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Form 2

Science Chapter 4
Interdependence among Living
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Organisms and the Environment
1. Interdependence Among Living
2. Interaction Between Living Organisms
3. Food Webs
4. Photosynthesis
5. The Importance of The Conservation and
Preservation Of Living Organisms
6. Role of Man in Maintaining the Balance
in Nature
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Interdependence Among
Living Organisms

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• A habitat is the natural living place of
plants and animals.

• A habitat provides an organism with air,

space, food, shelter and a place in which
to breed.

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• A species is a group of organisms that
have the same shape and structure.
• They can also breed together to produce
offspring that are fertile.
• Penguins , rat, cat and elephant are
examples of the different species of

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• A population is a group of organisms
comprising the same species that live
together in a habitat.
• For example,
(a) a population of monkeys
in a tree
(b) a population of elephants
on a grassland
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A community consists of
several species of animal and
plant population that live
together and interact with one
another in a habitat.

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• An ecosystem consists of several
communities that interact with one another
and with the physical environment (non-
living things such as water, air, soil, light
and mineral salts).
• For example,
(a) a pond ecosystem
(b) a tropical rainforest ecosystem
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Learn more :
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Interaction Between
Living Organisms

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1. Prey-predator
• A predator is an organism that kills and
eats another organism.
• A prey is the organism that is eaten.



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1. Prey-predator
• A predator usually has special physical
characteristics such as sharp claws and
fangs, or a sharp beak, with which to kill its
• A prey usually has the ability to run away a
from a predator.

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• Symbiosis basically
means ‘living together’ .
• There are three types of
symbiotic relationships,
i. Commensalism
ii. parasitism and
iii. mutualism.

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I .Commensalism (Symbiosis)
• In commensalism
one species
benefits from the
interaction, as the
other is unaffected.
• The unaffected
species is the host.
Staghorn fern obtains sunlight,
Tree is not effected .

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I .Commensalism (Symbiosis)

remora and the shark

The anemonefish lives among the

forest of tentacles of an anemone
and is protected from potential
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ii. Parasitism (Symbiosis)
• Parasitism is another Louse
suck blood
type of interaction from their
between two host

• Only one organism


• The other organism

suffers some Rafflesia absorb
disadvantage. minerals from roots
of other plants. 17
ii. Parasitism (Symbiosis)
• A parasite is an
organism that lives
on or inside the
other organism.
• The host is the
organism on or in
which the parasite

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Two groups of parasites :
1. Parasites that live 2. Parasites that live
out side the host inside the host
organism. organism.
• For example • For example,
mosquitoes, lice and tapeworms and
fleas suck blood hookworms inside the
from their host . intestines of humans
and animals.

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iii. Mutualism (Symbiosis)
• In mutualism, the interaction is beneficial
to both species.
• Mutualism is a form of cooperation.
• They obtain nutrition and shelter from
each other.

The bird eats the fragments of food left

between the crocodile teeth.
So the crocodile gets its teeth cleaned.

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iii. Mutualism (Symbiosis)

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• Competition occurs when organisms
compete for the same basic resources.
• Animals compete to obtain water, food,
living space and mates for reproduction.

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• Plants compete to obtain water, sunlight,
minerals and living space.

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Summary so far ...

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Biological control
• Biological control is a method in which a
predator, the natural enemy to a certain
pest, is used to control the population of
that pest in an area.
The aphid is a pest to the
gardeners, damaging his
The ladybirds helps the
gardener by ridding him of
these pests

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Biological control
• Biological control has many advantages as
compared with using pesticides.
• Some of them are:
(a) it does not pollute the environment
(b) it does not kill other organisms except
the pests
(c) it is cheap and safe to use

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Biological control

Barn Owls (Tyto alba) a When the eggs hatch, Biological weed
proven natural predator the ichneumon larvae control involves the
of rats in Oil Palm feed on the body of the release of
host . organisms that
attack plants to
control weeds.
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Food Webs

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Food Chain
• A food chain is an energy flow showing how
energy in food is passed from plants (producers)
to animals (consumers).

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Food Webs
A food web consists of several food chains that
are interlinked to one another

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Pyramid of numbers
• A pyramid of
numbers shows
the number of
organisms at
each stage of the
food chain.

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Pyramid of numbers
• From the base of the pyramid to its peak:
(a) the number of organisms decreases
(b) the size of the organisms increases
(c) more energy is lost

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• Photosynthesis is a process that occurs
in green plants, in which food is made
from water and carbon dioxide in the
presence of chlorophyll and sunlight.
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Photosynthesis equation
Carbon Glucose
water oxygen
dioxide (food)

The glucose produced is transported to

other parts of the plant to be:

(a) oxidised through the process of

respiration to provide energy

(b) stored as starch

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The role of photosynthesis
a) enable green plants to make their own

b) regulate and maintain carbon dioxide

content in the atmosphere.

c) increase oxygen content in the


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Experiment 1
break the

Test for starch . remove

Turn blue-black. chlorophyll
soften the

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Experiment 2
Aim :
To show plant need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis .
Info :
Sodium hydroxide absorbs carbon dioxide

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The carbon cycle
• The carbon cycle is the circulation of the
carbon element on the Earth.

• These processes take place continuously.

• The carbon cycle maintains the content of

carbon dioxide in the air.

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The carbon cycle
• The processes that release carbon dioxide
into the air include:
(a) respiration and breathing
(b) combustion
(c) decomposition

• Photosynthesis, which takes place in

green plants, removes carbon dioxide from
the air.
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The oxygen cycle
• The oxygen cycle is the circulation of oxygen on
the Earth.
• These processes take place continuously.
• The oxygen cycle maintains the content of
oxygen in the air.

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The oxygen cycle

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The Importance of The

Conservation and Preservation
Of Living Organisms

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The greenhouse effect
• The greenhouse effect occurs because a layer
of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere prevents a
portion of heat from escaping to the outer space.

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The greenhouse effect
• The greenhouse effect raises the Earth's
• This is known as global warming.
• This phenomenon causes changes in the
world's weather and climate.

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Result of global warming

The sea level

increases and this
The melting of ice
results in
caps at both of the
the flooding of low-Iying
Earth's poles.
coastal areas.

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The depletion of the ozone layer
• The ozone layer absorbs most
of the ultraviolet rays before it
reaches the Earth's surface.

• Chemicals such as
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs),
used in the manufacture of
aerosol sprays, refrigerators
and air conditioners, are
pollutants that break down the
ozone molecules in the ozone

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Ozone hole

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Ozone depletion effects
• Ultraviolet rays that reach the Earth cause:

(a) skin cancer

(b) cataract of the eyes
(c) the human immune system to

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Acid rain
• Gases such as
sulphur dioxide and
nitrogen dioxide
dissolve in
rainwater to form
acid rain.

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Acid rain effects
Acid rain can:
a) destroy sculptures .
b) lower the soil pH value and make it
unsuitable for plants.
c) River water that is polluted by acid rain is
no longer suitable for aquatic organisms.

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The Importance of The

Conservation and Preservation
Of Living Organisms

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• Managing environmental pollution can save our

• The following are steps that can be taken to

reduce environmental pollution:

(a) use unleaded petrol

(b) ban nuclear testing
(c) create special places to burn rubbish
(d) implement stricter law enforcement on the
disposal of toxic waste from factories
(e) hold campaigns to prevent pollution
(f) recycle, reuse and reduce materials

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