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2002 Basic Education Curriculum

Secondary Level

Department of Education
BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
DepEd Complex, Meralco Ave., Pasig City
INTRODUCTION

This Handbook aims to provide the general public – parents, students,


researchers, and other stakeholders – an overview of the Mathematics program at the
secondary level. Those in education, however, may use it as a reference for
implementing the 2002 secondary education curriculum, or as a source document to
inform policy and guide practice.

For quick reference, the Handbook is outlined as follows:

∗ The description defines the focus and the emphasis of the learning area as
well as the language of instruction used.

∗ The unit credit indicates the number of units assigned to a learning area
computed on a 40-minute per unit credit basis and which shall be used to
evaluate a student’s promotion to the next year level.

∗ The time allotment specifies the number of minutes allocated to a learning


area on a daily (or weekly, as the case may be) basis.

∗ The expectancies refer to the general competencies that the learners are
expected to demonstrate at the end of each year level.

∗ The scope and sequence outlines the content, or the coverage of the learning
area in terms of concepts or themes, as the case may be.

∗ The suggested strategies are those that are typically employed to develop the
content, build skills, and integrate learning.

∗ The materials include those that have been approved for classroom use. The
application of information and communication technology is encouraged,
where available.

∗ The grading system specifies how learning outcomes shall be evaluated and
the aspects of student performance which shall be rated.

∗ The learning competencies are the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values
that the students are expected to develop or acquire during the teaching-
learning situations.

∗ Lastly, sample lesson plans are provided to illustrate the mode of integration,
where appropriate, the application of life skills and higher order thinking skills,
the valuing process and the differentiated activities to address the learning
needs of students.

The Handbook is designed as a practical guide and is not intended to structure


the operationalization of the curriculum or impose restrictions on how the curriculum
shall be implemented. Decisions on how best to teach and how learning outcomes can
be achieved most successfully rest with the school principals and teachers. They know
the direction they need to take and how best to get there.

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DESCRIPTION

First Year is Elementary Algebra. It deals with life situations and problems
involving measurement, real number system, algebraic expressions, first degree
equations and inequalities in one variable, linear equations in two variables, special
products and factoring.

Second Year is Intermediate Algebra. It deals with systems of linear equations


and inequalities, quadratic equations, rational algebraic expressions, variation,
integral exponents, radical expressions, and searching for patterns in sequences
(arithmetic, geometric, etc) as applied in real-life situations.

Third Year is Geometry. It deals with the practical application to life of the
geometry of shape and size, geometric relations, triangle congruence, properties of
quadrilaterals, similarity, circles, and plane coordinate geometry.

Fourth Year is still the existing integrated ( algebra, geometry, statistics and a
unit of trigonometry) spiral mathematics but in school year 2003-2004 the graduating
students have the option to take up either Business Mathematics and Statistics or
Trigonometry and Advanced Algebra.

UNIT CREDIT/Time Allotment


See DepEd Order No. 37, s. 2003, “ Revised Implementing Guidelines of the 2003
Secondary Education Curriculum Effective School 2003-2004”

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SCOPE AND SEQUENCE

Elementary Algebra (First Year)

1. Measurement
2. Real Number system
3. Algebraic Expressions
4. First Degree Equations and Inequalities in One Variable
5. Linear Equations in Two Variables
6. Special Products and Factors

Intermediate Algebra (Second Year)

1. Systems of Linear Equations and Inequalities


2. Quadratic Equations
3. Rational Algebraic Expressions
4. Variation
5. Integral Exponents
6. Radical Expressions
7. Searching for Patterns in Sequences: Arithmetic, Geometry,etc.

Geometry (Third Year)

1. Geometry of Shape and Size


2. Geometric Relations
3. Triangle Congruence
4. Properties of Quadrilaterals
5. Similarity
6. Circles
7. Plane Coordinate Geometry

Advance Algebra, Trigonometry & Statistics (Fourth Year)

1. Functions
2. Linear Functions
3. Quadratic Functions
4. Polynomial Functions
5. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
6. Circular Functions and Trigonometry
7. Triangle Trigonometry
8. Statistics

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SUGGESTED STRATEGIES AND MATERIALS

Strategies in mathematics teaching include discussion, practical work,


practice and consolidation, problem solving, mathematical investigation and
cooperative learning.

Discussion

• It is more than the short question and answer which arise during
exposition
• It takes place between teacher and students or between students
themselves.

Practical Work

• More student-centered activities


• Teacher acts as facilitator
• Concretizes abstract concepts
• Develops students' confidence to discover solutions to problems

Practice and Consolidation

• Develops mastery of a particular concept which is needed in


problem solving and investigation

Problem Solving

• Process of applying mathematics in the real world


• Involves the exploration of the solution to a given situation
Mathematical Investigation

• An open-ended problem solving


• It involves the exploration of a mathematical situation, making
conjectures and reason logically

Cooperative Learning

• Members are encouraged to work as a team in exchanging ideas,


successes and failures.

Materials include DepEd approved textbooks and lesson plans.


Features of the lesson plans are:

• Application of higher order thinking skills


• Integration of values education

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• Provision of teaching-learning activities that address multiple
intelligences
• Use of cooperative learning strategies

GRADING SYSTEM
See DepEd Order No. 37, s. 2003, “ Revised Implementing Guidelines of the 2003
Secondary Education Curriculum Effective School 2003-2004”

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DETAILED LISTING OF LEARNING COMPETENCIES

HIGH SCHOOL MATHEMATICS

Elementary Algebra (1st year High School)

A. Measurement

1. illustrate the development of measurement from the primitive to the


present international system of units

2. use instruments to measure length, weight, volume, temperature, time,


angle

3. express relationships between two quantities using ratios

4. convert measurements from one unit to another

5. round off measurements; round off numbers to a given place (e.g.


nearest ten, nearest tenth)

6. solve problems involving measurement

B. Real Number System

1. describe the real number system: natural numbers, whole numbers,


integers, rational numbers, irrational numbers, real numbers

1.1 review operations on whole numbers

1.2 describe opposite quantities in real life; illustrate integers on


the number line; use integers to describe positive or negative
quantities

1.3 visualize integers and their order on a number line; represent


movement along the number line using integers

1.4 arrange integers in increasing/decreasing order

1.5 define the absolute value of a number on a number line as


distance from the origin.

1.6 determine the absolute value of a number; solve simple absolute


value equations using the number line

1.7 perform fundamental operations on integers: addition,


subtraction, multiplication, division; state and illustrate the

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different properties (commutative, associative, distributive,
identity, inverse)

1.8 define rational numbers; translate rational numbers (both


terminating and repeating/non-terminating) from fraction form
to decimal form and vice versa

1.9 arrange rational numbers in increasing/decreasing order

1.10 review simplification of and operations on fractions

1.11 review operations on decimals

square roots of positive rational numbers

2.1 define the square root of a rational number; approximate the


square root of a positive rational number

2.2 identify square roots which are rational and which are not
rational (irrational numbers)

2.3 if the square root of a number is not rational, determine two


integers or rational numbers between which it lies

give examples of other irrational numbers

use knowledge related to signed numbers and square roots in


problem-solving

C. Algebraic Expressions

1. define constants, variables, algebraic expressions

2. simplify numerical expressions involving exponents and grouping


symbols

3. translate verbal phrases to mathematical expressions and vice


versa

4. evaluate mathematical expressions for given values for the


variable(s) involved

5. define monomials, binomials, trinomials and multinomials and


illustrate these

6. simplify monomials using the laws on exponents

6.1 identify monomials; identify the base, coefficient and


exponent in a monomial

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6.2 laws on exponents

• a man = am+ n
• (ab )m = a mbm
• (a )
m n
= a mn
m
⎛a⎞ am
• ⎜ ⎟ = m
⎝b⎠ b
am
• = am−n
an
where m – n is a positive number if m > n.
m – n is a negative number if m < n.

6.3 simplify and perform operations on monomials


6.4 express numbers in scientific notation
7. define polynomials; classify algebraic expressions as polynomials
and non-polynomials
8. perform operations on polynomials

8.1 addition and subtraction

8.2 multiplication : polynomial by a monomial

8.3 multiplication : polynomial by another polynomial

8.4 division : polynomial by a monomial

division : polynomial by a polynomial


9. problem solving involving polynomials

D. First Degree Equations and Inequalities In One Variable

1. introduce first degree equations and inequalities in one variable

1.1 distinguish between mathematical phrases and sentences

1.2 distinguish between expressions and equations

1.3 distinguish between equations and inequalities

2. translate verbal statements involving general or unknown


quantities to equations and inequalities and vice versa

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3. define first degree equations and inequalities in one variable

3.1 define the solution set of a first degree equation or


inequality

3.2 illustrate the solution set of equations and inequalities in


one variable on the number line

3.3 find the solution set of simple equations and inequalities in


one variable from a given replacement set

3.4 find the solution set of simple equations and inequalities in


one variable by inspection
4. review the basic properties of real numbers; state and illustrate
the different properties of equality

5. determine the solution set of first degree equations in one


variable by applying the properties of equality

6. determine the solution set of first degree inequalities in one


variable by applying the properties of inequality; visualize
solutions of simple mathematical inequalities on a number line

7. solve problems using first degree equations and inequalities in


one variable (e.g. relations among numbers, geometry,
business, uniform motion, money problems,etc.)

E. Linear Equations in Two Variables

1. describe the Cartesian Coordinate Plane (x-axis, y-axis,


quadrant, origin)
2. describe points plotted on the Cartesian Coordinate Plane; plot
points on the Cartesian Coordinate Plane

2.1 given a point on the coordinate plane, give its coordinates

2.2 given a pair of coordinates, plot the point

2.3 given the coordinates of a point, determine the quadrant


where it is located

3. define a linear equation in two variables: Ax+By=C.

3.1 construct a table of values for x and y given a linear


equation in two variables, Ax+By=C

3.2 draw the graph of Ax+By=C based on a table of values for


x and y

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3.3 define x and y intercepts, slope, domain, range

3.4 determine the following properties of the graph of a linear


equation
Ax + By = C :

• intercepts
• trend (increasing or decreasing)
• domain
• range
• slope

4. given a linear equation Ax + By = C, rewrite in the form y = mx


+ b, and vice versa

4.1 draw the graph of a linear equation in two variables


described by an equation using

• the intercepts
• any two points
• the slope and a given point

4.2 determine whether the graph of Ax+ By = C is increasing or


decreasing

4.3 obtain the equation of a line given the following:

• the intercepts
• any two points
• the slope and a point

4.4 use linear equations in two variables to solve problems

ENRICHMENT FOR LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES:

5. define an absolute value equation y = x

5.1 review the meaning of the absolute value of a number


5.2 construct a table of ordered pairs and draw the graphs of
the following:

• y= x
• y= x +b
• y= x -b
• y = x+b
• y = x−b

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• y = x+b + c

F. Special Products and Factoring

1. review multiplication of polynomials

1.1 monomial by polynomial – using the distributive property


1.2 binomial by binomial – using the distributive property, using the
FOIL method

2. identify special products

• polynomials whose terms have a common monomial factor


• trinomials which are products of two binomials
• trinomials which are squares of a binomial
• products of the sum and difference of two quantities
( x 2 − y 2 , x3 + y 3 , x3 − y 3 )

3. factor polynomials

• polynomials whose terms have a common monomial factor


• trinomials which are products of two binomials
• trinomials which are squares of a binomial
• products of the sum and difference of two quantities
( x 2 − y 2 , x3 + y 3 , x3 − y 3 )

4. given a polynomial, factor completely

ENRICHMENT FOR SPECIAL PRODUCTS AND FACTORING

5. use special products and factoring to solve problems

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Intermediate Algebra (2nd year High School)

A. Systems of Linear Equations and Inequalities

1. review the Cartesian Coordinate System

2. review graphs of linear equations in two variables

3. define a system of linear equations in two variables

4. solve systems of linear equations in two variables

4.1 given a pair of linear equations in two variables, identify those whose
graphs are parallel, those that intersect, and those that coincide

4.2 given a system of linear equations in two variables find the solution of the
system graphically (i.e. by drawing the graphs and obtaining the
coordinates of the intersection point)

4.3 given a system of linear equations in two variables, determine whether or


not their graphs intersect, and if they do, find the solution of the system
algebraically

• by elimination
• by substitution

5. use systems of linear equations to solve problems (e.g. number relations,


uniform motion, geometric relations, mixture, investment, work)

6. review the definition of inequalities; define a system of linear inequalities

6.1 translate certain situations in real life to linear inequalities

6.2 draw the graph of a linear inequality in two variables

6.3 represent the solution set of a system of linear inequalities by graphing

B. Quadratic Equations

1. define a quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 ; distinguish a quadratic equation


from a linear equation

2. find the solution set of a quadratic equation

2.1 review the definition of solution set of an equation; define “root of an


equation”

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2.2 determine the solution set of a quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 by
algebraic methods:

• factoring
• quadratic formula
• completing the square

2.3 derive the quadratic formula

3. solve rational equations which can be reduced to quadratic equations

4. use quadratic equations to solve problems

C. Rational Algebraic Expressions

1. review simplification of fractions including complex fractions; review operations


on fractions

2. define a rational algebraic expression; domain of a rational algebraic


expression; identify rational algebraic expressions; translate verbal
expressions into rational algebraic expressions

3. simplify rational algebraic expressions(reduce to lowest terms)

4. add and subtract rational algebraic expressions

4.1 find the least common denominator

4.2 change two or more rational expressions with unlike denominators to


those with like denominators

4.3 simplify results

5. multiply and divide rational algebraic expressions

6. simplify complex fractions

7. solve rational equations

7.1 check for extraneous solutions

8. solve problems involving rational algebraic expressions

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D. Variation

1. define the following:

• direct variation
• direct square variation
• inverse variation
• joint variation

2. identify relationships between two quantities in real life that are direct
variations, direct square variations, inverse square variations or joint
variations

3. translate statements that describe relationships between two quantities using


the following expressions to a table of values, a mathematical equation, or a
graph, and vice versa

• “_____ is directly proportional to _____”


• “_____ is inversely proportional to _____”
• “_____ varies directly as _____”
• “_____ varies directly as the square of _____”
• “_____ varies inversely as _____”

4. solve problems on direct variation, direct square variation, inverse variation


and joint variation

E. Integral Exponents

1. review concepts related to positive integer exponents

• the meaning of ax when x is a positive integer


• laws on exponents
• multiplying and dividing expressions with positive integral exponents

2. demonstrate understanding of expressions with zero and negative exponents

2.1 give the meaning of ax when x is 0 or a negative integer

2.2 evaluate numerical expressions involving negative and zero exponents

2.3 rewrite algebraic expressions with zero and negative exponents

2.4 use laws of exponents to simplify algebraic expressions containing


integral exponents

3. review the use of scientific notation

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4. solve problems involving expressions with exponents

F. Radical Expressions

1. review roots of numbers

1.1 identify expressions which are perfect squares or perfect cubes, and find
their square root or cube root respectively

1.2 given a number in the form n x where x is not a perfect nth root, name
two rational numbers between which it lies

2. demonstrate understanding of expressions with rational exponents

2.1 use laws of exponents to simplify expressions containing rational


exponents

2.2 rewrite expressions with rational exponents as radical expressions and


vice versa

3. simplify radical expressions

3.1 identify the radicand and index in a radical expression

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3.2 simplify the radical expression x in such a way that the radicand
contains no perfect nth root

3.3 rationalize a fraction whose denominator contains square roots

4. add and subtract radical expressions

5. multiply and divide radical expressions

6. solve radical equations

7. solve problems involving radical equations

G. Searching for Patterns in Sequences, Arithmetic, Geometric and Others

1. demonstrate understanding of a sequence

1.1 list the next few terms of a sequence given several consecutive terms
1.2 derive, by pattern-searching, a mathematical expression (rule) for
generating the sequence

2. demonstrate understanding of an arithmetic sequence

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2.1 define and give examples of an arithmetic sequence

2.2 describe an arithmetic sequence by any of the following ways:

• giving the first few terms


• giving the formula for the nth term
• drawing the graph

2.3 derive the formula for the nth term of an arithmetic sequence

2.3.1 given the first few terms of an arithmetic sequence, find the common
difference and the nth term for a specified n

2.3.2 given two terms of an arithmetic sequence, find: the first term;
the common difference or a specified nth term

2.4 derive the formula for the sum of the n terms of an arithmetic sequence

2.5 define an arithmetic mean; solve problems involving arithmetic means

2.6 solve problems involving arithmetic sequences

3. demonstrate understanding of a geometric sequence

3.1 define and give examples of a geometric sequence

3.2 describe a geometric sequence in any of the following ways:

• giving the first few terms of the sequence


• giving the formula for the nth term
• drawing the graph

3.3 derive the formula for the nth term of a geometric sequence

3.3.1 given the first few terms of a geometric sequence, find the common
ratio and the nth term for a specified n

3.3.2 given two specified terms of a geometric sequence, find: the first
term; the common ratio or a specified nth term

3.4 derive the formula for the sum of the terms of a geometric sequence

3.5 derive the formula for an infinite geometric series

3.6 define a geometric mean; solve problems involving geometric means

3.7 solve problems involving geometric sequences

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4. define a harmonic sequence, harmonic series, and harmonic mean

4.6 illustrate a harmonic sequence and determine the sum of the first n terms

4.7 determine the harmonic mean of two numbers

4.8 solve problems involving harmonic sequences

5. introduce the Fibonacci sequence; define and illustrate the Fibonacci


sequence

6. introduce the Binomial Theorem

6.6 state and illustrate the Binomial Theorem

6.7 state and apply the formula for determining the coefficients of the terms in
the expansion of (a + b ) .
n

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Geometry (3rd Year High School)

A. Geometry of Shape and Size

1. Undefined Terms

1.1 describe the ideas of point, line, and plane


1.2 define, identify, and name the subsets of a line

• segment
• ray

2. Angles

2.1 illustrate, name, identify and define an angle


2.2 name and identify the parts of an angle
2.3 read or determine the measure of an angle using a protractor
2.4 illustrate, name, identify and define different kinds of angles

• acute
• right
• obtuse
3. Polygons

3.1 illustrate, identify, and define different kinds of polygons according to the
number of sides

• illustrate and identify convex and non-convex polygons


• identify the parts of a regular polygon (vertex angle, central angle,
exterior angle)

3.2 illustrate, name and identify a triangle and its basic and secondary parts
(e.g., vertices, sides, angles, median, angle bisector, altitude)

3.3 illustrate, name and identify different kinds of triangles and their parts
(e.g., legs, base, hypotenuse)

• classify triangles according to their angles and according to their


sides

3.4 illustrate, name and define a quadrilateral and its parts


3.5 illustrate, name and identify the different kinds of quadrilaterals
3.6 determine the sum of the measures of the interior and exterior angles of
a polygon
• sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180
• sum of the measures of the exterior angles of a quadrilateral is 360

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• sum of the measures of the interior angles of a quadrilateral is
• (n – 2)180
4. Circle

4.1 define a circle


4.2 illustrate, name, identify, and define the terms related to the circle (radius,
diameter and chord)

5. Measurements

5.1 identify the following common solids and their parts: cone, pyramid,
sphere, cylinder, rectangular prism)

5.2 state and apply the formulas for the measurements of plane and solid
figures

• Perimeter of a triangle, square, and rectangle


• Circumference of a circle
• Area of a triangle, square, parallelogram, trapezoid, and circle
• Surface area of a cube, rectangular prism, square pyramid,
cylinder, cone, and a sphere
• Volume of a rectangular prism, triangular prism, pyramid, cylinder,
cone, and a sphere

5.3 solve problems involving plane and solid figures

B. Geometric Relations

1. Relations involving Segments and Angles

1.1 illustrate and define betweeness and collinearity of points


1.2 illustrate, identify and define congruent segments
1.3 illustrate, identify and define the midpoint of a segment
1.4 illustrate, identify and define the bisector of an angle
1.5 illustrate, identify and define the different kinds of angle pairs

• supplementary
• complementary
• congruent
• adjacent
• linear pair
• vertical angles

1.6 illustrate, identify and define perpendicularity


1.7 illustrate and identify the perpendicular bisector of a segment

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2. Angles and Sides of a Triangle

2.1 derive/apply relationships among the sides and angles of a triangle

• Exterior and corresponding remote interior angles of a


triangle
• Triangle inequality
3. Angles formed by Parallel Lines cut by a Transversal

3.1 illustrate and define Parallel Lines


3.2 illustrate and define a Transversal
3.3 identify the angles formed by parallel lines cut by a transversal
3.4 determine the relationship between pairs of angles formed by parallel
lines cut by a transversal

• alternate interior angles


• alternate exterior angles
• corresponding angles
• angles on the same side of the transversal

4. Problem Solving involving the Relationships between Segments and


between Angles

4.1 Solve problems using the definitions and properties involving


relationships between segments and between angles

C. Triangle Congruence

1. Conditions for Triangle Congruence

1.1 Define and illustrate congruent triangles


1.2 State and apply the Properties of Congruence

• Reflexive Property
• Symmetric Property
• Transitive Property

1.3 Use inductive skills to establish the conditions or correspondence


sufficient to guarantee congruence between triangles
1.4 Apply deductive skills to show congruence between triangles

• SSS Congruence
• SAS Congruence
• ASA Congruence
• SAA Congruence

2. Applying the Conditions for Triangle Congruence

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2.1 Prove congruence and inequality properties in an isosceles triangle using
the congruence conditions in 1.3

• Congruent sides in a triangle imply that the angles opposite them


are congruent
• Congruent angles in a triangle imply that the sides opposite them
are congruent
• Non-congruent sides in a triangle imply that the angles opposite
them are not congruent
• Non-congruent angles in a triangle imply that the sides opposite
them are not congruent

2.2 Use the definition of congruent triangles and the conditions for triangle
congruence to prove congruent segments and congruent angles between
two triangles
2.3 Solve routine and non-routine problems

Enrichment

Apply inductive and deductive skills to derive other conditions for congruence
between two right triangles

• LL Congruence
• LA Congruence
• HyL Congruence
• HyA Congruence

D. Properties of Quadrilaterals

1. Different type of Quadrilaterals and their Properties

1.1 recall previous knowledge on the different kinds of quadrilaterals and


their properties (square, rectangle, rhombus, trapezoid, parallelogram)

1.2 apply inductive and deductive skills to derive certain properties of the
trapezoid

• median of a trapezoid
• base angles and diagonals of an isosceles trapezoid
1.3 apply inductive and deductive skills to derive the properties of a
parallelogram

• each diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles


• opposite angles are congruent
• non-opposite angles are supplementary

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• opposite sides are congruent
• diagonals bisect each other
1.4 apply inductive and deductive skills to derive the properties of the
diagonals of special quadrilaterals

• diagonals of a rectangle
• diagonals of a square
• diagonals of a rhombus
2 Conditions that Guarantee that a Quadrilateral is a Parallelogram

2.1 verify sets of sufficient conditions which guarantee that a quadrilateral is


a parallelogram
2.2 apply the conditions to prove that a quadrilateral is a parallelogram
2.3 apply the properties of quadrilaterals and the conditions for a
parallelogram to solve problems

Enrichment

Apply inductive and deductive skills to discover certain properties of the Kite

E. Similarity

1. Ratio and Proportion

1.1 state and apply the definition of a ratio


1.2 define a proportion and identify its parts
1.3 state and apply the fundamental law of proportion

• Product of the means is equal to the product of the extremes

1.4 define and identify proportional segments


1.5 apply the definition of proportional segments to find unknown lengths

2. Proportionality Theorems

2.1 state and verify the Basic Proportionality Theorem and its Converse

3. Similarity between Triangles

3.6 define similar figures


3.7 define similar polygons
3.8 define similar triangles
3.9 apply the definition of similar triangles

• determining if two triangles are similar


• finding the length of a side or measure of an angle of a triangle

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3.5 state and verify the Similarity Theorems
3.6 apply the properties of similar triangles and the proportionality
theorems to calculate lengths of certain line segments, and to arrive at
other properties

4. Similarities in a Right Triangle

4.1 apply the AA Similarity Theorem to determine similarities in a right


triangle

• in a right triangle the altitude to the hypotenuse divides it into two


right triangles which are similar to each other and to the given right
triangle

4.2 derive the relationships between the sides of an isosceles triangle and
between the sides of a 30-60-90 triangle using the Pythagorean Theorem

Enrichment

State and verify consequences of the Basic Proportionality Theorem

• parallel lines cut by two or more transversals make proportional


segments
• bisector of an angle of a triangle separates the opposite side into
segments whose lengths are proportional to the lengths of the other 2
sides

State, verify and apply the ratio between the perimeters and areas of similar
triangle

Apply the definition of similar triangles to derive the Pythagorean Theorem

• If a triangle is a right triangle, then the square of the hypotenuse is


equal to the sum of the squares of the legs

6.Word Problems involving Similarity

6.1 apply knowledge and skills related to similar triangles to word problems

F. Circles

1. The circle

1.1 recall the definition of a circle and the terms related to it

• radius
• diameter
• chord

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• secant
• tangent
• interior and exterior
2. Arcs and Angles

2.1 define and identify a central angle


2.2 define and identify a minor and major arc of a circle
2.3 determine the degree measure of an arc of a circle
2.4 define and identify an inscribed angle
2.5 determine the measure of an inscribed angle

3. Tangent Lines and Tangent Circles

3.1 State and apply the properties of a line tangent to a circle

• If a line is tangent to a circle, then it is perpendicular to the radius


drawn to the point of tangency
• If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a circle,
then the two segments are congruent

4. Angles formed by Tangent and Secant Lines

4.1 Determine the measure of the angle formed by the following:

• Two tangent lines


• A tangent line and a secant line
• Two secant lines

Enrichment

Illustrate and identify externally and internally tangent circles


Illustrate and identify a common internal tangent or a common external tangent

Geometric Constructions

• Duplicate or copy a segment


• Duplicate or copy an angle
• Construct the perpendicular bisector and the midpoint of a segment
Derive the Perpendicular Bisector Theorem
• Construct the perpendicular to a line
From a point on the line
From a point not on the line
• Construct the bisector of an angle
• Construct parallel lines
• Perform construction exercises using the constructions in 4.1 to 4.6

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• Use construction to derive some other geometric properties (e.g.,
shortest distance from an external point to a line, points on the angle
bisector are equidistant from the sides of the angle)

G. Plane Coordinate Geometry

1. Review of the Cartesian Coordinate System, Linear Equations and Systems


of Linear Equations in 2 Variables

1.1 name the parts of a Cartesian Plane


1.2 represent ordered pairs on the Cartesian Plane and denote points on the
Cartesian Plane
1.3 define the slope of a line and compute for the slope given the graph of a
line
1.4 define a Linear Equation
1.5 define the y-intercept
1.6 derive the equation of a line given two points of the line

1.7 determine algebraically the point of intersection of two lines


1.8 state and apply the definitions of Parallel and Perpendicular Lines

2. Coordinate Geometry

2.1 Derive and state the Distance Formula using the Pythagorean Theorem
2.2 Derive and state the Midpoint Formula
2.3 Apply the Distance and Midpoint Formulas to find or verify the lengths of
segments and find unknown vertices or points
2.4 Verify properties of triangles and quadrilaterals using coordinate proof

3. Circles in the Coordinate Plane

3.1 derive/state the standard form of the equation of a circle with radius r and
center at (0,0) and at (h,k)
3.2 given the equation of a circle, find its center and radius

3.3 determine the equation of a circle given:

• its center and radius


• its radius and the point of tangency with a given line

3.4 solve routine and non-routine problems involving circles

26
Advanced Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics (4th Year High School)

A. Functions

1. Recall the Cartesian coordinate plane; describe points in a Cartesian


coordinate plane.

2. Define a function and demonstrate understanding of the definition.

3. Given some real life relationships, identify those which are functions (e.g. the
rule which assigns to each person his birth month) and those which are mere
relations (e.g. the rule which assigns to each month the person having that as
birth month).

4. Determine whether a given set of ordered pairs is a function or a mere relation

5. Draw a graph of a given set of ordered pairs; determine whether the graph
represents a function or a mere relation.

6. Use the vertical line test to determine whether a given graph represents a
function or a mere relation.

7. Illustrate the meaning of the functional notation f(x); determine the value of
f(x) given a value for x.

Enrichment:

8. Determine whether a given equation in two variables represents a function or


a mere relation.

B. Linear Functions

1. Define the linear function f(x) = mx + b; given a linear function Ax + By = C,


rewrite in the form f(x) = mx + b and vice versa.

2. Draw the graph of a linear function given the following:

• any two points


• slope and one point
• slope and the y-intercept
• x and y intercepts

27
3. Given f(x) = mx + b, determine the following:

• x and y intercepts
• slope
• some points
• trend: increasing or decreasing

4. Determine f(x) = mx + b given:

• x and y intercepts
• any two points
• slope and one point
• slope and y-intercept

5. Apply knowledge and skills related to linear functions in solving problems.

C. Quadratic Functions

1. Define a quadratic function f(x) = ax2 + bx + c; identify quadratic functions.

2. Rewrite a quadratic function ax2 + bx + c in the form f(x) = a(x - h)2 + k and
vice versa.

3. Given a quadratic function, determine:

• highest or lowest point (vertex)


• axis of symmetry
• direction of opening of the graph

4. Draw the graph of a quadratic function using the vertex, axis of symmetry, and
assignment of points.

5. Analyze the effects on the graph of changes in a, h and k in f(x) = a(x-h)2 + k

6. Determine the "zeros of a quadratic function" by relating this to "roots of a


quadratic equation” review finding the roots of a quadratic equation using the
following algebraic procedures:

• factoring
• quadratic formula
• completing the square

review the derivation of the quadratic formula

7. Derive a quadratic function given the zeros of the function or given a set of
points from the graph of a given function.

28
8. Apply knowledge and skills related to quadratic functions and equations in
problem solving.

Enrichment:

9. Use the graph of a quadratic function to solve a quadratic inequality

10. Given the quadratic function f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, determine the nature of the
zeros (i.e. real, non-real, non-district)

D. Polynomial Functions

1. Review the definition of polynomials; identify polynomials from a list of


algebraic expressions.

2. Define a polynomial function as p(x) = a1xn + a2xn-1 + a3xn-2 + … + an-1x + a0;


identify a polynomial function from a given set of functions; determine the
degree of a given polynomial function, determine the number of terms in a
given polynomial function.

3. Review division of polynomials by divisors of the form x-c; illustrate the


process of synthetic division; find by synthetic division the quotient and the
remainder when p(x) is divided by (x-c).

4. State and illustrate the Remainder Theorem.

5. Use synthetic division and the Remainder Theorem to find the value of p(x) for
x=k

6. State and illustrate the Factor Theorem.

7. Use the Factor Theorem, factoring techniques, synthetic division and the
depressed equations to find the zeros of polynomial functions of degree
greater than 2.

8. Draw the graph of polynomial functions of degree greater than 2.

Enrichment

9. Prove the Remainder and Factor Theorems.

10. Use the graph of a polynomial functions to solve a polynomial inequality.

11. State the Rational Zero Theorem and use it to find the zeros of a polynomial
function with rational zeros.

29
E. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

1. Identify certain relationships in real life which are exponential (e.g. population
growth over time, growth of bacteria over time, etc.)

2. Define the exponential function f(x) = ax and differentiate it from other


functions studied earlier; given a table of ordered pairs, state whether the
trend is exponential or not.

3. Draw the graph of an exponential function f(x) = ax and describe some


properties of the function or its graph.

• a>1
• 0<a<1

4. State the domain, range, intercepts and trend (increasing and decreasing) of
a given exponential function based on its graph.

5. Review the laws on exponents; illustrate how the zero of an exponential


function may be determined; use the laws on exponents to find the zeros of
exponential functions or solve exponential equations.

6. Define inverse functions; determine the inverse of a given functions;

7. Define the logarithmic function f(x) = loga x as the inverse of the exponential
function f(x) = ax

8. Draw the graph of the logarithmic function f(x) = loga x and describe some
properties of the logarithmic function from its graph.

9. State the laws for logarithms; and apply the laws for logarithms

10. Solve simple logarithmic equations

Enrichment

11. Draw the graph of other exponential functions like f(x) = bax and f(x) = ax+c
and compare these to the graph of f(x) = ax

12. Given an exponential growth or decay phenomenon, determine the rate of


increase or decrease.

13. Apply knowledge and skills related to exponential and logarithmic functions
and equations in problem solving.

30
F. Circular Functions and Trigonometry

1. Define the unit circle; degree measure of an angle; radian measure of an


angle; convert from degree to radian and vice versa.

2. Illustrate angles in standard position (i.e. initial side coincident with the
positive x-axis); illustrate coterminal angles and reference angles.

3. Visualize rotations along the unit circle and relate these to angle measures

• measures of length of an arc


• clockwise or counterclockwise directions
• measures beyond 360o or 2∏ radians

4. Given a unit circle and an angle in standard position, determine the


coordinates of the point of intersection of the unit circle and the terminal side.

4.1 when one coordinate is given (apply the Pythagorean Theorem and the
properties of special right triangles)
4.2 when the angle is of the form:

• 1800n + 300
• 1800n + 600
• 1800n + 450
• 900n

5. Define the sine functions; state the sine of an angle (for special values)

6. Define the cosine functions; state the cosine of an angle (for special values)

7. Find the values of the sine and cosine of an angle by:

• using a scientific calculator, if available


• using a trigonometric table

8. Define the tangent function; state the tangent of an angle (for special values)

9. State the fundamental trigonometric identities and use this to prove other
identities

9.1 state and illustrate the sum and difference formulas of sine and cosine
9.2 determine the sine and cosine of an angle using the sum and difference
formulas

10. Solve simple trigonometric equations

Enrichment

31
11. Graph the sine and cosine functions - 2 Π ≤ 2 ≤ 2 Π or - 3600 ≤ 2 ≤ 3600

12. Describe the properties of the graphs of the sine and cosine functions.

13. Graph the sine and cosine functions of the form y = a sin x and y = b cos x

14. Graph the tangent functions where - 2 Π ≤ 2 ≤ 2 Π or - 3600 ≤ 2 ≤ 3600

15. Define the six trigonometric functions of an angle in standard position.

16. Find the values of six trigonometric functions of an angle θ, given some
conditions

G. Triangle Trigonometry

1. Solve problems involving right triangles.

2. Solve problems involving right triangles using Law of Sines.

3. Solve problems involving right triangles using Law of Cosines.

4. Apply knowledge and skills related to Trigonometry in problem solving.

H. Statistics

1. Define statistics and statistical terms such as sample and population; give the
history and importance of the study of statistics.

2. Collect statistical data and organize in a table.

2.1 state and explain the different sampling techniques

3. Analyze, interpret accurately and draw conclusions from graphic and tabular
presentations of statistical data.

4. Read and understand tables and graphs containing statistical data

4.1 construct frequency distribution tables

5. Find the mean, median and mode of given data: grouped and ungrouped
data

5.1 use the rules of summation to find sums


5.2 find the arithmetic and mean: ungrouped and grouped data
5.3 Find the median: ungrouped and grouped data
5.4 Find the mode: ungrouped and grouped data

32
6. Calculate the different measures of variability relative to a given set of data,
grouped and ungrouped

(a) range
(b) standard deviation

6.1 give the characteristics of a set of data using the measures of variability

33
Math I : Linear Equations in Two Variables

Competency E1. describe the Cartesian Coordinate Plane (x-axis, y-axis, quadrant,
origin)

Time Frame: 2 Sessions

Objectives:

At the end of the sessions, the students must be able to:

1. describe the Cartesian coordinate plane

2. given a point, describe its distance from the x or y axis

3. given a point on the coordinate plane, give its coordinates

4. given a pair of coordinates, plot the points

5. given the coordinates of a point, determine the quadrant where it is located

Development of the Lesson:

A. Introduce the Cartesian coordinate plane using the number line. State that the
rectangular coordinate plane are also called Cartesian plane can be constructed
by drawing a pair of perpendicular number lines to intersect at zero on each line.

2
1

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3
-1
-2
-3

B. Ask the students to describe the two lines and their point of intersection, to
develop the following ideas:

The two number lines, which are perpendicular lines, are called coordinate axes.

34
The horizontal line is called the x-axis.

The vertical line is called the y-axis.


The point where the two lines intersect is called the origin and is labeled 0 on
both axes.

The two axes divide the plane into four regions called quadrants: the first,
second, third and fourth quadrants in a counterclockwise direction.

2nd Quadrant 1st Quadrant

2
1

-2 -1 0 1 2
-1
-2
3rd Quadrant 4th Quadrant

C. State that each point in the coordinate plane has corresponding distance from the
y-axis and from the x-axis, that a pair of numbers is needed to tell how many
units to the right or left of the y-axis and how many units above or below of the x-
axis the point is located. The pairs of numbers will be the name of the point. This
pair of numbers is called ordered pair.

D. Present the following examples and ask students to describe the distance of each
point from the y or x-axis

1. If x = -2 answer: the point is 2 units to the left of the y-axis

2. If x = 0 answer: the point is in the y-axis

3. If x = 2 answer: the point is 2 units to the right of y-axis

4. If y = -3 answer: the point is 3 units below the x-axis

5. If y = 3 answer: the point is 3 units above the x-axis

Hence, the ordered pair (-2, 3) is located 2 units to the left of the y-axis and 3
units above the x-axis.

35
E. Let the student observe what the signs are of the coordinates of the points in the
different quadrants. (Both positive in quadrant 1, negative-positive in II, negative-
negative in III, and positive-negative in IV.)

F. State that in the ordered pair (x, y), x and y are called coordinates of the point. x
is called the x-coordinate or abscissa and y is called the y-coordinate or ordinate.

Ask students to give the coordinates of each point pictured in the graph.
e.g. A (3,2)

1. B ans. (5,6)
2. C (-7,4)
3. D (-4,5)
4. E (1,0)
5. F (0,-2)
6. G (8,-4)
7. H (9,3)
8. I (-9,-3)

9. J ( 1 1
-2 ,3 )
2 2
⎛ 1 ⎞
10. K ⎜10 ,−3 ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠

36
Y

.B
.D
.C
.J
.H
.A

.E
X

.F
.I .K
.G

G. Ask the students to what quadrant each point is located.

To see whether the students understand the concept, go over the exercises on
__________.

H. Then proceed to the plotting of points by asking the students to locate the points
in the plane whose coordinates are (3,5). State that the process of marking a
point in a plane is called plotting the points.

I. Present the following example

37
Locate the points P(-1,2), Q(2,3), R(-3,-4), S(3,-5) in the plane.

3 Q
P 2
1

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5
-1
-2
-3
R
S

J. State that when an entire set of ordered pairs is plotted, the corresponding set of
points in the plane represents the graph of the set. Sometimes the points in the
graph form a recognizable pattern, just like the example that follows:

Plot the points on the graph provided. Connect each point with the next one by a
line segment in the order given.

1. (2,0) 11. (2, -7)


2. (2,6) 12. (3, -7)
3. (0,10) 13. (3, -3)
4. (-2,6) 14. (2, -2)
5. (-2, -2) 15. (2,0)
6. (-3, -3)
7. (-3. -7)
8. (-2, -7)
9. (-1, -6)
10. (1, -6)

38
Y

To see whether the students understand the concept of plotting points, go


over exercises on __________.

Suggested Teaching Strategies:

1. Provision for Life Skills or Higher Order Thinking Skills

- In plotting points, help the students to realize through several examples


that every point on a vertical line has the same x-coordinate and every
point on the horizontal line has the same y-coordinate.

- Cite instances where the use of the Cartesian plane is found. Assign
student to observe and find other applications of the plane.

39
2. Provision for Multiple Intelligences

- To tap the visual/spatial intelligence of students ask them to draw


pictures on a graph paper using only lines. The students will then give
the coordinates of the points where the lines intersect.

- To tap the interpersonal intelligence of the students, prepare a game of


treasure hunting. Indicate in the treasure map the reference point and
the locations or position of buildings, places. The whole group will work
for a common goal-to find the treasure.

3. Provision for Cooperative Learning

- Prepare a group game on plotting of points. Done outside the


classroom, ask the students to serve as markers in plotting the set of
points given to them. The first group to plot the points correctly in the
coordinate plane wins.

Math I : Special Products and Factoring

Competency F2. identify special products

Time Frame: 3 Sessions

Objective:

At the end of the sessions, the students should be able to:

1. Identify the following special products:


a. square of a binomial,
b. difference of two squares,
c. sum or difference of two cubes.

Development of the Lesson:

A. Give the students a review of products of polynomials by going over the following
exercises in class and asking the students to recite.

1. product of a polynomial and a monomial

Find the following products:

a. 2x(3x+4)=6x 2 +8 x

40
b. 3 x(5 x 2 + 4 x + 5) = 15 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 15 x
c. 2a (3a 2 + 2a + 1) = 6a 3 + 4a 2 2a
d. 4 y (6 + 3 y + 4 y 2 ) = 24 y + 12 y 2 + 16 y 3
1 5x 2 3x 4
e. x(5 x + 2 x 2 + 3x 3 ) = + x3 +
2 2 2

2. product of two binomials

Use the FOIL method to find the following products:

a. ( x + 4 )( x + 9 )
b. (2 x + 5)(x − 3)
c. (3 x − 1)(2 x + 9 )
d. (2 x − 5)(2 x − 7 )
( )
e. 5 x 2 − 6 (3 x − 10)

B. Start the study of special products with a discussion of squares of binomials.

1. Let the students do the following exercise by pairs:

Find the following products:

a. ( x + 4)( x + 4) = x 2 + 8 x + 16
b. (a − 4)(a − 4) = a 2 − 8a + 16
c. ( x + 9)( x + 9) = x 2 + 18 x + 81
d. (2 x − 7)(2 x − 7) = 4 x 2 − 28 x + 49
e. (3a + 5)(3a + 5) = a 2 + 30 x + 25

Answer the following questions:

a. How many terms are there in each product?


b. What do you observe about the first and last terms of each product?
c. Observe the middle terms of the products. What do you notice
about the numerical coefficient of the middle term and the constant
in each factor?

C. Process the activity by going over the answers to the questions. State that these
answers suggests the characteristics of a special product called a Perfect
Square Trinomial (PST). Based on the exercise they just did, the students
should be able to see that a PST results from multiplying a binomial with itself.
In other words, a PST is a square of a binomial. Repeat the characteristics of a
PST.

41
D. Test if the students would be able to identify perfect square trinomials by asking
them to answer the exercises on page _____. (Note: The teacher may give
exercises of the suggested form below:

Practice Exercise:

Identify whether the given trinomial is a PST or NOT. Write PST or NOT
PST.

_____1. x 2 + 3x + 9 _____4. 4 x 2 − 12 x + 9
_____2. x 2 + 10 x + 25 _____5. 25 x 2 − 10 x + 1
_____3. x 2 − 14 x − 49

E. Introduce the next special product by asking the students to find the following
products using the FOIL method.

1. ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )
2. ( x − 5)( x + 5)
3. (3 x + 4 )(3 x − 4 )
4. (5 x + 2 )(5 x − 2 )
5. (7 + x )(7 − x )

F. Let the students observe the product in each case. (The products are all
binomials; the operation in each one is subtraction; the terms are both perfect
squares.) Ask them to describe what are the products of the outer terms and
inner terms when they apply FOIL. (They are additive inverses of each other.)
Present the special product called Difference of Two squares (DOTS).
Summarize the characteristics of a difference of two squares and describe what
factors result to DOTS.

G. For the development of the idea of a sum of two cubes or difference of two
cubes, use the same strategy used to develop the idea of a difference of two
squares. Let the students find the products of pairs of factors which result to a
sum of two cubes and factors which result to a difference of two cubes. Ask the
students to observe the products and what are common to these products.
Explain that these are special products because they can be easily obtained by
inspecting the factors without having to do the multiplication process.

H. Assign the exercises on page ____.

42
Suggested Teaching Strategies:

1. Provision for Integration of Content Areas in Language Teaching

- Go over the meaning of the following terms: polynomial, factor,


product, and common factor.

2. Provision for Life Skills or Higher Order Thinking Skills

- In introducing the special product PST, you may use a problem


like, “What is the area of a square whose side has a length of (x+6)
meters?”

3. Provision for Cooperative Learning

- Prepare a group puzzle on finding the products of binomials,


including squares of binomials and factors of DOTS. Let the
students do the puzzle in groups of 5 or 6.

Math I : Special Products and Factoring

Competency F4. given a polynomial, factor completely

Time Frame: 3 Sessions

Objective:

At the end of the sessions, the students must be able to:

1. factor completely a given polynomial.

Development of the Lesson:

A. Review factoring by giving 3 examples for each of the following cases:


polynomials whose terms have a common monomial factor, trinomials which are
products of two binomials, perfect square trinomials, difference of two squares ,
and sum and difference of two cubes. Ask for volunteers to give the factors
orally. After each case, state the technique used to determine the factors.

B. Present the following case:

Factor x 3 + 5 x 2 + 6 x .

Ask the students to examine the polynomial and find out what case it is. State
that it is a trinomial but of 3rd degree so it is not the same as the trinomials we
studied which are products of two binomials. Lead the students to see the
common monomial factor.

43
(
x 3 + 5x 2 + 6x = x x 2 + 5x + 6 )
Call the students’ attention to the trinomial factor. Ask them to examine it. They
should realize that it is still factorable.

( ) ( )
x 3 + 5 x 2 + 6 x = x x 2 + 5 x + 6 Factor the trinomial x 2 + 5 x + 6 .
= x(x + 3)(x + 2 )

Present now the idea of a completely factored polynomial. Consider other


examples.

1. 12 x 2 − 12 x + 3 = 3(4 x 2 − 4 x + 1)
= 3(2 x − 1)(2 x − 1)

2. 9a 3b − 15a 2b 2 + 6ab3 = 3ab(3a 2 − 5ab + 2b 2 )


= 3ab(3a − 2b)(a − b)
Let the students do the exercises on page _____.

C. Present a polynomial of the form ax+ay+bx+by

Challenge the students to factor completely. Let them investigate and discuss
with a seatmate.

Discuss the technique of grouping the terms before factoring, using the given
polynomial.

ax + ay + bx + by = (ax + ay ) + (bx + by ) Find the common monomial factor for each group.
= a ( x + y ) + b( x + y ) Get the common factor between the two terms.
= ( x + y )(a + b)

Ask the students to work on the following exercises.

1. 4xy+4x+3y+3 = (4xy+4x)+(3y+3)
= 4x(y+1)+3(y+1)
= (y+1)(4x+3)

2. ax+2a-bx-2b+cx+2c = (ax-bx+cx)+(2a-2b+2c)
= x(a-b+c)+2(a-b+c)
= (a-b+c)+(x+2)

Stress that in each case, the terms are grouped in such a way that a common factor
appears in each group.

D. Consider other examples which involve factoring polynomials with more than two
factors. Guide the students in factoring by asking them to examine each of the
factors in every step of the solution.

44
1. 2 x 3 − 18 xy 2 = 2 x( x 2 − 9 y 2 ) Is ( x 2 − 9 y 2 ) still factorable?
= 2 x( x + 3 y )( x − 3 y ) Do you see any common factor?

2. x 6 y 2 − x 2 y 6 = x 2 y 2 ( x 4 − y 4 )
= x 2 y 2 ( x 2 + y 2 )( x 2 − y 2 )
= x 2 y 2 ( x 2 + y 2 )( x + y )( x − y )

Note: Ask the students to justify the following when the need comes up in the
discussion.

b. Is x 2 y 2 equal to (x+y) 2 ?
c. Is x 3 y 3 equal to (x+y) 3 ?

E. Give a practice set covering all cases of factoring polynomials.

Suggested Teaching Strategies:

1. Provision for Cooperative Learning

- Prepare a group puzzle on factoring polynomials of different types. Ask


the students to work on the puzzle in groups of 5 or 6, or in dyads.

2. Provision for Values Education and the Valuing Process

- Try to bring out individual trials in life, then enumerate possible


solutions on how to overcome these trials in a gradual manner, then in
an abrupt manner. Whichever way, these are possible solutions for the
said trials.

Math II : Quadratic Equations

Competency B1 : define a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 ; distinguish a


quadratic equation from a linear equation

Time Frame : 1 session

Objectives :

45
At the end of the session, the students must be able to :

1. define, identify and give an example of a quadratic equation

2. distinguish a quadratic equation from a linear equation

Development of the Lesson:

A. Define a quadratic equation as an equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 where


a,b and c are constants and a ≠ 0.

Ask the students why the value of a should not be 0. Clearly, when a = 0, the
equation is linear and not quadratic.

Cite some examples of quadratic equations like the following:

3x2 + 5x – 3 = 0
-9x2 = 10
(3x-7)(5+2x) = 0

B. Lead the students to distinguish between a linear equation and a quadratic


equation by asking them to identify the linear equations and the quadratic
equations from a given set of equations.

C. To check whether the students understood the lesson well, ask them to give
examples of quadratic equations.

After the first few examples, challenge them by asking for examples of quadratic
equations where

a. b = 0

b. c = 0

c. b and c are both 0

Suggested Teaching Strategies:

1. Provision for Cooperative Learning

- Prepare a group puzzle on distinguishing linear equations from


quadratic equations. Then ask the students to work in groups of 4 or 5.

46
Math II : Quadratic Equations

Competency B2.1 review the definition of solution set of an equation; define “root of
an equation”

Time Frame : 1 session

Objectives :

At the end of the session, the students must be able to :

1. recall the definition of the solution set of an equation

2. define “root of an equation”

Development of the Lesson:

A. Ask the student to recall what the “solution set of an equation” means.

Define the solution set of an equation as the set of all values for the variable
which will make the equation true.

Below are examples :

Example 1 : The solution set of x+2= 0 is {-2} because –2 + 2 = 0.

1 1
Example 2 : The solution set of 3x = 1 is { } because 3( ) = 0.
3 3

Example 3 : The solution set of x 2 - 49 = 0 is {7, -7} because


(7) 2 - 49 = 0 and (-7) 2 - 49 = 0.

B. Then state that each element in the solution set of an equation is a root of the
equation.

Hence,

-2 is the root of the equation in Example 1.

1
is the root of the equation in Example 2.
3
7 and –7 are the roots of the equation in Example 3.

47
Ask the student to give the roots of some equations. Make sure that some
equations and some are quadratic. Make sure that the quadratic equations you
will give at this point can be solved by inspection.

C. Through the other examples in part B, proceed to lead the students to draw a
conclusion about the number of roots a linear equation has and the number of
roots a quadratic equation has.

Suggested Teaching Strategies:

1. Provision for Cooperative Learning

- Give the student a puzzle which will allow them to practice how to find
the solution set of simple linear and quadratic equations.

Math II : Quadratic Equations

Competency B2.3 derive the quadratic formula

Time Frame : 3 sessions

Objective :

At the end of the sessions, the students must be able to derive the quadratic formula.

Development of the Lesson :

A. To derive the quadratic formula ask the students to “solve” the general quadratic
equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 by competing the square. It may help to guide them
using the steps on the left side below so that they can come up with the
derivation
as outlined on the right side.

1. Write the general form of a


quadratic equation 1. ) ax 2 + bx + c = 0

2. Multiply both sides of the


equation by 4a 2. ) 4a 2 x 2 + 4abx + 4ac = 0

3. Subtract 4ac from both sides of


the equation 3. ) 4a 2 x 2 + 4abx = - 4ac

4. Add to both sides of the equation


a term which makes the left side

48
a perfect square trinomial 4. ) 4a 2 x 2 + 4abx + b 2 = b 2 - 4ac

5. Express the left side as a square


of a binomial 5.) (2ax + b) 2 = b 2 - 4ac

6. Extract the left side as a square of


a binomial 6.) 2ax + b = ± b 2 − 4ac

7. Add -b to both sides of the


equation 7.) 2ax = - b = ± b 2 − 4ac

8. Divide both sides by 2a 8.) x = − b ± b 2 − 4ac


2a

B. Ask the student to multiply both sides of the equation by a or 9a instead of 4a


in the second step and carry out the derivation process. Find out if they are
getting the same results. Draw a conclusion about the term which may be used
to multiply the equation with, in the second step to carry out the derivation of the
quadratic formula.

C. Ask the students to rewrite the quadratic formula as

− b ± b 2 − 4ac
x=
2a

and to memorize this. Tell the students that b 2 - 4ac is called the “discriminant”.
Show how they may use the discriminant to determine whether a given quadratic
equation has:

a. equal or unequal roots

b. real or imaginary roots

c. rational or irrational roots

Suggested Teaching Strategies :

1. Provision for Multiple Intelligence

- To tap the interpersonal intelligence of the students, ask them to


explain at the end of the lesson, to a partner, the process of
deriving the quadratic formula.

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Math III : Polygons

Competency 3.1 illustrate, identify, and define different kinds of polygons


according to the number of sides

• illustrate and identify convex and non-convex polygons


• identify the parts of a regular polygon (vertex angle, central
angl, exterior angle)

Time Frame: 1 session

Objectives:

At the end of the session, the students must be able to:

1. define and identify different kinds of polygons.

2. illustrate and identify convex and non-convex polygon.

3. identify the parts of a regular polygon.

Development of the Lesson:

A. Show illustrations of different kinds of polygons. Let the students study the
figures then ask them how these were formed. Lead them to the concept that
polygons are made of segments intersecting at its endpoints. Also, no two of its
segments with common endpoint are collinear.

B. Ask the students to count the number of vertices, sides and angles. Supply a
name for each example. Clarify that polygons are named according to the
number of sides.

Number of Sides Polygons


3 triangle
4 quadrilateral
5 pentagon
6 hexagon
7 heptagon
8 octagon
9 nonagon
10 decagon
12 dodecagon
n-sides n-gon

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C. Show illustrations of two kinds of polygons like the ones below.

B B

A C A C

E
F D
F D

Ask students to extend the sides. Focus on lines FE and ED. Below will be
the result

B B

A C A C

E
F D
F D

Ask students like


- What happens to the polygon when the line was formed?
- Are all the other vertices of the polygon located on one side of the half-
plane?

Answers will lead to the definition of convex and non-convex polygons. Be


sure that the students will be able to distinguish that a polygon is a convex if
no two points of a polygon lie on the opposite sides of a line containing any
side of the polygon.

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D. Show to the students the following figures in order to come up with the definition
of a regular polygon.

Help the students define what a regular polygon is.

E. After defining a regular polygon, discuss and identify the parts of the regular
polygon

Central angle

Interior angle

Exterior angle

Attempt to define these parts with students.

F. Tell the students that such kind of polygon is regular, let them formalize the
definition.

G. Let the students identify the parts of regular polygon. Sides can be extended to
name the exterior angles.

H. Provide practice exercises.

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Suggested Teaching Strategies:

1. Provision for Multiple Intelligence

- to tap the verbal/linguistic intelligence of the students, encourage


them to cite their observations in the discussion in Part D.
- to tap the interpersonal intelligence, allow them to discuss their
observations with the discussion in Part D with a seat mate.

Math III: Polygons

Competency 3.3 illustrate, name, and identify different kinds of triangles and
their parts
(e.g., legs, base, hypotenuse)

Time Frame: 2 sessions

Objectives:

At the end of the sessions, the students must be able to:

1. name and identify different kinds of triangle.

2. classify triangles according to sides and according to angles.

3. name and identify parts of a right triangle.

Development of the Lesson:

A. Distribute 3 pieces of cut out triangles to the students. Let them measure the
sides of the triangle.

A B C

Ask students the following questions:


• What have you noticed about the sides of triangle A?
• How will you distinguish triangle A from triangle B and C?
• What is the difference between triangle B and C?

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• What are the properties of triangle A? triangle B? triangle C?

State the following


An equilateral triangle is a triangle with all sides congruent.
An isosceles triangle is a triangle with exactly two sides congruent.
A scalene triangle is a triangle with no sides congruent

Further ask the student the following questions.


What kind of triangle is triangle A? triangle B? triangle C?
What is the basis of classification for these triangles?

To see whether the student understand the classification of triangles


according to sides, let them answer the exercises on __________________.

B. Review the kinds of angles; acute, right and obtuse. Let them identify the
kinds of angles from the chart.

Distribute cut out triangles to the students. (Prepare 3 triangles : acute, right
and obtuse triangles)
Let them measure the angles of the triangles.
Ask the student the following questions:
• What have you noticed about the measure of the angles of the
triangle?
• If you will group the triangles; how will you do it? Explain your
answer.
• What is your basis of classification of the triangles?

State the following


Triangles can be classified according to the measure of their angles?
1. An acute triangle is a triangle with all three angles acute.
2. A right triangle is a triangle with one right angle.
3. An obtuse triangle is a triangle with an obtuse angle.

To see whether the student understand the classification of triangles


according to sides, let them answer the exercises on __________________.

C. Let the student observe the figures on the chart.

Let the student identify the kinds of triangles in the chart and describe the
characteristics of the two triangles.

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Explain to the students that in an isosceles triangle:
The two congruent sides are called LEGS, the third side is called the BASE,
the angles on the base are called BASE ANGLES.

Explain further that in a Right Triangle the sides that are perpendicular are the
legs and the side opposite the right angle is the hypotenuse.

Show the illustration to help the students visualize these parts.

leg leg
leg hypotenuse

base base
angle angle
base leg

Give some more figures then ask the students to identify the legs,
hypotenuse, base and the base angles.

Suggested Teaching Strategies:

1. Provision for Higher Order Thinking Skills

- In classifying triangles, conduct an activity where the students can


compare and identify the different kinds of triangles.

2. Provision for Cooperative Learning

- Prepare cut out triangles which students can classify as well as


discuss their basis for classification. This can be done in groups.

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