Sie sind auf Seite 1von 22

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Problem 8.92: Energy Sharing
An object with mass
the other with mass
, initially at rest, explodes into two fragments, one with mass
and
, where
.
Part A
If energy
is released in the explosion, how much kinetic energy does each fragment
have immediately after the collision?
,
, and
. Enter your
=
Correct
Part B
What percentage of the total energy released does each fragment get when fragment
has four times the mass of the other?
20.0,80.0
=
Correct

Problem 8.104

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (1 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

 A 12.0- shell is launched at an angle of 55.0 above the horizontal with an initial speed of 150 . When it is at its highest point, the shell exploded into two fragments, one three times heavier than the other. The two fragments reach the ground at the same time. Assume that air resistance can be ignored. If the heavier fragment lands back at the same point from which the shell was launched, where will the lighter fragment land and how much energy was released in the explosion? Part A ANSWER: 8630 from the launch point = Correct Part B ANSWER: 5.33×105 = Correct

Test Your Understanding 8.1: Momentum and Impulse

Part A

Rank the following situations in order of the magnitude of the impulse of the net force, from largest value to smallest value.

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (2 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

The impulse
of the net force is equal to the average net force
multiplied by the
time interval
during which that force acts:
The impulse of the net force is also equal to the change in momentum of the object
on which the force acts:
The equation
tells us that for a 200-
object whose velocity changes
from 20
west to zero, the magnitude of
is
This value is the same no matter how long it takes the momentum to change.
This same equation tells us that for a 400-
object whose velocity changes from 10
south to 15
south, the magnitude of
is
For a 400-
object whose velocity changes from 20
south to 25
south, the
magnitude of
is
The equation
tells us that if a 300-
net force acts on an object for
15
, the magnitude of
is
This is independent of the mass of the object on which the net force acts.

Exercise 8.40

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (3 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

You and your friends are doing physics experiments on a frozen pond that serves as a

frictionless, horizontal surface. Sam, with mass 77.0

eastward. Abigail, with mass 51.0

collision Sam is moving at 30.0

moving at 22.0

, is given a push and slides

, is sent sliding northward. They collide, and after the

north of east with a speed of 6.80

.

and Abigail is

south of east with a speed of 10.0

 Part A What was the speed of each person before the collision? Sam's speed: ANSWER: 12.0 = Correct Part B Abigail's speed: ANSWER: 1.39 = Correct Part C By how much did the total kinetic energy of the two people decrease during the collision? ANSWER: -1290 = Answer Requested

Exercise 8.41

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (4 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Blocks

surface. Initially, block

are equipped with ideal spring bumpers. The collision is head-on, so all motion before and

after the collision is along a straight line. Let

(mass 4.00

) and

(mass 12.00

) move on a frictionless, horizontal

is moving toward it at 10.0

is at rest and block

. The blocks

.

be the direction of the initial motion of

 Part A Find the maximum energy stored in the spring bumpers and the velocity of each block at that time. Find the maximum energy. ANSWER: = 150 Correct Part B Find the velocity of . ANSWER: = 2.50 All attempts used; correct answer displayed Part C Find the velocity of . ANSWER: = 2.50 Answer Requested Part D Find the velocity of each block after they have moved apart. Find the velocity of . ANSWER: = -5.00 Correct

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (5 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part E

Find the velocity of

.

=

Correct

 Exercise 8.59 A rocket is fired in deep space, where gravity is negligible. In the first second it ejects of its mass as exhaust gas and has an acceleration of 15.1 . Part A What is the speed of the exhaust gas relative to the rocket? ANSWER: = 2.42 Correct
Exercise 8.62
Obviously, we can make rockets to go very fast, but what is a reasonable top speed?
Assume that a rocket is fired from rest at a space station in deep space, where gravity is
negligible.
Part A
If the rocket ejects gas at a relative speed of 1400
and you want the rocket's speed
eventually to be 1.00×10−3
, where
is the speed of light, what fraction of the initial mass
of the rocket and fuel is not fuel?
8.65×10−94
=
Correct
Part B

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (6 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

What is this fraction if the final speed is to be 3900

?

=

6.17×102

Correct

Problem 8.80

A 15.00

swing in a complete circle. Suddenly it is struck horizontally by a 4.00 embeds itself in the lead sphere.

lead sphere is hanging from a hook by a thin wire 3.70

long, and is free to

steel dart that

Part A

What must be the minimum initial speed of the dart so that the combination makes a complete circular loop after the collision?

=

Correct

Problem 8.81

An 8.00

collision by a 2.20

ball, hanging from the ceiling by a light wire 115

ball moving horizontally at 4.50

long, is struck in an elastic

just before the collision.

Part A

Find the tension in the wire just after the collision.

=

Correct

Problem 8.91

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (7 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Jack and Jill are standing on a crate at rest on the frictionless, horizontal surface of a frozen

pond. Jack has a mass of 74.3

of 15.9

from the top of the crate. Just after each jumps, that person is moving away from the crate

with a speed of 4.40

, Jill has a mass of 44.6

, and the crate has a mass

. They remember that they must fetch a pail of water, so each jumps horizontally

relative to the crate.

 Part A What is the final speed of the crate if both Jack and Jill jump simultaneously and in the same direction? (Hint: Use an inertial coordinate system attached to the ground.) ANSWER: = 3.88 Correct Part B What is the final speed of the crate if Jack jumps first and then a few seconds later Jill jumps in the same direction? ANSWER: = 5.67 Answer Requested Part C What is the final speed of the crate if Jill jumps first and then Jack, again in the same direction? ANSWER: = 5.08 Answer Requested

Problem 8.103

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (8 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

A fireworks rocket is fired vertically upward. At its maximum height of 75.0

and breaks into two pieces, one with mass

, it explodes

= 1.45

and the other with mass

= 0.200

. In the explosion, 840

of chemical energy is converted to kinetic energy of

the two fragments.

 Part A What is the speed of each fragment just after the explosion? Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma. ANSWER: , = 11.9,85.9 Correct Part B It is observed that the two fragments hit the ground at the same time. What is the distance between the points on the ground where they land? Assume that the ground is level and air resistance can be ignored. ANSWER: = 382 Correct

Problem 8.112

A rocket is in outer space, far from any planet, when the rocket engine is turned on, the

mass of the rocket as a function of time is

.

Assume that rocket ejects mass with a relative speed of 2400

.

Part A

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (9 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Problem 8.106: Center-of-Mass Coordinate System.

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (10 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

 Puck (mass ) is moving on a frictionless, horizontal air table in the direction with velocity and makes an elastic, head-on collision with puck (mass ), which is initially at rest. After the collision, both pucks are moving along the x-axis. Part A Calculate the velocity of the center of mass of the two-puck system before the collision. Express your answer in terms of the variables , , and . ANSWER: Correct Part B Consider a coordinate system whose origin is at the center of mass and moves with it. Is this an inertial reference frame? ANSWER: yes no Correct Part C What are the initial velocities reference frame? and of the two pucks in this center-of-mass Express your answers in terms of the variables by a comma. , , and , separated ANSWER: = Correct Part D

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (11 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

What is the total momentum in this center-of-mass reference frame?
,
, and
.
0.00×100
Requested
Part E
Use conservation of momentum and energy, applied in the center-of-mass reference
frame, to relate the final momentum of each puck to its initial momentum and thus the final
velocity of each puck to its initial velocity. Your results should show that a one-
dimensional, elastic collision has a very simple description in center-of-mass coordinates.
Part F
Let
= 0.500
,
= 0.200
, and
= 8.00
. Find the center-of-mass
velocities
and
, apply the simple result found in part (d).
2.29,-5.71
,
= All attempts used; correct answer
displayed
Part G
Transform back to velocities in a stationary frame to find the final velocities of the pucks.
3.43,11.4
,
Requested

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

When two hydrogen atoms of mass

, the potential energy of the system after they combine is quantity called the binding energy of the molecule.

combine to form a diatomic hydrogen molecule

, where

is a positive

 Part A Show that in a collision that involves only two hydrogen atoms, it is impossible to form an molecule because momentum and energy cannot simultaneously be conserved. (Hint: If you can show this to be true in one frame of reference, then it is true in all frames of reference. Can you see why?) ANSWER: My Answer: Part B An molecule can be formed in a collision that involves three hydrogen atoms. Suppose that before such a collision, each of the three atoms has speed 3000 approaching at 120 , and they are angles so that at any instant, the atoms lie at the corners of an equilateral triangle. Find the speeds of the molecule and of the single hydrogen atom that remains after the collision. The binding energy of is , and the mass of the hydrogen atom is . Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma. ANSWER: = 1.22×104,2.44×104 Correct

Exercise 10.52

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (13 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

The earth precesses once every 26000 years and spins on its axis once a day.

Part A

Estimate the magnitude of the torque that causes the precession of the earth, take

and

. Make the estimate by assuming (i) the earth

is a uniform sphere and (ii) the precession of the earth is like that of the gyroscope. In this model, the precession axis and rotation axis are perpendicular. Actually, the angle

between these two axes for the earth is only

this affects the calculated torque by

5.39×1022

= All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Problem 10.60: Balancing Act
Attached to one end of a long, thin, uniform rod of length
and mass
is a small blob of
clay of the same mass
.
Part A
Locate the position of the center of mass of the system of rod and clay.
Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables
,
, and
.
=
from the end with the clay
Correct
Part B

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (14 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

 You carefully balance the rod on a frictionless tabletop so that it is standing vertically, with the end without the clay touching the table. If the rod is now tipped so that it is a small angle away from the vertical, determine its angular acceleration at this instant. Assume that the end without the clay remains in contact with the tabletop. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and . ANSWER: = Correct Part C You again balance the rod on the frictionless tabletop so that it is standing vertically, but now the end of the rod with the clay is touching the table. If the rod is again tipped so that it is a small angle away from the vertical, determine its angular acceleration at this instant. Assume that the end with the clay remains in contact with the tabletop. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and . ANSWER: = Correct Part D How does the angular acceleration in part C compare to the angular acceleration in part B? ANSWER: greater smaller equal Part E Correct

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (15 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

A pool cue is a tapered wooden rod that is thick at one end and thin at the other. You can

easily balance a pool cue vertically on one finger if the thin end is in contact with your finger; this is quite a bit harder to do if the thick end is in contact with your finger. Explain why there is a difference.

Exercise 10.41: The spinning figure skater
The outstretched hands and arms of a figure skater preparing for a spin can be considered a
slender rod pivoting about an axis through its center . When his hands and arms are brought
in and wrapped around his body to
execute the spin, the hands and
arms can be considered a thin-
walled hollow cylinder. His hands
and arms have a combined mass 9.0
. When outstretched, they
span 1.7
; when wrapped, they
form a cylinder of radius 23
. The
moment of inertia about the rotation
axis of the remainder of his body is
constant and equal to
.
Part A
If
his original angular speed is 0.50
, what is his final angular speed?
1.5
=
Correct

Exercise 10.45

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (16 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

A small 15.0-

smooth horizontal table. The other end of the bar pivots about a nail driven into the table

and can rotate freely, without friction. The bar has mass 50.0

The bug jumps off in the horizontal direction, perpendicular to the bar, with a speed of 15.0

bug stands at one end of a thin uniform bar that is initially at rest on a

and is 100

in length.

relative to the table.

Part A

What is the angular speed of the bar just after the frisky insect leaps?

=

Correct

Exercise 10.49
The rotor (flywheel) of a toy gyroscope has mass 0.130
. Its moment of inertia about its
axis is
. The mass of the frame is 2.70×10−2
. The gyroscope is
supported on a single pivot with its center of mass a horizontal distance of 4.00 cm from the
pivot. The gyroscope is precessing
in
a horizontal plane at the rate of
one revolution in 2.10
.
Part A
Find the upward force exerted by the pivot.
1.54
=
Correct

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (17 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part B

Find the angular speed with which the rotor is spinning about its axis, expressed in rev/min.

1640

= All attempts used; correct answer displayed

 Problem 10.85 A 4.90 ball is dropped from a height of 14.5 above one end of a uniform bar that pivots at its center. The bar has mass 5.00 and is 5.60 in length. At the other end of the bar sits another 6.00 after the collision. ball, unattached to the bar. The dropped ball sticks to the bar Part A How high will the other ball go after the collision? ANSWER: = 2.20 Answer Requested

Problem 10.86

A uniform rod of mass 3.20×102

a fixed axis through its center and perpendicular to the rod. Two small rings, each with

mass 0.180

catches at positions a distance 4.60×102

the system is rotating at an angular velocity 31.0

system, the catches are released, and the rings slide outward along the rod and fly off at the ends.

rotates in a horizontal plane about

and length 0.430

, are mounted so that they can slide along the rod. They are initially held by

on each side from the center of the rod, and

. Without otherwise changing the

Part A

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (18 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

 What is the angular speed of the system at the instant when the rings reach the ends of the rod? ANSWER: 2.27 = Answer Requested Part B What is the angular speed of the rod after the rings leave it? ANSWER: = 2.27 Correct
Problem 10.91
A 530.0
bird is flying horizontally at 2.50
, not paying much attention, when it
suddenly flies into a stationary vertical bar, hitting it 25.0
below the top (the figure ). The
bar is uniform, 0.780
long, has a
mass of 1.30
, and is hinged at its
base. The collision stuns the bird so
that it just drops to the ground
afterward (but soon recovers to fly
happily away).
Part A

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (19 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

 What is the angular velocity of the bar just after it is hit by the bird? ANSWER: = 2.66 Correct Part B What is the angular velocity of the bar just as it reaches the ground? ANSWER: = 6.69 Correct
Problem 10.92
A small block with mass 0.240
is attached to a string passing through a hole in a
frictionless, horizontal surface (see the figure ). The block is originally revolving in a circle
hole with a tangential speed of 4.10
. The string is then pulled
slowly from below, shortening the
radius of the circle in which the
block revolves. The breaking
strength of the string is 25.0
.
Part A
What is the radius of the circle when the string breaks?
0.453
Correct m

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (20 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

 Problem 10.93 A horizontal plywood disk with mass 7.20 and diameter 1.10 pivots on frictionless bearings about a vertical axis through its center. You attach a circular model-railroad track of negligible mass and average diameter 1.01 to the disk. A 1.30 , battery-driven model train rests on the tracks. To demonstrate conservation of angular momentum, you switch on the train's engine. The train moves counterclockwise, soon attaining a constant speed of 0.600 relative to the tracks. Part A Find the magnitude and direction of the angular velocity of the disk relative to the earth. ANSWER: 0.277 = All attempts used; correct answer displayed Part B ANSWER: counterclockwise clockwise Correct

Exercise 10.47

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (21 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

A
thin, uniform, metal bar, 2
long and weighing 80
ceiling by a frictionless pivot. Suddenly it is struck 1.3
, is hanging vertically from the
below the ceiling by a small 3-kg
ball, initially traveling horizontally at 11
. The ball rebounds in the opposite direction with
a
speed of 6
.
 Part A Find the angular speed of the bar just after the collision. ANSWER: = 6.09 Correct Part B During the collision, why is the angular momentum conserved but not the linear momentum? ANSWER: My Answer:

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1471642 (22 of 22) [12/13/2010 7:17:08 PM]