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PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

A good concrete should have three basic


qualities :

a) Strength

b) Workability

c) Durability
Table 1: Nominal Mixes As Per IS: 456-2000
(Fine Aggregate of Zone II As Per IS: 383- 1970)
Grade of As per Mix ratio by wt Max Max
concrete IS:383-1970 Cement Fine Coarse W/C cement
Max size of aggregat aggregat ratio aggregate
graded e ratio by
e
coarse mass
aggregate
M20 10 1 : 1.8 : 2.7 0.60 1:5
M20 20 1 : 1.5 : 3.0 0.60 1:5
M20 40 1 : 1.3 : 3.2 0.60 1:5

Proportions by weight can be converted to proportions by volume, by


dividing with the bulk density of the materials available for use at site.
The bulk density of sand may be taken 1.44 Kg/lit
Table 2: Grades Of Concrete As Per IS:456-2000
Group Grade Specified characteristic
Designation compressive strength of
150mm cube at 28 days
N/mm²
Ordinary M10 10
Concrete M15 15
M20 20
Standard M25 25
Concrete M30 30
M35 35
M40 40
M45 45
M50 50
M55 55
High Strength M60 60
Concrete M65 65
M70 70
M75 75
M80 80
DURABILITY OF CONCRETE
• A durable concrete is one that performs satisfactorily in the working
environment under its anticipated exposure conditions during
service.

• Main characteristics influencing the durability of concrete is its


permeability to ingress of water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, chloride,
sulphate and other potentially deleterious materials.

• Factors influencing durability include


a) The environment
b) The cover to embedded steel
c) The type and quality of constituent materials
d) The cement content and water/cement ratio of the concrete
e) Workmanship, to obtain full compaction and efficient curing
f) The shape and size of the member
STATISTICAL PRINCIPLE
For assessing the acceptance criteria of concrete on statistical
principles a large number of cube test results are needed.

At a given stage of construction, let the cube strength of


‘n’ samples be available. The strength of each sample is the
average strength of 3 samples. The sampling is also done in a
random manner.

If the strength of ith sample = fi


Mean strength, fm = Σ fi / n
Deviation of each sample from mean = (fm –fi )
Standard deviation = √Σ (fm –fi )2/(n-1)

The value of standard deviation will be low in case of good


control and high in case of lax control. The acceptability of
concrete depends upon achieving a desired mean strength and
keeping the deviation small.
Acceptance criteria as per old code

a) The grade of concrete is specified. M25 concrete means


concrete with a characteristic strength of 25 MPa at 28 days
curing.
b) A target mean strength is fixed.
ft = fck + k x s
( The value of k for calculating ft is taken as 1.65, which gives
a probability of not more than 5% of the samples tested will
fall below fck)
c) Each sample is checked for acceptability. Test strength of
each sample will be the average of three specimen with
individual variation being not more than ±15% of the average.
Clause 15.1 of IS: 456-1978
a) Accept all samples with fi ≥ fck
b) For samples with strength less than fck two checks are
applied. Both checks must be satisfied
• First check : fi should not be less than the larger of two
values.
(i) fck – 1.35 x s
(ii) 0.8 x fck
• Second check : Average strength of all the samples is
not less than fck + 1.65 [ 1-√(1/n)] s
Clause 15.2 of IS: 456-1978
a) Reject the concrete if fi is less than the greater of
(i) fck – 1.35 x s
(ii) 0.8 x fck
b) Reject the concrete also if fi < fck + [1.65 – (3/√n)] s
Note : concrete which does not meet the requirement of Clause
15.1 but has a strength greater than required by clause 15.2
can be accepted at the discretion of the designer.
Acceptance criteria as per new code
The acceptance criteria as per new code is :
a) fm ≥ fck + 0.825 x s or (fck +4) MPa , whichever is greater
AND
b) fi ≥ (fck – 4) MPa

Where,
fm = Mean of four results in a group
fi = Strength of any individual sample
s = Established standard deviation rounded off to nearest
0.5 MPa

Note :- When sufficient number of samples have not accumulated, a


standard deviation of 4.0 MPa is assumed for M20 & M25
concrete. While 5.0 MPa is taken for M30 to M50. The
calculated value of ‘s’ is used as soon as 30 results are
available.
( BASED ON IS:456 – 2000)
METHOD OF CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

Step 1 :- Work out the Target mean strength of concrete from the
relation:
fck = fck +t x s

Where, fck = Target average compressive strength at 28 days

fck = characteristic compressive strength at 28 days

s = Standard Deviation

t = 1.65 (as per IS:456-2000 clause 9.2.2 )


Table 3: Assumed Standard Deviation For Three
Strength Groups
Grade of Concrete Assumed standard
deviation
MPa
M10
M15 3.50
M20
M25 4.00
M30
M35
M40 5.00
M45
M50

The above values correspond to the site control having proper storage of
cement; Weigh batching of all materials; controlled addition of water; regular
checking of all materials, aggregate grading and moisture content; and
periodic checking of workability and strength. Where there is deviation from
the above, the values given in the above table shall be increased by 1 N/mm²
Step 2 :-
Find out the value of W/C ratio against the target mean strength
from the curves available for the purpose. Select the appropriate
curve for the type of coarse aggregate and the type of cement
being used.
Step 3 :-
For durability consideration check the obtained free water-
cement ratio from appropriate table of IS:456-2000. If required
use lower value of water cement ratio.
Step 4 :-
As per clause 7 page 17 of IS:456-2000 find out the degree of
workability required for the job.
Step 5 :-
From table 4, find out the quantity of free water in Kg/m³ for the
type and maximum size of aggregate being used and for the
required workability and normal- air entrained concrete.
Step 6 :-
Find out the cement content in Kg/m³ from the information of
step 2 and step 5.
Free water content
Cement content =
Water cement ratio
For durability consideration, check the minimum cement
content , if required take higher value.
Step 7 :-
Find out the density of concrete in Kg/m³ for different maximum
sizes of coarse aggregate corresponding to particular value of
combined specific gravity of aggregates from the given tables
5,6 &7.
Step 8 :-
Find out the aggregates content per cum of concrete.
Total aggre = conc density – Free water – cement content
(Kg/m³ ) (Kg/m³ ) (Kg/m³ ) (Kg/m³ )
Step 9 :-
Find out the proportions of sand (percent) of the total aggregate
from table 8 for particular maximum size of coarse aggregate,
required workability, zone of sand and water- cement ratio. Find
out the quantity of fine aggregates in Kg/m³ from total aggregate
calculated in step 8 above.
Step 10 :-
Find out the quantity of coarse aggregate in Kg/m³ by
subtracting the quantity of fine aggregate from total aggregates.
Step 11 :-
If the coarse aggregates are in more than one fraction , they
shall be combined in a suitable proportion to get a graded
coarse aggregate as per IS: 383-1970. In general, if the coarse
aggregates are in single size as per IS: 383-1970, they shall be
combined as follows for obtaining a combined graded
aggregate.
(a) 10 & 20 mm aggregate in ratio 1:2
(b) 10, 20 & 40 mm aggregate in ratio 1:1.5:3
IMPORTANT NOTE

THE CALCULATED MIX PROPORTIONS


MUST BE CHECKED BY TRIAL MIXES FOR
REQUIRED SPECIFICATIONS, AND AS PER
REQUIREMENTS SUITABLE ADJUSTMENT IN
THE MIX PROPORTION SHOULD BE DONE.
COMPRESSIVE STR VS W/C RATIO
(Uncrushed coarse aggregate)
80.0
A=21.6 – 25.0 N/mm² B=25.0 – 29.8 N/mm²
C=29.8 – 35.0 N/mm² D=35.0 – 41.5 N/mm²
70.0
E=41.5 – 48.0 N/mm² F=48.0 – 53.4 N/mm²
60.0 F (Values given above correspond to the 7- day
28 – DAY COMPR STR OF CONCRETE (N/mm²)

E strength of cement tested according to


50.0 D
IS: 4031-1968)
C
B
40.0
A

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0
0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70
WATER – CEMENT RATIO
COMPRESSIVE STR VS W/C RATIO
(Crushed coarse aggregate)
80.0
F A=21.6 – 25.0 N/mm² B=25.0 – 29.8 N/mm²
C=29.8 – 35.0 N/mm² D=35.0 – 41.5 N/mm²
70.0
E
E=41.5 – 48.0 N/mm² F=48.0 – 53.4 N/mm²
60.0 D (Values given above correspond to the 7- day
28 – DAY COMPR STR OF CONCRETE (N/mm²)

strength of cement tested according to


C
50.0 B
IS: 4031-1968)

A
40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0
0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70
WATER – CEMENT RATIO
Water cement ratio & cement contents for Durability
Type of Plain Cement Concrete Reinforced Cement Concrete
Exposure
Min Max Min Min Max Free Min grade
cement Free grade of cement W/C of concrete
Kg/m³ W/C concrete Kg/m³
Mild 220 0.6 - 300 0.55 M20

Moderate 240 0.6 M15 300 0.5 M25

Severe 250 0.5 M20 320 0.45 M30

Very 260 0.45 M20 340 0.45 M35


Severe

Extremely 280 0.40 M25 360 0.4 M40


Severe

Note :- Min cement content value applies to 20mm max size of agg
Adjustments to minimum cement content
for aggregates (other than 20mm max size of agg)
Sl No. Nominal max aggregate size Adjustments to minimum
cement content

1. 10 +40

2. 20 0

3. 40 -30

Note :-
a) Cement content prescribed in the table is irrespective of the grades of
cement and is inclusive of mineral admixtures like fly ash, silica fume etc.
b) The additions such as fly ash or ground granulated blast furnace slag may
be taken into account in the concrete composition with respect to the
cement content and water cement ratio if the suitability is established and
as long as the maximum amounts taken into account do not exceed the
limit of pozzolona and slag specified in IS 1489(Part I) and IS 455
respectively.
Table 4:Approx Free water content(kg/m³)
With non air- entrained concrete
(Normal entrapped air)

Maximum Type of Slump (mm) - 25-75 50-100 100-180


size of aggregate
Compacting 0.75-0.80 - - -
aggregate
factor
(mm)
Degree of Very low Low Medium High
workability
Uncrushed 150 205 220 240
10
Crushed 180 235 250 265

Uncrushed 140 180 195 210


20
Crushed 170 210 225 245
Uncrushed 120 160 175 190
40
Crushed 155 190 205 220

When coarse and fine aggregates of different types are used, the free water content is
estimated by the expression : 2 W f + 1 W c , where,
3 3
Wf = Free water content appropriate to type of fine aggregate
Wc = Free water content appropriate to type of coarse aggregate
Table 5:Estimated wet density of fully compacted
concrete(kg/m³)
(Max size of saturated & surface dry aggregate 10 mm for first trial)
Free water content Specific gravity for combined aggregates
(Kg/m³)
2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9
130 2250 2320 2390 2460 2530 2600
140 2235 2305 2375 2445 2515 2585
150 2220 2290 2360 2430 2500 2570
160 2205 2275 2345 2415 2485 2555
170 2190 2260 2330 2400 2470 2540
180 2175 2245 2315 2385 2455 2525
190 2160 2230 2300 2370 2440 2510
200 2145 2215 2285 2355 2425 2495
210 2130 2200 2270 2340 2410 2480
220 2115 2185 2255 2325 2395 2465
230 2100 2170 2240 2310 2380 2450
240 2085 2155 2225 2295 2365 2435
250 2070 2140 2210 2280 2350 2420

The table is worked out for cement content 330 kg/m³. For each 20 Kg difference in
cement content from 330 Kg correct the weight per m³, 3 Kg in the same direction.
Table 6:Estimated wet density of fully compacted
concrete(kg/m³)
(Max size of saturated & surface dry aggregate 20 mm for first trial)

Free water content Specific gravity for combined aggregates


(Kg/m³)
2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9
120 2285 2355 2425 2495 2565 2635
130 2270 2340 2410 2480 2550 2620
140 2255 2325 2395 2465 2535 2605
150 2240 2310 2380 2450 2520 2590
160 2225 2295 2365 2435 2505 2525
170 2210 2280 2350 2420 2490 2560
180 2195 2265 2335 2405 2475 2545
190 2180 2250 2320 2390 2460 2530
200 2165 2235 2305 2375 2445 2515
210 2150 2220 2290 2360 2430 2500
220 2135 2205 2275 2345 2415 2485
230 2120 2190 2260 2330 2400 2470

The table is worked out for cement content 330 kg/m³. For each 20 Kg difference in
cement content from 330 Kg correct the weight per m³, 3 Kg in the same direction.
Table 7:Estimated wet density of fully compacted
concrete(kg/m³)
(Max size of saturated & surface dry aggregate 40 mm for first trial)

Free water content Specific gravity for combined aggregates


(Kg/m³)
2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9
100 2335 2405 2475 2545 2615 2685
110 2320 2390 2460 2530 2600 2670
120 2305 2325 2445 2515 2585 2655
130 2290 2360 2430 2500 2570 2640
140 2275 2315 2415 2485 2555 2625
150 2260 2330 2400 2470 2540 2610
160 2245 2315 2385 2455 2525 2595
170 2230 2300 2370 2440 2510 2580
180 2215 2285 2355 2425 2495 2565
190 2200 2270 2340 2410 2480 2550
200 2185 2255 2325 2395 2465 2535
210 2170 2240 2310 2380 2450 2520

The table is worked out for cement content 330 kg/m³. For each 20 Kg difference in
cement content from 330 Kg correct the weight per m³, 3 Kg in the same direction.
Table 8: Proportion of fine aggregate with different workability
Zone W/C 10mm aggregate 20 mm aggregate 40 mm aggregate
of FA ratio
VL L M H VL L M H VL L M H
0.3 43-53 46-56 49-60 54-67 32-39 35-42 39-47 44-53 27-33 29-35 33-39 38-46
0.4 46-56 48-58 51-62 57-69 34-42 37-45 41-49 46-56 29-35 31-38 35-42 41-49
I
0.5 48-58 50-61 53-65 59-72 37-45 39-47 43-52 48-59 31-38 33-41 37-44 43-52
0.6 50-61 52-63 56-68 62-75 39-47 41-50 45-54 50-61 33-41 36-43 39-47 45-54
0.7 52-64 55-66 58-70 64-77 41-50 44-53 47-57 53-64 36-44 38-46 42-50 47-57
0.3 36-43 37-46 40-49 44-54 27-32 28-35 32-39 35-44 22-27 23-29 27-33 31-38
0.4 37-46 39-48 42-51 46-57 28-34 30-37 33-41 37-46 24-29 25-31 28-35 32-41
II
0.5 39-48 41-50 44-53 47-59 30-37 32-39 35-43 39-48 25-31 27-33 30-37 34-43
0.6 41-50 42-52 45-56 49-62 32-39 34-41 36-45 41-50 27-33 29-36 32-39 36-45
0.7 42-52 44-55 47-58 51-64 34-41 36-44 38-47 43-53 29-36 31-38 34-42 38-47
0.3 29-36 32-37 33-40 37-44 23-27 24-28 27-32 30-35 18-22 20-23 22-27 26-31
0.4 31-37 33-39 35-42 38-46 24-28 26-30 28-33 31-37 20-24 21-25 24-28 27-32
III
0.5 32-39 34-41 36-44 40-47 25-30 27-32 29-35 33-39 21-25 23-27 25-30 29-34
0.6 34-41 36-42 38-45 42-49 27-32 29-34 31-36 35-41 23-27 24-29 27-32 30-36
0.7 35-42 37-44 39-47 43-51 28-34 30-36 32-38 36-43 24-29 26-31 29-34 32-38
0.3 26-29 27-32 29-33 32-37 19-23 21-24 23-27 26-30 16-18 18-20 19-22 22-26
0.4 27-31 29-33 30-35 34-38 21-24 22-26 24-28 28-31 17-20 19-21 20-24 24-27
IV
0.5 28-32 30-34 32-36 35-40 22-25 24-27 26-29 29-33 18-21 20-23 22-25 25-29
0.6 30-34 31-36 33-38 36-42 23-27 25-29 27-31 30-35 20-23 22-24 23-27 26-30
0.7 31-35 32-37 35-39 37-43 25-28 26-30 28-32 32-36 21-24 23-26 25-29 28-32
Table 9: Grading requirements of Coarse
aggregates (IS:383-1970)

IS Sieve Percentage passing for Single Sized Aggregate of Percentage passing for Graded
Designation Nominal Size Aggregate of Nominal Size

63mm 40mm 20mm 16mm 12.5mm 10mm 40mm 20mm 16mm 12.5mm
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)
80mm 100 - - - - - 100 - - -

63mm 85-100 100 - - - - - - - -

40mm 0-30 85-100 100 - - - 95-100 100 - -

20mm 0-5 0-20 85-100 100 - - 30-70 100 - -

16mm - - - 85-100 100 - - - 90-100 -

12.5mm - - - - 85-100 100 - - - 90-100

10mm 0-5 0-5 0-20 0-30 0-15 85-100 10-35 25-55 30-70 40-85

4.75mm - - 0-5 0-5 0-10 0-20 0-5 0-10 0-10 0-10

2.36mm - - - - - 0-5 - - - -
Table 10 : Grading Requirements For
Fine Aggregates (IS :383-1970)
IS Sieve Percentage Passing For Grading Zone
Designation
I II III IV

10 mm 100 100 100 100

4.75 mm 90-100 90-100 90-100 90-100

2.36 mm 60-95 75-100 85-100 95-100

1.18 mm 30-70 55-90 75-100 90-100

600 micron 15-34 35-59 60-79 80-100

300 micron 05-20 08-30 12-40 15-50

150 micron 00-10 00-10 00-10 00-15

 For crushed stone sands, the permissible limit on 150 micron IS sieve is increased by 20 %.
 Fine aggregate complying with the requirements of any of the grading zone in this table is
suitable for concrete.
 It is recommended not to use the fine aggregate conforming to the grading zone IV in
reinforced concrete unless tests prove it suitable for the purpose.
 Where concrete of high strength and good durability is required, fine aggregate conforming
to any of the four zones can be used, but the concrete mix should be properly designed. As
the fine aggregate grading becomes progressively finer, the ratio of fine aggregate to coarse
aggregate should be progressively reduced.
Exposure Conditions

Sl Exposure Description
No. condition
1. Mild Concrete surfaces protected against
weather or aggressive conditions, except
those situated in coastal areas.
2. Moderate Concrete surfaces sheltered from severe
rain or freezing whilst wet
Concrete exposed to condensation and rain
Concrete continuously under water
Concrete in contact or buried under non
aggressive soil / ground water
Concrete surfaces sheltered from saturated
salt air in coastal area
Sl Exposure Description
No. condition
3. Severe Concrete surfaces exposed to severe rain,
alternate wetting and drying or occasional
freezing whilst wet or severe condensation
Concrete completely immersed in sea water
Concrete exposed to coastal environment
4. Very Concrete surfaces exposed to sea water
Severe spray, corrosive fumes or severe freezing
conditions whilst wet
Concrete in contact with or buried under
aggressive sub- soil/ ground water
5. Extreme Surface of members in tidal zone
Members in direct contact with liquid/ solid
aggressive chemicals
Workability of Concrete
Sl Placing conditions Degree of Slump
No. workability (mm)
1. Blinding Concrete Very low 0.75-0.80
Shallow Sections (CF)
Pavements using pavers
2. Mass Concrete Low 25-75
Lightly reinforced sections in slabs,
beams, walls, columns
Floors
Hand placed pavements
Canal linings
Strip footings
3. Heavily reinforced sections in slabs, Medium 50-100
beams, walls, columns to
Slipform work 75- 100
Pumped concrete
4. Trench fill High 100- 150
In-situ piling
5. Tremie Concrete Very High By flow
determination
Example 1:-
A mix is required to be designed for M20 grade of concrete which is
to used in lightly reinforced slab. Other details are as given below :

Standard deviation from


previous relevant work : 4.0 N/mm²
Required workability : (low) slump (25-75 mm)
Exposure : mild
Maximum free W/C ratio : 0.55
Minimum cement content : 300 Kg/ m³
Maximum size of aggregate : 20mm (uncrushed)
Type of sand : River sand
Cement : OPC 43 Grade
Other Details : The sand and aggregate has
been used in the
construction since the last
40 years and they are found
to be quite good.
Test results of materials :
Cement 7 days compressive strength : 39.5 N/mm²
Sand grading : Zone II
Aggregate grading : 20- 05 mm graded
Specific Gravity of Sand : 2.7
Specific Gravity of Aggregate : 2.7
Water absorption of sand : 1.4%
Water absorption of aggregate : 0.9%
Bulk density of room dry sand : 1.52 Kg/lit
Bulk density of room dry aggregate : 1.47 Kg/lit
Solution :-
Step 1 :-
Target mean strength of concrete,
_
f ck = f ck + 1 . 65 s
= 20 + 1.65 x 4.0
= 26.6 N/mm²
Step 2 :- Selection of free w/c ratio
7- day compressive strength of cement = 39.5 N/mm²
Type of aggregate = Uncrushed (River gravel)
Therefore, from the appropriate curve, the w/c ratio for target
strength of 26.6 N/mm² is 0.51.
The value is selected as the same is less than specified max w/c
ratio of 0.55
Step 3 :- Selection of free water content
From table, for 20mm uncrushed aggregate and river sand, for
required workability of 25-75 mm slump, free water content is
found to be 180 kg/m³

Step 4 :- Determination of cement content


w/c ratio = 0.51
Water = 180 kg/m³
Cement = 180/0.51 = 353 kg/m³
The value of cement content is higher than the specified
minimum cement content of 300 kg/m³, hence accepted

Step 5 :- Determination of concrete density


Specific gravity of combined aggregates = 2.7
Maximum size of aggregate = 20mm
Free water content = 180 kg/m³
Density of concrete ( from table ) = 2408 kg/m³
Step 6 :- Determination of aggregate quantity
Concrete density = 2408 kg/m³
Cement content = 353 kg/m³
Water content = 180 kg/m³
Total aggregates = (2408 – 353 – 180) kg/m³
= 1875 kg/m³
Step 7 :- Determination of sand content
Workability = Low
Max size of aggregate = 20mm
Zone of sand = II
w/c ratio = 0.51
From table the proportion of sand = 33- 39%
= 36% (say)
Sand = 1875x0.36
= 675 kg/m³
Step 8 :- Determination of coarse aggregate
Coarse aggregate = (1875- 675) kg/m³
= 1200 kg/m³
FINAL PROPORTIONS :

Thus the quantity of materials per cum of concrete on the basis


of saturated and surface dry aggregates:
Water = 180 kg/m³
Cement = 353 kg/m³
Sand = 675 kg/m³
Coarse agg = 1200 kg/m³
Mix ratio by weight on the basis of saturated and surface dry
aggregates:
Cement : Sand : C/aggregate = 1 : 1.91 : 3.40
Water cement rati0 = 0.51
CONVERSION OF PROPORTION BY WEIGHT
TO PROPORTION BY VOLUME
Proportion by weight can be converted into proportion by
volume, by dividing it with the bulk density of site aggregates.
Bulk density of cement = 1.44 x 103 kg/m³
Bulk density of sand = 1.52 x 103 kg/m³
Bulk density of c/ aggregate = 1.47 x 103 kg/m³
Therefore, mix ratio by volume = 1 : 1.81 : 3.33
Free water cement ratio = 0.51
Working out volume of aggregate for one bag of cement
Cement = 50 kg = 35000cc
Dry sand = 1.81x35000 = 2x(33cm x 33cm x 29cm)
Room dry agg = 3.33x35000 = 4x(32cm x 32cm x 28.5cm)
Free water = 25.5 liter
NOTE : The bulking of sand and adjustment in mixing water
should be taken into consideration as per actual moisture
content of site aggregates.
MIX DESIGN WITH USE OF PLASTICIZER

In Example 1 above , it is proposed to use superplasticizer for


reduction in mixing water. It is found that 3cc/kg of
superplasticizer reduces 10% of water.
Accordingly, water reqmt = (180-18) Kg/ m³
= 162 Kg/ m³
Cement reqmt = (162/0.51) Kg/ m³
= 318 Kg/ m³
Density of wet concrete = 2430 Kg/ m³
Total aggregate = (2430 – 162 – 318) Kg
= 1950 Kg/ m³
Therefore, Sand = 1950x0.36 = 683 Kg/ m³
C/ aggregate = 1950 – 683 = 1267 Kg/ m³
Superplasticizer = 318x3 = 954 cc/ m³
Quantity of material by volume per bag of cement
Cement = One bag (50 Kg)
Dry sand = 2x( 33cm x 33cm x 32.6cm)
Dry aggregate = 4x( 32cm x 32cm x 33.3cm)
Water = 25.5 lit
Superplasticizer = 150 cc

Saving in cost/cum of concrete


Saving in cement = 353 – 318 = 35 Kg
cost of cement saved = 35x3 = Rs.105
Cost of superplast = Rs. 50
(One liter)
Overall saving = Rs.(105-50) = Rs. 55
(Per cum of concrete)
Thus use of superplasticizer results in saving in cost and other
benefits such as reduction in mixing water & well compacted
better finished concrete.