You are on page 1of 11

c 

 
c c

p

¬pp ppp
 ppp p  p
 pppp
 p
ppppppp

p

¬ppp p p p 


pppp

p ppppp p

pp
ppp

pp
¬ppp  p  pp
p p 
ppp pp 

p

 p!  ppp"p
pp
p#p$ pp

p

¬pp%  pp  
p pp p&p p'ppp

p 
p
p('p 

 pp pp(pp
¬pp)  p p&p ppp 
ppp  p
p)p
* p)  pp+p,p
 pp) pp
¬ppp pp 

p
 p!  pp) pp  pp
p
p pp ppp% 

p%- pp+p,p. ppp
p
,
p 
p!-
 -pp

p

¬pp#p+p,p,
p 
p  pppp
"p
 p
 p
p
 
 p/
 pp p" 
p  
  p
p p#
"p0pp
¬pp#pp  pp-p    pp"p p  p(%- "  p1
0(pp
¬pp"p pp,
pp . p, 2
 p( p
 (pp"pp
  pp,

p 
p 
pp 
pp pp 
  p
ppp
 ,  ppp  pp
¬ppp, pp345p
 pp pp+p,pp

p

¬pppp6 p
pp 
ppp7pp8
- pp%  p
+  pp
¬pp%p pp 

ppp p 
pp 
ppp p p p
"ppp   p 
p pp
¬pp)
p%
 p p  pp
ppp
"ppp , 
0p - pp
#
ppp p
pp ppp9 pp
¬ppp
"pp:p+p7
  p p 
p  p  pp
¬pp%  p ppp
p 
 p% p
 p pp

"pp
 p  
p p: p+ pp;9
p7


p0ppp
 
pp
 p%
p< p=p  p   pp
¬pp% pp:p+p7
  p


pp 0p8
p p 
 pp p
pp
"p9p pp 

p
 pppp p p
, 2
ppp
  . pp  pp
¬pp#p+  pp#
p  pp; p80pp"p 
p 
pp6 p

pp
¬pp pp' 
 p 
p 
pp ppp  pp
pp
  pp
¬pp+p   p   ppp 
pp
¬pp>
 pp
 p pp
"p+p7
  pp
¬pp; p80pp
p 

ppp
 pp .
pp#
p pp
 
 pp ppp

p

¬pp#p&pp. p 
pp 
 pp6 p
pp
 pp
 p
p
 p  pp19 p
8
pp .pp
 p p pp p"p
0pp(
 p

 ppp- ?(p8p19 pp
 p .pp
p-p

pp69 pp
¬pp8pp@ 22pp$ p69 pp(
 p 
 ppp
- ?(pp
¬pp! p pp+p

pp  p"p
 ppp pp p
 pp

pp
¬pp1
pp

p  p 
p)  ?p
pp
¬pp>
pp,
 pp69 pp(
 p 
 ppp- ?(p
.pp%   p pp pp p pppp 
pp
¬pp'p0p p

p
 pp,pp.pp  pp
 p
  p; p80p pp. ppp ppp
p 
p

pp p   ppppp
¬ppp

p;p6pp
ppp
¬pp  p 9pp  pp(
 p 
 ppp- ?(pp
¬pp
pp69 p pp  p(+p+(pp
p pp
¬pp:p .pp  
ppp

p
p
pp
 p%
pp
¬pp8pppp! p) pp
- pp0p  pp9p1 
p
 p" pAp
p 

Ap
  pp
¬pppppp  
pp  -ppp

pp  p

   pp p#
p
pp
pp#
 p#p

pp p
(
pp+ (pp
¬pp+p pp; p80p" 9p

pp6 p
p pp pp

 p

¬pp

p .pp%App# p'  pp
¬pp+ p .pp%Ap 
 p 
p
ppp+ - p%pp
;  p/
p
p ppp
¬ppB .pp ?pC
2p
 pp
p, pp

p

 p"p pp 
p
p9pp
¬pp+p 
pp
  p p9p1 
ppp .pp# p
'  ppp
pp
¬ppB .pp ppp pp
p  

 ppp p( p
 
(pp pp; ? p#p
 p"ppD p p"p 
p pp
p
p
-pp ,
pp
¬pp#p pp  pp
p((p p#
 p7
p)Ap
p
) pp* p
p((p  p( (pppp9D  p pp
¬ppB .pp7
 pp
p
ppp
 pp
0p 
p

p
,
9p1
p(p
(pp,
9p. pp
 p ppp
)
pp
¬pp

p .pp)
pp
¬pp+p  p pp(+p+(pp 
p  p(p
(ppp
p9D  p
p# pp
¬pp#
"p)
0p1
pp
pp 
 p p;   Dp 
p

p
  p  pp# pp 0pp  9
pp
¬pp1
pp

p  p   p
p! pp p0 ppp
"pp

p

¬pp#p&pp. p 
p
  p p9p1 
pp
- p69 p
 pppp pp
¬ppp 
.pp pp)
pp p pp
  pp
 pp

p

¬pp
  p  p
ppp, pp)
p pp p()p p . p
9
(p pp 
ppp 

 p
pp  p@
p) - p
p p>
p+
 pp  
ppp9D  p 
pp
¬pp#
"p)
0p1
p pp
 p
0 pp;   Dpp  pp

p,p>
- pp

p

¬pp#p&&pp
ppp

p
 p 
 ppp>
ppp$
pp
)
p
  p p pp p
, p-p p- p
Ap,
0 ppp 
ppp  pp ppC " p
8A  pp ppp

p p p4pp&Epp p 
p
   p#pp
 p
pp p(#pp
 pp(pp
¬ppp
0 ppA p pp   ppp pp
p
 p
%
pp
¬pp#p3pp  
p
pp p 9  p
 ppp>
ppp
$
pp p p p  p p pp pp
  pp
p  p  p ppBp pp1 
pF  ppAp

pp  p)- p   p
pp
p%
pApp
p pp- pC " p   p
pp
"pp
 p>  p#  p
 p
p! pp p0 pp

p

¬pp;   Dp p p  p pp


 

p pp p p
 pp
>
ppp$
p p  p p( pp p ppp&(pp

 p

¬pp%  pp
pp  p(#p   
pp(p p p  p
(% pp  pp (p(#p (p(;pp)
(ppp
¬pp: p)p+

p
 pp
-p p
p%
pp
pp

. p  
A,  p p p pD pp  p)- pp p
pp 
ppp p pp
 p%
p(
 (pp(p (pp
¬pp;9
p pp  
ppppp
¬pp1p,  pp;   Dp pp  pp)9D  ppp p(p pp
p (pp
¬ppB .p
p

p pp)9D  ppp  pp p

p
(# 
p8 "(pp

p

¬pp8ppppF ppp  p p-pp



p
ppp
 p p
p9D  pp
¬ppB .pp6 p
p 9pp p pp pp
¬pp+p 

p
0pp
 p  
pB  pp  pppp


p(+A p

(pp)
pppppp6 p
pp

 p

¬pp+p
pppp
2pp6 p
pp  pp
 p,
 p
8   p pp 0p pp  pp p  
pp
p0pp
¬pp p
pp)9D  p87ppp pp
p() pA
 pp (p


p  pp 0p pp p p  


 ppppppp
¬pp#p  
 pD  p pp  p() pA
 pp (p 
pp p
 pp
,
 pp p" 
p
p , pp 
pp

p

¬pp pp

p  pp
p
p() pA
 pp (pp
¬pp pp

p(;
 pp
(p 
 p
pp 
  p#p;
 pp
)9D  pp 9pp() 
,  pp
(p 
 p
pp   pp
  
pp)9D  pp

p
¬ppp 
pp p(;
 pp
(pp
p35Gpp35p
 p
p
  pp
p
p# pp)9D  pp p(;
 pp
(pApp
¬pp%ppp 
p  ppp pp)9D  p   p
pp
/
"p+ ,  p:  p
 p
p7
 p  p#p  
 pp  p
p    ppp pp

p

¬pp;   Dp 
pp) 
, p
 pp 
 ppp
pp

 p) 
, p p pp  
,0pp%
pp
p

p pp

 pp 
p pp
  pp

p

¬pp+p
p,
pp
 p p     pp p
p p
,  
pp
 p%
p  p
 pp
 p  pp
¬pp
-pp p 
p
 
pp 
 p 
pp,
pp  pp
) 
, p  pp p,   ppp  pp
 pp
¬pp#
p/
p
0ppp p  pp  pp;9
p pp

p

¬pp
pp)9D  pp p(+ pp-
App,
(pp

p

¬pp+p 
p-p"
 p
p 
pp
 ppp   p 
p

p
 p p p-p35pp

p

¬ppB .pp
 pp)9D  ppp
   pp"pp 0pp 
pp
 pp
¬pp+p
ppp>
p%   p p
A
pp    pp
¬ppppp, pp% "0pp

    p

¬pp p 
p .ppp 0p
  p
pp p
pp
 p
/
p
0pp  p p 
 p6

p 
pp

 pp

 p

¬pp p
p
p p  9
ppp%- p
p%   p
Bp% p p#p+ 
p1pp
p  p)9D  pp
# p'  p#p  pC
2pp
p

p ppp9
p%
 p
;pp
p

¬pp1
pp ppp  p(
(p. pp
 pp6p+   pp
¬pp#p5pp  
p ,
pp
 ppp>
p%  pp6 p
p
   p
pp/
"p+ ,  pp>
p
  pppp

 p
p: 9p%
 p#ppp    p  p p,pp

p p
"pp>
p%  p-p p p 
 p 
p A pp

ppp  
 p ,   p pp
 p 
 ppp
p 
p" p,p  
 pp-  ppp- 
pp
ppp
p pp  pppp
 ppp  pp 
pp

pp

p

¬pp% p7 p%


p   pp
p pp A p
 p
D
, p p( p%
p p" p p%
(p+p
pp)9D  ppp
>
ppp% pp p pp p

 pp

p

¬pp8pp)
p p( p%
p p" p p%
(ppp>
p p
B 
pp p0pp54p

 pp
¬pp8p p( p%
p p" p p%
(pp6 p
pp

p

¬pp8
pp
pp 
 pp)
ppp,
pp"p

pp
p 
 pppp
ppp 
 pp
 p
pp8
p:p%
 p

 ppp" p+p
 ppp 
 p 
pp"pp"p
 pp 
 p  
pp  
p pp 

p p
 p  p
 p
 p pp  p. pp
 p pp 
 p)
p

p  pp p+p

 pp
pp pp ppF  p   p

pp  p/? p10p" p pp

 pp%
p"p

ppp(% pp; 
(p 
p pp
p 
p

 pp

p

¬ppB pp6 p


pp>
p/ 
ppp

p ppp"p
  p ppp
 p-  
p p ,
p
p p
ppp  pp
 pp
 pp
¬pp#p   p
pp/
"p+ ,  pp
 p  p 
p ,

p  
 p
  p
 p   ppp ppp6p
pp+p:pp

p

¬pp1
ppp pp)
pp  pp5Eppp p pp
 p 
 p)
p/
p p
pp p 
p
0  p pp
)9D  p
pp) p pp0 p(%
pp (p#p 
p  p
  p  p   ppp  p
A,  p p  p pD ppp
 pppD   pp  pp
p"9p,
p  pppp
pp
¬pp> 9p. pp
 p pp)
p
p(7(p ppp  p
  pp

p

¬ppp p(% pp  pp (p .p p(,  ppp


(p
p(1
 ppp (p p  
ppppp 
  pp%- p
  pp
p.
p pp pp  pHHpp
¬pp/,
p
p  pp


p  pp
pp  
 ppA
p. p
p0 pp(%
pp (p p 
 p)
pp
¬pppp
 p p/
p
0pppp
 p  p(
p

(p8 p7
p
  p
 pp# pp

 p

¬ppB pp)9D  ppp


pp 
 p
pp 0p  p  p
  pp#p pp p4p0 p#p A ppp(#pp
 p
p(p8
p p  
 pp
pp  p pp
pp
  pp
 p pp0 pp A pp

p
p

¬pp# pp  p. pp


 p pp>  p1 
p p(8 9pp

(pp

p

¬pp
 pp
 p
p)9D  p# pp
 pp
¬pp
  pp p pp%
pppp p  p"pp p

pp

p

¬pp+pp
 pp  p  p(
 p%
p+ ,   (p
 pp

 p pp/
"p+ ,  pp;  pp

p

¬pp# ppppp
pp p
. p  
A,  p  pI* Jp

 pp8  p  2p 
 p p
p#)*p) pp
¬pp+p
pp 
p  pp# p  p
pB p1
p
 p)
 p+ p>
,ppp
¬pp#pp0p 
pD  p pp
 pp:,pp# ppp

pp 0ppp p
pp
 p p 
 p
I  ppp
p  pp)9D  p
"pp p,
p 
pp
p

ppp 0Jppp$  pp87pp
¬pp/,
p
 ppp+ p8   pp 
p pp%- pp
 pp
¬pp pp- 
 p  
 ppp pp
2ppp pp6 p

p+p 

 ppI1
 ppp Jp   p
p%- p
 
 pp-
 pp  ppp p pp  0pp
¬ppp p
 pp p


p)9D  pppD0 p


p"p pp
7 p*
 pppp

p

¬ppp7 p+ -0pppp)


pp 
pp
 K- .p
I'p p ppp Jp
 p  pp
p 
  p
p ppp,   ,0pp
ppp- p
,
 pp  p
p
,
 p 
pp p
 pp
¬pp/,
pp  
 p  pp  p8   p   p
pp
/
"p+ ,  p
 p
pp    p
p+A-pp
¬ppp   pp%
 pp
pp+ p8   pp 
pp
 p
%
p*
 p
pp

ppp ppp p+p p

pB  p8    pp+  pp p%
pp
¬pp
  ppp 

pp 

pp7 ppp
ppp pp
)9D  p8  p p. p 
 
ppp
 pp  p
 

pp ,
pp  
 ppp$  ppp pp
¬pp%  pp
ppp
p 
p  pp
ppp>
ppp
% pp)9D  pppp$  ppp' 
 p  ppp"pp

pp8 
 p; 
p%pp
¬pp pp p 
p  
 pp%   p#
pp
p  p0p
 9pp  p pp# pp
¬pp
  ppp:
p
p8
- p; p pp  p
)ppp' 
 p,  pHpp+ pp)
p#pppp
 ppI 
pp%
 Jpp
¬pp% 

pp  pI)
pp% Jppp>
p9 pp

p

¬pp+p
p. pp p) 9ppp>
p  pp+ p8   p
pp
 pp p  
 p- 
 p   pI8p pp Jpp
¬pp+p pp#
pp 
pI
 p%
p
p p
p  Jpp
¬pp+p
pp1ppp   p  ppp 
,0p  pp
¬pp8
pp
p
 p
pp  
pI%  
 p Jppp
  pI
 p%
p  Jp-    pp A p"p ,
 p
p
 p -ppp
p>
p  pp6 p
ppp  p
 pp 

pp 0pp
¬ppp 
ppp% p  pp6 p
p p 
p
I
  p8ppp%
Jpp
¬pp pppBpp1
ppp#D p) pp
¬pp
pp)  p 9pp  p p ,
  pp p  
 p
"p  p 
p  pI
 p%
ppp)  Jpp
¬pp%  pp
p
p)9D  pp
 p  pp
¬ppp+  pp
 pp# p<*#=ppp7
 p
*
  
pp
 p<7**#=p p  p  p) 
p
; 
0,  pp7
p*

 ppp
pp

p

¬pp#p5pp,

p 
  pp- .p"pp pp, pp
pp
,
 p8 p+9, ppp p
 ppp)
p+p  p. p
p
pA  p8   pp pp p p   p"pp-  
pp

  p(  p  (pp
¬pp%  p p - pp p
 pp)
pp#
p
6
 pp pp  
 ppp  p() pp(pp+p: 
p)
 p
- p p 9pp-
p 
   ppp

p  pp
¬pp#p3pp
p ,
pp
 p pp/
"p+ ,  p:  pp# p
pB

p</. =p
 p
pp
p  p>

ppp
 pp
p

p
pp p
pp 0ppp"p  p
p  pp
p>
ppp% pp) 

pp
¬pp pp

pp p
p .p
pppp pp
#
p pApp
ppF  pp1" p
 ppp p
 ppp pp
 p,p%

pp/
p  pp)9
 pp
p1
 pp/,  pp
¬pp#p3pp pp
ppp+ ppp% pp1" pp 
p
(%
p
p p
p  (p pp ppp# 
p#  pp
¬pp% pppp p pp
p
pp 0pp%- p p

 ppp>
p/
pp+  pB pp)
pp>pp
¬pp pp ,

p  
 pp p; pp   p
ppp
p. p .p pp9
p 
p

pp  p
8   p p0p&4pp&Lpp. pp
¬pp8
pppp  
p ppp
p
p# p'  p
"p p ppp pp  pC
2p/
 p- p pMpp
+p7
  pp
¬pp ppp  
 ppp>
p:p p1 
 pp+p "p
<%A =p   ppp
pp p
p)9D  pp p p p
p

pp 
ppAppppp ppA p
p p  
 ppp>
p6" pp87pp
¬pp#p   pp
 p(pp 
(p  ppp pp
)9D  ppp

p).
p# A pp) p*

pp
¬pp#p3pp 
pp
ppp pp)9D  pp 
,0p(
 p
%
ppB (p
p
pp
 p
p#- 

pp p
pp
 p(
(ppp+  p1
pp
pp# 
pp# pp
¬pp% pp
p pp
 pp%   pp 

pp p p
 p  
 pp ,

pp7pp% p6. pp

 p
¬pp#pGpp
 p ,
pp
pppp7 p+ - pppp
)
ppp"p
 p
0p pp  
pp ppp pp
¬pp
pp -p ,
pp
 ppp+p) 
pp 
p p

pp 
p 
A,  p(
 p%
ppB (p#p 
 p) 
pp
; 
ppp7 pp
¬pp#pppp. p pp
pppp
 pppDp

p
p
 p#p


 p pp pp) p "9pp


p)
ppp 
p:0p%  
p  pp%
 pAp
p>
p1
pDpp6 p
pp
¬pp8
pp
p
pp 0pp
pp
. p  
A,  p(
 p
%
p*  (pp  p p p
 pp p p
pp p
p ,
p
pp# pp9
p pp
¬pp#pEpp. p
pp 
p 
A,  p(
 p%
ppB (ppp

p)
 ppp pp6 p
pp
¬pp
pp# p 
p ,

pp
 ppppp>
pp%A
p
   pp   
pp
 pp. pp-p  pp  pp
 p
p
p)9D  pp
¬pp
p p  
 p+ ,   ppp pp) 

p<ppp
. ppp>
ppp% p   p
pp/
"p+ ,  p:  p
p  p =pp1.
p<ppp. ppp>
p8 p   p

pp/
"p+ ,  pp+p p  0=pp
¬pp#p&&pp 
p
pp A p
 p%
p+ ,   ppp
 
p  pp)9D  p   p
pp/
"p+ ,  p:  p
p# ppB

p</+:#B=p#p  
 pp
 pp,
 p%8pp8B8p
p
 p
Ap ppp7 p;
p) p"ppp
  p   pp)9D  pp

 p

¬pp8
p
pp p pp pp
p
  p
p)9D  pB  p
p pp) p% Ap8
 p/Dp)  p) 

pp
> .pp
¬pp
pp)
p 
pp  
 p

 p 
pp   pLpp p
pp>
p7
Ap1 p  9 p  p9ppppp
# p#p  
 pp pp ppp
 ppp
pp
p

 p  ppp
p+ 
p)
0pB p pp pp%
 p% p
pD p+  p7 pp)
0p8 
p

p

 pp  pp



p
  pp
¬pp+p
pp 

p   p 
p

p p0pppGpp
  
p p  
 p, 
   ppp>
p  p#
 p6
 p
p+ p8   pppp1
p>
pp%  pp+  pp p%
p
   p
pp/
"p7 
  pp+ p8   p. pp
 p
p)
p
p+A-pp
¬pp#ppp  
p ,
pp

p
 pp%-  pp
¬pp8p'+pp
pp#
p 
p

pp  
 pp5pp
  
ppp>
p%
pp
ppp pp1" pp
¬pp8
pp0pp#
p p
p pp
p 
  p
pp
 p pp

p)
p p  " ppp) p)  p
pp'##+ppp  pp;  p*, p 
 p1 
pp
¬pp
pp 

p
pp  p p(#D (p pLp
 p  p- ppp  
 p pp 
 pp
 pp
, p:
ppp
,
pp1pp
¬pp8
pppp 
p
 ppDp
p
p)9D  p

A pp p
ppp% p:A
p%- --p
>  p p  p
 pF
9
p)Ap
 pB
p87p
)
 pp p#p
 p)  p*p p1
p6

pp
p
p ppp% pp  p
 p

c  c


p

Up p p  p
Up p 

ppp
Up % ppp-p  p
Up #pp 
p 
p
Up pB p
Up % p 
p- pp
Up >p
Ap'p p
Up %  p-
p
Up  p
Up >p" 
p