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Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

PRESSURE HAZARDS DEFINED


•  Pressure is defined as the force exerted against an
opposing fluid or thrust distributed over a surface.
–  Expressed in force or weight per unit of area.
•  Such as pounds per square inch (psi).
•  Critical injury and damage can occur with relatively
little pressure.
•  We perceive pressure in relation to the earth’s
atmosphere—at sea level, an average of 14.7 psi.
•  In human physiology studies, the typical unit of
measure is millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

SOURCES OF PRESSURE HAZARDS


•  In rapid ascent from underwater diving or from
high-altitude decompression, lungs can rupture.
•  Nitrogen absorption into body tissues can become
excessive during underwater diving & breathing of
nitrogen-enriched air.
–  If the nitrogen is permeating tissues faster than the person
can breathe it out, bubbles of gas may form in the
tissues.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

BOILERS AND PRESSURE HAZARDS


•  Potential safety hazards associated
with boilers and other pressurized
vessels include:
–  Design, construction, or installation errors.
–  Poor or insufficient training of operators.
–  Human error.
–  Mechanical breakdown or failure.
–  Failure or blockage of control or safety
devices.
–  Insufficient or improper inspections, or
preventive maintenance
–  Improper application of equipment

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

BOILERS AND PRESSURE HAZARDS


•  Pressure Vessel Failure:
–  Bhopal
–  BLEVE 2

•  Boiler

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

BOILERS AND PRESSURE HAZARDS


•  OSHA recommended accident prevention
measures:
–  Daily check - of water to ensure it is at the proper level.
•  Vent the furnace thoroughly before starting the fire.
•  Warm up the boiler using a small fire.
–  Weekly check - of low-water automatic shutdown control,
recording results of the test on a tag that is clearly visible.
–  Monthly check - of the safety valve, recording results of
the test on a tag that is clearly visible.
–  Yearly check - low-level automatic shutdown control
mechanism should be replaced or completely overhauled.
•  Have the vendor or a third-party expert test all combustion
safeguards, including fuel pressure switches, limit switches,
motor starter interlocks, and shutoff valves.
Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

HIGH-TEMPERATURE WATER HAZARDS


•  Mechanical forces such as water hammer, thermal
expansion, thermal shock, or faulty materials cause
system failures, more than thermodynamic forces.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

HAZARDS OF HIGH-PRESSURE SYSTEMS


•  Common hazards of high-pressure systems;
–  Leaks, pulsation, vibration.
–  Release of high-pressure gases.
–  Whiplash from broken high-pressure pipe, tubing, or hose.
•  Strategies for reducing these hazards include:
–  Limiting vibration by use of vibration dampening.
–  Decreasing leak potential by limiting the number of
joints in the system.
–  Use of pressure gauges & shields/barricades.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

CRACKING HAZARDS IN PRESSURE VESSELS


•  Pressure vessels are used in many applications to
contain many different types of substances. ranging
from water to extremely toxic chemicals.
–  Leakage or rupture may occur in welded seams, bolted
joints, or at nozzles.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

NONDESTRUCTIVE PRESSURE VESSEL TESTS


•  Five widely used nondestructive test methods:
–  Visual examination.
–  Liquid penetration test.
–  Magnetic particle test.
–  X-ray radiography.
–  Ultrasonic test.
•  Visual, liquid penetration & magnetic particle tests
can detect only defects on, or near the surface.
–  They are referred to as surface tests.
•  Radiographic/ultrasonic tests can detect problems
within the material.
–  They are called volumetric tests.
Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers


END
© 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS DEFINED


•  Electricity is the flow of negatively charged particles
(electrons) through electrically conductive material.
–  Electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom, located
approximately in the atom’s center.

The negative charge of electrons


is neutralized by particles called
neutrons, acting as temporary
energy repositories for the
interactions between positively
charged particles called protons
and electrons.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS DEFINED


•  Conductors are materials with many free electrons
at room temperature, and can pass electricity.
•  Insulators do not have a large number of free
electrons at room temperature.
–  And do not conduct electricity.
•  Substances that are neither conductors nor
insulators can be called semiconductors.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS DEFINED


•  Electrical current passing
through the human body causes
a shock.
–  The quantity and path of this
current determines the
level of damage to the body.
•  The path of this flow of electrons
is from a negative source to a
positive point.
–  Because opposite charges attract
one another.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS DEFINED


•  When a surplus or deficiency of electrons on the
surface of a material exists, static electricity is
produced.
–  So-called because there is no positive material nearby
to attract the electrons and cause them to move.
•  When two surfaces of opposite static charges are
brought to close range, a discharge (spark) occurs.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS DEFINED


•  The potential difference between two points in
a circuit is measured by voltage. (Think Pressure)
–  The higher the voltage, the more likely that electricity
will flow between negative & positive points.
•  The higher the resistance—measured in ohms—the
lower the flow of electrons. (Think Valve)
–  Pure conductors offer little resistance to electron flow.
–  Insulators have very high resistance to electricity.
–  Semiconductors have a medium-range resistance.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS DEFINED


•  The unit of measurement for electrical current is
amperes (amps)—usually designated by the letter I.

(Think Flow)

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS DEFINED


•  One ohm is the resistance of a conductor that has
a current of one amp under the potential of one volt.
–  Ohm’s law describes the relationship among volts, ohms,
and amps, stated as:.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS DEFINED


•  Power is measured in wattage (watts), and can be
determined from Ohm’s law:

(Think Pressure x Flow)

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS DEFINED


•  The path of electrical current must make a
complete loop for the current to flow.
–  This loop includes the source of electrical power,
a conductor to act as the path, a device to use the
current (called a load), and a path to the ground.
•  The earth is considered to have zero potential
because of its massive size—an electrical conductor
pushed into the earth is said to have zero potential.
•  Electrocution occurs when a person makes contact
with a conductor carrying a current & simultaneously
contacts the ground, or another object that includes
a conductive path to the ground.
Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS DEFINED


•  Typical 110-volt circuit wiring has a hot wire carrying
current, a neutral wire, and a ground wire.
–  The neutral wire may be called a grounded conductor,
with the ground wire being called a grounding conductor.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS DEFINED


•  The hot wire carries effective voltage of 110 volts,
the neutral wire carries nearly zero voltage.
–  If the hot wire makes contact with an unintended
conductor, the current can bypass the load & go directly to
the ground.

SHORT
Circuit

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS


•  The major causes of electrical shock are
–  Contact with a bare wire carrying current.
–  Working with electrical equipment that lacks the UL
label for safety inspection.
–  Electrical equipment not been properly grounded.
–  Working with electrical equipment on damp floors or
other sources of wetness.
–  Using metal ladders to work on electrical equipment.
–  Working on electrical equipment without ensuring that
the power has been shut off.
–  Lightning strikes.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS DEFINED


•  The hot wire carries effective voltage of 110 volts,
the neutral wire carries nearly zero voltage.
–  If the hot wire makes contact with an unintended
conductor, the current can bypass the load & go directly to
the ground.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

Arcs and Sparks Hazards


•  With close proximity, or contact of conductors to
complete a circuit, an electric arc can jump the air
gap between the conductors, and ignite
combustible gases or dusts.
–  A spark or arc may involve relatively little or a great deal
of power and is usually discharged into a small space.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

Lightning Hazards
•  Lightning is static charges from clouds following the
path of least resistance to the earth, involving very
high voltage and current.
–  If this path to the earth involves humans, serious disability
may result, including electrocution.
•  Lightning tends to strike the tallest object on the
earth below the clouds.

Get DOWN!!!

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS TO HUMANS


•  The greatest danger to humans suffering electrical
shock results from current flow.
–  Some levels of current “freeze” a person to the
conductor; the person cannot voluntarily release his or her
grasp.
•  Let-go current is the highest current level at which a
person in contact with the conductor can release the
grasp of the conductor.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS TO HUMANS

Severity of injury depends on


the dosage of current, and
the path taken through the
body by the current.
The path is influenced by
resistance of various body
parts at the time of contact.
Skin is the major form of
resistance to current flow.
Current paths through the
heart, brain, or trunk are
generally much more
injurious than paths
through extremities.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

DETECTION OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS


•  A circuit tester is an inexpensive piece of
equipment with two wire leads capped by probes,
connected to a small bulb—most test at least 110-
to 220-volts.
–  The tester can ensure power has been turned off and
determine whether housings & other equipment parts
are carrying a current.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

REDUCTION OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS


•  The purpose of grounding is to safeguard people
from electrical shocks, reduce the probability of a
fire, and protect equipment from damage.
–  Grounding ensures a path to the earth for the flow of
excess current.
–  Grounding also eliminates the possibility of a person
being shocked by contact with a charged capacitor.
–  Power surges and voltage changes are attenuated
and usually eliminated with proper system grounding.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

REDUCTION OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS


•  A ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) can
detect the flow of current to ground & open the
circuit, thereby interrupting the flow of current.
–  When the current flow in the hot wire is greater than the
current in the neutral wire, a ground fault has occurred.
•  The GFI cannot interrupt current passing between
two circuits or between the hot and neutral wires of
a three-wire circuit.
•  A GFI should be replaced periodically based on the
manufacturer’s recommendations.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

REDUCTION OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS


•  Fuses consist of a metal strip or wire that melts if a
current above a specific value passes through it.
–  This causes the circuit to open, stopping current flow.
•  Magnetic circuit breakers use a solenoid to
surround a metal strip connected to a tripping device.
–  When allowable current is exceeded, the magnetic force
of the solenoid retracts the metal strip, opening the circuit.
•  Thermal circuit breakers rely on excess current to
produce heat and bending in a sensitive metal strip.
–  Once bent, the metal strip opens the circuit.
•  Circuit breakers are usually easier to reset than
fuses & often provide a lower time lag or none at all.
Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

OSHA’S ELECTRICAL STANDARDS


•  OSHA standards relating to electricity are found in
29 CFR 1910 (Subpart S), extracted from the NEC.
–  The NEC code should be referred to when more detail
is needed than appears in OSHA’s excerpts.
•  Subpart S is divided into two categories of
standards:
–  Design of Electrical Systems.
–  Safety-Related Work Practices.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL SAFETY PROGRAM


•  Some NIOSH strategies for establishing an
electrical safety program:
–  Develop & implement a comprehensive safety program,
revise when necessary & comply with OSHA regulations.
–  Provide all workers with training in identification & control
of hazards associated with electricity in their workplace.
•  Provide periodic retraining as necessary
–  Provide additional specialized training to those working
with or around exposed electric circuit component.
•  Basic electrical theory, safe work procedures, hazard
awareness & identification, proper use of PPE, lockout/tagout,
first aid including CPR, and proper rescue procedures.
–  Conduct safety meetings, and scheduled & unscheduled
safety inspections at work sites
Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

ELECTRICAL SAFETY PROGRAM


•  Some NIOSH strategies for establishing an
electrical safety program:
–  Develop/implement procedures to control hazardous
electrical energy that include lockout/tagout procedures.
•  Ensure that workers follow these procedures.
–  Provide testing/detection equipment for those who work
directly with electrical energy that ensure their safety.
–  Ensure that proper PPE is available and worn by
workers where required.
–  Conduct job hazard analyses of all tasks and implement
measures to insulate/isolate workers from electricity.
–  Identify potential hazards &appropriate safety
interventions during the planning phase of construction or
maintenance.
Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

PREVENTION OF ARC FLASH INJURIES


•  An arc flash is an electrical short-circuit that travels
through air rather than flowing through conductors,
bus bars, and other types of equipment.
–  The uncontrolled energy released by an arc flash
can produce high levels of heat and pressure.
•  Arc flashes are sometimes produced by equipment
malfunctions, but a more common cause is human
contact with an electrical circuit or conductor.
–  Arc flashes can ignite clothing, cause severe burns, and
even damage hearing by the high level of pressure that
can be released by an arc flash.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

PREVENTION OF ARC FLASH INJURIES


•  The best, most obvious way to prevent
arc flash injuries is to de-energize the
equipment and lock
or tag it out before beginning work on
it.
•  Some maintenance/service functions,
such as troubleshooting require the
equipment be energized.
–  When this is the case, consult NFPA’s
Handbook
for Electrical Safety in the Workplace
(NFPA 70E).

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

TRAINING REQUIREMENTS FOR WORKERS


•  OSHA training requirements for all workers are
contained in 29 CFR 1910, and include:
–  Skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed
live parts from other parts of electric equipment.
–  Skills and techniques necessary to determine
the nominal voltage of exposed live parts.
–  Clearance distances and corresponding voltages
to which they will be exposed.

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 17 - Pressure Hazards

Occupational Safety & Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers


END
© 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc.
tab By David L. Goetsch Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458