V. “Theory and Research on ThinWalled Prestressed Concrete
Beams.” Proceedings of the Sixth Congress, Federation International de la
Precontrainte, Prague 1970, pp. 164173.
28. Nayak, G. C. And Davies,J. D. “Influence Characteristics for Slab Bridges.”
Second International Symposium on Bridge Design, Volume I. Detroit:
American Concrete Institute, 1971, pp. 75l 16.
R E F E R E N C E S 12 4 9
251
2 5 2 1H I G H W A Y B R I D G E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E S
T U
Tbeam, 16 Unbalanced moment. 85
Temperature, 3, 241
Temperature differential, 14, 102, 241
Tendon layout
boxgirder bridge, 74, 76 V
segmental boxgirder bridge, 104 Vail Pass, 121
Thenoz, M., 99 Volume changes, 4
Torsional constant, 62
Torsional stiffness
boxgirder bridges, 18, 57, 59
girder bridges, 29 W
segmental boxgirder bridges, 84 West Mission Bay Drive Bridge, 55
Transverse flexure Westergaard, H. M., 7
boxgirder bridge, 59 Wide superstructures, 96
girder bridges, 30 boxgirder bridges, 67
segmental boxgirder bridges, 100 girder bridges, 33
Travelers, 120 segmental boxgirder bridges, 96
Traveling forms, 181 Wind load, 3
Twin tubulargirders, 105 Witecki, A. A., 150
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