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Secondary Level

Department of Education

BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

DepEd Complex, Meralco Ave., Pasig City

INTRODUCTION

researchers, and other stakeholders – an overview of the Mathematics program at the

secondary level. Those in education, however, may use it as a reference for

implementing the 2002 secondary education curriculum, or as a source document to

inform policy and guide practice.

∗ The description defines the focus and the emphasis of the learning area as

well as the language of instruction used.

∗ The unit credit indicates the number of units assigned to a learning area

computed on a 40-minute per unit credit basis and which shall be used to

evaluate a student’s promotion to the next year level.

area on a daily (or weekly, as the case may be) basis.

∗ The expectancies refer to the general competencies that the learners are

expected to demonstrate at the end of each year level.

∗ The scope and sequence outlines the content, or the coverage of the learning

area in terms of concepts or themes, as the case may be.

∗ The suggested strategies are those that are typically employed to develop the

content, build skills, and integrate learning.

∗ The materials include those that have been approved for classroom use. The

application of information and communication technology is encouraged,

where available.

∗ The grading system specifies how learning outcomes shall be evaluated and

the aspects of student performance which shall be rated.

∗ The learning competencies are the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values

that the students are expected to develop or acquire during the teaching-

learning situations.

∗ Lastly, sample lesson plans are provided to illustrate the mode of integration,

where appropriate, the application of life skills and higher order thinking skills,

the valuing process and the differentiated activities to address the learning

needs of students.

the operationalization of the curriculum or impose restrictions on how the curriculum

shall be implemented. Decisions on how best to teach and how learning outcomes can

be achieved most successfully rest with the school principals and teachers. They know

the direction they need to take and how best to get there.

2

DESCRIPTION

First Year is Elementary Algebra. It deals with life situations and problems

involving measurement, real number system, algebraic expressions, first degree

equations and inequalities in one variable, linear equations in two variables, special

products and factoring.

and inequalities, quadratic equations, rational algebraic expressions, variation,

integral exponents, radical expressions, and searching for patterns in sequences

(arithmetic, geometric, etc) as applied in real-life situations.

Third Year is Geometry. It deals with the practical application to life of the

geometry of shape and size, geometric relations, triangle congruence, properties of

quadrilaterals, similarity, circles, and plane coordinate geometry.

Fourth Year is still the existing integrated ( algebra, geometry, statistics and a

unit of trigonometry) spiral mathematics but in school year 2003-2004 the graduating

students have the option to take up either Business Mathematics and Statistics or

Trigonometry and Advanced Algebra.

See DepEd Order No. 37, s. 2003, “ Revised Implementing Guidelines of the 2003

Secondary Education Curriculum Effective School 2003-2004”

3

SCOPE AND SEQUENCE

1. Measurement

2. Real Number system

3. Algebraic Expressions

4. First Degree Equations and Inequalities in One Variable

5. Linear Equations in Two Variables

6. Special Products and Factors

2. Quadratic Equations

3. Rational Algebraic Expressions

4. Variation

5. Integral Exponents

6. Radical Expressions

7. Searching for Patterns in Sequences: Arithmetic, Geometry,etc.

2. Geometric Relations

3. Triangle Congruence

4. Properties of Quadrilaterals

5. Similarity

6. Circles

7. Plane Coordinate Geometry

1. Functions

2. Linear Functions

3. Quadratic Functions

4. Polynomial Functions

5. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

6. Circular Functions and Trigonometry

7. Triangle Trigonometry

8. Statistics

4

SUGGESTED STRATEGIES AND MATERIALS

practice and consolidation, problem solving, mathematical investigation and

cooperative learning.

Discussion

• It is more than the short question and answer which arise during

exposition

• It takes place between teacher and students or between students

themselves.

Practical Work

• Teacher acts as facilitator

• Concretizes abstract concepts

• Develops students' confidence to discover solutions to problems

problem solving and investigation

Problem Solving

• Involves the exploration of the solution to a given situation

Mathematical Investigation

• It involves the exploration of a mathematical situation, making

conjectures and reason logically

Cooperative Learning

successes and failures.

Features of the lesson plans are:

• Integration of values education

5

• Provision of teaching-learning activities that address multiple

intelligences

• Use of cooperative learning strategies

GRADING SYSTEM

See DepEd Order No. 37, s. 2003, “ Revised Implementing Guidelines of the 2003

Secondary Education Curriculum Effective School 2003-2004”

6

DETAILED LISTING OF LEARNING COMPETENCIES

A. Measurement

present international system of units

angle

nearest ten, nearest tenth)

integers, rational numbers, irrational numbers, real numbers

the number line; use integers to describe positive or negative

quantities

movement along the number line using integers

distance from the origin.

value equations using the number line

subtraction, multiplication, division; state and illustrate the

7

different properties (commutative, associative, distributive,

identity, inverse)

terminating and repeating/non-terminating) from fraction form

to decimal form and vice versa

square root of a positive rational number

2.2 identify square roots which are rational and which are not

rational (irrational numbers)

integers or rational numbers between which it lies

problem-solving

C. Algebraic Expressions

symbols

versa

variable(s) involved

illustrate these

exponent in a monomial

8

6.2 laws on exponents

• a man = am+ n

• (ab )m = a mbm

• (a )

m n

= a mn

m

⎛a⎞ am

• ⎜ ⎟ = m

⎝b⎠ b

am

• = am−n

an

where m – n is a positive number if m > n.

m – n is a negative number if m < n.

6.4 express numbers in scientific notation

7. define polynomials; classify algebraic expressions as polynomials

and non-polynomials

8. perform operations on polynomials

9. problem solving involving polynomials

quantities to equations and inequalities and vice versa

9

3. define first degree equations and inequalities in one variable

inequality

one variable on the number line

one variable from a given replacement set

one variable by inspection

4. review the basic properties of real numbers; state and illustrate

the different properties of equality

variable by applying the properties of equality

variable by applying the properties of inequality; visualize

solutions of simple mathematical inequalities on a number line

one variable (e.g. relations among numbers, geometry,

business, uniform motion, money problems,etc.)

quadrant, origin)

2. describe points plotted on the Cartesian Coordinate Plane; plot

points on the Cartesian Coordinate Plane

where it is located

equation in two variables, Ax+By=C

x and y

10

3.3 define x and y intercepts, slope, domain, range

equation

Ax + By = C :

• intercepts

• trend (increasing or decreasing)

• domain

• range

• slope

+ b, and vice versa

described by an equation using

• the intercepts

• any two points

• the slope and a given point

decreasing

• the intercepts

• any two points

• the slope and a point

5.2 construct a table of ordered pairs and draw the graphs of

the following:

• y= x

• y= x +b

• y= x -b

• y = x+b

• y = x−b

11

• y = x+b + c

1.2 binomial by binomial – using the distributive property, using the

FOIL method

• trinomials which are products of two binomials

• trinomials which are squares of a binomial

• products of the sum and difference of two quantities

( x 2 − y 2 , x3 + y 3 , x3 − y 3 )

3. factor polynomials

• trinomials which are products of two binomials

• trinomials which are squares of a binomial

• products of the sum and difference of two quantities

( x 2 − y 2 , x3 + y 3 , x3 − y 3 )

12

Intermediate Algebra (2nd year High School)

4.1 given a pair of linear equations in two variables, identify those whose

graphs are parallel, those that intersect, and those that coincide

4.2 given a system of linear equations in two variables find the solution of the

system graphically (i.e. by drawing the graphs and obtaining the

coordinates of the intersection point)

not their graphs intersect, and if they do, find the solution of the system

algebraically

• by elimination

• by substitution

uniform motion, geometric relations, mixture, investment, work)

B. Quadratic Equations

from a linear equation

equation”

13

2.2 determine the solution set of a quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 by

algebraic methods:

• factoring

• quadratic formula

• completing the square

on fractions

expression; identify rational algebraic expressions; translate verbal

expressions into rational algebraic expressions

those with like denominators

14

D. Variation

• direct variation

• direct square variation

• inverse variation

• joint variation

2. identify relationships between two quantities in real life that are direct

variations, direct square variations, inverse square variations or joint

variations

the following expressions to a table of values, a mathematical equation, or a

graph, and vice versa

• “_____ is inversely proportional to _____”

• “_____ varies directly as _____”

• “_____ varies directly as the square of _____”

• “_____ varies inversely as _____”

and joint variation

E. Integral Exponents

• laws on exponents

• multiplying and dividing expressions with positive integral exponents

integral exponents

15

4. solve problems involving expressions with exponents

F. Radical Expressions

1.1 identify expressions which are perfect squares or perfect cubes, and find

their square root or cube root respectively

1.2 given a number in the form n x where x is not a perfect nth root, name

two rational numbers between which it lies

exponents

vice versa

n

3.2 simplify the radical expression x in such a way that the radicand

contains no perfect nth root

1.1 list the next few terms of a sequence given several consecutive terms

1.2 derive, by pattern-searching, a mathematical expression (rule) for

generating the sequence

16

2.1 define and give examples of an arithmetic sequence

• giving the formula for the nth term

• drawing the graph

2.3 derive the formula for the nth term of an arithmetic sequence

2.3.1 given the first few terms of an arithmetic sequence, find the common

difference and the nth term for a specified n

2.3.2 given two terms of an arithmetic sequence, find: the first term;

the common difference or a specified nth term

2.4 derive the formula for the sum of the n terms of an arithmetic sequence

• giving the formula for the nth term

• drawing the graph

3.3 derive the formula for the nth term of a geometric sequence

3.3.1 given the first few terms of a geometric sequence, find the common

ratio and the nth term for a specified n

3.3.2 given two specified terms of a geometric sequence, find: the first

term; the common ratio or a specified nth term

3.4 derive the formula for the sum of the terms of a geometric sequence

17

4. define a harmonic sequence, harmonic series, and harmonic mean

4.6 illustrate a harmonic sequence and determine the sum of the first n terms

sequence

6.7 state and apply the formula for determining the coefficients of the terms in

the expansion of (a + b ) .

n

18

Geometry (3rd Year High School)

1. Undefined Terms

1.2 define, identify, and name the subsets of a line

• segment

• ray

2. Angles

2.2 name and identify the parts of an angle

2.3 read or determine the measure of an angle using a protractor

2.4 illustrate, name, identify and define different kinds of angles

• acute

• right

• obtuse

3. Polygons

3.1 illustrate, identify, and define different kinds of polygons according to the

number of sides

• identify the parts of a regular polygon (vertex angle, central angle,

exterior angle)

3.2 illustrate, name and identify a triangle and its basic and secondary parts

(e.g., vertices, sides, angles, median, angle bisector, altitude)

3.3 illustrate, name and identify different kinds of triangles and their parts

(e.g., legs, base, hypotenuse)

sides

3.5 illustrate, name and identify the different kinds of quadrilaterals

3.6 determine the sum of the measures of the interior and exterior angles of

a polygon

• sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180

• sum of the measures of the exterior angles of a quadrilateral is 360

19

• sum of the measures of the interior angles of a quadrilateral is

• (n – 2)180

4. Circle

4.2 illustrate, name, identify, and define the terms related to the circle (radius,

diameter and chord)

5. Measurements

5.1 identify the following common solids and their parts: cone, pyramid,

sphere, cylinder, rectangular prism)

5.2 state and apply the formulas for the measurements of plane and solid

figures

• Circumference of a circle

• Area of a triangle, square, parallelogram, trapezoid, and circle

• Surface area of a cube, rectangular prism, square pyramid,

cylinder, cone, and a sphere

• Volume of a rectangular prism, triangular prism, pyramid, cylinder,

cone, and a sphere

B. Geometric Relations

1.2 illustrate, identify and define congruent segments

1.3 illustrate, identify and define the midpoint of a segment

1.4 illustrate, identify and define the bisector of an angle

1.5 illustrate, identify and define the different kinds of angle pairs

• supplementary

• complementary

• congruent

• adjacent

• linear pair

• vertical angles

1.7 illustrate and identify the perpendicular bisector of a segment

20

2. Angles and Sides of a Triangle

triangle

• Triangle inequality

3. Angles formed by Parallel Lines cut by a Transversal

3.2 illustrate and define a Transversal

3.3 identify the angles formed by parallel lines cut by a transversal

3.4 determine the relationship between pairs of angles formed by parallel

lines cut by a transversal

• alternate exterior angles

• corresponding angles

• angles on the same side of the transversal

between Angles

relationships between segments and between angles

C. Triangle Congruence

1.2 State and apply the Properties of Congruence

• Reflexive Property

• Symmetric Property

• Transitive Property

sufficient to guarantee congruence between triangles

1.4 Apply deductive skills to show congruence between triangles

• SSS Congruence

• SAS Congruence

• ASA Congruence

• SAA Congruence

21

2.1 Prove congruence and inequality properties in an isosceles triangle using

the congruence conditions in 1.3

are congruent

• Congruent angles in a triangle imply that the sides opposite them

are congruent

• Non-congruent sides in a triangle imply that the angles opposite

them are not congruent

• Non-congruent angles in a triangle imply that the sides opposite

them are not congruent

2.2 Use the definition of congruent triangles and the conditions for triangle

congruence to prove congruent segments and congruent angles between

two triangles

2.3 Solve routine and non-routine problems

Enrichment

Apply inductive and deductive skills to derive other conditions for congruence

between two right triangles

• LL Congruence

• LA Congruence

• HyL Congruence

• HyA Congruence

D. Properties of Quadrilaterals

their properties (square, rectangle, rhombus, trapezoid, parallelogram)

1.2 apply inductive and deductive skills to derive certain properties of the

trapezoid

• median of a trapezoid

• base angles and diagonals of an isosceles trapezoid

1.3 apply inductive and deductive skills to derive the properties of a

parallelogram

• opposite angles are congruent

• non-opposite angles are supplementary

22

• opposite sides are congruent

• diagonals bisect each other

1.4 apply inductive and deductive skills to derive the properties of the

diagonals of special quadrilaterals

• diagonals of a rectangle

• diagonals of a square

• diagonals of a rhombus

2 Conditions that Guarantee that a Quadrilateral is a Parallelogram

a parallelogram

2.2 apply the conditions to prove that a quadrilateral is a parallelogram

2.3 apply the properties of quadrilaterals and the conditions for a

parallelogram to solve problems

Enrichment

Apply inductive and deductive skills to discover certain properties of the Kite

E. Similarity

1.2 define a proportion and identify its parts

1.3 state and apply the fundamental law of proportion

1.5 apply the definition of proportional segments to find unknown lengths

2. Proportionality Theorems

2.1 state and verify the Basic Proportionality Theorem and its Converse

3.7 define similar polygons

3.8 define similar triangles

3.9 apply the definition of similar triangles

• finding the length of a side or measure of an angle of a triangle

23

3.5 state and verify the Similarity Theorems

3.6 apply the properties of similar triangles and the proportionality

theorems to calculate lengths of certain line segments, and to arrive at

other properties

triangle

right triangles which are similar to each other and to the given right

triangle

4.2 derive the relationships between the sides of an isosceles triangle and

between the sides of a 30-60-90 triangle using the Pythagorean Theorem

Enrichment

segments

• bisector of an angle of a triangle separates the opposite side into

segments whose lengths are proportional to the lengths of the other 2

sides

State, verify and apply the ratio between the perimeters and areas of similar

triangle

equal to the sum of the squares of the legs

6.1 apply knowledge and skills related to similar triangles to word problems

F. Circles

1. The circle

• radius

• diameter

• chord

24

• secant

• tangent

• interior and exterior

2. Arcs and Angles

2.2 define and identify a minor and major arc of a circle

2.3 determine the degree measure of an arc of a circle

2.4 define and identify an inscribed angle

2.5 determine the measure of an inscribed angle

drawn to the point of tangency

• If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a circle,

then the two segments are congruent

• A tangent line and a secant line

• Two secant lines

Enrichment

Illustrate and identify a common internal tangent or a common external tangent

Geometric Constructions

• Duplicate or copy an angle

• Construct the perpendicular bisector and the midpoint of a segment

Derive the Perpendicular Bisector Theorem

• Construct the perpendicular to a line

From a point on the line

From a point not on the line

• Construct the bisector of an angle

• Construct parallel lines

• Perform construction exercises using the constructions in 4.1 to 4.6

25

• Use construction to derive some other geometric properties (e.g.,

shortest distance from an external point to a line, points on the angle

bisector are equidistant from the sides of the angle)

of Linear Equations in 2 Variables

1.2 represent ordered pairs on the Cartesian Plane and denote points on the

Cartesian Plane

1.3 define the slope of a line and compute for the slope given the graph of a

line

1.4 define a Linear Equation

1.5 define the y-intercept

1.6 derive the equation of a line given two points of the line

1.8 state and apply the definitions of Parallel and Perpendicular Lines

2. Coordinate Geometry

2.1 Derive and state the Distance Formula using the Pythagorean Theorem

2.2 Derive and state the Midpoint Formula

2.3 Apply the Distance and Midpoint Formulas to find or verify the lengths of

segments and find unknown vertices or points

2.4 Verify properties of triangles and quadrilaterals using coordinate proof

3.1 derive/state the standard form of the equation of a circle with radius r and

center at (0,0) and at (h,k)

3.2 given the equation of a circle, find its center and radius

• its radius and the point of tangency with a given line

26

Advanced Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics (4th Year High School)

A. Functions

coordinate plane.

3. Given some real life relationships, identify those which are functions (e.g. the

rule which assigns to each person his birth month) and those which are mere

relations (e.g. the rule which assigns to each month the person having that as

birth month).

5. Draw a graph of a given set of ordered pairs; determine whether the graph

represents a function or a mere relation.

6. Use the vertical line test to determine whether a given graph represents a

function or a mere relation.

7. Illustrate the meaning of the functional notation f(x); determine the value of

f(x) given a value for x.

Enrichment:

a mere relation.

B. Linear Functions

rewrite in the form f(x) = mx + b and vice versa.

• slope and one point

• slope and the y-intercept

• x and y intercepts

27

3. Given f(x) = mx + b, determine the following:

• x and y intercepts

• slope

• some points

• trend: increasing or decreasing

• x and y intercepts

• any two points

• slope and one point

• slope and y-intercept

C. Quadratic Functions

2. Rewrite a quadratic function ax2 + bx + c in the form f(x) = a(x - h)2 + k and

vice versa.

• axis of symmetry

• direction of opening of the graph

4. Draw the graph of a quadratic function using the vertex, axis of symmetry, and

assignment of points.

quadratic equation” review finding the roots of a quadratic equation using the

following algebraic procedures:

• factoring

• quadratic formula

• completing the square

7. Derive a quadratic function given the zeros of the function or given a set of

points from the graph of a given function.

28

8. Apply knowledge and skills related to quadratic functions and equations in

problem solving.

Enrichment:

10. Given the quadratic function f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, determine the nature of the

zeros (i.e. real, non-real, non-district)

D. Polynomial Functions

algebraic expressions.

identify a polynomial function from a given set of functions; determine the

degree of a given polynomial function, determine the number of terms in a

given polynomial function.

process of synthetic division; find by synthetic division the quotient and the

remainder when p(x) is divided by (x-c).

5. Use synthetic division and the Remainder Theorem to find the value of p(x) for

x=k

7. Use the Factor Theorem, factoring techniques, synthetic division and the

depressed equations to find the zeros of polynomial functions of degree

greater than 2.

Enrichment

11. State the Rational Zero Theorem and use it to find the zeros of a polynomial

function with rational zeros.

29

E. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

1. Identify certain relationships in real life which are exponential (e.g. population

growth over time, growth of bacteria over time, etc.)

functions studied earlier; given a table of ordered pairs, state whether the

trend is exponential or not.

properties of the function or its graph.

• a>1

• 0<a<1

4. State the domain, range, intercepts and trend (increasing and decreasing) of

a given exponential function based on its graph.

function may be determined; use the laws on exponents to find the zeros of

exponential functions or solve exponential equations.

7. Define the logarithmic function f(x) = loga x as the inverse of the exponential

function f(x) = ax

8. Draw the graph of the logarithmic function f(x) = loga x and describe some

properties of the logarithmic function from its graph.

9. State the laws for logarithms; and apply the laws for logarithms

Enrichment

11. Draw the graph of other exponential functions like f(x) = bax and f(x) = ax+c

and compare these to the graph of f(x) = ax

increase or decrease.

13. Apply knowledge and skills related to exponential and logarithmic functions

and equations in problem solving.

30

F. Circular Functions and Trigonometry

angle; convert from degree to radian and vice versa.

2. Illustrate angles in standard position (i.e. initial side coincident with the

positive x-axis); illustrate coterminal angles and reference angles.

3. Visualize rotations along the unit circle and relate these to angle measures

• clockwise or counterclockwise directions

• measures beyond 360o or 2∏ radians

coordinates of the point of intersection of the unit circle and the terminal side.

4.1 when one coordinate is given (apply the Pythagorean Theorem and the

properties of special right triangles)

4.2 when the angle is of the form:

• 1800n + 300

• 1800n + 600

• 1800n + 450

• 900n

5. Define the sine functions; state the sine of an angle (for special values)

6. Define the cosine functions; state the cosine of an angle (for special values)

• using a trigonometric table

8. Define the tangent function; state the tangent of an angle (for special values)

9. State the fundamental trigonometric identities and use this to prove other

identities

9.1 state and illustrate the sum and difference formulas of sine and cosine

9.2 determine the sine and cosine of an angle using the sum and difference

formulas

Enrichment

31

11. Graph the sine and cosine functions - 2 Π ≤ 2 ≤ 2 Π or - 3600 ≤ 2 ≤ 3600

12. Describe the properties of the graphs of the sine and cosine functions.

13. Graph the sine and cosine functions of the form y = a sin x and y = b cos x

16. Find the values of six trigonometric functions of an angle θ, given some

conditions

G. Triangle Trigonometry

H. Statistics

1. Define statistics and statistical terms such as sample and population; give the

history and importance of the study of statistics.

3. Analyze, interpret accurately and draw conclusions from graphic and tabular

presentations of statistical data.

5. Find the mean, median and mode of given data: grouped and ungrouped

data

5.2 find the arithmetic and mean: ungrouped and grouped data

5.3 Find the median: ungrouped and grouped data

5.4 Find the mode: ungrouped and grouped data

32

6. Calculate the different measures of variability relative to a given set of data,

grouped and ungrouped

(a) range

(b) standard deviation

6.1 give the characteristics of a set of data using the measures of variability

33

Math I : Linear Equations in Two Variables

Competency E1. describe the Cartesian Coordinate Plane (x-axis, y-axis, quadrant,

origin)

Objectives:

A. Introduce the Cartesian coordinate plane using the number line. State that the

rectangular coordinate plane are also called Cartesian plane can be constructed

by drawing a pair of perpendicular number lines to intersect at zero on each line.

2

1

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3

-1

-2

-3

B. Ask the students to describe the two lines and their point of intersection, to

develop the following ideas:

The two number lines, which are perpendicular lines, are called coordinate axes.

34

The horizontal line is called the x-axis.

The point where the two lines intersect is called the origin and is labeled 0 on

both axes.

The two axes divide the plane into four regions called quadrants: the first,

second, third and fourth quadrants in a counterclockwise direction.

2

1

-2 -1 0 1 2

-1

-2

3rd Quadrant 4th Quadrant

C. State that each point in the coordinate plane has corresponding distance from the

y-axis and from the x-axis, that a pair of numbers is needed to tell how many

units to the right or left of the y-axis and how many units above or below of the x-

axis the point is located. The pairs of numbers will be the name of the point. This

pair of numbers is called ordered pair.

D. Present the following examples and ask students to describe the distance of each

point from the y or x-axis

Hence, the ordered pair (-2, 3) is located 2 units to the left of the y-axis and 3

units above the x-axis.

35

E. Let the student observe what the signs are of the coordinates of the points in the

different quadrants. (Both positive in quadrant 1, negative-positive in II, negative-

negative in III, and positive-negative in IV.)

F. State that in the ordered pair (x, y), x and y are called coordinates of the point. x

is called the x-coordinate or abscissa and y is called the y-coordinate or ordinate.

Ask students to give the coordinates of each point pictured in the graph.

e.g. A (3,2)

1. B ans. (5,6)

2. C (-7,4)

3. D (-4,5)

4. E (1,0)

5. F (0,-2)

6. G (8,-4)

7. H (9,3)

8. I (-9,-3)

9. J ( 1 1

-2 ,3 )

2 2

⎛ 1 ⎞

10. K ⎜10 ,−3 ⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠

36

Y

.B

.D

.C

.J

.H

.A

.E

X

.F

.I .K

.G

To see whether the students understand the concept, go over the exercises on

__________.

H. Then proceed to the plotting of points by asking the students to locate the points

in the plane whose coordinates are (3,5). State that the process of marking a

point in a plane is called plotting the points.

37

Locate the points P(-1,2), Q(2,3), R(-3,-4), S(3,-5) in the plane.

3 Q

P 2

1

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5

-1

-2

-3

R

S

J. State that when an entire set of ordered pairs is plotted, the corresponding set of

points in the plane represents the graph of the set. Sometimes the points in the

graph form a recognizable pattern, just like the example that follows:

Plot the points on the graph provided. Connect each point with the next one by a

line segment in the order given.

2. (2,6) 12. (3, -7)

3. (0,10) 13. (3, -3)

4. (-2,6) 14. (2, -2)

5. (-2, -2) 15. (2,0)

6. (-3, -3)

7. (-3. -7)

8. (-2, -7)

9. (-1, -6)

10. (1, -6)

38

Y

over exercises on __________.

that every point on a vertical line has the same x-coordinate and every

point on the horizontal line has the same y-coordinate.

- Cite instances where the use of the Cartesian plane is found. Assign

student to observe and find other applications of the plane.

39

2. Provision for Multiple Intelligences

pictures on a graph paper using only lines. The students will then give

the coordinates of the points where the lines intersect.

treasure hunting. Indicate in the treasure map the reference point and

the locations or position of buildings, places. The whole group will work

for a common goal-to find the treasure.

classroom, ask the students to serve as markers in plotting the set of

points given to them. The first group to plot the points correctly in the

coordinate plane wins.

Objective:

a. square of a binomial,

b. difference of two squares,

c. sum or difference of two cubes.

A. Give the students a review of products of polynomials by going over the following

exercises in class and asking the students to recite.

a. 2x(3x+4)=6x 2 +8 x

40

b. 3 x(5 x 2 + 4 x + 5) = 15 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 15 x

c. 2a (3a 2 + 2a + 1) = 6a 3 + 4a 2 2a

d. 4 y (6 + 3 y + 4 y 2 ) = 24 y + 12 y 2 + 16 y 3

1 5x 2 3x 4

e. x(5 x + 2 x 2 + 3x 3 ) = + x3 +

2 2 2

a. ( x + 4 )( x + 9 )

b. (2 x + 5)(x − 3)

c. (3 x − 1)(2 x + 9 )

d. (2 x − 5)(2 x − 7 )

( )

e. 5 x 2 − 6 (3 x − 10)

a. ( x + 4)( x + 4) = x 2 + 8 x + 16

b. (a − 4)(a − 4) = a 2 − 8a + 16

c. ( x + 9)( x + 9) = x 2 + 18 x + 81

d. (2 x − 7)(2 x − 7) = 4 x 2 − 28 x + 49

e. (3a + 5)(3a + 5) = a 2 + 30 x + 25

b. What do you observe about the first and last terms of each product?

c. Observe the middle terms of the products. What do you notice

about the numerical coefficient of the middle term and the constant

in each factor?

C. Process the activity by going over the answers to the questions. State that these

answers suggests the characteristics of a special product called a Perfect

Square Trinomial (PST). Based on the exercise they just did, the students

should be able to see that a PST results from multiplying a binomial with itself.

In other words, a PST is a square of a binomial. Repeat the characteristics of a

PST.

41

D. Test if the students would be able to identify perfect square trinomials by asking

them to answer the exercises on page _____. (Note: The teacher may give

exercises of the suggested form below:

Practice Exercise:

Identify whether the given trinomial is a PST or NOT. Write PST or NOT

PST.

_____1. x 2 + 3x + 9 _____4. 4 x 2 − 12 x + 9

_____2. x 2 + 10 x + 25 _____5. 25 x 2 − 10 x + 1

_____3. x 2 − 14 x − 49

E. Introduce the next special product by asking the students to find the following

products using the FOIL method.

1. ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )

2. ( x − 5)( x + 5)

3. (3 x + 4 )(3 x − 4 )

4. (5 x + 2 )(5 x − 2 )

5. (7 + x )(7 − x )

F. Let the students observe the product in each case. (The products are all

binomials; the operation in each one is subtraction; the terms are both perfect

squares.) Ask them to describe what are the products of the outer terms and

inner terms when they apply FOIL. (They are additive inverses of each other.)

Present the special product called Difference of Two squares (DOTS).

Summarize the characteristics of a difference of two squares and describe what

factors result to DOTS.

G. For the development of the idea of a sum of two cubes or difference of two

cubes, use the same strategy used to develop the idea of a difference of two

squares. Let the students find the products of pairs of factors which result to a

sum of two cubes and factors which result to a difference of two cubes. Ask the

students to observe the products and what are common to these products.

Explain that these are special products because they can be easily obtained by

inspecting the factors without having to do the multiplication process.

42

Suggested Teaching Strategies:

product, and common factor.

like, “What is the area of a square whose side has a length of (x+6)

meters?”

including squares of binomials and factors of DOTS. Let the

students do the puzzle in groups of 5 or 6.

Objective:

polynomials whose terms have a common monomial factor, trinomials which are

products of two binomials, perfect square trinomials, difference of two squares ,

and sum and difference of two cubes. Ask for volunteers to give the factors

orally. After each case, state the technique used to determine the factors.

Factor x 3 + 5 x 2 + 6 x .

Ask the students to examine the polynomial and find out what case it is. State

that it is a trinomial but of 3rd degree so it is not the same as the trinomials we

studied which are products of two binomials. Lead the students to see the

common monomial factor.

43

(

x 3 + 5x 2 + 6x = x x 2 + 5x + 6 )

Call the students’ attention to the trinomial factor. Ask them to examine it. They

should realize that it is still factorable.

( ) ( )

x 3 + 5 x 2 + 6 x = x x 2 + 5 x + 6 Factor the trinomial x 2 + 5 x + 6 .

= x(x + 3)(x + 2 )

examples.

1. 12 x 2 − 12 x + 3 = 3(4 x 2 − 4 x + 1)

= 3(2 x − 1)(2 x − 1)

= 3ab(3a − 2b)(a − b)

Let the students do the exercises on page _____.

Challenge the students to factor completely. Let them investigate and discuss

with a seatmate.

Discuss the technique of grouping the terms before factoring, using the given

polynomial.

ax + ay + bx + by = (ax + ay ) + (bx + by ) Find the common monomial factor for each group.

= a ( x + y ) + b( x + y ) Get the common factor between the two terms.

= ( x + y )(a + b)

1. 4xy+4x+3y+3 = (4xy+4x)+(3y+3)

= 4x(y+1)+3(y+1)

= (y+1)(4x+3)

2. ax+2a-bx-2b+cx+2c = (ax-bx+cx)+(2a-2b+2c)

= x(a-b+c)+2(a-b+c)

= (a-b+c)+(x+2)

Stress that in each case, the terms are grouped in such a way that a common factor

appears in each group.

D. Consider other examples which involve factoring polynomials with more than two

factors. Guide the students in factoring by asking them to examine each of the

factors in every step of the solution.

44

1. 2 x 3 − 18 xy 2 = 2 x( x 2 − 9 y 2 ) Is ( x 2 − 9 y 2 ) still factorable?

= 2 x( x + 3 y )( x − 3 y ) Do you see any common factor?

2. x 6 y 2 − x 2 y 6 = x 2 y 2 ( x 4 − y 4 )

= x 2 y 2 ( x 2 + y 2 )( x 2 − y 2 )

= x 2 y 2 ( x 2 + y 2 )( x + y )( x − y )

Note: Ask the students to justify the following when the need comes up in the

discussion.

b. Is x 2 y 2 equal to (x+y) 2 ?

c. Is x 3 y 3 equal to (x+y) 3 ?

the students to work on the puzzle in groups of 5 or 6, or in dyads.

solutions on how to overcome these trials in a gradual manner, then in

an abrupt manner. Whichever way, these are possible solutions for the

said trials.

quadratic equation from a linear equation

Objectives :

45

At the end of the session, the students must be able to :

a,b and c are constants and a ≠ 0.

Ask the students why the value of a should not be 0. Clearly, when a = 0, the

equation is linear and not quadratic.

3x2 + 5x – 3 = 0

-9x2 = 10

(3x-7)(5+2x) = 0

equation by asking them to identify the linear equations and the quadratic

equations from a given set of equations.

C. To check whether the students understood the lesson well, ask them to give

examples of quadratic equations.

After the first few examples, challenge them by asking for examples of quadratic

equations where

a. b = 0

b. c = 0

quadratic equations. Then ask the students to work in groups of 4 or 5.

46

Math II : Quadratic Equations

Competency B2.1 review the definition of solution set of an equation; define “root of

an equation”

Objectives :

A. Ask the student to recall what the “solution set of an equation” means.

Define the solution set of an equation as the set of all values for the variable

which will make the equation true.

1 1

Example 2 : The solution set of 3x = 1 is { } because 3( ) = 0.

3 3

(7) 2 - 49 = 0 and (-7) 2 - 49 = 0.

B. Then state that each element in the solution set of an equation is a root of the

equation.

Hence,

1

is the root of the equation in Example 2.

3

7 and –7 are the roots of the equation in Example 3.

47

Ask the student to give the roots of some equations. Make sure that some

equations and some are quadratic. Make sure that the quadratic equations you

will give at this point can be solved by inspection.

C. Through the other examples in part B, proceed to lead the students to draw a

conclusion about the number of roots a linear equation has and the number of

roots a quadratic equation has.

- Give the student a puzzle which will allow them to practice how to find

the solution set of simple linear and quadratic equations.

Objective :

At the end of the sessions, the students must be able to derive the quadratic formula.

A. To derive the quadratic formula ask the students to “solve” the general quadratic

equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 by competing the square. It may help to guide them

using the steps on the left side below so that they can come up with the

derivation

as outlined on the right side.

quadratic equation 1. ) ax 2 + bx + c = 0

equation by 4a 2. ) 4a 2 x 2 + 4abx + 4ac = 0

the equation 3. ) 4a 2 x 2 + 4abx = - 4ac

a term which makes the left side

48

a perfect square trinomial 4. ) 4a 2 x 2 + 4abx + b 2 = b 2 - 4ac

of a binomial 5.) (2ax + b) 2 = b 2 - 4ac

a binomial 6.) 2ax + b = ± b 2 − 4ac

equation 7.) 2ax = - b = ± b 2 − 4ac

2a

in the second step and carry out the derivation process. Find out if they are

getting the same results. Draw a conclusion about the term which may be used

to multiply the equation with, in the second step to carry out the derivation of the

quadratic formula.

− b ± b 2 − 4ac

x=

2a

and to memorize this. Tell the students that b 2 - 4ac is called the “discriminant”.

Show how they may use the discriminant to determine whether a given quadratic

equation has:

explain at the end of the lesson, to a partner, the process of

deriving the quadratic formula.

49

Math III : Polygons

according to the number of sides

• identify the parts of a regular polygon (vertex angle, central

angl, exterior angle)

Objectives:

A. Show illustrations of different kinds of polygons. Let the students study the

figures then ask them how these were formed. Lead them to the concept that

polygons are made of segments intersecting at its endpoints. Also, no two of its

segments with common endpoint are collinear.

B. Ask the students to count the number of vertices, sides and angles. Supply a

name for each example. Clarify that polygons are named according to the

number of sides.

3 triangle

4 quadrilateral

5 pentagon

6 hexagon

7 heptagon

8 octagon

9 nonagon

10 decagon

12 dodecagon

n-sides n-gon

50

C. Show illustrations of two kinds of polygons like the ones below.

B B

A C A C

E

F D

F D

Ask students to extend the sides. Focus on lines FE and ED. Below will be

the result

B B

A C A C

E

F D

F D

- What happens to the polygon when the line was formed?

- Are all the other vertices of the polygon located on one side of the half-

plane?

sure that the students will be able to distinguish that a polygon is a convex if

no two points of a polygon lie on the opposite sides of a line containing any

side of the polygon.

51

D. Show to the students the following figures in order to come up with the definition

of a regular polygon.

E. After defining a regular polygon, discuss and identify the parts of the regular

polygon

Central angle

Interior angle

Exterior angle

F. Tell the students that such kind of polygon is regular, let them formalize the

definition.

G. Let the students identify the parts of regular polygon. Sides can be extended to

name the exterior angles.

52

Suggested Teaching Strategies:

them to cite their observations in the discussion in Part D.

- to tap the interpersonal intelligence, allow them to discuss their

observations with the discussion in Part D with a seat mate.

Competency 3.3 illustrate, name, and identify different kinds of triangles and

their parts

(e.g., legs, base, hypotenuse)

Objectives:

A. Distribute 3 pieces of cut out triangles to the students. Let them measure the

sides of the triangle.

A B C

• What have you noticed about the sides of triangle A?

• How will you distinguish triangle A from triangle B and C?

• What is the difference between triangle B and C?

53

• What are the properties of triangle A? triangle B? triangle C?

An equilateral triangle is a triangle with all sides congruent.

An isosceles triangle is a triangle with exactly two sides congruent.

A scalene triangle is a triangle with no sides congruent

What kind of triangle is triangle A? triangle B? triangle C?

What is the basis of classification for these triangles?

according to sides, let them answer the exercises on __________________.

B. Review the kinds of angles; acute, right and obtuse. Let them identify the

kinds of angles from the chart.

Distribute cut out triangles to the students. (Prepare 3 triangles : acute, right

and obtuse triangles)

Let them measure the angles of the triangles.

Ask the student the following questions:

• What have you noticed about the measure of the angles of the

triangle?

• If you will group the triangles; how will you do it? Explain your

answer.

• What is your basis of classification of the triangles?

Triangles can be classified according to the measure of their angles?

1. An acute triangle is a triangle with all three angles acute.

2. A right triangle is a triangle with one right angle.

3. An obtuse triangle is a triangle with an obtuse angle.

according to sides, let them answer the exercises on __________________.

Let the student identify the kinds of triangles in the chart and describe the

characteristics of the two triangles.

54

Explain to the students that in an isosceles triangle:

The two congruent sides are called LEGS, the third side is called the BASE,

the angles on the base are called BASE ANGLES.

Explain further that in a Right Triangle the sides that are perpendicular are the

legs and the side opposite the right angle is the hypotenuse.

leg leg

leg hypotenuse

base base

angle angle

base leg

Give some more figures then ask the students to identify the legs,

hypotenuse, base and the base angles.

compare and identify the different kinds of triangles.

discuss their basis for classification. This can be done in groups.

55

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