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PROJECT

ON
“Comparative study on marketing mix of three selected brands of
Tomato Ketchup (Maggi, Kissan & Cremica) and its impact on
consumer buying behaviour in Ludhiana city.”

A report submitted towards the partial fulfillment of the requirements of


the two years full-time Post Graduate Diploma
in
“Fashion Merchandising and marketing”

SUBMITTED TO :-

MR. KAPIL C AGGARWAL


(Module Tutor of Marketing and Communication Skill)
MS. RATANDEEP REKHI
(Module Tutor of Consumer Behaviour)
DR. SUNIDHI DHIMAN
(Module Tutor of Research Methodology)
MR.GAGANDEEP SINGH
(Module Tutor of Computers)

SUBMITTED BY :-
PAWANDEEP DHIMAN
FMM- 2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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I feel immense pleasure to offer my thanks to faculty members, who cooperated in analysis
of data and helped me in completion of this project. I am very thankful to my friends who
directly and indirectly helped me in collection of data and material related to the research
topic.
In the end I would like to thank the respondents who gave their valuable piece of time for
participating in the survey to complete the study.

INDEX

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Sr.no Chapters Page no.
1. Chapter 1. : 5-11
1. Introduction 5
2. Objectives 6
3. Marketing mix of Brands 7-11
2. Chapter 2. : Review of Literature 12-16

3. Chapter 3. : Research Methodology 17-18

4. Chapter 4. : Results and Discussion 19-32

5. Chapter 5. : Conclusion 33-34

6. Chapter 6. : Suggestions 35-36

7. Chapter 7. : Bibliography 37

8. Chapter 8. : Annexure 38-41

Table Index

Sr. No Content Page


no.
Table 4.1 Data related to marketing mix.

Table 4.1.1 Distribution of respondents on the bases of most demanded tomato ketchup brand by the consumers 19
Table 4.1.2 Distribution of respondents according to the level of competition faced by the three selected brands of T.K 20
Table 4.1.3 Distribution of respondents on the bases of particular size of T.K packing preferred by consumers 21
Table 4.1.4 Distribution of the respondents according to the brands preferred by their customers on the bases of 22
taste and its attractive packing
Table 4.1.5 Distribution of respondents on the bases of channel of distribution followed by brands 23
Table 4.2 Data related to consumer behaviour

Table 4.2.1 Distribution of respondents on the bases of age and gender of the respondents using the brand 24
Table 4.2.2 Distribution of respondents on the bases of usage of a particular brand of tomato ketchup 26
Table 4.2.3 Distribution of the respondents on the bases of type of store preferred by them 27
Table 4.2.4 Distribution of respondents according to the purchase decision on the non-availability of their preferred
28
brand
Table 4.2.5 Distribution of respondents on bases of factors and offers provided by the brands and their source of
information. 29
Table 4.2.6 Distribution of respondents on the bases of Level of satisfaction after using the particular brand 31
Figures Index

Sr no. Content Page


No.
Figure 4.1 Figures related to marketing mix.

Figure 4.1.1 Distribution of respondents on the bases of most demanded tomato ketchup brand by the consumers 19
Figure 4.1.4 Distribution of the respondents according to the brand’s attractive packing 22
Figure 4.1.5 (1) Distribution of respondents on the bases of 2nd level of channel of distribution followed by brands
23
Figure 4.1.5 (2) Distribution of respondents on the bases of multi level of channel of distribution followed by brands
23

Figure 4.2 Figures related to consumer behaviour .

Figure 4.2.2 Distribution of respondents on the bases of usage of a particular brand of tomato ketchup

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Figure 4.2.6 Distribution of respondents on the bases of Level of satisfaction after using the particular brand 26
31

Chapter 1.

1. INTRODUCTION :-

India is a diverse country where different states have different consumption patterns and
customs. Competition has become the key word in today’s scenario. Till 1970’s and 80’s
Maggie and Kissan were the major ketchup brands but after liberalization Heinz entered
Indian market which offered tough competition. These major giants are also facing
competition from many local players like Tops, Cremica and other local brands. The ketchup
market in India is estimated to be around Rs 220 crore, largely dominated by Nestlé’s Maggi
that owns 47% of the market and the Kissan that owns 26%. Upto mid eighties Kissan was
the number one brand in Tomato Ketchup and around that time the competition came from
Maggi -- a Nestlé’s brand (Anonymous,2009).

This project is undertaken to study and understand the 4 P’s of marketing which includes
PRODUCT, PRICE, PLACE and PROMOTION of three brands of tomato Ketchup and its
impact on the consumer buying behaviour. The three brands of the tomato ketchup selected
for the study are Maggi, Kissan and Cremica. Price helps in analyzing whether it is
competitively priced or not. Promotions showcases which mode of promotion is most
effective and how do consumers respond to various celebrity endorsements. Place focuses on
efficiency of distribution network of Tomato Ketchup.

There are various strategies which are used by manufacturers in marketing their product. The
popularity of the brand or the brand positioning depends upon various factors. The
manufacturer uses his strengths and opportunities for survival and to overcome against
threats and its weakness. Marketing mix or 4 P’s of marketing is the most important tool of
any organisation. (Anonymous (2001), Marketing mix)

Marketing mix has an impact on the buying decision of a consumer. Marketing is used to
identify the customer, to keep the customer, and to satisfy the customer. To understand the
behaviour of consumer, marketer must know how a consumer make decision before buying
any product for this consumer decision making (consumer buying behaviour) have to be
studied.

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The consumer decision making is a process having various stages which are as Need
Recognition: The buying process starts when the buyer recognizes a problem or need. The
need can be triggered by internal or external stimuli. Marketers need to identify the
circumstances that trigger a particular need. By gathering information from a number of
consumers, marketers can identify the most frequent stimuli that spark and interested in a
product category. They can develop marketing strategies that trigger consumer’s interest.
Information search: An aroused consumer will be inclined to search for more information. At
this level a person simply becomes more receptive to information about a product.
Consumer information sources fall into four groups; Personal sources, Commercial sources,
Public sources. Through gathering information, the consumer learns about competing brands
and their features.
Evaluation of alternatives: There is no single evaluation process used by all consumers or by
one consumer in all buying situation. There are several decision evaluation processes, First,
the consumer is trying to satisfy a need. Second, the consumer is looking for certain benefits
from the product solution. Third, the consumers see each product as a bundle of attributes
with varying abilities of delivering the benefits sought to satisfy this need.
Purchase Decision: In evaluation stage, the consumer forms preferences among the brands in
the choice set. The consumer may also form an intention to buy most preferred brand.
However, two factors can intervene between the purchase intentions and the purchase
decision.
Post purchase behaviour: after purchasing the product the consumer will experience some
level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The marketers job does not end when the product is
bought marketers must monitor post purchase satisfaction; post purchase action and post
purchase product users.
There are various environmental variables which also effect the position of the brand. This
includes customer variable, competition, trade, technology and government variable.
Marketing mix and environmental factors are closely related which affect the consumer
buying behaviour. (Anonymous, Consumer behaviour)
This project is focussed on the studying the marketing mix of tomato ketchup and its three
brands ( Maggi, Kissan , Cremica) and the buying behaviour of its consumers in selected area
of Ludhiana city. As this project is done by the student of marketing and consumer
behaviour, he or she must know about the strategies which a marketer formulate and plan for

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the brand extension and profitability. As marketing mix is based on the consumer behaviour
the relationship have been studied in this project.

The study has been planned with the following objectives :


1. To study the 4P’s of marketing of three selected brands of tomato ketchup i.e. Maggi,
Kissan and Cremica.
2. To study the consumer buying behaviour in regard to these selected brands of tomato
ketchup.
3. To do the comparative analysis of the three selected brands of tomato ketchups based
upon the marketing mix and consumer buying behaviour.

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Four P ’s of marketing used by brands

 About Maggi Tomato Ketchup :-

[source : http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/de/thumb/0/06/Maggi-logo.svg/677px-Maggi-logo.svg.png]
Maggi Tomato Ketchup is primarily a taste enhancer, giving the food provider taste, aroma
and also contains iodised salt. Nestle was seriously working on brand extension to leverage
brand success in some potential product categories. The company finally decided to enter
ketchup market with the brand Maggi. Finally in 1985 when Maggi noodles had reached
4000 tonnes business, they ensured the establishment of the brand Maggi and launched their
Maggi ketchup. Market leader Kissan was selling its ketchup in 500 gm. Nestle decided upon
400 gm bottle to give the consumer a ‘price- point’ advantage. The main launched its product
all over India. The main focusing aspect of their advertisement was ‘what ketchup does to
your food- tasty and more palatable.
Source : anonymous (2009) Encyclopaedia, http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Maggi

4 P’s of Marketing of Maggi Tomato Ketchup


1. PRODUCT :- ( 1Kg bottle)
a. Available in different variants: Maggi Ketchup Maggi Hot & Sweet Sauce, Maggi Masala
Chilli Sauce, Maggi Chilli Garlic Sauce, Maggi Tamarind Sauce, Maggi Tomato Sauce
(Without onion & garlic), Maggi Tomato Ketchup (With onion & garlic), tomato chatpat,
Teekha masala, Tomato pudina.
b. The product ingredients are water, tomato paste (34%), sugar, iodised salt, acidifying agent
(260), thickening agent (440 & 401), onion powder, garlic powder, mixed spices and
preservative (211).
2. PROMOTION :-
a. They promote their product very effectively through television by adding humour in the ads.
b. They also sponsor various cookery shows to promote alternate usage of products. Maggi was a
sponsor for Hum Log, a popular television show on Doordarshan, India’s sole channel in 1984.

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c. They also use strategy of free product samples to promote it. They have distributed samples in
various mall and schools in Delhi.

d. Celebrity endorsements:- Maggi was They came up with their popular


character of Pankaj and Javed to communicate with target audience
Nestlé carried out various promotional activities as well. These included
the August 1999 ‘Fun-Dooz’ campaign and Jungle Jackpot
campaign .They have taken Javed Jafferi for endorsement of tomato
ketchup. They used a punch line that is very effective and creates a
unique image in the minds of the customers.
That is “its Different”. On completing its 25 years in India, Maggi has
changed slogan to “ Make a Difference”. And it’s now campaign slogan is
“Mai & maire maggi”.
3. PLACE :- Sold in India , New Zealand , Australia , Malaysia, Pakistan, Nigeria, Philippines and
Singapore.The distribution network is well spread as it is easily available in all karyana stores,
spx
retail store etc.
4. PRICE :-
Its Maggi Rich Tomatoes is priced at Rs 90
(1 kg bottle with 20% free offer).

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 About Kissan Tomato Ketchup :-

4 P’s of marketing of Kissan Tomato Ketchup are :-


1. PRODUCT :- ( 1Kg bottle)
• It is available in different variants: Kissan Ketchup and Kissan Sauce (no onion no
garlic), Kissan Tomchi.
• The product ingredients are water, tomato paste , sugar, salt, acidity regulator
(260),Stabilizers (1442 & 415), condiments, onion powder, garlic powder, mixed spices
and preservative (211).
• The thickness is more as compared to Maggi Ketchup. Due to the hidden quantity of the
tomato paste in the ingredient.

2. PROMOTION :-
a. No particular celebrity endorsement is used by the HUL ( Hindustan Unilever
Limited ).
b. The new campaign of Kissan has positioned the Kissan Ketchup a unique product . Taking
the tag line "Aao banaye pakode behtar" translated to "Making Pakode taste better". In these
series of ads, the brand plays a second fiddle to the main snack. The brand takes the
positioning of a "Great Accompaniment "

3. PLACE : -
Sold in India, U.S.A and Australia. The distribution network is well spread as it is easily
available in all karyana stores, retail store etc.
4. PRICE :-
Kissan Ketchup is priced at Rs 91 (1 kg bottle).

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 About Cremica Tomato Ketchup :

source: http://www.mrsbectorfoods.com/images/sauces_img.jpg

Established in 1978 as a small enterprise by Mrs. Bector, a housewife and passionate food
enthusiast, the Cremica Group is today a widely diversified food products company engaged
in food retailing and food services industry. Mrs Bector's Cremica, a 90 million dollar
company, is one of the largest players in food services business in India.
The Cremica Group includes Cremica Frozen Foods, EBI foods, Mrs Bector's Desserts and
Cremica Agro India. It serves as a one-stop solution provider to all leading food service
chains, food retail chains, hotel groups and airlines. Cremica's spread of delightful biscuits,
breads, sauces, bread spreads, ready-to-eat curries and syrups have something for everyone.
Today, its products are exported to 50 countries including Africa, the USA, UK and the
Middle East.
Source : Asian News International ( 2009)
http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+Cremica+group+making+waves+in+food+service+industry.(Company...-
a0199265103

4 P’s of marketing of Cremica Tomato Ketchup :-


1. PRODUCT :- ( 1Kg bottle)
a. Its product line includes Tomato ketchup, chilli sauce, tomato ketchup sachets, chilli
sauce sachets, mustard sachet, mint dip sachets, pizza pasta sauce, salsa Mexicana sauce,
chilli garlic sauce.
b. The company has launched a new `concept product' which it calls a `tiffin ketchup
sachet.' This is a carton with 25 single serve sachets which the company hopes will do
well in homes with school-going children.

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c. The product ingredients are water, tomato paste (34.5%), sugar, common salt, liquid
glucose, permitted acid (E 260), permitted emulsifier and stabiliser (E415), onion
powder, garlic powder, condiments.
2. PROMOTION :-
a. No particular celebrity endorsement is used by the Mrs. Bector for cremica tomato
ketchup.
b. They promote their ketchup through hoardings, wall paintings and from various fast
food corners like McDonald’s, Pizza Hut, and Subway.
3. PLACE :-
a. The company is a major player in the institutional sales segment and supplies to
international chains such as McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Indian Railways, Jet Airways,
Kellogg's, Subway and to the Indian Army's Canteen Stores Department. The
company has a retail presence largely in the Northern market.
b. It is looking at an entry into smaller places such as Goa, Indore, Raipur, Jaipur, Agra,
Lucknow, Kochi, Coimbatore and Madurai.
c. It also makes products for the food divisions of major FMCG companies including a
chocolate topping for Kwality Wall's, the ice-cream brand of Hindustan Lever.
d. It has also partnered with Cadbury’s ITC and EBI Foods, a UK based firm. It has
customers like Cafi Coffee Day, Taj Group of Hotels, Spencer.
4. PRICE :-
The price of 1kg Cremica Tomato ketchup bottle for Rs. 89 for consumers.

Chapter 2.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE:-

The chapter included the information related to secondary data sourced from various
published source like books , internet , journals etc. The review have been categorised into
following heads :-

2.1 About consumer behaviour

2.2 Marketing mix review

2.3 Historical review about tomato ketchup

2.4 Studies conducted on Maggi , Kissan and Cremica brands of ketchup .

2.1 About consumer behaviour :-

Referring to Solomon (2006, p.27) consumer behaviour is the study of the processes involved
when individuals or groups select, purchase, use or dispose of products, services, idea or
experiences. Consumer behaviour focuses on how individuals make decisions to spend their
available resources on consumption related items. That includes what they buy, why they
buy, when they buy, where they buy it, how often they buy it how often they use it, how they
evaluate it after they purchase and the impact of such evaluations on future purchases, and
how they dispose it. Schiffman and Kanuk (2004, p.8)

2.1.1 Consumer attitude :-

According to Ajzen (1998) the attitudes are the first determinant of behaviour intention. In
consumer behaviour context attitude is a learned predisposition to behave in a consistently
favourable or unfavourable way with respect of a given object. There is a general agreement
that attitudes are learned. This means that attitudes relevant to purchase behaviour are formed
as a result of direct experience with the product, word-of-mouth information acquired from
others, or exposure to mass media advertising. Internet etc. (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2004,
p.253) As learned predisposition, attitudes may propel consumer towards particular

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behaviour or repel the consumer away from particular behaviour. . (Schiffman and
Kanuk,2004, p.253)

2.1.2 Consumer decision-making process :-


Many consumer theories regarding the consumer behaviour were based on economic theory
on the notion that individuals at rationally to maximize their benefits/satisfaction in the
purchase of goods and services. Later research discovered that consumers are just as likely to
purchase impulsively and to be influenced not only by family, friends, and advertisers but
also by mood, situation and emotion. All of these factors combine to form a comprehensive
model of consumer behaviour that reflects both the cognitive and emotional aspects of
consumer decision-making. (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2004, p.19)
In this simplified model (Figure 3.1) of consumer decision-making process Schiffman and
Kanuk (2004) identified three distinct but linked stages from which the process of consumer
decision-making can be viewed. It ties together the psychological, social and cultural concept
into easily understood framework.
2.2 Marketing Mix :-

The concept of the marketing mix as the combination of the major tools of marketing was
first developed by Borden in the 1950s. The idea of 4Ps (Product, Place, Price and
Promotion) was later formulated by McCarthy in 1975. The marketing mix creates an
offering for the customer. Marketers need to ensure that the marketing mix meets their
customers’ needs and wants in addition to that all of its components need to be consistent
with each other. If not costumers will turn away to its competitors. (Brassington, 2006 p.30)
Vignali (2001) acknowledges that for many years 4Ps have been used as the principal
foundation on which a marketing plan is based. However, with particular attention being paid
to services marketing in recent years, theorists have identified additional variables, which
could be added to the 4Ps. Fifield and Gilligan (1996, cited by Vignali 2001) recognized the
following variables as an integral part of the marketing mix- process, physical and people.
Vignali (2001) applied 7Ps analysing the marketing mix of McDonald’s in the following
way:
1. Product – features, quality, quantity.
2. Place – location, number of outlets.

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3. Price – strategy, determinants, levels.
4. Promotion – advertising, sales promotion, public relations.
5. People – quantity, quality, training, promotion.
6. Process – blueprinting, automation, control procedures.
7. Physical – cleanliness, decor, ambience of the service. In this project , the main focus is on
the 4 P’s of marketing rather than 7 Ps. 4 Ps includes product, price , place and promotion .

2.3 Historical review :-


2.3.1 History of Tomato ketchup in India :-

Anonymous (2009) reviewed that the ketchup market in India is estimated to be around Rs
220 crore, largely dominated by Nestlé’s Maggi that owns 47% of the market and the Kissan
that owns 26%. Upto mid eighties Kissan was the number one brand in Tomato Ketchup and
around that time the competition came from Maggi -a Nestlé’s brand. With Maggi launching
several varieties of Tomato Ketchup there was a growth in the market. With Kissan and
Maggi fighting neck to neck other smaller but established brands like Dipy's from
Herbertsons, Volfruit from Voltas, Noga of Nagpur Orange Federation and SunSip of Wimco
gradually disappeared from the market. Delmonte now has joined hands with Paoma
Industries, the manufacturers of Rasna Brands of soft drink concentrate and is expected to
launch Tomato Ketchup shortly. At a time when Kissan had become generic to tomato sauce,
Maggi came in with its sauces range. Maggi was the upstate new corner who came in with a
loud aggressive national burst. It did not come in with one, but with a range of sauces in
order to increase market share and expand the market by offering more usage occasions,
bring consumers with different needs into the Maggi Sauces fold and weaning away users of
different brands to Maggi. From a market share of 14% in 1985, Maggi Sauces now enjoys a
share of about 50% of the market.

2.4 Survey on tomato ketchups :-

Trivedi H (2008) conducted study on consumer buying decision making of ketchup. The
study was conducted Ahmadabad city. An in-house laboratory test on 15 brands of tomato
sauce and ketchup from across the country and 2 unbranded samples were conducted.
Overall, Maggi Ketchup (79) scored the highest among the national brands followed by
Kissan Sauce (78) and Heinz Ketchup (78). Among the regional brands, Madhur Premium
Sauce and Ketchup topped the list. It was found out that the `Best Buy’ tomato ketchup in the

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national category is Nilon’s Sauce since its price was less than that of Maggi Ketchup.
Similarly Madhur Ketchup is the `Best Buy’ in the regional category. Two brands - Sona
Continental and Tops Continental were tested as a separate category because it had
vegetables as ingredients, besides tomatoes. Both the brands were found to be non-
conforming, hence they were not rated and ranked.

2.4.1 About cremica :- (The Cremica group making waves in food service industry )
Karan Kapoor ( 2009) writes an article on Cremica Tomato ketchup. According to him
Cremica was established in 1978 as a small enterprise by Mrs. Bector, a housewife and
passionate food enthusiast, the Cremica Group is today a widely diversified food products
company engaged in food retailing and food services industry.
Mrs Bector’s Cremica, a 90 million dollar company, is one of the largest players in food
services business in India. The Cremica Group includes Cremica Frozen Foods, EBI Foods,
Mrs Bector’s Desserts and Cremica Agro India. It serves as a one-stop solution provider to
all leading food service chains, food retail chains, hotel groups and airlines.
Cremica’s spread of delightful biscuits, breads, sauces, bread spreads, ready-to-eat curries
and syrups have something for everyone.
Today, its products are exported to 50 countries including Africa, the USA, UK and the
Middle East. “Our sauces are going to Australia. We have recently launched a new range of
chip-dips and bread spread in the ethnic Indian range and these are going abroad to a number
of countries. We have had a highly successful launches of these products in Australia and the
U.S. and we will be further reinforcing a new strategy in these markets,” said Adshay Bector,
Managing Director of Mrs. Bector’s Food Specialities Ltd.
Since 1996, Cremica has been supplying buns, ketchups and toppings to McDonald’s – its
key business partner. It has also partnered with Cadbury’s ITC and EBI Foods, a UK based
firm. It has customers like Cafi Coffee Day, Taj Group of Hotels, Spencer and Barista as
well.

2.4.2 Maggi ketchup completes 25 years in India & is still making a difference :-

According to Press Trust of India (2010) article nearly two decades after it first tickled the
funny bone with the It's Different punchline for Maggi sauces, FMCG major Nestle is
changing the slogan for its ketch up brand to Make a Difference, to stay in sync with the new
generation of customers. As Maggi tomato ketchup turns 25 this year in India, Nestle is
adopting a more interactive approach with customers through its new campaign, Hassi
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Khushi and Maggi Sauce, which will see the ketchup range sport a new tagline, Make a
Difference, starting from next month.
As the brand grows they are looking for new ideas to communicate with consumers. Maggi is
also organising various campaigns in Delhi and NCRC area. This time they have thought of
letting the consumers do the talking.
2.4.3 Kissan Tomato ketchup :- Far from a delight but still a necessity

Akisha (2004), expressed her views about Kissan tomato ketchup. According to her , Kissan
tomato ketchup is every type snack ketchup. One can have it with hot burger, pizza etc.
Maggi’s tomato ketchup is spicy where as Kissan tomto ketchup is tangy and mush thicker
than Maggi tomato ketchup.
2.4.4 Maggi : FROM 2-MINUTES TO 25 YEARS…

Ambika Sharma (2009) reviewed that the Nestle R&D Centre in Singapore is using their
technological know-how and knowledge of culinary art in India to develop an innovative
product that does not have any added preservatives and contains low levels of oil. In its
endeavour to make Maggi Tomato Ketchup affordable to many more families, Maggi also
launched Maggi Pichkoo, an easy to handle, squeezable pack of Maggi Ketchup priced at
Rs.12. Today, Maggi stands generic to its category. With continuous innovation and
renovation of its product portfolio based on strong consumer insights, Maggi has become an
integral part of millions of Indians.
2.4.5 Is tomato ketchup is bad ?

According to Oprystar on 30th Jan , 2007, tomato ketchup is good . It has cancer fighting
elements called lycopene. This can also help fight against heart disease. The Cancer Research
Foundation of America has found that cooked tomatoes, like those used to make ketchup, has
as much as five times the amount of lycopene as fresh tomatoes.
Lycopene is a natural antioxidant that protects the heart by preventing the oxidation of LDL
cholesterol (bad) in your arteries. Lycopene does not lessen the amount of cholesterol, but
keeps it from causing damage.

From the above reviews it can be said that marketing mix strategies of the brands affect the
consumer buying behaviour. The various reviews have been given by the authors and
researchers which act as base for this project.

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CHAPTER 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Sr. No Research Methodology

1. Research Design Exploratory

2. Research tool Interview Schedule

3. Sample size 130 respondents ( 10 retailers + 120 customers)

4. Sampling Method Convenience random sampling method

5. Data collected from areas In Ludhiana ( Model Town, Sarabha Nagar and
Malhar Road)

6. Final data analysis tools M.S Excel and MS Word

 Research Design :-

Exploratory research design has been chosen for conducting this project. Exploratory
research helps in understanding the relationship between marketing mix and consumer
behaviour. It also helps in understanding the consumer behaviour for buying the
particular Brand’s tomato ketchup.
 Research Tool :-

Interview schedule method has been used for retailers as well as customers. For this a
structured questionnaire has been prepared both for retailer and customers. For retailers
interview schedule is prepared keeping in mind the marketing mix concept and
environmental factors where as for customer’s interview schedule is prepared keeping in
mind consumer decision making has been the base.

 Sample Size :-

Sample comprise of 130 respondents

1. Retailers :- 10

2. Customers :- 120

 Sampling Method : -

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Convenience random sampling method is used for selecting the sample. With the help of
convenience random sampling the respondents are randomly selected by the researcher
from the areas which are convenient for researcher.

 Data Collection Plan :-

• Data Gathering :-

This study involves data collection (primary research) from different areas of
Ludhiana i.e. Model Town, Sarabha Nagar and Malhar Road.

 Pre-testing :-

The pre-testing of the research tool has been conducted before the final data
collection to know reliability and validity of the research tool. For pre-testing, 1/10th
of the non-sampled respondents have been taken as sample.

 Final data collection and analysis:-

Data have been analysed by using the appropriate statistical tools and techniques. The
data was coded and analysed with the MS excel application and also it were tabulated
and graphically presented with the help of MS word application.

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Chapter 4. Results and Discussions

The chapter deals with the results pertaining to the data collected from 10 retailers and 120
customers. The data collected from the retailers was related to marketing mix. However the
data related to consumer buying behaviours was collected from 120 customers who
consumed three selected brands (Maggi, Kissan and Cremica ) of tomato ketchup. The data
so collected have been discussed under following heads : -

4.1 Data related to marketing mix.

4.2 Data related to consumer buying behaviour

4.1 Data related to marketing mix :-

The data related to 4 P’s of marketing was collected from 10 retailers from Model Town ,
Sarabha Nagar and Malhar Road areas of Ludhiana city. It has been presented in
following tables :-

Table 4.1.1 Distribution of respondents on the bases of most demanded tomato ketchup
brand by the consumers (N-10)
Brands Frequency Percentage
Maggi 3 30
Kissan 5 50
Cremica 2 20
Total 10 100

MostDemanded Brand
Cremica, Maggi,
20% 30%

Kissan,
50%

Figure : 4.1.1 :- Distribution of respondents on the bases of most demanded tomato ketchup brand by the
consumers
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The data related to the most demanded tomato ketchup brand by the consumer has been
presented in the table 4.1.1. It is clear from the data that majority of respondents i.e. fifty
percent said that Kissan the most demanded tomato ketchup. Whereas thirty percent of them
said that Maggi tomato ketchup was preferred by the consumers. However only 20 % of them
said that Cremica brand was demanded by the consumers. Hence, the most selling brand
among the three was Kissan, as its taste is mostly like by the consumer due to its hidden
quantity of the tomato puree in the ingredients which is not disclosed by Kissan as it is
written by Maggi (34%) and cremica (34.5%). That is the reason which makes the ketchup of
Kissan richer in red color and thicker in its quality.

Table 4.1.2 Distribution of respondents according to the level of competition faced by


the three selected brands of tomato ketchup
(N-10)

Type of competition Frequency Percentage Total

Intense 2 20 2 (20)

Moderate 8 80 8(80)

No-Competition - -- -

* Intense competition means that there is neck to neck competition among the brands i.e. tough competition.

** Moderate competition means that brands are competing but the competition is not tough. There is
competition among them but up to certain level keeping in mind their brand image.

The data related to the level of competition among the three brands have been described in
the table 4.1.2. It can be seen from the table that majority of respondents (80%) said that
there is moderate competition among the three tomato ketchup brand (Maggi tomato ketchup,
Kissan tomato ketchup and Cremica tomato ketchup). Whereas only twenty percent of
respondents said that there is intense competition among the brands. It can be said that each
tomato ketchup brand have its own brand image in the market. As Maggi tomato ketchup has
positioned its ketchup as taste enhancer, giving the food aroma and healthy product where
Kissan positioned it’s tomato ketchup as ketchup which can be consumed with any snacks
like fast food snacks like pizza, burger or Indian snack like samosa or pakoda. They
positioned Kissan tomato ketchup a “Great accompaniment”. Cremica has positioned its
brand as something for everyone. It is not directly competing with other two tomato ketchup
brands.

20 | P a g e
Table 4.1.3 Distribution of respondents on the bases of particular size of tomato
ketchup packing preferred by consumers

(N-10)**

Size of Tomato Frequency Percentage Total


ketchup
Sachet 7 70 7(70)

Pichkoo - -- -

200 G - -- -

600 G - -- -

1 Kg 10 100 10 (100)

** Multiple Responses

The above table depicted information related to maximum sale of particular size of tomato
ketchup. All the respondents said that 1 kg bottle of tomato ketchup has been sold by them
and seventy percent of respondents said that sachet have been sold by them along with 1 Kg
bottle of ketchup. The 1 Kg bottle is mostly bought by the family sector. The data collected is
also including 78 females out of which 50 are housewives which usually buy products for
their family. They mostly buy in bulk quantity that is the main reason for the sale of 1 Kg
tomato ketchup bottle the most even in the presence of smaller sized bottle like Pichkoo of
Maggi ketchup and Sachet of Cremica.

21 | P a g e
Table 4.1.4. Distribution of the respondents according to the brands preferred by their
customers on the bases of taste and its attractive packing

(N-10)

Factors Maggi Kissan Cremica Total

Taste 5 (50) 5 (50) 0 10

Attractive 7 (70) 2 (20) 1 (10) 10


packing

Total 12 (120) 7 (70) 1 (10)


* Figures in parentheses are percentage

Attractive Packagingof Brands

Maggi
70%

Kissan
20%
Cremica
10%

Figure :- 4.1.4 :- Distribution of the respondents according to the brand’s attractive packing

The data related to the information about the taste and attractive packaging of the brand has
been depicted in table no.4.1.4. It can be seen that both Maggi and Kissan tomato ketchup
have good taste (50%) according to respondents. So it can be said that both Maggi and
Kissan tomato ketchup have better taste then Cremica tomato ketchup.

In case of attractive packaging , it is clear that majority of respondents (70%) say that
packaging of Maggi Tomato ketchup attracts customer as compare to Kissan and Cremica
tomato ketchup having just twenty percent and ten percent response. Hence, it is cleared that
Maggi is concentrating more on the quality and packaging of product where as Kissan is
concentrating more of the quality i.e. taste of its product as compared to the packaging.

22 | P a g e
Table 4.1.5 Distribution of respondents on the bases of channel of distribution
followed by brands

(N-10)**
Level of Maggi Kissan Cremica Total
Distribution

2nd Level 6 (60) 5 (50) 3 (30) 14 (140)


(M-W-R-C)

Multi Level 3 (30) 4 (40) 3 (30) 10(100)


(M-W-D-R-C)

Total 9 (90) 9(90) 6 (60)


* figures in parentheses are percentage

** Multiple Responses

*** 2nd level means the Brand is following the distribution channel in which they send their product to the
wholesellers, from wholeseller the product goes to retailers then to the final consumer.

**** multi level means the Brand is following the distribution channel in which they send their product to the
wholesalers, from wholeseller the product goes to distributors , from distributors the product goes to retailers
then to the final consumer.

2ndlevel of Distribution Multi Level of distribution


Maggi
maggi , 60 Cremica
Kissan, 50 30%
60 Cremica, 30%
Percentage of
respondents

50
30
40
30
20
10
0 Kissan
2ndLevel 40%
maggi Bran
K ds Cremica
issan

Figure 4.1.5 (1) Figure 4.1.5 (2)


Distribution of respondents on the bases Distribution of respondents on the bases of multi
of 2nd level of channel of distribution followed by brands level of channel of distribution followed by brands

The information about the channel of distribution followed by brands has been depicted in
table 4.1.5. It is clear from the table that majority of respondents (60%) says that Maggi’s
distribution channel is 2nd level ( manufacturer –wholeseller- retailer-customers) and thirty
percent of respondents said that multilevel (Manufacturer- wholeseller- distributer-retailer-
customers ) is followed by the Maggi Brand. In case of Kissan tomato ketchup, fifty percent
of respondents say that 2nd level is followed and forty percent said that multi level channel is
followed. Hence, it clear that Maggi is using all the distribution mix for the channel of
distribution.
23 | P a g e
4.2 Data related to the consumer buying behaviour :-

The data related to consumer buying behaviour was collected from 120 customers who
consume three selected brands from Model Town, Sarabha Nagar and Malhar Road areas of
Ludhiana city. It has been presented in following tables :-

Table 4.2.1 Distribution of respondents on the bases of age and gender of the
respondents using the particular brand in Ludhiana city
(N = 120)

Brands Maggi Kissan Cremica Total


Age
15-25 34 31 7 72(60)
(28.3) (25.8) (5.8)
25-35 19 13 2 34(28.4)
(15.8) (10.8) (1.67)
35-45 5 8 - 13(10.8)
(4.2) (6.67)
45- above 1 - - 1(0.8)
(0.8)
Total 59(49.2) 52(43.3) 9(7.5) 120
Gender Maggi Kissan Cremica Total
Male 22(18.4) 19(15.8) 1(0.8) 42
Female 37(30.8) 33(27.5) 8 (6.7) 78
Total 59(49.2) 52(43.3) 9(7.5) 120

* Figures in parenthesis are percentage

The data related to the background information of the respondent have been presented in the
table no 4.2.1. It is clear from the data that majority of respondent (28.3%) who prefer Maggi
24 | P a g e
Tomato Ketchup belong to the age group of 15-25 years followed by fifteen point eight
percent of respondents belongs to the age group of 25-35 years while only four point two
percent of respondents belong to the age group of 35-45 and only zero point eight three
percent of respondents belong to the age group of 45-above.

In case of Kissan tomato ketchup, Majority of respondent (25.8%) who prefer Kissan Tomato
Ketchup belong to the age group of 15-25 years followed by ten point eight percent of
respondents belongs to the age group of 25-35 years while only six point seven percent of
respondents belong to the age group of 35-45. Whereas in case of Cremica only five point
eight respondents are there who prefer Cremica Tomato Ketchup belong to the age group of
15-25 years followed by one point seven seven percent of respondents belongs to the age
group of 25-35 years. It is clear from the table that majority of respondents (28.3%) buy
Maggi Brand in tomato ketchup in the age group of 15-25. Hence, it is clear that Maggi
brand has good brand association among the age group of 15-25 of customers.

Data related to the gender of the respondents show that thirty point eight percent of females
prefer to buy Maggi tomato ketchup and 18.4 % of males like to buy tomato ketchup. In case
of Kissan tomato ketchup , 27.5 % of females buy it and 15.8 % of males like to buy Kissan
tomato ketchup. However , only six point seven percent females like to buy Cremica ketchup
and merely o.8 % males like to buy Cremica brand among tomato ketchup. From the above
findings it seems that tomato ketchup is mostly buy by females as compare to males. It can
be concluded that Maggi brand is able to positioned it’s ketchup among the females and
between the 15-25 age of customers.

25 | P a g e
Table 4.1.2. Distribution of respondents on the bases of usage of a particular brand of
tomato ketchup

(N-120)**

Frequency of Maggi Kissan Cremica


use
Always 52 46 9
(43.4) (38.4) (7.5)
Sometimes 58 59 43
(47.5) (49.2) (35.8)
Never 5 4 55
(4.1) (3.4) (45.8)
Total 115 109 107
(95) (91) (89.1)

* Figures in parentheses are percentage


** Multiple Responses
Frequency of usage of Brands
Maggi Kissan Cremica

120
110
100
90
80
Respondents

70
60 5859 55
50 52
46 43
40
30
20
10 9
5 4
0
Always Sometimes Never
Frequency

Figure 4.2.2 :- Distribution of respondents on the bases of usage of a particular brand of tomato ketchup

26 | P a g e
The above data is related to the information about the frequency of usage of a particular
brand of tomato ketchup by the respondents. It is clear from the table 4.2.2 that 43.4 % of
respondents always use Maggi brand of the tomato ketchup. Whereas in case of Kissan
tomato ketchup thirty eight point four percent of respondents used Kissan brand. however
only seven point five percent of respondent always use Cremica as their tomato ketchup.

Majority of respondents (49.2 %) sometimes use Kissan tomato ketchup. As compare to


Maggi tomato ketchup ( 47.5%) and thirty five point eight percent respondent sometime use
Cremica tomato ketchup. Majority of respondents (45.8%) never use Cremica tomato
ketchup. Only 3.3 % had never used Kissan tomato ketchup and 4.1% of respondents had
never used Maggi tomato ketchup. It is clear from the table that majority of respondents
never used Cremica tomato ketchup as to other two tomato ketchup brands. This explains
that Brand image of Maggi and Kissan is stronger than Cremica tomato ketchup. The reason
is that Cremica tomato ketchup is only in Punjab region and they are not dealing with
customer directly as Maggi and Kissan brands are doing. Whereas, Maggi brand’s customers
are brand loyal as they always use Maggi tomato ketchup and sometime use Maggi in
alteration to Kissan tomato ketchup.

Table 4.2.3. Distribution of the respondents on the bases of type of store preferred by
them

(N-120)**

Store Maggi Kissan Cremica


Convenience 16 13 2
store (13.4) (10.8) (1.6)
Departmental 39 39 6
store (32.5) (32.5) (5)
Whole seller 5 4 2
(4.1) (3.4) (1.6)
Total 60 50 10
* Figures in parenthesis are percentage.
** Multiple responses

The information related to the type of store preferred by respondents has been presented in
table 4.2.3.It is clear from the table that majority of respondents purchase their selected brand
from departmental store ( Maggi- 32.5%, Kissan-32.5% and Cremica-5%). While in case of
convenience store , 13.3 % of respondents buy Maggi tomato ketchup , then point eight

27 | P a g e
percent of respondents buy Kissan tomato ketchup from convenience store (nearby store) as
only 1.6 % of respondents buy from convience store. However, 4.1 % of Maggi’s
respondents buy from whole sellers and 3 % of Kissan’s and 1.6 % in case of Cremica , they
buy from whole sellers. The table highlight the impact of organised retail on unorganised
stores. Thus it is cleared from the table that organised retail stores dominate around 32.5 %
both Maggi and Kissan tomato ketchup respondents make purchase of tomato ketchup from
departmental store.

Table 4.2.4 Distribution of respondents according to the purchase decision on the non-
availability of their preferred brand

(N-120)**

Purchase Decision Maggi Kissan Cremica


Postpone your purchase 19 (15.8) 19 (15.8) 4 (3.4)
Switch over to other brand 30 (25) 22 (18.4) 1 (0.8)
Go to the other shop to search for 11 (9.2) 11 (9.2) 4 (3.4)
your preferred brand
Total 60 (50) 52 (43.4) 9 (7.6)

* Figures in parenthesis are percentage.


** Multiple responses

The data related to the purchase decision of the respondents in case of non-availability of the
brand have been depicted in the table 4.2.4. From the above table it clear that both in case of
Maggi and Kissan buyer (15.8% each) postpone their purchase if their preferred brand of
tomato ketchup is not available. However, only three point four percent of Cremica buyer
postpone their purchase if their brand is not available. In case if the preferred brand is not
available 25 % of respondent are those who switch to other brand if Maggi tomato ketchup
not available in the market and in case of Kissan Tomato ketchup eighteen point three
percent respondent switch to other brand. Nine point two percent of respondents go to other
shop to search for Maggi tomato ketchup. Whereas in case Cremica tomato ketchup, buyers
of Cremica brand (4.4 %) search for Cremica tomato ketchup in other shop if it is not
available in particular store. As taste and quality are the two main attributes which attracts
consume to buy particular tomato ketchup brand. So in case of one brand of ketchup is not

28 | P a g e
available they will go for other brands ketchup. And if that is also not there in the shop they
will go to other shop or they will postpone their purchase. Hence, it is cleared that majority
of customer switch to other brand of tomato ketchup if their preferred brand is not available.

Table 4.2.5 Distribution of respondents on bases of factors and offers provided by the
brands and their source of information

(N-120)**

Factors Maggi Kissan Cremica Total


Quality 38 (31.7) 29 (24.16) 5 (4.17) 82
Price - 1 (0.83) 1 (0.83) 2
Brand Image 3 (2.5) 3 (2.5) 1 (0.83) 7
Offer 2 (1.67) 4 (3.33) 1 (0.83) 7
Ingredients 9 (7.5) 15 (12.5) 1 (0.83) 25
Taste 47 (39.2) 36 (30) 4 (3.33) 87
Offers provided by brands Maggi Kissan Cremica
Discount 17 (14.2) 10 (8.33) 4 (3.33) 31
Buy one get one 10 (8.33) 17 (14.16) - 27
Combo pack 7 (5.83) 7 (5.83) 4(3.33) 18
Free gift 24 (20) 18 (15) 1 (0.83) 43
Extra quantity 29 (24.16) 26 (21.67) 2 (1.67) 57
Sources of information Maggi Kissan Cremica
Newspaper 9 (7.5) 4 (3.33) 1 (0.8) 14
T.V ads 38(31.6) 36 (30) 6 (5) 80
Word of mouth 27(22.5) 35(29.2) 3(2.5) 65
Hoarding - 1(0.8) 1(0.8) 2

* Figures in parenthesis are percentage.


** Multiple responses

29 | P a g e
The information is about the offers provided by the brands and their source of information

has been depicted in the table 4.2.5. The table depict the importance of the various product

attributes like quality , taste , price , brand image, ingredient in the eyes of respondents. From

the above data it can be depicted that majority of respondents (39.2%) buy Maggi tomato

ketchup because of its taste, in case of Kissan and Cremica tomato ketchup thirty percent of

respondent buy kissan due to its taste and merely three point three percent of Cremica

respondent buy due to its taste. Thirty one point six percent buy Maggi tomato ketchup

because of its quality whereas in case of Kissan Tomato Ketchup 24.2% of respondents buy

Kissan due to its quality and four point two percent of Cremica’s respondent like the its

quality. In case of ingredient as a factor for buying tomato ketchup, seven point five percent

of respondent look for ingredient while buying maggi tomato ketchup, 12.5 % of Kissan

respondents look for ingredient for before buying ketchup. In case of Cremica only 0.8 % of

respondents look for ingredient before buying tomato ketchup. Twenty four point one percent

buy due to extra quantity provide by Maggi Tomato ketchup. In case of Kissan Tomato

Ketchup, majority of respondents (24.16%) buy Kissan due to its quality. It can be very well

observed in the table that taste undoubtedly is the most important attribute that people prefer

more over any other while selecting particular brand of tomato ketchup.

Among the offers provided by the brands, majority of respondent ( Maggi- 24.2 %, Kissan-

21.6 % ) go for extra quantity when they buy tomato ketchup. In case of free gifts offered by

the brand 20 % of maggi tomato ketchup and 15 % of kissan tomato ketchup respondents and

o.83 % of cremica’s respondents go for free gifts. Where as in case of discounts and buy one

get one offer , 14.2 % of maggi , 8.33 % of kissan and 3.4 % of cremica tomato ketchup

respondents looks for discounts offers before buying tomato ketchup. However, 8.33 % of

maggi, 14.2 % of kissan tomato ketchup respondents buy tomato ketchup having buy one get

one offer. Both in case of maggi and kissan buyers (5.8 % each ) look for combo packs
30 | P a g e
among the offers provided by the brands whereas 3.4 % of cremica’s buyer look for combo

packs. It can be figure out from the table that “extra quantity” offer is the first choice among

the customers.

From the various source of information, T.V ads are the major source of information

regarding Maggi tomato ketchup (31.6 %) among the respondent , thirty percent in case of

Kissan tomato ketchup and five percent in case of Cremica tomato ketchup. The second most

common source of information is work of mouth which is and new concept of marketing

used by brands now days. In case of kissan , 29.2 % of respondent said that they came to

know about kissan from friends or relative or from shopkeepers. As in Maggi’s buyers

(22.5%) came to know about maggi tomato ketchup from people with whom they

communicate and in 2.5 % in case of cremica’s respondents. From the data it can be said that

maggi has been successful in promotion of its tomato ketchup through electronic media as it

is the vast medium of information which is the fastest and effective source of information to

capture large population .

Table 4.2.6. :- Distribution of respondents on the bases of Level of satisfaction of the


respondents after using the particular brand in Ludhiana city
(N-120)**
Level of Maggi Kissan Cremica Total
satisfaction
Highly 18 9 6 33 ( 27.5)
satisfied (15) (7.5) (5)
Satisfied 40 41 3 84 (70)
(33.4) (34.2) (2.5)
Dissatisfied
Level of S-atisfaction - - -
120
115 Highly - - - -
110 dissatisfied
105
100
95 Total
90 58 50 9
Respondents

85
80
75
70 (48.33) (41.67) (7.5)
** Multiple responses 65
60
55
** * Figures in parenthesis
50
45 are percentage.MaggKiissan
40
35
30
25 Maggi
20
15 Kissan
Cremica
10 Cremica
50
Highly Satisfied Satisfied
Fig. :- 4.1.6
levels
31 | P a g e
Figure :- 4.1.6

Figure :- 4.2.6 :- Distribution of respondents on the bases of Level of satisfaction after using the
particular brand

The above data related to the level of satisfaction of the respondents have been presented in
the table 4.2.6. It is clear from the data that 27.5 percent of respondents were highly satisfied
from the brand of ketchup they were using. Fifteen percent of them were using the Maggi
tomato ketchup followed by consumers of kissan (7.5 %) whereas only five percent of them
were the customer of Cremica brand. However , 70 percent of respondents were satisfied
from the brand of tomato ketchup they were using in which thirty three point four percent
were using the Maggi tomato ketchup followed by kissan (34.2 %) of respondents are
satisfied after using Kissan tomato ketchup. In case of Cremica tomato ketchup, two point
five percent of respondents are satisfied after using the Cremica tomato ketchup. Hence, it
can be concluded that all most all the respondents are satisfied from their selected brand after
using them.

Major findings based on above discussed data :-


1. Maggi tomato ketchup (49.2% )is most popular brand among tomato ketchup as compare
to Kissan (43.3%) and Cremica tomato ketchup (7.5%).

2. The most saleable brand is Kissan (50 %)tomato ketchup according to retailers in
Ludhiana.

3. The moderate competition is faced by Maggi and Kissan(80%) .whereas Cremica being
local brand doesn’t give tough competition to other two established brands of tomato
ketchup.

4. The 1 kg bottle of tomato ketchup (100%) is largely demanded even in the presence of
smaller size bottles.

32 | P a g e
5. According to retailers, taste of both Maggi(50%) and Kissan(50%) are equally liked by the
customers. But the packaging of Maggi (70%) is more attractive than other two brands of
tomato ketchup.

6. The most common channel of distribution is 2nd level ( manufacture-wholeseller-retailer-


customers) which is used by Maggi(60%) and Kissan (50%) tomato ketchup.

7. Organised retail store (60%) are more popular among the customer. That is they like to
buy tomato ketchup from departmental store.

8. Majority of respondent (45.8%) had never used Cremica brand as their tomato ketchup as
they don’t like the taste and quality of the tomato ketchup. Majority of customer (70%)
were satisfied after using their selected brand of tomato ketchup.

Chapter 5. CONCLUSION

From the above discussions it is clear that

1. Maggi tomato ketchup and Kissan tomato ketchup both are more popular then Cremica
tomato ketchup as Cremica is a local brand but still it is competing with established
brands of tomato ketchup like Maggi and Kissan.

2. Maggi Brand is preferred by customers who are between the age of 15-25, then Kissan
and Cremica. People like to buy Maggi tomato ketchup because it is easily available,
attractive offers like extra quantity, free gifts along with the purchase,

3. According to customers , Quality is the main factor on which Maggi Tomato Ketchup
emphasizes as it is Maggi’s main strength which provides Maggi an edge over its
competitors. As all the products of Maggi are produced identical which fulfills its
promise to its target market.

4. Maggi products are durable as due to its preparation these products are easy to store, have
a long shelf life and can be stored at any given temperatures which is tested and
approved. Reliability is also one of Maggi’s strength, as one can always rely on a Maggie
product for a particular taste which it guaranties that is no matter which pack you are
buying you would be provided with the same taste, aroma & seasoning.

5. It is an Indian customer’s psyche that “whatever looks good and feels good would be of
good quality” so Maggi packs had been designed keeping in mind the same concept, its

33 | P a g e
promotional schemes, color of the packages and the pictures depicted on the pack appeals
to the customers.

6. Maggi leveraged the brand equity very effectively. The product quality was good and the
communication was excellent. The brand was positioned as a "Different" sauce with the
baseline "It’s different". Brand Image is defined as young - Teenager, Ever changing,
humorous, unpredictable and "whacky". Customers were intrigued as to what is different
about the brand and was curious to try the sauce.
7. Various promotional techniques are used by Maggi Brand. Now a days, Maggi through
its new campaign making customers participating in the campaign by share jokes with the
firm, which could be used by Maggi for improving the packaging of products. Customers
can also call up to listen to jokes by Maggi ketchup brand ambassador Javed Jaffrey .The
promotional technique used by Maggi Brand is unique then other tomato ketchup Brands
i.e. Kissan and Cremica.
8. The main strength of Maggi is its marketing techniques i.e. advertisements. It is also
adopting a more interactive approach with customers through its new campaign, Hassi
Khushi and Maggi Sauce. Maggi is change its brand positioning as a unique brand and
having different taste then other available tomato ketchup brands.
9. Whereas Kissan is also like by customer because it is richer in color then other tomato
ketchup brands. According to customers, it is tasty and thicker the other tomato ketchup
brands like Maggi and Cremica.
10. The marketing techniques of Kissan tomato ketchup are not as good as that of Maggi
tomato ketchup.
11. Kissan has positioned tomato ketchup as a sauce which can be consumed with any type
of snacks like bread, dosa, pizza & pakoda etc. Kissan has concentrated in the product
and less on the promotion of its tomato ketchup. They don’t get involved in campaigning
of their product as it is been done by Maggi tomato ketchup.
12. No particular celebrity endorsement is used by the Mrs. Bector for cremica tomato
ketchup. They promote their ketchup through hoardings, wall paintings and from various
fast food corners like McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Indian Railways, Jet Airways, Kellogg's,
Subway and to the Indian Army's Canteen Stores Department. The company has a retail
presence largely in the Northern market.

34 | P a g e
13. According to the consumer, the taste of Cremica tomato ketchup is sweet taste which is
not liked by customers. Even Cremica is not directly dealing with its customers as Maggi
and Kissan are doing.
Thus , it can be said in the end that Maggi is the most popular Tomato Ketchup in the market
in Ludhiana followed by Kissan and then Cremica.

Suggestions
Suggestion for Maggi :-
1. Company should advertise its tomato ketchup by depicting attributes related to nutrition
value, percentage of vitamins, proteins etc. This would help customers perceiving it as a
healthy product. According to the survey conducted by “The Cancer Research
Foundation of America”, tomato ketchup is good for health. It has cancer fighting
elements called lycopene. This can also help fight against heart disease.

2. According to the data collected it is recorded that the level of discounts offered is low.
Hence company should try to provide more discounts on the product. ‘Buy One Get One
Free’ is the most preferred promotional offer.

Suggestions for Kissan :-

Taking the tagline "Aao banaye pakode behtar" translated to " Making Pakode taste better".
In these series of ads, the brand plays a second fiddle to the main snack. But they should
launch new advertisement campaign (TV, radio, print media commercials) with a brand
ambassador or mascot. The ads of Kissan tomato ketchup is not like by customers because
now a days only squeezo ads are coming (one kid holding the bottle of kissan tomato ketchup
and ordering it to pore the ketchup on his command ) which doesn’t attracts the customers .
Mascot is an effective way to endorse a product as Maggi tomato ketchup is promoting
ketchup by taking Javed Jafferi its brand ambassador.
Suggestions for Cremica :-
35 | P a g e
1. Company should improve the taste of the tomato ketchup as most of the consumers didn’t
like the taste of the cremica tomato ketchup as it is sugary which is due to liquid glucose
which is not present in the ingredients of Maggi and Kissan tomato ketchup.
2. The distribution channel of cremica tomato ketchup is mostly covering northern region
only in India. They must promote their product to the other regions of India by
advertising through electronic media (Like they are doing with the Mrs. Bactor’s
biscuits). They must directly contact its customer. No doubt Cremica tomato ketchup is
doing good business with international chains like Mc. Donald’s, Pizza Hut , Jet Airways
etc. But they must make a direct link with its customers as Maggi and Kissan are doing.

Bibliography

36 | P a g e
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 Shiffman, L. & Kanuk, L., (2005) Consumer Behaviour, Person Education Limited (8th 13
Ed.)
 Oprystar (30th Jan , 2007) is tomato ketchup are bad ? 16
http://blogs.rediff.com/holistichealth/2008/03/

 Nestle Agency (2006), Maggi – its different http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Marketing- 7


Plan-For-Maggie/208231
 Term papers (2008), Marketing Plan For Maggie, 8
http://www.4psbusinessandmarketing.com/10092009/storyd.asp?sid=3077&pageno=1
 Anonymous , marketing mix, www.wikepedia.org 4
 Anonymous ,consumer behaviour, www.wikepedia.org 5
 A Correspondent, Mumbai (2005), HLL plans relaunch of its food brands , 9
http://www.fnbnews.com/article/
 Cremica , http://www.ludhianadistrict.com/cremica 10

Annexure
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(For Customer)

THE INTERVIEW SCHEDULE


“Comparative study of 4 P’s of marketing and consumer buying behavior of a product
(Tomato Ketchup) and its 3 brands (Maggi, Kissan and Cremica) in Ludhiana city.”

1. Name:…… …………………………………………………………………………..
2. Occupation: ………………………………………………………………………….
3. Location: …………………………………………………………………………….
4. Age:
a. 15-25 b. 25-35 c. 35-45 d. 45 and above
5. Sex :
a. Male b. Female

6. Which brand of ketchup do you prefer?

a. Maggi b. Kissan c. Cremica

7. Do you use the particular Tomato Ketchup?

Maggi Kissan Cremica

a. Always ………. ……… ………..

b. Sometime ………. ……… ………..

c. Never ………. ……… ……….


8. If no, then what is the reason of not using the remaining brand :

a. Lack of awareness
b. Lack of availability

c. You find it expensive

d. You don’t like the product Quality

e. Any Other ( Pls Specify) ………………………………………………………………….

9. From where do you usually purchase selected brand ?

a. Convenience store b. Departmental store


c. Whole seller d. Any other (please specify) ……………………….

10. If your preferred brand is not available for repeat purchase then what will you do?
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a. Postpone your purchase
b. Switch over to other brand
c. Go to the other shop to search for your preferred brand

11. What factor of these products affects your buying decision?


a. Quality b. Price c. Brand Image
d. Offers e. Ingredients f. Taste

12. What is the source of information about these brands:

a. Newspaper ads b. Radio c. T.V. ads


d. Word of mouth e. Hoardings
f. Any other ……………………………………………….

13. Do you remember any of the T.V. advertisement of the brand ?

a.Yes b. No

14. Does celebrity endorsement prompt you to purchase the particular ketchup?
a.Yes b. No
15. Which offers influence you the most to purchase the particular brands ?

a. Discounts offer b. Buy one get one


c. Combo packs d. Free Gifts
e. Extra quantity offer f. Any Other
……………………………………………………

16. What is the level of satisfaction you get after using the brand?

a. Highly satisfied b. Satisfied c. Dissatisfied

d. Highly dissatisfied e. Can’t say

17. Any suggestions for the brand


…………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………….

RETAILER’S INTERVIEW SCHEDULE

1. Name of the shop :- …………………………………..………


2. Address: - ………………………………………….
3. Type of store :-
a. Karyana b. Departmental
4. Do you give importance to brand name while merchandising tomato ketchup?

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a. Yes b. No
5. In your opinion which brand of tomato ketchup is the most demanded or popular ?
a. Maggi b. Kissan c. Cremica
Any other Please specify ………………………………………
6. Which brand has more customers?
a. Maggi b. Kissan c. Cremica

7. How many brands are available in the market ?


……………………………………………………………………………………
8. How would you describe the competition among these 3 brands?
a. Moderate b. Intense c. no competition

9. What are the substitutes available in the market?


…………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………….
10. Type of intermediaries?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
11. Where does this product sell the most?
a. Villages b. towns c. cities d. can’t say

12. What is the size of Tomato Ketchup you usually sell ?

a. Sachet b. Pichkoo Pack c. 200 g d. 600 g e. 1kg

Any other please specify………………………………………………….


13. Do brand give any kind of additional services to the retailers ?
a. Yes b. No
14. If yes then what are those additional services ?
a. Commission on particular quantity sale
b. Brand Banners/ hoardings
c. Decoration material
d. Any Other ……………………………………………………..
15. In your opinion which brand’s Tomato ketchup has a better taste?
a. Maggi b. Kissan c. Cremica
Any other please specify ……………………………………
16. Which of the following class of customer consumer the product?
a. High class b. Middle Class c. low class d. all three
17. Who is the final consumer of the product?
a. Children b. youngsters’ c. middle age people
d. old age people e. all of them
18. What do you think the packaging of which brand attracts customers?
a. Maggi b. Kissan c. Cremica d. can’t say
19. What type of channel of distribution is followed by the brand ?
Maggi Kissan Cremica
a. 1st level ………. ………. ………..
( M-W-C)
b. 2nd level ..……... ………. ………..
(M-W-R-C)
c. Multi level ….…… ………. ……….
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(M-W-D-R-C)
20. What do you think about the brand image of
Maggi Kissan Cremica
a. Excellent …….. ……… ……….
b. Good …….. ……… ……….
c. Average …….. ……… .………
d. Poor …….. ……… ……….
e. Can’t Say …….. ……… ……….

21. Any further suggestions to the brands for enhancing their business in terms of Product,
Price, Place or Promotion :

……………………………………………..…………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

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